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Sample records for schizophrenia planum temporale

  1. Morphometric differences in planum temporale in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder revealed by statistical analysis of Labeled Cortical Depth Maps

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    J Tilak eRatnanather

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cortical thickness in the lateral temporal lobe, including the planum temporale (PT, have been reported in MRI studies of schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD patients. Most of these studies have used a single-valued global or local measure for thickness. However, additional and complementary information can be obtained by generating Labelled Cortical Depth Maps (LCDMs, which are distances of labeled gray matter voxels from the nearest point on the gray/white matter (inner cortical surface. Statistical analyses of pooled and censored LCDM distances reveal subtle differences in PT between SCZ and BPD groups from data generated by Ratnanather et al. (Schizophrenia Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.014. These results confirm that the left PT (LPT is more sensitive than the right PT in distinguishing between SCZ, BPD and healthy controls. Also confirmed is a strong gender effect, with a thicker PT seen in males than in females. The differences between groups at smaller distances in the LPT revealed by pooled and censored LCDM analysis suggest that SCZ and BPD have different effects on the cortical mantle close to the gray/white matter surface. This is consistent with reported subtle changes in the cortical mantle observed in postmortem studies.

  2. Planum Temporale Morphology in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

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    Bloom, Juliana Sanchez; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A.; Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Hynd, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The planum temporale is a highly lateralized cortical region, located within Wernicke’s area, which is thought to be involved in auditory processing, phonological processing, and language. Research has linked abnormal morphology of the planum temporale to developmental dyslexia, although results have varied in large part due to methodological inconsistencies in the literature. This study examined the asymmetry of the planum temporale in 29 children who met criteria for dyslexia and 26 children whose reading was unimpaired. Leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale was found in the total sample and this leftward asymmetry was significantly reduced in children with dyslexia. This reduced leftward asymmetry in children with dyslexia was due to a planum temporale that is larger in the right hemisphere. This study lends support to the idea that planum temporale asymmetry is altered in children with developmental dyslexia. PMID:23707683

  3. Dyslexia, neurolinguistic ability, and anatomical variation of the planum temporale.

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    Morgan, A E; Hynd, G W

    1998-06-01

    This article addresses the relationship between patterns of planum temporale symmetry/asymmetry and dyslexia and neurolinguistic abilities. Considerable research indicates that dyslexic individuals typically do not display the predominant pattern of leftward planum temporale asymmetry. Variable findings on the structural basis of symmetry are due partially to measurement issues, which are examined in some detail in this critical review. The physiological basis of symmetry may be reduced neuronal elimination in the right planum, although other alternatives are offered. Theories are offered to explain how symmetrical plana are related to dyslexia, and it is evident that symmetrical plana are not sufficient to produce dyslexia. However, some evidence suggests that nonleftward plana asymmetry is associated with deficits in verbal comprehension, phonological decoding, and expressive language. It is concluded that nonleftward asymmetry is associated with linguistic deficits, but that explanatory theories need to be further developed. Among the many issues that need to be addressed, future research needs to determine whether the relationship between patterns of planum temporale symmetry/asymmetry and linguistic ability is specific to dyslexia or if asymmetry covaries lawfully with linguistic abilities in nondyslexic populations.

  4. Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: Revisiting an old question.

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    Altarelli, Irene; Leroy, François; Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Galaburda, Albert M; Ramus, Franck

    2014-12-01

    Among the various asymmetrical structures of the human brain, the planum temporale, an anatomical region associated with a variety of auditory and language-related processes, has received particular attention. While its surface area has been shown to be greater in the left hemisphere compared to the right in about two-thirds of the general population, altered patterns of asymmetry were revealed by post mortem analyses in individuals with developmental dyslexia. These findings have been inconsistently replicated in magnetic resonance imaging studies of this disorder. In this report, we attempt to resolve past inconsistencies by analyzing the T1-weighted MR images of 81 children (mean age: 11 years, sd: 17 months), including 46 control (25 boys) and 35 dyslexic children (20 boys). We manually outlined Heschl's gyri, the planum temporale and the posterior rami of the Sylvian fissure on participants' brain images, using the same anatomical criteria as in post mortem studies. Results revealed an altered pattern of asymmetry of the planum temporale surface area in dyslexic boys only, with a greater proportion of rightward asymmetrical cases among dyslexic boys compared to control boys. Additionally, analyses of cortical thickness showed no asymmetry differences between groups for any of the regions of interest. Finally, a greater number of Heschl's gyrus full duplications emerged for the right hemisphere of dyslexic boys compared to controls. The present findings confirm and extend early post mortem observations. They also stress the importance of taking gender into account in studies of developmental dyslexia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Significance of planum temporale and planum parietale morphologic features in neurofibromatosis type 1.

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    Billingsley, Rebecca L; Schrimsher, Gregory W; Jackson, Edward F; Slopis, John M; Moore, Bartlett D

    2002-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is associated with learning disabilities and cognitive impairment in childhood and adolescence. Individuals with NF-1 have a propensity for brain hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, macrocephaly, and optic gliomas. Few clear relationships between these central nervous system abnormalities and cognitive function, however, have been found in this population. To determine whether planum temporale (PT) and planum parietale (PP) morphologic features are associated with learning disabilities in NF-1. We measured and compared the surface area, gray matter volume, and asymmetry of the PT and PP on T1-weighted MRIs from 24 children and adolescents with NF-1 and an equal number of controls. Relationships between these measurements and cognitive and academic achievement scores were examined. The left PT in boys with NF-1 was significantly smaller in both surface area and gray matter volume compared with girls with NF-1 and controls. Boys with NF-1 also showed greater symmetry between the left and right hemispheres in this region compared with girls with NF-1 and controls, who showed a pattern of left greater than right asymmetry of the PT. Intelligence-based discrepancy scores of reading and math achievement, which are commonly used to define learning disabilities, were significantly related to PT asymmetry in the NF-1 group as a whole. Less leftward asymmetry of the PT was associated with poorer reading and math achievement in relation to intellectual test scores. The high susceptibility of individuals with NF-1 to develop reading and other learning disabilities seems to be related to the development of the sylvian fissure. These results provide further support for the hypothesized association between sylvian fissure morphologic features and learning disabilities.

  6. Attention to visual speech gestures enhances hemodynamic activity in the left planum temporale.

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    Pekkola, Johanna; Ojanen, Ville; Autti, Taina; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Möttönen, Riikka; Sams, Mikko

    2006-06-01

    Observing a speaker's articulatory gestures can contribute considerably to auditory speech perception. At the level of neural events, seen articulatory gestures can modify auditory cortex responses to speech sounds and modulate auditory cortex activity also in the absence of heard speech. However, possible effects of attention on this modulation have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of attention on visual speech-induced auditory cortex activity, we scanned 10 healthy volunteers with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 T during simultaneous presentation of visual speech gestures and moving geometrical forms, with the instruction to either focus on or ignore the seen articulations. Secondary auditory cortex areas in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus and planum temporale were active both when the articulatory gestures were ignored and when they were attended to. However, attention to visual speech gestures enhanced activity in the left planum temporale compared to the situation when the subjects saw identical stimuli but engaged in a nonspeech motion discrimination task. These findings suggest that attention to visually perceived speech gestures modulates auditory cortex function and that this modulation takes place at a hierarchically relatively early processing level. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cortical thickness of planum temporale and pars opercularis in native language tone processing.

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    Schremm, Andrea; Novén, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Söderström, Pelle; van Westen, Danielle; Roll, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between linguistic tone processing and cortical thickness of bilateral planum temporale (PT) and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo). Swedish tones on word stems function as cues to upcoming endings. Correlating structural brain imaging data with participants' response time patterns for suffixes, we found that thicker cortex in the left PT was associated with greater reliance on tones to anticipate upcoming inflections on real words. On inflected pseudoword stems, however, the cortical thickness of left IFGpo was associated with tone-suffix processing. Thus cortical thickness of the left PT might play a role in processing tones as part of stored representations for familiar speech segments, most likely when inflected forms are accessed as whole words. In the absence of stored representations, listeners might need to rely on morphosyntactic rules specifying tone-suffix associations, potentially facilitated by greater cortical thickness of left IFGpo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension.

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    Adank, Patti; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A repetition-suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation-speaker and accent-during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a novel accent of Dutch. Each speaker produced sentences in both accents. Participants listened to two sentences presented in quick succession while their haemodynamic responses were recorded in an MR scanner. The first sentence was spoken in Standard Dutch; the second was spoken by the same or a different speaker and produced in Standard Dutch or in the artificial accent. This design made it possible to identify neural responses to a switch in speaker and accent independently. A switch in accent was associated with activations in predominantly left-lateralized areas including posterior temporal regions, including superior temporal gyrus, planum temporale (PT), and supramarginal gyrus, as well as in frontal regions, including left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). A switch in speaker recruited a predominantly right-lateralized network, including middle frontal gyrus and prenuneus. It is concluded that posterior temporal areas, including PT, and frontal areas, including IFG, are involved in processing accent variation in spoken sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Opponent Coding of Sound Location (Azimuth) in Planum Temporale is Robust to Sound-Level Variations.

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    Derey, Kiki; Valente, Giancarlo; de Gelder, Beatrice; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Coding of sound location in auditory cortex (AC) is only partially understood. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that neurons in mammalian auditory cortex are characterized by broad spatial tuning and a preference for the contralateral hemifield, that is, a nonuniform sampling of sound azimuth. Additionally, spatial selectivity decreases with increasing sound intensity. To accommodate these findings, it has been proposed that sound location is encoded by the integrated activity of neuronal populations with opposite hemifield tuning ("opponent channel model"). In this study, we investigated the validity of such a model in human AC with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding paradigm employing binaural stimuli recorded individually for each participant. In all subjects, we observed preferential fMRI responses to contralateral azimuth positions. Additionally, in most AC locations, spatial tuning was broad and not level invariant. We derived an opponent channel model of the fMRI responses by subtracting the activity of contralaterally tuned regions in bilateral planum temporale. This resulted in accurate decoding of sound azimuth location, which was unaffected by changes in sound level. Our data thus support opponent channel coding as a neural mechanism for representing acoustic azimuth in human AC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Is the planum temporale surface area a marker of hemispheric or regional language lateralization?

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    Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2017-11-03

    We investigated the association between the left planum temporale (PT) surface area or asymmetry and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during language production and perception tasks in 287 healthy adults (BIL&GIN) who were matched for sex and handedness. The measurements of the PT surface area were performed after manually delineating the region using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and considering the Heschl's gyrus (HG) duplication pattern; the measurements either included (PTtot) or did not include (PTpost) the second gyrus. A region encompassing both the PT and HG (HGPT) was also studied. Regardless of the ROI measured, 80% of the sample had a positive left minus right PT asymmetry. We first tested whether the PTtot, PTpost and HGPT surface areas in the left or right hemispheres or PT asymmetries differed in groups of individuals varying in language lateralization by assessing their hemispheric index during a sentence production minus word list production task. We then investigated the association between these different measures of the PT anatomy and the regional asymmetries measured during the task. Regardless of the anatomical definition used, we observed no correlations between the left surface areas or asymmetries and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during the language production task. We then performed a similar analysis using the same sample measuring language functional lateralization during speech listening tasks (i.e., listening to sentences and lists of words). Although the hemispheric lateralization during speech listening was not correlated with the left PTtot, PTpost or HGPT surface areas or the PT asymmetries, significant positive correlations were observed between the asymmetries in these regions and the regional functional asymmetries measured in areas adjacent to the end of the Sylvian fissure while participants listened to the word lists or sentences. The PT asymmetry thus appears to be associated

  11. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness

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    Martha M. Shiell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl’s gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area’s involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.

  12. Asymmetry within and around the human planum temporale is sexually dimorphic and influenced by genes involved in steroid hormone receptor activity

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    Guadalupe, T.; Zwiers, M.P.; Wittfeld, K.; Teumer, A.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.; Bokhoven, H. van; Hegenscheid, K.; Volzke, H.; Franke, B.; Fisher, S.E.; Grabe, H.J.; Francks, C.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic determinants of cerebral asymmetries are unknown. Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT), that overlaps Wernicke's classical language area, have been inconsistently reported. Meta-analysis of previous studies has suggested that publication bias established this sex

  13. Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis.

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    Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria; Latash, Elitaveta M; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2016-12-01

    Increases brain size has been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the expression of behavioral and brain asymmetries within and between species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the relation between asymmetries in the planum temporale (PT) and different measures of the corpus callosum (CC) including surface area, streamline count as measured from diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy values and the ratio in the number of fibers to surface area in a sample of chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees with larger PT asymmetries in absolute terms had smaller CC surface areas, fewer streamlines and a smaller ratio of fibers to surface area. These results were largely specific to male but not female chimpanzees. Our results partially support the hypothesis that brain asymmetries are linked to variation in corpus callosum morphology, although these associations may be sex-dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; O'Brien, Liam M; Horton, Nicholas J; Kennedy, David N; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the impact of early insults predisposing to schizophrenia may have differential consequences by sex. We hypothesized that brain regions found to be structurally different in normal men and women (sexual dimorphisms) and abnormal in schizophrenia would show significant sex differences in brain abnormalities, particularly in the cortex, in schizophrenia. Forty outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia by DSM-III-R were systematically sampled to be comparable within sex with 48 normal comparison subjects on the basis of age, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. A comprehensive assessment of the entire brain was based on T1-weighted 3-dimensional images acquired from a 1.5-T magnet. Multivariate general linear models for correlated data were used to test for sex-specific effects regarding 22 hypothesized cortical, subcortical, and cerebrospinal fluid brain volumes, adjusted for age and total cerebrum size. Sex x group interactions were also tested on asymmetries of the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, additionally controlled for handedness. Normal patterns of sexual dimorphisms were disrupted in schizophrenia. Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale. Normal asymmetry of the planum was also disrupted differentially in men and women with schizophrenia. There were no significant differential sex effects in subcortical gray matter regions or cerebrospinal fluid. Factors that produce normal sexual dimorphisms may be associated with modulating insults producing schizophrenia, particularly in the cortex.

  15. Lunae Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 24 June 2002) The Science This image is within a region called Lunae Planum, near 27.3N, 75.3W. This is a region west of the Viking 1 landing site that marks the transition between the Tharsis rise, a giant volcanic complex, and the northern lowland plains. The topographically high regions display numerous graben, signs of significant amounts of crustal deformation. The low areas display signs of resurfacing, including an unusual unit that appears to 'lap' onto the base of the uplands. This scarp follows the transition between the high and low areas throughout much of the image. It is not clear what caused these deposits, but a likely candidate is ice, which is suspected to have played a major role in the surface morphology of the fretted terrains and many features within the northern lowlands. The Story Lunae Planum was named after the Roman moon goddess Luna, who in ancient stories ruled over the night just as her counterpart, the sun god Sol, ruled over the day (a 'sol' is, in fact, the word used for a Martian day). Wearing the symbol of the crescent moon upon her head, Luna was known to ride on chariot pulled by two powerful horses. If the fictional Luna ever rode over the Martian plain named for her, she would find the terrain fairly rough going. You might say that she'd face a large number of 'ruts' on a geologic scale. That's because Lunae Planum marks the transition between the high Tharsis rise , a giant volcanic bulge on Mars, and the northern lowland plains. In this region, there are many signs of significant crustal deformation. Look for the dropped blocks of terrain called 'graben' on the higher surfaces in this image. Graben are created when tectonic forces tear apart the terrain, leaving long, large 'ruts' on the surface. We find graben on Earth too (think of Death Valley, the lowest dry land in the United States, or of the Jordan Dead Sea depression). Much more exciting than these depressions is the thin ridge that seems to lap up against

  16. Schizophrenia

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    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  17. Schizophrenia

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    ... many people with schizophrenia. Behavioral techniques, such as social skills training, can help the person function better in social and work situations. Job training and relationship-building ...

  18. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Noordzij, M.L.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A repetitionsuppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variationspeaker and accentduring spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and a

  19. The role of planum temporale in processing accent variation in spoken language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, Patti; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A repetition–suppression functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of processing two types of acoustic variation—speaker and accent—during spoken sentence comprehension. Recordings were made for two speakers and two accents: Standard Dutch and

  20. Sex differences in handedness, asymmetry of the Planum Temporale and functional language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E.; Aleman, Andre; Somers, Metten; Boks, Marco P.; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated sex differences in language lateralization. Despite the large number of investigations, controversy about the presence of sex differences in lateralization remains. This study aims to provide a complete overview of sex differences in several reflections of language

  1. Right hemisphere dominance for language in a woman with schizophrenia and a porencephalic cyst of the left hemisphere.

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    de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Monteiro, Myriam; Pacheco, Paula; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo; Moll, Jorge; Nazar, Bruno Palazzo

    2016-06-01

    A large left hemisphere porencephalic cyst was incidentally found in a 48-year-old woman (MS) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia. The encephaloclastic characteristics of the cyst indicated that it was acquired between the 22nd and 24th gestational weeks, after the major waves of neuronal migration had tapered off. The cyst destroyed the left temporal and occipital lobes, and the inferior parietal lobule. Surprisingly, MS had no evidence of aphasia, alexia, agraphia, or ideational apraxia; in contrast, cognitive functions dependent on the integrity of the right hemisphere were severely impaired. To test the hypothesis that the development of language in MS took place at the expense of functions that are normally carried out by the right hemisphere, we investigated MS's correlates of oral comprehension with fMRI as a proxy for auditory comprehension and other cognitive functions strongly lateralized to the posterior left hemisphere, such as ideational praxis and reading. Comprehension of spoken language engaged the homologous of Wernicke's area in the right planum temporale. Porencephaly may represent a natural model of neuroplasticity supervening at predictable epochs of prenatal development.

  2. Uso de formocresol diluido en dientes temporales

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    Maira Morales de Armas

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available El formocresol comenzó a usarse en Odontopediatría en 1930 y años más tarde se demostró su efecto citostático sobre la pulpa. Se realizan pulpotomías con formocresol diluido en 25 dientes temporales, de los cuales 14 tenían pulpa vital y 11 no vital; se obtuvo el 92,8 % de resultados positivos en los primeros y el 72,7 % en los segundos, después de 1 año de evolución.Formocresol began to be used in Pedodontics in 1930 and as time went by, its cytostatic effect on pulp was proved. 25 decidous teeth were treated with diluted formocresol pulpotomies, 14 had vital pulp and 11 had non-vital pulp. After one year of evolution good results were obtained in 92.8 % of the first group and in 72.7 % of the second group.

  3. The Land of Opportunity: Human Return to Meridiani Planum

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    Cohen, Barbara A.; Seibert, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Meridiani Planum is a broad expanse of Martian real estate possessing extremely safe landing characteristics and extensive areas with high trafficability, with compelling science motivations to decipher the climatic and hydrologic evolution of Mars and potential for resource extraction. We propose southwestern Meridiani Planum as a potential landing site for human exploration of Mars. Figure 1 shows our proposed exploration zone (EZ) and several potential science regions of interest (ROIs)

  4. Sensory-motor integration during speech production localizes to both left and right plana temporale.

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    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Collins, Catherine; Redjep, Ozlem; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-09-24

    Speech production relies on fine voluntary motor control of respiration, phonation, and articulation. The cortical initiation of complex sequences of coordinated movements is thought to result in parallel outputs, one directed toward motor neurons while the "efference copy" projects to auditory and somatosensory fields. It is proposed that the latter encodes the expected sensory consequences of speech and compares expected with actual postarticulatory sensory feedback. Previous functional neuroimaging evidence has indicated that the cortical target for the merging of feedforward motor and feedback sensory signals is left-lateralized and lies at the junction of the supratemporal plane with the parietal operculum, located mainly in the posterior half of the planum temporale (PT). The design of these studies required participants to imagine speaking or generating nonverbal vocalizations in response to external stimuli. The resulting assumption is that verbal and nonverbal vocal motor imagery activates neural systems that integrate the sensory-motor consequences of speech, even in the absence of primary motor cortical activity or sensory feedback. The present human functional magnetic resonance imaging study used univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate both overt and covert (internally generated) propositional and nonpropositional speech (noun definition and counting, respectively). Activity in response to overt, but not covert, speech was present in bilateral anterior PT, with no increased activity observed in posterior PT or parietal opercula for either speech type. On this evidence, the response of the left and right anterior PTs better fulfills the criteria for sensory target and state maps during overt speech production. Copyright © 2014 Simmonds et al.

  5. Geologic map of the Lakshmi Planum quadrangle (V-7), Venus

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    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lakshmi Planum quadrangle is in the northern hemisphere of Venus and extends from lat 50 degrees to 75 degrees N., and from long 300 degrees to 360 degrees E. The elevated volcanic plateau of Lakshmi Planum, which represents a very specific and unique class of highlands on Venus, dominates the northern half of the quadrangle. The surface of the planum stands 3-4 km above mean planetary radius and the plateau is surrounded by the highest Venusian mountain ranges, 7-10 km high. Before the Magellan mission, the geology of the Lakshmi Planum quadrangle was known on the basis of topographic data acquired by the Pioneer-Venus and Venera-15/16 altimeter and radar images received by the Arecibo telescope and Venera-15/16 spacecraft. These data showed unique topographic and morphologic structures of the mountain belts, which have no counterparts elsewhere on Venus, and the interior volcanic plateau with two large and low volcanic centers and large blocks of tessera-like terrain. From the outside, Lakshmi Planum is outlined by a zone of complexly deformed terrains that occur on the regional outer slope of Lakshmi. Vast low-lying plains surround this zone. After acquisition of the Venera-15/16 data, two classes of hypotheses were formulated to explain the unique structure of Lakshmi Planum and its surrounding. The first proposed that the western portion of Ishtar Terra, dominated by Lakshmi Planum, was a site of large-scale upwelling while the alternative hypothesis considered this region as a site of large-scale downwelling and underthrusting. Early Magellan results showed important details of the general geology of this area displayed in the Venera-15/16 images. Swarms of extensional structures and massifs of tesserae populate the southern slope of Lakshmi. The zone of fractures and grabens form a giant arc thousands of kilometers long and hundreds of kilometers wide around the southern flank of Lakshmi Planum. From the north, the deformational zones consist mostly of

  6. Embedded clays and sulfates in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, J.D.; Carter, J.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.P.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G.R.; Murchie, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    The area of Meridiani Planum on Mars became of particular interest after the detection of coarse-grained, gray hematite, which led to the choice of this region as final landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Multiple additional minerals have since been detected in the region, both

  7. Three new triterpene saponins from roots of Eryngium planum.

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    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Masullo, Milena; Thiem, Barbara; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Saponin composition of the roots of Eryngium planum L. was investigated. Triterpene saponins found in E. planum and also present in Eryngium maritimum were different from those described previously in Eryngium campestre L. Three primary saponins were isolated and their tentative identifications, based on the electrospray MS/MS fragmentation patterns, were subsequently confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-acetyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (1) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-A1-barrigenol (2) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-angeloyl-R1-barrigenol (3). Concentrations of the newly identified compounds in aerial parts and roots of both species were estimated using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

  8. MOVIMIENTOS INMIGRATORIOS TEMPORALES RECIENTES EN LA PROVINCIA DE ALICANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Valero Escandell

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Movimientos inmigratorios temporales recientes en la provincia de Alicante . El artículo trata sobre este tipo de desplazamientos, que mueven a miles de trabajadores cada año en aquellos sectores en los que la mano de obra autóctona es insuficiente, especialmente en la agricultura, turismo y construcción (actividades sobre las que se centra el estudio; pese a su volumen, es total la carencia de datos oficiales sobre el tema, por lo que ha sido imprescindible recurrir a fuentes no estadísticas (orales, principalmente para conocer su magnitud y los problemas que padecen los migrantes (alojamiento, salarios, contratos, escolarización....

  9. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Hare, T.M.; Baker, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematite on the Surface of Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Jagoutz, E.; Gellert, R.; Lugmair, G.; Rieder, R.; Waenke, H.; Zipfel, J.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Clark, B. C.

    2005-01-01

    Meridiani Planum was selected as a landing side for the Rover Opportunity because of an indication of hematite observed from orbit. Meridiani Planum consists of sorted sands with aeolian features like ripples and desert pavements. In impact craters, a high-albedo layered bedrock is exposed. The soil is a mixture of: (i) fine sand material in the size ranges of 50 to 150 m, (ii) sub-angular, irregular particles of 0.5 to 5 mm size with submillimeter circular voids that are most likely vesicular basaltic fragments, and (iii) spherules with a restricted grain size between 4 and 6 mm. The Mini-TES on board the rover Opportunity identified a hematite signature at distance resulting from mm-sized spherules as determined by the Moussbauer Spectrometer. Small quantities of similar spherules (2 vol. %) were found in rock exposures in Eagle crater and were interpreted as concretions that formed by precipitation from aqueous fluids inside sedimentary rocks. At Gusev crater no hematite was observed until sol 90 except for layering on a rock. Our investigations of hematite bearing materials, measured by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), Moussbauer Spectrometer (MB), and Microscopic Imager (MI), provide a more integrated view of different occurrences of hematite on the martian surface. Chemistry of soils and rocks: Chemical compositions

  11. Aeolian dune sediment flux heterogeneity in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Urso, Anna; Fenton, Lori K.; Michaels, Timothy I.

    2017-06-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on the surface of Mars today, including early detections of active sand dunes in Meridiani Planum's Endeavour crater. Many of these reports are only based on a few sets of observations of relatively isolated bedforms and lack regional context. Here, we investigate aeolian activity across central Meridiani Planum and test the hypothesis that dune sites surrounding Endeavour crater are also active and part of region-wide sediment migration driven by northwesterly winds. All 13 dune fields investigated clearly showed evidence for activity and the majority exhibited dune migration (average rates of 0.6 m/Earth-year). Observations indicate substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity of dune crest fluxes across the area and per site. Locations with multiple time steps indicate dune sand fluxes can vary by a factor of five, providing evidence for short periods of rapid migration followed by near-stagnation. In contrast, measurements at other sites are nearly identical, indicating that some dunes are in a steady-state as they migrate. The observed sediment transport direction was consistent with a regional northeasterly-to-northwesterly wind regime, revealing more variations than were appreciated from earlier, more localized studies. Craters containing shallow, degraded, flat-floored interiors tended to have dunes with high sediment fluxes/activity, whereas local kilometer-scale topographic obstructions (e.g., central peaks, yardangs) were found to be inversely correlated with dune mobility. Finally, the previous, more limited detections of dune activity in Endeavour crater have been shown to be representative of a broader, region-wide pattern of dune motion.

  12. Surface albedo observations at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.F.; Rice, M.S.; Johnson, J. R.; Hare, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    During the Mars Exploration Rover mission, the Pancam instrument has periodically acquired large-scale panoramic images with its broadband (739??338 nm) filter in order to estimate the Lambert bolometric albedo of the surface along each rover's traverse. In this work we present the full suite of such estimated albedo values measured to date by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers along their traverses in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, respectively. We include estimated bolometric albedo values of individual surface features (e.g., outcrops, dusty plains, aeolian bed forms, wheel tracks, light-toned soils, and crater walls) as well as overall surface averages of the 43 total panoramic albedo data sets acquired to date. We also present comparisons to estimated Lambert albedo values taken from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) along the rovers' traverses, and to the large-scale bolometric albedos of the sites from the Viking Orbiter Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) and Mars Global Surveyor/Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The ranges of Pancam-derived albedos at Gusev Crater (0.14 to 0.25) and in Meridiani Planum. (0.10 to 0.18) are in good agreement with IRTM, TES, and MOC orbital measurements. These data sets will be a useful tool and benchmark for future investigations of albodo variations with time, including measurements from orbital instruments like the Context Camera and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Long-term, accurate albedo measurements could also be important for future efforts in climate modeling as well as for studies of active surface processes. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Processes of Formation of Spheroidal Concretions and Inferences for "Blueberries" in Meridiani Planum Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.

    2005-03-01

    Formation of spheroidal concretions on Earth results generally from reactions of organic matter in oxidized sediments. Had organic matter been present in Merididani Planum it could have produced a reduced iron mineral phase later oxidized to hematite.

  14. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  15. Análisis de la marcha: sus fases y variables espacio-temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Cámara

    2011-01-01

    bípedo donde se suceden los periodos de apoyo monopodal y bipodal, posibilitando el desplazamiento del centro de gravedad del cuerpo humano con un coste energético menor a cualquier otra forma de locomoción humana. La zancada forma el ciclo básico de la marcha. El análisis de las variables espacio-temporales de la marcha permite un estudio detallado de este modo de locomoción. Son abundantes los estudios científicos que analizan las variables espacio-temporales de la marcha, tales como la lon...

  16. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Outcrops at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; McLennan, S. M.; Gellert, R.; Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A. H.; Squyres, S. W.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Ming, D. W.; Tosca, N. J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of outcrops created by the impact craters Endurance, Fram and Eagle reveal the broad lateral continuity of chemical sediments at the Meridiani Planum exploration site on Mars. Approximately ten mineralogical components are implied in these salt-rich silicic sediments, from measurements by instruments on the Opportunity rover. Compositional trends in an apparently intact vertical stratigraphic sequence at the Karatepe West ingress point at Endurance crater are consistent with non-uniform deposition or with subsequent migration of mobile salt components, dominated by sulfates of magnesium. Striking variations in Cl and enrichments of Br, combined with diversity in sulfate species, provide further evidence of episodes during which temperatures, pH, and water to rock ratios underwent significant change. To first order, the sedimentary sequence examined to date is consistent with a uniform reference composition, modified by movement of major sulfates upward and of minor chlorides downward. This reference composition has similarities to martian soils, supplemented by sulfate anion and the alteration products of mafic igneous minerals. Lesser cementation in lower stratigraphic units is reflected in decreased energies for grinding with the Rock Abrasion Tool. Survival of soluble salts in exposed outcrop is most easily explained by absence of episodes of liquid H2O in this region since the time of crater formation.

  17. Análisis de la marcha: sus fases y variables espacio-temporales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jesús Cámara

    2011-01-01

    ... energético menor a cualquier otra forma de locomoción humana. La zancada forma el ciclo básico de la marcha. El análisis de las variables espacio-temporales de la marcha permite un estudio detallado de este modo...

  18. Evaluation von anatomischen Strukturen des Os temporale mittels Digitaler Volumentomographie (DVT)

    OpenAIRE

    Dräger, Stephanie Johanna; Güldner, Christian (PD Dr. med.)

    2016-01-01

    Die Pars petrosa des Os temporale stellt aufgrund ihrer komplexen Anatomie hohe Anforderungen an die radiologische Diagnostik von Ohrerkrankungen. Bis heute gilt hier die konventionelle Computertomographie (MDCT, engl.: multi-detector-row-CT) als Goldstandard. Nachdem vor mehreren Jahren die Methode der Digitalen Volumentomographie (DVT, engl.: cone beam computed tomography = CBCT) Einzug in die HNO-Heilkunde hielt, ist sie zunäch...

  19. Pluto followed its heart: reorientation and faulting of Pluto due to volatile loading in Sputnik Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle Keane, James; Matsuyama, Isamu; Kamata, Shunichi; Steckloff, Jordan

    2016-10-01

    The New Horizons flyby of Pluto revealed the dwarf planet to be a strikingly diverse, geologically active world. Perhaps the most intriguing feature on the New Horizons encounter hemisphere is Sputnik Planum—a 1000 km diameter, probable impact basin, filled with several kilometers of actively convecting volatile ices (N2, CH4, CO). One salient characteristic of Sputnik Planum is its curious alignment with the Pluto-Charon tidal axis. The alignment of large geologic features with principal axis of inertia (such as the tidal axis) is the hallmark of global reorientation, i.e. true polar wander. Here we show that the present location of Sputnik Planum is a natural consequence of loading of 1-2 km of volatile ices within the Sputnik Planum basin. Larger volatile ice thicknesses (like those inferred from studies of ice convection within Sputnik Planum) betray an underlying negative gravity anomaly associated with the basin. As Pluto reoriented in response to the loading of volatile ices within Sputnik Planum, stresses accumulated within the lithosphere (as each geographic location experiences a change in tidal/rotational potential). These reorientation stresses, coupled with loading stresses, and stresses from the freezing of a subsurface ocean resulted in the fracturing of Pluto's lithosphere in a characteristic, global pattern of extensional faults. Our predicted pattern of extensional faults due to this reorientation closely replicates the observed distribution of faults on Pluto (more so than global expansion, orbit migration, de-spinning, or loading alone). Sputnik Planum likely formed ~60° northwest of its present location, and was loaded with volatile ices over millions of years due to seasonal volatile transport cycles. This result places Pluto in a truly unique category of planetary bodies where volatiles are not only controlling surface geology and atmospheric processes, but they are also directly controlling the orientation of the entire dwarf planet

  20. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is...

  1. Asociación de Datos Espacio-Temporales en Bases de Datos ORACLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena Durango Vanegas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG comprenden un conjunto de herramientas para capturar, almacenar, recuperar, transformar y visualizar información espacial del mundo real. El tiempo es una dimensión para modelar la evolución de comportamientos geográficos. Los formatos de datos espacio-temporales como XML, KML y GML se utilizan para almacenar este tipo de comportamientos geográficos en datos vector. La estructura de los datos SIG actualmente son estáticas, no pueden manejar la dinámica y la interacción de los objetos de un entorno 3D dinámico. Esto significa que la integración de los datos basados en el tiempo en SIG para la simulación es compleja. Algunos métodos de almacenamiento discreto de los datos en bases de datos se basan en describir las variaciones del tiempo en secuencias de eventos y del tiempo, pero existen problemas para su uso por no contar con una estructura unificada de almacenamiento en los sistemas de gestión de datos geográfico que soporten algunos formatos espacio-temporales, lo que puede generar problemas y falta de eficiencia en la difusión y reutilización de la información. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se propone un modelo de gestión de datos geográficos en Oracle para la representación de los formatos espacio-temporales XML, GML y KML. En el modelo se observan las tablas y relaciones de los elementos principales de dichos formatos espacio-temporales.

  2. Factores predisponentes para la inflamacion gingival asociada con coronas de acero en dientes temporales en la poblacion pediatrica. Revision sistematica de la literatura

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madrigal Lopez, Daniela; Viteri Buendia, Esther Maria; Romero Sanchez, Mario Rafael; Colmenares Millan, Maria Marcela; Suarez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion: el objetivo de esta revision sistematica fue determinar los factores predisponentes para la inflamacion gingival producidos por las coronas de acero, en comparacion con dientes temporales...

  3. Processes of Formation of Spheroidal Concretions and Inferences for "Blueberries" in Meridiani Planum Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Max

    2005-01-01

    The MER Opportunity Athena Science team has described spheroidal hematite nodules in sediments at Meridiani Planum on Mars [1]. They were informally referred to as "Blueberries" in the initial press releases and for brevity that is the name to be used in this abstract. Not all spheroidal objects in sediments are nodular concretions, but this paper will discuss the diagenetic processes possibly relevant to understanding the origin of the Blueberries. There are many occurrences of spheroidal diagenetic concretions in terrestrial sediments and detailed work has been done to understand the processes of their formation. In particular, it is possible to reconstruct the controls on their shapes and compositions, both mineral and chemical. Although there may not be good analogs for the Meridiani Planum hematite spherules on Earth, it may be possible to deduce the former environmental conditions that led to their formation and whether they might retain (or even be) biosignatures.

  4. In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Eagle crater in Meridiani Planum are composed of fine-grained siliciclastic materials derived from weathering of basaltic rocks, sulfate minerals (including magnesium sulfate and jarosite) that constitute several tens of percent of the rock by weight, and hematite. Cross-stratification observed in rock outcrops indicates eolian and aqueous transport. Diagenetic features include hematite-rich concretions and crystal-mold vugs. We interpret the rocks to be a mixture of chemical and siliciclastic sediments with a complex diagenetic history. The environmental conditions that they record include episodic inundation by shallow surface water, evaporation, and desiccation. The geologic record at Meridiani Planum suggests that conditions were suitable for biological activity for a period of time in martian history.

  5. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Trilling

    Full Text Available Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data. The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  6. Banco de dientes: una alternativa para la rehabilitación de dientes temporales anterosuperiores

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Vasconcelos Pereira; Marina Luisa Garbarino Giora; Renata de Oliveira Mattos Graner; José Carlos Imparato Pettorossi; Norailus Pérez Navarro

    1997-01-01

    Existe una gran necesidad de rehabilitar el sector anterosuperior en pacientes con dentición temporal destruida por caries o traumatismos para reestablecer su función y estética y mejorar el perfil psicológico del niño. Se presenta la técnica de reposición de coronas y fragmentos para la reconstrucción de dientes temporales anterosuperiores a partir de un banco de dientes, realizada en la disciplina de odontopediatría de la Facultad de Odontología, en la Universidad de Sao Paulo. Se presentan...

  7. Modelos armónicos no lineales para series temporales geodéticas

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Ortiz, Pedro A.

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación aborda el desarrollo de nuevos métodos y software para el análisis espectral de series de tiempo escalares o vectoriales, con énfasis en aplicaciones de interés geodésico. El punto de partida puede ubicarse en el método introducido por Harada y Fukushima para el análisis no lineal de series temporales, que permite detectar recursivamente las frecuencias, sus amplitudes y fases asociadas, así como términos seculares mixtos de Fourier cuando éstos se encuentran en la...

  8. Chronology of wrinkle ridge formation and rate of crustal shortening on Lunae Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Oguzcan; Aksoy, M. Ersen; Erkeling, Gino

    2017-04-01

    The Lunae Planum, a plain between the Tharsis Montes and the Acidalia Planitia on Mars, represents a transitional zone from a volcanic rise to a lowland plain, respectively. From West to East at N20°, topography changes from 600 m to -750 m. Here, several wrinkle ridges that are compressional tectonic features formed by folding and thrust faulting [1], mark the surficial deformation of the martian crust. From the analysis of >25 wrinkle ridges in earlier studies a total shortening of ˜1840 m and a compressive strain of 0.29% has been suggested for the Lunae Planum [2]. In this study, we investigate the chronological order of geomorphic structures and determine the timing and duration of the crustal shortening of Lunae Planum. We use remote sensing mapping techniques [3] and crater size-frequency distribution measurements (CSFD) [e.g.,4,5]. In our analyses, we use HRSC (12.5 m/pixel), CTX (6 m/pixel) and HiRISE (0.3 m/pixel) satellite images and digital terrain models to document geomorphic structures such as wrinkles ridges, impact craters, crater ejecta blankets and intermontane plains. Our CSFD measurements of wrinkle ridges reveal an age distribution from 3.9 Ga to 3.0 Ga, with surfaces getting younger towards the East. Our findings are in accordance with earlier observations of greater shortening amounts towards the West (in older ridges) [2]. The age distribution of wrinkle ridges suggests a 9 Ma time interval for the proposed 1840 m horizontal shortening at a deformation rate of 2.04 x 10-3 mm/yr for compressional deformation on the Lunae Planum. [1] Watters, T.R., 2004, Elastic dislocation modeling of wrinkle ridges on Mars, Icarus, 171, 284-294. [2] Plescia, J.B., 1991.Wrinkle ridges in Lunae Planum, Mars: implications for shortening and strain. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 913-916. [3] Greeley, R. and Guest, J.E., 1987. Geologic map of the eastern equatorial region of Mars. USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map. [4] Hartmann, W. K., and Neukum, G

  9. Redes neuronales artificiales : Aplicaciones en minería de datos y procesamiento de señales temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzarini, Laura Cristina; Hasperué, Waldo; Estrebou, César Armando; Ronchetti, Franco; Villa Monte, Augusto; Aquino, Germán Osvaldo; Quiroga, Facundo; ROJAS,LUIS; Jimbo Santana, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Esta línea de investigación se centra en el estudio y desarrollo de Sistemas Inteligentes basados en Redes Neuronales Artificiales aplicadas al Procesamiento de Señales Temporales y a la Minería de Datos. Con respecto al Procesamiento de Señales Temporales, el énfasis está puesto en el reconocimiento de acciones humanas con el objetivo de mejorar la interfaz hombre/máquina y en el reconocimiento de señales oculares como herramienta de ayuda al diagnóstico médico semi-automático de alteraci...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  11. Clasificación binaria, desbalanceada y contextual de voxels asociados a series temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomantone, Javier; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta un método computacional para clasificación de regiones 3D en función de sus características dinámicas. La clasificación de voxels atípicos se implementa en función de las series temporales asociadas a los mismos. El método opera en clasificación binaria, clases desbalanceadas y correlación espacial de las series asociadas a cada clase. El método propuesto utiliza máquinas de soporte vectorial y difusión anisotrópica robusta para detectar la estructura subyacente e...

  12. Ingresos laborales en México y Estados Unidos para migrantes temporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime LARA LARA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es conocer el efecto de los ingresos laborales antes de la migración en los ingresos obtenidos por los migrantes en la economía de destino para el caso de los migrantes temporales mexicanos hacia Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron datos de la encuesta Emif Norte entre 1999 y 2009. Se observa una alta movilidad absoluta y relativa. Los ingresos por hora se multiplican por un factor de cuatro en la economía de destino, mientras que el efecto de un incremento de 10 por ciento en los ingresos en México aumenta en menos de uno por ciento los ingresos en Estados Unidos. Los resultados muestran que los ingresos laborales en México tienen poco poder predictivo en el desempeño laboral de los migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos.

  13. Simulación de campos aleatorios espacio-temporales utilizando un filtro de Kalman modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Guillén Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un campo aleatorio espacio-temporal es un modelo probabilista utilizado para representar fenómenos que, además de variar espacialmente, cambian con el tiempo. Este tipo de modelo es de gran interés práctico en ingeniería porque permite representar fenómenos transitorios y generar configuraciones o imágenes de la distribución de un atributo o variable condicionado a observaciones temporales. En este artículo se propone una formulación alternativa de una variante del método EnKF (Ensemble Kalman Filter (Evensen, 2007 basada en conceptos comunes en geoestadística y explica con detalle su desarrollo numérico. La utilidad del método se ilustra resolviendo un problema de flujo de agua transitorio en un medio poroso aleatorio completamente saturado.

  14. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Western Australian Salt Lake Sediments: Implications for Meridiani Planum on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Schröder, C; Byrne, J; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Kappler, A

    2016-07-01

    Hypersaline lakes are characteristic for Western Australia and display a rare combination of geochemical and mineralogical properties that make these lakes potential analogues for past conditions on Mars. In our study, we focused on the geochemistry and mineralogy of Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. While both lakes are poor in organic carbon (Lake Orr and from 5.4 to 6.3 in Lake Whurr sediments. Lake Whurr sediments were dominated by orange and red sediment zones in which the main Fe minerals were identified as hematite, goethite, and tentatively jarosite and pyrite. Lake Orr was dominated by brownish and blackish sediments where the main Fe minerals were goethite and another paramagnetic Fe(III)-phase that could not be identified. Furthermore, a likely secondary Fe(II)-phase was observed in Lake Orr sediments. The mineralogy of these two salt lakes in the sampling area is strongly influenced by events such as flooding, evaporation, and desiccation, processes that explain at least to some extent the observed differences between Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. The iron mineralogy of Lake Whurr sediments and the high salinity make this lake a suitable analogue for Meridiani Planum on Mars, and in particular the tentative identification of pyrite in Lake Whurr sediments has implications for the interpretation of the Fe mineralogy of Meridiani Planum sediments. Western Australia-Salt lakes-Jarosite-Hematite-Pyrite-Mars analogue. Astrobiology 16, 525-538.

  15. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  16. Radar sounder evidence of thick, porous sediments in Meridiani Planum and implications for ice-filled deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Leuschen, Carl J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Cicchetti, Andrea; Grant, John A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    2017-09-01

    Meridiani Planum is one of the most intensely studied regions on Mars, yet little is known about the physical properties of the deposits below those examined by the Opportunity rover. We report the detection of subsurface echoes within the Meridiani Planum deposits from data obtained by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) instrument. The delay time between the surface and subsurface returns is indicative of materials with a real dielectric constant of 3.6 ± 0.6. The real dielectric constant is strongly modulated by bulk density. Newly derived compaction relationships for Mars indicate that the relatively low dielectric constant of the Meridiani Planum deposits is consistent with a thick layer of ice-free, porous, basaltic sand. The unique physiographic and hydrologic setting of Meridiani Planum may have provided an ideal sediment trap for eolian sands. The relatively low gravity and the cold, dry climate that has dominated Mars for billions of years may have allowed thick eolian sand deposits to remain porous and only weakly indurated. Minimally compacted sedimentary deposits may offer a possible explanation for other nonpolar region units with low apparent bulk dielectric constants.

  17. La deficiente regulación de los límites al encadenamiento de los contratos de trabajo temporales del personal investigador

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester Laguna, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    1. Delimitación del objeto de estudio. 2. El contenido de la prohibición establecida en el artículo 15.5 ET (y en otras normas concordantes). 3. Los contratos de trabajo temporales del personal investigador. 4. Los contratos temporales de trabajo del personal investigador afectados por la prohibición de encadenamiento. 5. Conclusiones y propuestas.

  18. Banco de dientes: una alternativa para la rehabilitación de dientes temporales anterosuperiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Vasconcelos Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe una gran necesidad de rehabilitar el sector anterosuperior en pacientes con dentición temporal destruida por caries o traumatismos para reestablecer su función y estética y mejorar el perfil psicológico del niño. Se presenta la técnica de reposición de coronas y fragmentos para la reconstrucción de dientes temporales anterosuperiores a partir de un banco de dientes, realizada en la disciplina de odontopediatría de la Facultad de Odontología, en la Universidad de Sao Paulo. Se presentan diferentes indicaciones de esta técnica, para rehabilitación de coronas y fragmentos dentarios en el sector anterosuperior en la dentición temporal. El tiempo de seguimiento clínico radiográfico promedio fue de 6 meses, período en el cual se observaron excelentes resultados en relación con la estética, retención, resistencia y función, lo que demostró una alternativa de restauración en pacientes con destrucciones precoces en dientes temporales anterosuperiores.There is a great need to rehabilitate the anterosuperior sector in patients with temporal teething destroyed by caries or traumatisms so as to reestablish its function and aesthetics and to improve the psychological profile of the child. It is presented the technique of replacement of crowns and fragments for the reconstruction of temporal anterosuperior teeth starting from a tooth bank. This technique is applied within the discipline of odontopediatrics at the Faculty of Odontology, in the University of Sao Paulo. Different indications for the rehabilitation of crowns and dental fragments in the anterosuperior sector of temporal teething are shown. The average time of the clinical and radiological follow-up was 6 months. During this period, excellent results in connection with aesthetics, retention, resistance, and function were observed, which demonstrated that it is an alternative of restoration for patients with early destructions of temporal anterosuperior teeth.

  19. Interpretation of Radar Sounder MARSIS Data from Lucus Planum, Mars: A Complex Geological Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprarelli, G.; Orosei, R.; Rossi, A. P.; Cantini, F.; Carter, L. M.; Papiano, I.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.

    2016-12-01

    Lucus Planum (LP) is a Martian plain located in the central part of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF). This geological unit is composed of pyroclastic flows or airfall [1-2], and paleopolar deposits or atmospherically-deposited icy dust [3]. For more than a decade the MFF has been probed by the Mars Express MARSIS and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter SHARAD synthetic-aperture low-frequency radars, which revealed that the dielectric permittivity of the MFF subsurface is consistent with either a substantial component of water ice or a low-density material [4-5]. Here we report the results of our investigation of Lucus Planum: we processed 238 MARSIS orbits acquired across an area approximately 750,000 km2 in extent, and identified the locations of subsurface reflectors in this plain to unprecedented detail. Our work revealed 97 reflectors, mostly concentrated in the eastern, SW and NW sectors of LP. By estimating the thicknesses of strata laying on top of a theoretical basal surface obtained by interpolation of MOLA elevations around the plain, and correlating them with the apparent depth calculated from the radar pulse return times, we were able to estimate the dielectric constants of subsurface materials in the three sectors. The calculated values of dielectric constant in the eastern and SW sectors were 2.3, suggesting the presence of highly porous material, possibly pyroclastic deposits, in agreement with earlier interpretations [5]. The value of dielectric constant in the NW sector was 4.5, implying the presence of denser materials. In the central area of the plain we obtained only a few strong echoes, related to shallow strata and pedestal craters. The subsurface layers here attenuate the radar pulses, suggesting a material with dielectric characteristics different than those at the margins of LP. Interpretation of these findings is not unique and more investigations are needed to conclusively establish the nature of deposits forming Lucus Planum, but the evidence

  20. Perspectivas temporales y aspectuales en las obras narrativas de Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Markič

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ártfculo se presenta el uso de algunos recursos lingüísticos que sirven para señalar valores temporales y aspectuales en español con fines narrativos y estilísticos en dos obras de Gabriel García Márquez: en su primera novela La Hojarasca y en su novela más conocida Cien años de  soledad. Marco lingüístico - teórico: Las perspectivas temporales y aspectuales en español se indican con varios recursos lingüísticos. Los más conocidos son los tradicionalmente llamados tiempos verbales que, debido a la confusión a la que se presta el término tiempo, es mejor denominar paradigmas verbales. El término es más adecuado ya que estas formas verbales (paradigmas no sirven únicamente para expresar el tiempo sino también otras perspectivas (aspectuales, modales, estilísticas, pragmáticas, etc. Además de los mencionados paradigmas verbales hay una serie de construcciones verbales denominadas perífrasis verbales que sirven también para indicar valores temporales y aspectuales.

  1. DIFERENCIAS ESPACIO-TEMPORALES DE LA LOCOMOCIÓN EN ADULTOS VARONES CON NORMOPESO Y SOBREPESO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Heredia-Jiménez

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Introducción: La obesidad ha estado relacionada con la presencia de adaptaciones estructurales y funcionales que provocan limitaciones en el control del movimiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del exceso de peso sobre las variables espacio-temporales de la locomoción en varones jóvenes y activos. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal de muestreo no probabilístico con 55 sujetos con normopeso (IMC ≤25 y 22 sujetos con sobrepeso (IMC >25. Se analizó el IMC, % de masa grasa, y el % de masa magra de ambos grupos con un bioimpedanciómetro multifrecuencia (Inbody 230. También se analizaron las variables cinemáticas de la locomoción utilizando una plataforma de presiones GaitRite. Resultados: El grupo con sobrepeso mostró una disminución significativa de la fase de oscilación y fase de apoyo monopodal (p <0,001 junto con un aumento de la fase de apoyo y fase de apoyo bipodal (p <0,001 comparado con el grupo normopeso. Conclusión: La reducción de la fase de oscilación y el incremento de la fase de apoyo y fase de apoyo bipodal que manifestaron el grupo con sobrepeso puede ser consecuencia del aumento de la inestabilidad que se produce durante la marcha debido al sobrepeso.

  2. Characterization of Rock Types at Meridiani Planum, Mars using MER 13-Filter Pancam Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, D. L.; Cohen, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has traversed more than 13 km across Meridiani Planum, finding evidence of ancient aqueous environments that, in the past, may have been suitable for life. Meridiani bedrock along the rover traverse is a mixture in composition and bulk mineralogy between a sulfate-rich sedimentary rock and hematite spherules ("blueberries"). On top of the bedrock, numerous loose rocks exist. These rocks consist of both local bedrock and "cobbles" of foreign origin. The cobbles provide a window into lithologic diversity and a chance to understand other types of martian rocks and meteorites. This study was also an attempt to establish a method to expand upon those of Mini-TES to remotely identify rocks of interest to make efficient use of the rover s current resources.

  3. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  4. Results and Implications of Mineralogical Models for Chemical Sediments at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Morris, R. V.; Gellert, R.; Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Ming, D. W.; Tosca, N. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) "Opportunity" has explored chemically-enriched sedimentary outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars. In its first year, three different crater sites - Eagle, Fram and Endurance - have been explored. Nineteen high-interest outcrop rocks were investigated by first grinding a hole to reach the interior (using the Rock Abrasion Tool, RAT), and then conducting APXS (alpha particle x-ray spectrometry) analysis, MB (M ssbauer) analysis, and close up imaging (MI, microscopic imager). Sixteen elements and four Fe-bearing minerals were assayed to good accuracy in each sample, producing 380 compositional data points. The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini- TES) obtained spectra on outcrop materials which provide direct indication of several mineral classes. Preliminary reports on Eagle crater and three RAT samples have been published. Chemical trends and a derived mineralogical model for all RAT d outcrop samples to date has been developed.

  5. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic

  6. The etiology of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gejman, Pablo V; Sanders, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in recent years represents a new dawn of knowledge for the risk factors of schizophrenia, and genome-wide approaches have revolutionized the field of genetic mapping of schizophrenia...

  7. Schizophrenia - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - English MP4 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. Special Report: Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Loren R.; Feinsilver, David

    The review and analysis of the current status of knowledge about schizophrenia and its treatment begins with a brief review of some statistics on mental health, the National Institute of Mental Health's grants program in schizophrenia, an NIMH-sponsored international conference on Schizophrenia - the Implications of Research Findings for Treatment…

  9. Overview of Childhood Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    Childhood schizophrenia is a rare but serious disorder with complex symptoms that affect children and their families. Childhood schizophrenia was once the term applied for all childhood psychoses, including autism and mood disorders, but more recently researchers have distinguished childhood schizophrenia from other disorders. There are differing…

  10. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  11. Dentocronología: Relaciones temporales de una muestra del noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini, Gabriel A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La morfología dentaria ha sido utilizada por Turner (1986 para establecer distancias biológicas comparando distintos rasgos extraídos de la corona y la raíz. Con estos datos sugirió que el promedio mundial de tasa de microevolución es de 0,01003 con un error de 0,004 del valor de la Medida Media de la Divergencia cada 1000 años. Utilizando este método se ha calculado la distancia de separación temporal entre una serie de cráneos de aborígenes del noroeste argentino y poblaciones mundiales de distintos continentes considerando caracteres dentales discontinuos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las poblaciones asiáticas del noreste de China son las de separación más reciente (0,1441, seguidas por las poblaciones de los japonenses modernos (0,1603 y los urga-mongoles un poco más alejados (0,2070 Mayor separación muestran las poblaciones ancestrales japonesas como los Jomon (0,4627 y Ainu (0,5643. Las mayores distancias y, por lo tanto, separaciones temporales presentan las poblaciones del Sudeste asiático (0,9821 y australianas (1,1936. Cuando se comparan con poblaciones americanas los menores valores se encuentran con los Dakotas del sur (0,0881 con valores aún inferiores a las halladas para los Chinos del NE. En concordancia con estudios de otros autores, las poblaciones africanas y europeas son las que presentan los mayores tiempos de separación con la serie argentina estudiada. Los valores obtenidos apoyan la hipótesis de poblamiento enunciada por Turner.

  12. Estrategias espacio-temporales de las mujeres rurales en el uso de los servicios locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María López García

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo del hecho de que uno de los elementos específicos de la sociedad rural es la baja densidad de infraestructuras y servicios, en este estudio se resalta la importancia de conocer tanto la localización de los servicios como la accesibilidad a éstos por parte de los habitantes de zonas rurales, dado que el sistema de infraestructuras tiene un papel fundamental en la comprensión de los modelos territoriales y supone un campo imprescindible para que las políticas de desarrollo rural recuperen la cantidad y la calidad de los equipamientos como un reto para mantener a la población. Para el acercamiento al conocimiento del uso, grado de satisfacción y necesidades de infraestructuras por parte de la población rural, se aporta un marco teórico de referencia y una propuesta metodológica, basada en las estrategias espacio-temporales de las mujeres rurales, en la medida en que son éstas las principales usuarias de determinados servicios.Started from the fact that rural áreas are in essence places where activities and services are widely spaced and where there are less services than in urban áreas, this article aims to stand out the importance of knowing both the service location and the accessibility to all of them by the rural people. Infrastructures have an important role to understand territorial models and it will be interest to rural development policy for meeting the rural inaccessibility probiem and the restructuring of the services in order to fix the population.

  13. A Zonal Climate Model for the 1-D Mars Evolution Code: Explaining Meridiani Planum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. V.; McKay, C. P.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Recent MER Opportunity observations suggest there existed an extensive body of shallow water in the present Meridiani Planum during the late Noachian [1]. Observations of roughly contemporaneous valley networks show little net erosion [2]. Hypsometric analysis [3] finds that martian drainage basins are similar to terrestrial drainage basins in very arid regions. The immaturity of martian drainage basins suggests they were formed by infrequent fluvial action. If similar fluvial discharges are responsible for the laminations in the salt-bearing outcrops of Meridiani Planum, their explanation may require a climate model based on surface thermal equilibrium with diurnally averaged temperatures greater than freezing. In the context of Mars' chaotic obliquity, invoking a moderately thick atmosphere with seasonal insolation patterns may uncover the conditions under which the outcrops formed. We compounded a 1-D model of the evolution of Mars' inventories of CO2 over its lifetime called the Mars Evolution Code (MEC) [4]. We are assembling a zonal climate model that includes meridional heat transport, heat conduction to/from the regolith, latent heat deposition, and an albedo distribution based on the depositional patterns of ices. Since water vapor is an important greenhouse gas, and whose ice affects the albedo, we must install a full hydrological cycle. This requires a thermal model of the regolith to model diffusion of water vapor to/from a permafrost layer. Our model carries obliquity and eccentricity distributions consistent with Laskar et al. [5], so we will be able to model the movement of the ice cap with changes in obliquity. The climate model will be used to investigate the conditions under which ponded water could have occurred in the late Noachian, thus supplying a constraint on the free inventory of CO2 at that time. Our evolution code can then investigate Hesperian and Amazonian climates. The model could also be used to understand evidence of recent climate

  14. Estudio clínico del agregado trióxido mineral en pulpotomías de molares temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto Edo, Myriam

    2003-01-01

    ,- INTRODUCCIÓN La técnica del pulpotomía en molares temporales más empleada actualmente es la pulpotomía al Formocresol. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que este fármaco presenta características tóxicas, por lo que se han investigado materiales alternativos, sin que, hasta la fecha, se hayan obtenido mejores resultados clínicos a lo largo plazo que con el Formocresol. El Agregado Trióxido Mineral (MTA) es un producto empleado, desde los años noventa, en tratamientos pulpares en dentición perma...

  15. La contratación de trabajadores a través de Empresas de Servicios Temporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Arenas Monsalve

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se analizan las Empresas de Servicios Temporales (EST en el contexto de la flexibilidad laboral, así como le evolución del tratamiento normativo del tema en el medio colombianos. Luego, se examina la normatividad legal de las EST en Colombia y sus reglamentaciones. Finalmente, se valoran los alcances de la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia y de la Corte Constitucional con respecto a las EST, destacándose los efectos jurídicos de exceder las limitaciones normativas de esta actividad.

  16. Small crater modification on Meridiani Planum and implications for erosion rates and climate change on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.P.; Warner, N.H.; Ganti, V.; Lamb, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Sullivan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A morphometric and morphologic catalog of ~100 small craters imaged by the Opportunity rover over the 33.5 km traverse between Eagle and Endeavour craters on Meridiani Planum shows craters in six stages of degradation that range from fresh and blocky to eroded and shallow depressions ringed by planed off rim blocks. The age of each morphologic class from Mars over ~100 Myr and 3 Gyr timescales from the Amazonian and Hesperian are of order <0.01 m/Myr, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude slower than typical terrestrial rates. Erosion rates during the Middle-Late Noachian averaged over ~250 Myr, and ~700 Myr intervals are around 1 m/Myr, comparable to slow terrestrial erosion rates calculated over similar timescales. This argues for a wet climate before ~3 Ga in which liquid water was the erosional agent, followed by a dry environment dominated by slow eolian erosion.

  17. Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: Relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A.H.; Jolliff, B.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johson, J.R.; McLennam, S.M.; Morris, Robert; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Tosca, N.J.; Yen, A.; Learner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Veneers and thicker rinds that coat outcrop surfaces and partially cemented fracture fills formed perpendicular to bedding document relatively late stage alteration of ancient sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The chemistry of submillimeter thick, buff-colored veneers reflects multiple processes at work since the establishment of the current plains surface. Veneer composition is dominated by the mixing of silicate-rich dust and sulfate-rich outcrop surface, but it has also been influenced by mineral precipitation, including NaCl, and possibly by limited physical or chemical weathering of sulfate minerals. Competing processes of chemical alteration (perhaps mediated by thin films of water or water vapor beneath blanketing soils) and sandblasting of exposed outcrop surfaces determine the current distribution of veneers. Dark-toned rinds several millimeters thick reflect more extensive surface alteration but also indicate combined dust admixture, halite precipitation, and possible minor sulfate removal. Cemented fracture fills that are differentially resistant to erosion occur along the margins of linear fracture systems possibly related to impact. These appear to reflect limited groundwater activity along the margins of fractures, cementing mechanically introduced fill derived principally from outcrop rocks. The limited thickness and spatial distribution of these three features suggest that aqueous activity has been rare and transient or has operated at exceedingly low rates during the protracted interval since outcropping Meridiani strata were exposed on the plains surface. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Sulfate-rich eolian and wet interdune deposits, erebus crater, meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J.M.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Rubin, D.M.; Lewis, K.W.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates three bedrock exposures at Erebus crater, an ?? 300 m diameter crater approximately 4 km south of Endurance crater on Mars. These outcrops, called Olympia, Payson, and Yavapai, provide additional evidence in support of the dune-interdune model proposed for the formation of the deposits at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum. There is evidence for greater involvement of liquid water in the Olympia outcrop exposures than was observed in Eagle or Endurance craters. The Olympia outcrop likely formed in a wet interdune and sand sheet environment. The facies observed within the Payson outcrop, which is likely stratigraphically above the Olympia outcrop, indicate that it was deposited in a damp-wet interdune, sand sheet, and eolian dune environment. The Yavapai outcrop, which likely stratigraphically overlies the Payson outcrop, indicates that it was deposited in primarily a sand sheet environment and also potentially in an eolian dune environment. These three outcrop exposures may indicate an overall drying-upward trend spanning the stratigraphic section from its base at the Olympia outcrop to its top at the Yavapai outcrop. This contrasts with the wetting-upward trend seen in Endurance and Eagle craters. Thus, the series of outcrops seen at Meridiani by Opportunity may constitute a full climatic cycle, evolving from dry to wet to dry conditions. ?? 2009, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  19. Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the opportunity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.R.; Wyatt, M.B.; Glotch, T.D.; Rogers, A.D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Blaney, D.L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W.M.; Fallacaro, A.; Fergason, R.L.; Gorelick, N.; Graff, T.G.; Hamilton, V.E.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, J. R.; Knudson, A.T.; McSween, H.Y.; Mehall, G.L.; Mehall, L.K.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Smith, M.D.; Squyres, S. W.; Ruff, S.W.; Wolff, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on Opportunity investigated the mineral abundances and compositions of outcrops, rocks, and soils at Meridiani Planum. Coarse crystalline hematite and olivine-rich basaltic sands were observed as predicted from orbital TES spectroscopy. Outcrops of aqueous origin are composed of 15 to 35% by volume magnesium and calcium sulfates [a high-silica component modeled as a combination of glass, feldspar, and sheet silicates (???20 to 30%)], and hematite; only minor jarosite is identified in Mini-TES spectra. Mini-TES spectra show only a hematite signature in the millimeter-sized spherules. Basaltic materials have more plagioclase than pyroxene, contain olivine, and are similar in inferred mineral composition to basalt mapped from orbit. Bounce rock is dominated by clinopyroxene and is close in inferred mineral composition to the basaltic martian meteorites. Bright wind streak material matches global dust. Waterlain rocks covered by unaltered basaltic sands suggest a change from an aqueous environment to one dominated by physical weathering.

  20. Presencia de anomalías dentomaxilofaciales en niños con pérdida prematura de caninos temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Amarelys Morera Pérez; Yuneis Ríos Paz; Diana M Villa Fernández; Arletys Cobas

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: Los caninos temporales, por ser de los últimos en hacer el recambio a permanentes, son de gran importancia en el mantenimiento del espacio en el arco y la adecuada oclusión. Su pérdida prematura tiene mayor repercusión sobre el sector anterior, aunque también puede afectar el sector posterior.Objetivo: describir la presencia de anomalías dentomaxilofaciales en niños con pérdida prematura de caninos temporales.Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, en niños de 5 a...

  1. Dopamine, psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesby, J P; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

    2018-01-01

    The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic...... dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function...... in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed. Furthermore, subjects deemed at high risk of developing schizophrenia show similar presynaptic dopamine abnormalities in the associative striatum. Thus, our view of subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia continues to evolve...

  2. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  3. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  4. Pulpotomías de molares temporales en pulpas muertas con tintura de propóleos al 10%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkyria del Carmen González Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico fase II aleatorizado comparado en 50 niños de 4 a 10 años que presentaron molares temporales con muerte pulpar, los cuales acudieron a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial de Santiago de Cuba entre septiembre del 2005 y septiembre del 2006, con el objetivo de demostrar la eficacia de la tintura de propóleos al 10 % en pulpotomías (necropulpotomías. Se conformaron 2 grupos de tratamientos de 26 pacientes cada uno: en el grupo A se empleó tintura de propóleos al 10 % y en el B el formocresol. Los pacientes se evaluaron a los 7, 15 y 30 días, sin observarse diferencias ni reacciones adversas. El grupo dentario más tratado fue el constituido por los segundos molares temporales inferiores, donde la tintura de propóleos al 10 % en las pulpotomías, resultó ser tan eficaz como el formocresol, por lo que se recomienda incluir en tratamientos endodónticos esta nueva terapéutica.

  5. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic episodes, patients frequently have negative symptoms: they become apathic, loose interest in hobbies and friends and lack energy. The cause of schizophrenia is not clear, though several theories have been...

  6. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Michael F.; Leitman, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke’s...

  7. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...

  8. The Danish schizophrenia registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  9. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  10. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  11. Schizophrenia and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Akarsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors play an important role in the development of schizophrenia that the etiology is clearly not known. However, specific inheritance mechanism of this disorder is still unclear. Inheritance of schizophrenia is thought to be polygenic or multifactorial. In the recent studies, mitochondrial function and cerebral energy metabolism abnormalities have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits and behavioral abnormalities evident as typically found in the clinical course of schizophrenia may develop due to the affection of neuronal plasticity and brain circuits by impaired function of mitochondria. Some changes were found in patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects in the researches examining both brain and peripheral tissues. Also, it was seen that antipsychotics used in the treatment of schizophrenia might lead to a progressive reduction in oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria by inhibition of respiratory chain. Especially the findings of the peripheral tissues in patients with schizophrenia were considered to be used as a biological marker for schizophrenia in these studies. Changes in the mitochondria of platelets are considered as a peripheral model for the neurons because of the lack of the platelets' own DNA. These changes reflect the findings of the brain in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. At the present time, making the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on only clinical criteria reveal the necessity of finding peripheral biological marker for schizophrenia. Thus further systematic studies investigating the relationship between schizophrenia and changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain are required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 340-354

  12. Martian CAT scan: Three-dimensional imaging of Planum Boreum with Shallow Radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Foss, F. J., II; Campbell, B. A.; Phillips, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a preliminary three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface volume created from Shallow Radar (SHARAD) observations of Planum Boreum, the 3-km-high mound of icy layered deposits in the north polar region of Mars. Our goal is to achieve a better understanding of the nature and timing of the layered deposits and their relationship to climatological cycles by enabling the mapping of subsurface radar returns in regions presently obfuscated by highly variable surface topography and complex subsurface structures. In the medical field, computed axial tomography (CAT scan) involves taking a series of 2-D X-ray images around an axis of rotation and applying geometric processing to generate a 3-D image of a body's interior. Similarly, SHARAD has taken over 2500 2-D radar images (radargrams) on passes of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) across the north polar region of Mars, and we have used a subset of those radargrams to develop a means of generating 3-D images of the polar layered deposits. While the sets of radargrams over both polar regions have been very fruitful scientifically (e.g., Putzig et al., 2009, Icarus 204, 443-457; Holt et al., 2010, Nature 465, 450-453; Phillips et al., 2011, Science 332, 838-841), examination of 3-D subsurface structures has been restricted to identifying and tracing those structures on the radargrams and then "connecting the dots" by interpolation. Identification and tracing of structures is limited to the trajectories of MRO's nadir track and is hampered by "clutter," or signals returned from off-nadir surface or subsurface features that often interfere with signals returned from nadir. Clutter becomes a severe impediment to structure interpretation in areas of high topographic variability, such as the trough-rich regions of Planum Boreum. Given a sufficient number of observations from a range of lateral offsets, radar signals from nadir and off-nadir can be distinguished within a 3-D volume, and off-nadir clutter can be repositioned

  13. Hematite-Rich Fracture Fill at Meridiani Planum, Mars: Implications for Fluid Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Morris, Richard V.; Gellert, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been operating at the surface of Mars for over 2100 sols and has driven a distance of approximately 20 km. Throughout the traverse, outcrop rocks with margins and fracture fill resistant to erosion have been imaged and analyzed in detail by the Moessbauer (MB) spectrometer and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A recent APXS analysis of an outcrop block excavated by a young impact crater shows a coating with the highest concentration of iron measured by either rover, not including the iron-nickel meteorites. Texturally, this sample (referred to as "Chocolate Hills -Aloya") appears as a cemented collection of partially fragmented \\blueberries." With the exception of an elevated sulfur content, the elemental chemistry of this particular sample is entirely consistent with other analyses of hematite spherules at Merdiani Planum. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether this coating, which may have been filling a fracture in outcrop rocks prior to disruption by the impact, was simply an agglomeration of spherules or a result of a more complicated aqueous process. In contrast, a number of other fracture-filling exposures and erosion-resistant rinds have been analyzed by the APXS and MB instruments showing significant concentrations of iron in the form of hematite without the texture of spherule fragments. In one of these samples, a broken piece of fracture fill within Victoria crater referred to as "Dorsal," showed over 50% of the iron in hematite, the highest Mn concentration of any sample measured by the rovers, and elevated levels of Cl and Br. While the Fe:Mn ratio of the Dorsal analyses are comparable to that of Gusev and Meridiani basalts, it is clear that chemistry of this sample cannot be completely explained by a simple mixing of outcrop and blueberry compositions

  14. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential diagnosis of depressed mood in schizophrenia; a diagnostic algorithm based on review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;. 106: 83-96. 8. Andersen SW, Trana PV. The course of depressive symptoms in predicting relapse in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized comparison of olanzapine and risperidone.

  15. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  17. Biological perspectives of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmchen, H.; Henn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: The Middle Game in the Genetics of Schizophrenia; Genetics as an Approach to Etiology Group Report; The Contribution of Genetic Research to Diagnostic Issues in Schizophrenia; and Genetic Aspects of Neurotransmitter Metabolism in Schizoprhenia.

  18. Estudio comparativo entre bases de datos temporales y bases de datos relacionales aplicado a historias clínicas electrónicas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Esteban Díaz Montejo; Daniel Felipe Bellon Cely; Juan Sebastián González Sanabria

    2015-01-01

    .... Por lo anterior el trabajo reflexiona sobre la comparación entre las bases de datos relacionales y bases de datos temporales evaluando su desempeño en un caso práctico: Gestión de historias clínicas electrónicas...

  19. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors which bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2. This endocannabinoid system is disturbed in schizophrenia. Indeed, there seems to be an association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms of the CB1 receptor gene. Moreover, CB1 receptors are found in higher density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia of patients with schizophrenia. Similarly, anandamide levels are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in the serum of schizophrenia patients, including during the prodromal state, suggesting that they may play a protective role in psychosis homeostasis. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  1. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features...... of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations...... in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology...

  2. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  3. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  4. Una comparación de dos lenguajes de consulta espacio-temporales: SQLST y el de Güting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Pérez Montoya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de datos espacio-temporales permiten representar objetos y fenómenos del mundo real que cambian de posición o forma a medida que transcurre el tiempo. En la última década se han propuesto diversos lenguajes de consulta para dicho tipo de bases de datos. En este artículo se comparan dos de estos lenguajes: SQLST y el de Güting. La comparación se realiza por medio de criterios que se han aplicado a lenguajes de programación, pero que se han adaptado para evaluar lenguajes de consulta de bases de datos. Los resultados permiten concluir que el alto grado de expresividad evidenciado por ambos lengua-jes puede afectar otros criterios, como la legibilidad y la simplicidad, especialmente en el caso del lenguaje de Güting.

  5. Patrones temporales de comportamiento táctico en carreras atléticas de 5.000 metros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lapresa Ajamil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento táctico en carreras atléticas de fondo ha sido residualmente estudiado. En el presente trabajo, en el seno de la metodología observacional, se ha construido un instrumento de observación que permite detectar patrones temporales de comportamiento táctico –mediante el software Theme, versión 5.0.–, en el muestreo observacional correspondiente a las finales de: Campeonatos Mundiales París 2003 y Berlín 2009; Olimpiadas de Atenas 2004 y Pekín 2008; Campeonatos Europeos de Goteborg 2006 y Barcelona 2010, en la modalidad de 5000 metros –categoría masculina–. Los resultados obtenidos muestran pautas comportamentales relevantes, relativas, fundamentalmente, al ritmo de la prueba y a la interacción del atleta ganador con sus competidores.

  6. El uso de un problema de complementariedad lineal extendido para la obtención de sucesiones temporales optimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rey Míguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo mostramos como mediante el un problema de complementariedad lineal extendida, que es un problema de programación matemática podemos obtener una sucesión temporal switching óptima. Primeramente analizamos el problema de complementariedad lineal (LCP y definimos una extensión de este al denominado problema de complementariedad lineal extendida (XLCP. A continuación estudiamos el caso de las sucesiones temporales óptimas y consideramos el problema de obtener un instante (temporal óptimo switching. Finalmente estudiamos como a partir del problema de complementariedad lineal extendida podemos obtener una sucesión temporal switching óptima que nos permite calcular ese valor óptimo de tiempo.

  7. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Nikolac Perkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  8. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide. PMID:28358316

  9. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Strac, Dubravka Svob; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-03-30

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, schizophrenia was considered to be a severe psychiatric disorder, with a chronic course and an unfavorable outcome. Throughout history, there has been incidence of schizophrenia, roughly one percent of the population, consistently, in every culture. It is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia has multifactorial etiology, with multiple susceptibility genes interacting with environmental insults to yield a range of phenotypes in the schizophrenia spectrum. The discovery of antipsychotics in the 1950s revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia and focused on the positive symptoms. By the 1960s, however, it became evident that the reduction in positive symptoms did not lead to recovery from schizophrenia and did not significantly improve the functional outcome. The advent of the novel antipsychotics during the last 15 years represents a significant improvement over the effectiveness of conventional antipsychotics. These agents are, however, not a magic bullet and bear their own side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, and QTc prolongation. Nevertheless, at this point, they seem to be more effective and safer than the conventional antipsychotics. Moreover, advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been and continue to be urgently needed.

  11. Valoración "in vitro" de las fuerzas de adhesión de un sistema adhesivo convencional y otro autograbante en esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Martínez, Gilberto de Jesús

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata de aportar más información sobre un nuevo adhesivo autograbante a esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. El objetivo es valorar las fuerzas de adhesión en MPa de los sistemas adhesivos (convencional y autograbante),en el esmalte de dientes temporales y permanentes. Métodos: utilizando una muestra de 160 dientes (temporales y permanentes)a nivel de la estructura del esmalte, divididos en cuatro grupos, no tomándose en cuenta para el criterio de selección la p...

  12. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  13. Iloperidone for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2010-08-01

    No existing antipsychotic adequately controls all symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Also, no antipsychotic adequately benefits most patients with this disorder. Finally, the safety and tolerability of each antipsychotic frequently dictate the choice of agent. The mechanism of action of iloperidone, its efficacy and its safety and tolerability when used to treat patients with schizophrenia. An appreciation of the potential advantages and disadvantages of iloperidone when used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is a recent addition to the current group of second-generation antipsychotics. While it may share many qualities with other agents in this class, its unique neuroreceptor signature and adverse-effect profile may prove beneficial in clinical practice.

  14. Properties of Martian Hematite at Meridiani Planum by Simultaneous Fitting of Mars Mossbauer Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresti, D. G.; Fleischer, I.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Mossbauer spectrometers [1] on the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) have been making measurements of surface rocks and soils since January 2004, recording spectra in 10-K-wide temperature bins ranging from 180 K to 290 K. Initial analyses focused on modeling individual spectra directly as acquired or, to increase statistical quality, as sums of single-rock or soil spectra over temperature or as sums over similar rock or soil type [2, 3]. Recently, we have begun to apply simultaneous fitting procedures [4] to Mars Mossbauer data [5-7]. During simultaneous fitting (simfitting), many spectra are modeled similarly and fit together to a single convergence criterion. A satisfactory simfit with parameter values consistent among all spectra is more likely than many single-spectrum fits of the same data because fitting parameters are shared among multiple spectra in the simfit. Consequently, the number of variable parameters, as well as the correlations among them, is greatly reduced. Here we focus on applications of simfitting to interpret the hematite signature in Moessbauer spectra acquired at Meridiani Planum, results of which were reported in [7]. The Spectra. We simfit two sets of spectra with large hematite content [7]: 1) 60 rock outcrop spectra from Eagle Crater; and 2) 46 spectra of spherule-rich lag deposits (Table 1). Spectra of 10 different targets acquired at several distinct temperatures are included in each simfit set. In the table, each Sol (martian day) represents a different target, NS is the number of spectra for a given sol, and NT is the number of spectra for a given temperature. The spectra are indexed to facilitate definition of parameter relations and constraints. An example spectrum is shown in Figure 1, together with a typical fitting model. Results. We have shown that simultaneous fitting is effective in analyzing a large set of related MER Mossbauer spectra. By using appropriate constraints, we derive target-specific quantities and the

  15. Hematite at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater as identified by the Moessbauer Spectrometer MIMOS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Schroeder, C.; de Souza, P. A.; Yen, A.; Renz, F.; Wdowiak, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Moessbauer (MB) spectrometers on the MER rovers Opportunity and Spirit, which landed on Mars in January 2004, have identified the iron-containing mineral hematite (a-Fe2O3) at both landing sites. On Earth, hematite can occur either by itself or with other iron oxides as massive deposits, in veins , and as particles dispersed through a silicate or other matrix material. Hematite particle size can range from nanophase (superparamagnetic) to multidomain and particle shape ranges from equant to acicular to platy. Fine-grained hematite is red in color and is a pigmenting agent. Coarse-grained hematite can be spectrally neutral (gray) at visible wavelengths. Substitutional impurities, particularly Al, are common in hematite. Chemically pure, coarse-grained, and well-crystalline hematite has a magnetic transition (the Morin transition) at 260 K. Moessbauer spectra, recorded as a function of temperature, provide a way to characterize Martian hematite with respect to some of the physical and chemical characteristics. At Meridiani Planum besides the iron-sulfate mineral jarosite also the Fe-oxide hematite has been identified by the Moessbauer spectrometer, mainly in three distinct types of reservoir: - outcrop matrix material dominated by the mineral jarosite in the MB spectrum, certain basaltic soils, and mm-sized spherules dubbed blueberries. Moessbauer spectra of each reservoir yield a distinct set of hyperfine parameters for hematite, suggesting different degrees of crystallinity and particle size. The hematite found by MB instrument MIMOS II in the outcrop material shows the Morin transition at relatively high temperatures (ca. 250 K) which is an indication of pure and well-crystallized hematite. The source of the hematite in the Blueberries as identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy, and also by MiniTES, is not known. These spherules, covering nearly the whole landing site area (Eagle crater, plains, Endurance crater), may be concretions formed in the outcrop

  16. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  17. Seeing the Soils of Meridiani Planum Through the Eyes of Pancam and Microscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Bell, J. F., III; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    We are using data from the Pancam and Microscopic Imager (MI) on the Opportunity rover to characterize the soil grains at Meridiani Planum. We have traced individual grains in all MI images of the soils using the software application ImageJ distributed by NIH, and subsequently derived size and shape properties about the grains. The resolution of the MI is 31 microns per pixel [1] so we limit our measurements to those grains larger than about 0.3 mm in size. In cases where the grain is partially or substantially buried by other grains or finer soil particles, we do not make a measurement. False-color composites from Pancam images that cover the same location imaged by MI are made from the Left 2,5,6 (753, 535, 482 nm) filters or Right 2,7,1 (753, 1009, 430 nm) filters [2] in the Red, Green, and Blue channels, respectively. These color images are then merged with the MI images to illustrate color properties of particular grains. Pancam spectra are also extracted from grains when there is sufficient spatial coverage. in diameter. Figure 2 illustrates the dominance of these small grains at this particular location, which happens to be on the southern wall of Eagle crater. The Pancam color merge with this MI image suggests that the small spherules are more consistent with the basalt grains than the blueberries (spherulitic concretions derived from outcrop rocks [7]). The resolution of Pancam images of this location is on the order of 0.5 mm so the grains are only barely resolved. A Mossbauer measurement taken on an adjacent soil (Sol 53 Vanilla) that is composed solely of these smaller spherules (Fig 1) is consistent with a basaltic composition for the grains. Their concentration at this particular location in a brighter, elongate patch along the southeastern wall compared to elsewhere inside Eagle crater suggests wind activity favored their transport and subsequent deposition here. Their spherical shape is also possibly the result of wind action rounding them during

  18. Electrophysiological Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily; Bachman, Peter; Glahn, David C; Bearden, Carrie E

    2016-01-01

    Endophenotypes are quantitative, heritable traits that may help to elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying complex disease syndromes, such as schizophrenia. They can be assessed at numerous levels of analysis; here, we review electrophysiological endophenotypes that have shown promise in helping us understand schizophrenia from a more mechanistic point of view. For each endophenotype, we describe typical experimental procedures, reliability, heritability, and reported gene and neurobiological associations. We discuss recent findings regarding the genetic architecture of specific electrophysiological endophenotypes, as well as converging evidence from EEG studies implicating disrupted balance of glutamatergic signaling and GABA-ergic inhibition in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We conclude that refining the measurement of electrophysiological endophenotypes, expanding genetic association studies, and integrating datasets are important next steps for understanding the mechanisms that connect identified genetic risk loci for schizophrenia to the disease phenotype. PMID:26954597

  19. Ophthalmology issues in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophrenia patients frequently describe in detail symptoms of a disturbance in various aspects of visual perception that may lead to worse clinical symptoms and decrease in quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the various studies that have explored the visual issues in schizophrenia.

  20. Affect Regulation in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hempel (Roelie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a serious mental disease, characterised by psychosis (delusions and hallucinations), apathy (a lack of motivation), social withdrawal, and cognitive impairment, which result in impaired functioning in different areas, such as work, school, independent living, and

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  2. Ophthalmology Issues in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophreni...

  3. Reducciones temporales para convertir la sintaxis abstracta del diagrama de flujo de tareas no estructurado al álgebra de tareas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fernández-y-Fernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe nuestro trabajo en el modelado de software usando reducciones temporales para representar diagramas de flujo no estructurado, como una representación intermedia para construir una expresión textual en una álgebra de procesos particular. Este trabajo fue realizado para poder construir una herramienta CASE de apoyo para la fase del modelado de tareas en el Método Discovery para el desarrollo de software. Inicialmente explicaremos las similitudes entre dos tipos de diagramas, el diagrama de actividades de UML y el diagrama de flujo de tareas con su representación formal (el álgebra de tareas. Posteriormente, ofreceremos una explicación explicando la generación automática, usando las reducciones temporales, de expresiones en el álgebra de tareas usando información abstracta que es obtenida de los diagramas de flujo de tareas.

  4. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  5. Animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  6. Estimación de modelos de volatilidad estocática en media. aplicación en series temporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Martín, Meri Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente para estimar la volatilidad de series temporales de alta frecuencia se han utilizado los modelos autorregresivos de heterocedasticidad condicionada (modelos ARCH y su generalización (modelos GARCH. Sin embargo, hay una alternativa a este tipo de modelos que son los modelos de volatilidad estocástica, que aunque son más complicados de estimar recogen de forma adecuada las principales características de las series temporales de alta frecuencia. En este trabajo, se va a utilizar máxima verosimilitud para estimar un modelo de volatilidad estocástica en media (modelos SVM basado en métodos de simulación de Monte Carlo. Estos modelos se caracterizan porque incorporan la volatilidad inobservada como una variable explicativa en la ecuación de la media. Los resultados de la estimación de este modelo SVM se van a comparar con los resultados obtenidos de la estimación de un modelo GARCH en media (modelos GARCH-M. Las series temporales utilizadas para realizar dicha estimación son series de rendimientos de índices bursátiles.

  7. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  8. Physical disease and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A E

    1988-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated about the existence of a relationship between physical disease and schizophrenia. Psychodynamic and life-stress theories offer opposing predictions about the nature of this relationship. Unfortunately, the empirical research on this topic is often contradictory and frequently plagued by various methodological inadequacies. Despite the theoretical controversy and methodological problems, the present review of the empirical literature suggests that patients with schizophrenia may be at increased risk for breast cancer and possibly for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia seem to be at reduced risk for developing either rheumatoid arthritis or lung cancer. The epidemiological investigations are worth pursuing since the convincing demonstration of a relationship between schizophrenia and a particular physical disease would yield valuable information about the pathogenesis of both disorders. Future research on this topic will need to consider the possible mediating effects of third variables, such as smoking habits, which may be associated with schizophrenia and which also are, independently, recognized as risk factors for particular physical disorders.

  9. Sex steroids and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Julie A

    2012-09-01

    The peak in incidence for schizophrenia is during late adolescence for both sexes, but within this time frame the peak is both earlier and steeper for males. Additionally, women have a second peak in incidence following menopause. Two meta-analyses have reported that men have an overall ∼40% greater chance of developing schizophrenia than do women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2004). These and other findings have led to the suggestion that ovarian hormones may be protective against schizophrenia. Less explored is the potential role of testosterone in schizophrenia, although disruptions in steroid levels have also been reported in men with the illness. The relationship between increased gonadal hormone release per se and peri-adolescent vulnerability for psychiatric illness is difficult to tease apart from other potentially contributory factors in clinical studies, as adolescence is a turbulent period characterized by many social and biological changes. Despite the obvious opportunity provided by animal research, surprisingly little basic science effort has been devoted to this important issue. On the other hand, the animal work offers an understanding of the many ways in which gonadal steroids exert a powerful impact on the brain, both shaping its development and modifying its function during adulthood. Recently, investigators using preclinical models have described a greater male vulnerability to neurodevelopmental insults that are associated with schizophrenia; such studies may provide clinically relevant insights into the role of gonadal steroids in psychiatric illness.

  10. The neuroproteomics of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    English, Jane A

    2011-01-15

    Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.

  11. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. El efecto del empleo, el paro y los contratos temporales en la baja fecundidad española.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baizán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se investigan empíricamente los efectos de la participación laboral de las mujeres y de sus parejas sobre la fecundidad, y más específicamente el impacto de los contratos temporales y el desempleo. La perspectiva teórica utilizada se basa en el análisis de los cursos de vida individuales y subraya las influencias del contexto institucional y cultural. Se utiliza una muestra longitudinal del Panel de Hogares de las Comunidades Europeas, relativa a los años 1994-2001, y métodos de análisis de biografías. Los resultados indican un acusado impacto negativo de la inestabilidad en el empleo, que supone una posposición en el calendario de la fecundidad y una reducción de las tasas de fecundidad. Este efecto depresivo sobre la fecundidad es aún más intenso cuando los dos miembros de la pareja están en situación laboral precaria.

  13. On incomprehensibility in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the supposedly incomprehensibility of schizophrenic delusions. According to the contemporary classificatory systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10), some delusions typically found in schizophrenia are considered bizarre and incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to discuss...... the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that the notion...... in the light of solipsism. Finally, I discuss the phenomenological conception of schizophrenia, which conceives delusion formation as resulting from alterations of the structure of experiencing and from underlying self-disorders. I argue that although a psychological understanding that seeks to grasp meaning...

  14. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  15. [Schizophrenia or Asperger syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Viellard, Marine; Fakra, Eric; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine; Poinso, François

    2008-09-01

    Patients with Asperger syndrome are often diagnosed late or are wrongly considered to have schizophrenia. Misdiagnosing Asperger syndrome creates serious problems by preventing effective therapy. Several clinical signs described in Asperger syndrome could also be considered as clinical signs of schizophrenia, including impaired social interactions, disabilities in communication, restricted interests, and delusions of persecution. A number of clinical features may facilitate the differential diagnosis: younger age at onset, family history of pervasive developmental disorder, recurring conversations on the same topic, pragmatic aspects of language use, oddities of intonation and pitch, lack of imagination, and incomprehension of social rules are more characteristic of Asperger syndrome. Accurate distinction between Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia would make it possible to offer more treatment appropriate to the patient's functioning.

  16. Mysticism and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2016-01-01

    Mysticism and schizophrenia are different categories of human existence and experience. Nonetheless, they exhibit important phenomenological affinities, which, however, remain largely unaddressed. In this study, we explore structural analogies between key features of mysticism and major clinical......-phenomenological aspects of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders-i.e. attitudes, the nature of experience, and the 'other', mystical or psychotic reality. Not only do these features gravitate around the issue of the basic dimensions of consciousness, they crucially seem to implicate and presuppose a specific alteration...

  17. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  18. Glutamatergic System and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It has a role several cognitive functions including learning, memory and perception. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is also involved in regulating neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and the pruning neurons. Glutamatergic exci-totoxicity has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and ketamine can cause both the positive and negative symptoms psychotic symptoms in normal humans, and worsen these symptoms in persons with schizophrenia. Hence, it has been hypotesized that schizophrenia may be associated with decreased NMDA-receptor activity. According to the hypothesis, NMDA reseptor hypofunction can lead to decreased inhibition of glutamatergic neurons and excessive glutamate release. Finally, the reduction of gray matter in several brain regions seen in patients with schizophrenia has been suggested to be the result of neurotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 394-405

  19. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  20. [Mixed states and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder, incorporating a wide range of symptoms that may occur at certain stages of the disease. The core symptoms can largely be divided into positive symptoms, e.g. hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms, e.g. apathia and emotional flattening.

  2. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baandrup L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1 Charlotte Cerqueira,2 Lea Haller,3 Lene Korshøj,3 Inge Voldsgaard,4 Merete Nordentoft5 1Centre for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR and Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 3The Danish Clinical Registries, Registry Support Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-West, Aarhus, 4Psychosis Ward, Section P, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research.Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients.Main variables: The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning.Descriptive data: The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may

  3. Intercalamiento de cinco leguminosas temporales de granos, durante el establecimiento de Chloris gayana cv. Callide en suelo Vertisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gómez

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de Chloris gayana cv. Callide, se intercalaron variedades de dos especies de leguminosas temporales: Vigna radiata (var. frijol chino y Vigna unguiculata (var. cubanita-666, lina, INIFAT-93 e IITA-precoz, en el momento de la siembra del pasto. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas. En los cultivos intercalados se midió el número de plantas por metro cuadrado, a los 30 y a los 45 días después de la siembra; así como el rendimiento de grano, el número de granos por vaina, el número de vainas por metro cuadrado y la masa de 1 000 granos. En el pasto se determinó el número de plantas por metro cuadrado, la altura, la cobertura a los 90 y a los 180 días después de la siembra, y el rendimiento a los 6 meses de la siembra. Hubo diferencias significativas (p < 0,001 en el porcentaje de cobertura del pasto en ambas edades, con valores superiores en los policultivos. Los cultivos intercalados presentaron efectos significativos en todas las variables estudiadas. La var. frijol chino tuvo la mayor población y rendimiento de grano, y fue superada por INIFAT-93 en el número de granos por vaina; mientras que la var. lina se destacó en cuanto a la masa de 1 000 granos. Se concluye que el uso de policultivos mejoró la cobertura del pasto C. gayana cv. Callide durante el establecimiento y contribuyó a la producción de granos, con resultados sobresalientes en la especie V. radiata.

  4. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  5. Is there an autoimmune basis for schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of schizophrenia still remains a mystery. Schizophrenia with coexistence of myasthenia gravis in the same patient raises the suspicion of autoimmune mechanisms involved in causation of schizophrenia.

  6. Formation and Evolution of Scalloped Depressions on Malea Planum and the southern rim of the Hellas Basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, M.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Scalloped depressions are an erosional surface morphology characterized as a type of dissected mantle terrain by Milliken and Mustard [1]. They are identified by their asymmetrical north-south profile which shows a steep pole-facing scarp, a flat floor, and a gentle equator-facing slope which grades into the surrounding terrain [1]. They are found in latitudedependent, ice-rich surface mantles in both the northern and southern hemispheres [1]. The mantle material is presumably composed of atmospherically derived dust and water ice, and is thought to be related to obliquity-driven ice activity as recently as 2.1-0.4 Myr ago [3]. Previous researchers, [e.g. 1,2,4-7] have attributed the formation of scallops to the sublimation of interstitial ice. Morgenstern et al. [6] suggested that the asymmetric profile of scallops can be explained by enhanced solar insolation on the equator-facing slope which leads to enhanced sublimation of interstial ice and thereby increases the area of the depression. By this process they can also grow and coalesce to form large degraded areas [6]. Building on our previous work [7], we investigate this hypothesis using HiRISE and THEMIS-IR images. We also propose a hypothesis for the nucleation and evolution of scallops. Previous Work: Our previous work surveyed the southern hemisphere using HRSC images for the presence of scalloped terrain, and revealed that almost all scalloped terrains are in the Malea Planum region near the southern wall of the Hellas basin [7]. We mapped the distribution of scalloped terrain between 50° and 70° E and 50° and 70° S. The results of the map showed that the scalloped terrains contour the southern wall of the Hellas basin between the elevations of 1000 m and -2000 m, and that the icerich mantle is thickest in this region [7]. Data and Methods: High resolution HiRISE images of the scalloped terrain of Malea Planum were used to investigate small scale features. Daytime infrared images from

  7. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described.......This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  8. [Schizophrenia and pain reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Medical practitioners do not for a long time pay enough attention to patient's pain. This approach is in the line of society feelings. Pain was long consider to be a contingency to withstand as showed in Christian's bible or Stoicism's principle. Changes in mentality appear in present times. It Seems obvious that for sociological and scientific reasons pain's care in medical and psychiatric disorders is now an important subject. Recent research in autistic disorders suggest that insensitivity observed in autism is not and analgesic phenomenon but a different behavioural reactivity to pain. Prevalence of schizophrenic disorder is from 0.5 to 1%. It is also a complex disorder that has defied decades of concerted efforts to uncover its origins and attenuate its symptoms. The most promising hypotheses suggest that neurodevelopmental impairment increases the risk of later schizophrenia. Most of recent researches in this topic did focus to trait or state markers. According to the vulnerability models of schizophrenia, trait marker are clinical, psychological, physiological, anatomical or cognitive impairments found in patients with schizophrenia during all the course of the illness and even before the onset. Several lines of evidence (case report, epidemiological studies, experimental studies) suggest that patients with schizophrenia shows a relative insensitivity to physical pain. We will review and critic the scientific literature in this specific topic. We will see if datas are relevant with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and vulnerability models. An OLDMEDLINE/MEDLINE query was performed to identify 50 articles relevant to our subject. 9 were case report or case series, 21 were clinical or epidemiological studies, 15 were experimental studies and we also found 5 previous review. Clinical and experimental data strongly suggest a decrease of Behavioural Reactivity to Pain (BRP) but there is a lack of argument to prove a real analgesia. Because schizophrenia is a

  9. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2014-10-14

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations. Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, 12 August 2013, which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PUBMED and PsycINFO.We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomised controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed:1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia;2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and for continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. We excluded data if loss to follow-up was greater than 50%. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified eight randomised trials, involving 530 participants, which met our selection criteria.For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction

  10. Episodic foresight and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Amanda D; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Robinson, Gail; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    People with schizophrenia have difficulty engaging in specific future-directed thoughts and behaviours, such as generating phenomenological characteristics of future events (a component of episodic foresight), and executing directed preparatory behaviours (a component of prospective memory). However, it remains unclear whether they also exhibit difficulties using episodic foresight to appropriately guide future-directed behaviours. People with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls were administered a behavioural measure that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight. In keeping with our focus on the functional application of foresight, this measure required participants to identify a problem, self-generate a resolution, and execute the appropriate future-directed intention. Relative to controls, people with schizophrenia were less likely to spontaneously acquire items that would later allow a problem to be solved, and were also less likely to subsequently use these items to solve the problems. There was no interaction between group and task, indicating that these two components of foresight were disrupted to an equivalent degree. In the clinical (but not the control) group, item acquisition and item use were correlated with general cognitive capacity. No significant associations with clinical variables emerged. The capacity to apply episodic foresight in a functionally adaptive way is disrupted in schizophrenia and may at least partially reflect broader cognitive dysfunction. Future work is now needed to clarify the implications of these difficulties in everyday life, as well as how these difficulties might be remediated. People with schizophrenia have known difficulties with episodic foresight, and it now appears that those difficulties extend to the performance of foresightful preparatory behaviours. Because preparatory behaviours are central to routine and adaptive planning, difficulties with episodic foresight may contribute to or be a result of

  11. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of

  12. El efecto de los temporales de viento en la laurisilva de Anaga (Tenerife. I. Canarias). La tormenta Delta de noviembre de 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Arozena Concepción, María Eugenia; Dorta Antequera, Pedro; Panareda i Clopés, Josep M.; Beltrán Yanes, Esther

    2008-01-01

    La accidentada topografía del Macizo de Anaga y la localización de la laurisilva en los relieves más expuestos contribuyen a que los daños forestales inmediatos de los temporales sean notorios. La relación de este efecto con la magnitud del vendaval está cada vez más condicionada por el aumento de la madurez del bosque debido al abandono de los aprovechamientos forestales. 18 meses después de la tormenta Delta el bosque evidencia un proceso de autosucesión y el fin del enriquecimiento del sot...

  13. Mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en Cuba:tendencias temporales y representación gráfica(1968-1997)

    OpenAIRE

    Plasencia Asorey, Carolina Gertrudis

    2010-01-01

    El cáncer del pulmón constituye un verdadero problema social a escala mundial, al cual Cuba no es ajena. Cada año se diagnostican alrededor de 3 500 nuevos casos e igual cifra de defunciones. Esta situación pudiera agravarse en los años venideros debido a la influencia que pueden ejercer los cambios ocurridos en algunos indicadores demográficos que tienen relación con esta afección. Con esta investigación perseguimos como objetivos: describir las tendencias temporales de mortalidad por cáncer...

  14. Cuerpo y biopanoptismo en México a principios del siglo XXI: el Programa de Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales a Canadá

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Desde la firma de un convenio bilateral en 1974, México envía jornaleros agrícolas temporales para trabajar en granjas canadienses. El paulatino endurecimiento de los criterios para seleccionar a las y los trabajadores rurales a petición del gobierno canadiense, aunado a la aplicación de los mismos por la Secretaría del Trabajo en México y su interpretación discrecional en cada oficina de reclutamiento en los estados de la República, convergen hacia la constitución de un biopanoptismo de los ...

  15. Programación de altas prestaciones para análisis no lineal de series temporales con kd-tree.

    OpenAIRE

    Águila Guerrero, Julio José

    2011-01-01

    La presente tesis mostrará el desarrollo de aplicaciones basadas en la estructura de datos kd-tree utilizando programación de altas prestaciones en el ámbito del análisis no lineal de series temporales. Su principal aporte es presentar un conjunto de algoritmos que pueden ser utilizados en tiempo real para obtener resultados en una escala de tiempo reducida, aún cuando el tamaño de los registros de datos sea muy grande. Las aplicaciones han sido desarrolladas dentro de un marco de trabajo ...

  16. [Schizophrenia in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Küppers, M

    1979-02-01

    After considerable controversies during the last decades there is no longer any doubt about childhood schizophrenia as a disease, although within German-speaking countries its somewhat wider definition like in Anglo-Saxon child- and adolescent psychiatry is not accepted. The relation of early childhood autism to the nosologic entity of schizophrenia still remains speculative. The etiology of childhood schizophrenia is not known, equally not that of the even less frequent manic-depressive disease. Symptoms, course, and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia which developes between preschool age and the begin of puberty are described in detail.

  17. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  18. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  19. Spherulitic Growth of Hematite Under Hydrothermal Conditions: Insights into the Growth Mechanism of Hematite Spherules at Meridiani Planum Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Hematite-rich spherules were discovered embedded in sulfate-rich outcrop rock and as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planem [1-6]. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), which has a wider spectral range compared to the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES, provided an important constraint that hematite-rich spherules are dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [7-10]. We have previously synthesized hematite spherules whose mineralogic, chemical, and crystallographic properties are strikingly similar to those for the hematite-rich spherules at Meridiani Planum [11]. The spherules were synthesized in the laboratory along with hydronium jarosite and minor hydronium alunite from Fe-Al-Mg-S-Cl acid sulfate solutions under hydrothermal conditions. The reaction sequence was (1) precipitation of hydronium jarosite, (2) jarosite dissolution and precipitation of hematite spherules, and (3) precipitation of hydronium alunite upon depletion of hydronium jarosite. The spherules exhibit a radial growth texture with the crystallographic c-axis aligned along the radial direction, so that thermal emission spectra have no hematite emissivity minimum at approx.390/cm similar to the emission spectra returned by MGS TES. The objective of this paper is to expand on our initial studies [11] to examine the morphological evolution during growth of spherules starting from sub-micrometer crystals to spherules many orders of magnitude in size.

  20. Meteorites at Meridiani Planum provide evidence for significant amounts of surface and near-surface water on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairen, Alberto G.; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Thompson, Shane D.; Mahaney, William C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; El Maarry, M. Ramy; Uceda, Esther R.; Amils, Ricardo; Miyamoto, Hirdy; Kim, Kyeong J.; Anderson, Robert C.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Six large iron meteorites have been discovered in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in a nearly 25 km-long traverse. Herein, we review and synthesize the available data to propose that the discovery and characteristics of the six meteorites could be explained as the result of their impact into a soft and wet surface, sometime during the Noachian or the Hesperian, subsequently to be exposed at the Martian surface through differential erosion. As recorded by its sediments and chemical deposits, Meridiani has been interpreted to have undergone a watery past, including a shallow sea, a playa, an environment of fluctuating ground water, and/or an icy landscape. Meteorites could have been encased upon impact and/or subsequently buried, and kept underground for a long time, shielded from the atmosphere. The meteorites apparently underwent significant chemical weathering due to aqueous alteration, as indicated by cavernous features that suggest differential acidic corrosion removing less resistant material and softer inclusions. During the Amazonian, the almost complete disappearance of surface water and desiccation of the landscape, followed by induration of the sediments and subsequent differential erosion and degradation of Meridiani sediments, including at least 10–80 m of deflation in the last 3–3.5 Gy, would have exposed the buried meteorites. We conclude that the iron meteorites support the hypothesis that Mars once had a denser atmosphere and considerable amounts of water and/or water ice at and/or near the surface.

  1. A First Look at the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the MER-B Landing Site in Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Squyres, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Christensen, P. C.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rieder, R.; Farrand, W.

    2004-01-01

    The second MER rover (Opportunity) landed on Meridiani Planum on January 24, 2004 inside a shallow crater. The science rational for the selection of the landing site centered on detection of the mineral hematite from martian orbit by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) [1,2]. Other smaller occurrences of hematite are in Aram Chaos and several isolated spots in Valles Marineris. Proposed formation pathways for martian hematite include both aqueous (e.g., low temperature precipitation of Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides in a lacustrine environment, laterite-style weathering, and precipitation from fluids having a hydrothermal origin) and dry (e.g., oxidation of magnetite rich ash) processes [e.g., 1,2,3]. The crystallographic c-face of martian hematite must be exaggerated to account for the thermal emissions spectra and it must be gray in color so as to account for the absence of the characteristic spectral signature of red hematite at visible wavelengths

  2. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  3. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  4. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.

  5. Neural models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions - two diagnostic features of psychosis shared across the spectrum of heterogeneous schizophrenia constructs - can be described in terms of the pathophysiology of sensory information processing: hallucination is the impaired ability to classify representations as internally or externally generated, while delusion is the immutable linking of representations with each other in the absence of external dependency. The key anatomical systems in higher-order information ...

  6. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  7. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term schizophrenia was coined by Eugene Bleuler. Symptoms of schizophrenia are arranged into groups or clusters called as domains. The domains of dysfunctions are positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, mood and suicidity, and aggression. Cognition is the sum total of mental processes that makes us acquire knowledge and keeps us aware of our surroundings and thus enables us to arrive at appropriate judgments. Cognitive deficits are recognized as enduring and persistent features in schizophrenia and can be neuro-cognitive or relating to social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits are deficits in speed of processing, attention / vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving, social cognition. Cognitive function can be assessed by various methods like experimental approach, neuropsychological and psychometric and ecologic approach. Cognitive deficits are present at onset of illness producing substantial impairment. Unlike psychotic symptoms, which remit with treatment, functional impairments remain stable over time. Detail understanding of such symptoms will help in disability limitation. Various cognitive remediation programmes are underway with such intent. Articles till March, 2012 were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, which were studied in an attempt of understanding the topic. The information was structured and organized.

  8. [Psychoeducation in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Ospina, Juan Pablo; Rangel Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia includes the use of psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions that include psychoeducation. This strategy has been defined as the delivery of information about the disorder and its treatment in a systematic and structured way. To review the literature on the efficacy of psychoeducation in schizophrenia. A search in PubMed, SciELO, EMBASE and PsycINFO was made with the terms "psychoeducation", "schizophrenia" and "psychosocial intervention". Articles in Spanish and English language were reviewed. Psychoeducation can be applied to patients, family or both, and individually or in groups. The number of sessions can vary. There have been many studies that seek to determine the efficacy of psychoeducation in the clinical course, family dynamics and stigma, with results that favor its implementation, but so far it has not been possible to determine exactly how best to apply psychoeducation, mainly because of the great variability of designs. The studies on psychoeducation have shown efficacy. However, this might be an overestimation, as there is a high risk of bias. Consequently, there is not enough evidence. At least for now, it is reasonable to complement pharmacotherapy with psycoeducation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporales marítimos y borrascas atlánticas en la provincia de Alicante: el caso de Benidorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tros-de-Ilarduya Fernández, María

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea storms are natural phenomena whose economic, physical and social repercussions over Alicante’s coast between 1975 and 2005 have been analysed through the local press. Despite the widespread belief that the east coast of Spain is not affected by atmospheric situations generated in the Atlantic Ocean, there are some locations that are highly vulnerable to a west wind component, but not to an east wind one, due to the fact that they are well-protected thanks to the coastal configuration. The case of Benidorm is analysed as an example of this.Los temporales de mar son fenómenos naturales cuyas repercusiones económicas, físicas y sociales sobre el litoral alicantino entre los años 1975 y 2005 han sido analizadas a través de la prensa local. A pesar de la extendida creencia de que la fachada marítima del este de España es ajena a las situaciones atmosféricas generadas en el Atlántico, existen enclaves que presentan una alta vulnerabilidad frente a la componente occidental, no así frente a la levantina, de la que se hallan bien protegidos gracias a la propia configuración costera. Se analiza, como ejemplo, el caso de Benidorm. [fr] Les tempêtes maritimes sont des phénomènes naturels dont l’impact économique, physique et social sur le littoral d’Alicante entre 1975 et 2005 a été analysé à travers la presse locale. Contrairement à une croyance très répandue, selon laquelle la façade maritime orientale de l’Espagne n’est pas influencée par les situations atmosphériques générées dans l’Atlantique, certaines enclaves sont très vulnérables à la composante occidentale mais pas à l’orientale, dont elles se trouvent bien protégées grâce à la configuration du littoral. Le cas de Benidorm (Alicante est ici analysé comme exemple.

  10. Psychopharmacology of aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  12. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  13. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  14. Benzodiazepines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Li, Chunbo; Tardy, Magdolna; Khorsand, Vesal; Gillies, Donna; Leucht, Stefan

    2012-11-14

    Because of the high number of people with schizophrenia not responding adequately to monotherapy with antipsychotic agents, the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of additional medication was examined in a number of clinical trials. One approach to this research question was the use of benzodiazepines, as monotherapy as well as in combination with antipsychotics. To determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of benzodiazepines in people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. In February 2011, we updated the literature search of the previous version of this systematic review (last search March 2005). We searched the trial register of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group (containing methodical searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, Dissertation abstracts, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PSYNDEX, PsycINFO, RUSSMED, Sociofile, supplemented with hand searching of relevant journals and numerous conference proceedings). Additionally, we inspected references of all identified studies for further relevant studies and contacted authors of relevant publications in order to obtain missing data from existing trials. We applied no language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing benzodiazepines (as monotherapy or as adjunctive agent) with antipsychotic drugs or placebo for the pharmacological management of schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Review authors (MD and CL) analysed independently the new references of the update-search referring to the inclusion criteria. MD and CL extracted all data from the included trials. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data by using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed each pre-selected outcome from the included trials with the risk of bias tool. The 2011 update search yielded three further randomised controlled trials. The review currently includes 34 studies with 2657 participants. Most

  15. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Thompson, L. M.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  16. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  17. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  18. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  19. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonagle, T; Sultana, A

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal. To review the effects of token economies for people with schizophrenia, or other serious or chronic mental illnesses, compared with standard care. Electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1985-1999), CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 1999), The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials (February 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and PsycLIT (1987-1998) were supplemented with reference searches, personal contact with trial authors and hand searches. Randomised studies comparing a token economy regime (one in which change is achieved by means of use of non-monetary, non-consumable tokens) to standard care for those with schizophrenia or any other similar chronic or serious mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality rated and data extracted. For dichotomous data relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. Where possible, the number needed to treat statistic (NNT) was also calculated. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Normal continuous data were summated using the weighted mean difference (WMD). Scale data were presented only for those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. Only three randomised controlled trials could be included in the analyses (total n=110). There were no usable data on target or non-target behaviour. One small study favoured the token economy approach for the outcome 'change in mental state' on the SANS-CV with improvement in negative symptoms at three months (n=40

  20. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  1. Schizophrenia and employment - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Johnson, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the extent to which work contributes to the recovery of people with schizophrenia. There is increasing interest in the subject because of new service models and the economic cost of unemployment in people with severe mental illness. A literature search was carried out with the aim of investigating: a). employment rates in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis and the extent to which they have changed over time; b). the barriers to work; c). the factors associated with being employed among people with schizophrenia; and d). whether employment influences other outcomes in schizophrenia. There are wide variations in reported employment rates in schizophrenia. Most recent European studies report rates between 10 % and 20%, while the rate in the US is less clear. There is a higher level of employment among first-episode patients. The employment rate in schizophrenia appears to have declined over the last 50 years in the UK. Barriers to getting employment include stigma,discrimination, fear of loss of benefits and a lack of appropriate professional help. The most consistent predictor of employment is previous work history. Working is correlated with positive outcomes in social functioning, symptom levels, quality of life and self esteem, but a clear causal relationship has not been established. Very low employment rates are not intrinsic to schizophrenia, but appear to reflect an interplay between the social and economic pressures that patients face, the labour market and psychological and social barriers to working.

  2. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  3. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar region of hand and the fingers and plantar region of sole and toes. Dermatoglyphic pattern, such as Whorls, Arches, Loops and atd angle have been hypothesized to be indirect measure for early abnormal development process that can lead later psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia. Under the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and schizophrenia, the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. The present study include 63 male and 46 female of schizophrenic patient diagnosed at Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour(IPHB Hospital, Goa were compared with control group accordingly. The patterns seen on hand and fingers were calculated and compared with the frequency of finger print patterns in control group. It was observed that there is increased frequency of arches and decrease frequency of whorls in control males and females which was significant difference, where as in female schizophrenics there is decrease frequency of radial loop compared to male schizophrenics and significant difference observed in atd angle of right and left hand between female control and female schizophrenics.

  4. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  5. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests....... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  6. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  7. Dance therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Xia, Jun

    2013-10-04

    Dance therapy or dance movement therapy (DMT) is defined as 'the psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual'. It may be of value for people with developmental, medical, social, physical or psychological impairments. Dance therapy can be practiced in mental health rehabilitation units, nursing homes, day care centres and incorporated into disease prevention and health promotion programmes. To evaluate the effects of dance therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care and other interventions. We updated the original July 2007 search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group' register in July 2012. We also searched Chinese main medical databases. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing dance therapy and related approaches with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD); for binary outcomes we calculated a fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 45) of reasonable quality. It compared dance therapy plus routine care with routine care alone. Most people tolerated the treatment package but nearly 40% were lost in both groups by four months (1 RCT n = 45, RR 0.68 95% CI 0.31 to 1.51, low quality evidence). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) average endpoint total scores were similar in both groups (1 RCT n = 43, MD -0.50 95% CI -11.80 to 10.80, moderate quality evidence) as were the positive sub-scores (1 RCT n = 43, MD 2.50 CI -0.67 to 5.67, moderate quality evidence). At the end of treatment, significantly more people in the dance therapy group had a greater than 20% reduction in PANSS negative symptom

  8. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Merinder, Lars Bertil; Belgamwar, Madhvi R

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. Objectives To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). We updated this search November 2012 and added 27 new trials to the awaiting assessment section. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. Main results This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ~ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0

  9. Los Actos de Administración Ordinaria y Extraordinaria de los bienes temporales de Institutos Religiosos. Del CIC17 al CIC83

    OpenAIRE

    Garceranth Ramos, S.J., P. Ismael Arturo

    2017-01-01

    La administración de los bienes temporales de la Iglesia viene tratada enel CIC83, Libro V, Título II, los cc. 1273 – 1289 y, en relación con losbienes de los Institutos Religiosos se deben tener en cuenta también loscc.636 – 638. El mismo tema de la administración de los bienes eclesiásticos se encuentra en el CIC17 en el Libro III, Parte VI, Título XXVIII, cc. 1518 – 1528 y, en cuanto a los bienes de los Institutos Religiosos, se aplican las normas canónicas del Libro II, Parte II, Título X...

  10. ¿El contexto geográfico importa en la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus? Tendencias espacio-temporales en Argentina, 1990-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. Leveau; M. Jimena Marro; Valeria Alonso; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar conglomerados espacio-temporales de alta y baja mortalidad por diabetes mellitus durante el período 1990-2012 en Argentina. Se realizó un estudio ecológico retrospectivo espacio-temporal. Se consideró la población mayor de 34 años residente en Argentina, según sexo, durante el período 1990-2012. Las unidades espaciales de análisis estuvieron conformadas por departamentos más la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se empleó la técnica de ...

  11. Análisis de patrones temporales en las rutinas gestuales previas al tiro libre de baloncesto, en la categoría alevín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lapresa Ajamil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el seno de la metodología observacional, mediante la detección de patrones temporales ocultos, el presente trabajo estudia las rutinas gestuales previas a los tiros libres de baloncesto que desarrollan jugadores en formación -en concreto, niños de 11-12 años incluidos en la categoría alevín-. Utilizando el programa Theme -versión 5.0-, se analiza tipo, secuencia y tiempo de ejecución de las conductas gestuales que constituyen estas rutinas gestuales. el trabajo se completa, a partir de la interpretación de los resultados obtenidos, con una propuesta general de intervención en eldesarrollo de las rutinas previas al tiro libre en baloncesto en categorías de formación.

  12. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougall, Nadine; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; McDermott, Lisa M; McIntosh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... One proposed alternative to drug treatments is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To date, many research trials to assess effectiveness of TMS for people with symptoms of schizophrenia have been conducted worldwide...

  13. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  14. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    This doctoral thesis focuses on brain activity in response to proprioceptive stimulation in schizophrenia. The works encompass methodological developments substantiated by investigations of healthy volunteers and two clinical studies of schizophrenia spectrum patients. American psychiatrist Sandor...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time......-series averages or as oscillatory averages transformed into the frequency domain. Gamma activity evoked by electricity or by another type of somatosensory stimulus has not been reported before in schizophrenia. Gamma activity is considered to be a manifestation of perceptual integration. A new load stimulus...

  15. GWAS, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders; Pearce, Brad D

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile, data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes...... and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies point to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene......-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a fivefold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper, we summarize recent advances to clarify a possible...

  16. Supportive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lucy A; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Adams, Clive E

    2015-04-14

    Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care. We reliably selected studies, quality rated these and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we undertook intention-to-treat analyses. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) fixed-effect with 95% CIs. We estimated heterogeneity (I(2) technique) and publication bias. We used GRADE to rate quality of evidence. Four new trials were added after the 2012 search. The review now includes 24 relevant studies, with 2126 participants. Overall, the evidence was very low quality.We found no significant differences in the primary outcomes of relapse, hospitalisation and general functioning between supportive therapy and standard care.There were, however, significant differences favouring other psychological or psychosocial treatments over supportive therapy. These included hospitalisation rates (4 RCTs, n = 306, RR 1.82 CI 1.11 to 2.99, very low quality of evidence), clinical improvement in mental state (3 RCTs, n = 194, RR 1.27 CI 1.04 to 1.54, very low quality of evidence) and satisfaction of treatment for the recipient of care (1 RCT, n = 45, RR 3.19 CI 1.01 to 10.7, very low quality of evidence). For this comparison, we found no evidence of significant differences for rate of relapse, leaving the study early and quality of life.When we compared supportive therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy CBT), we again found no significant differences in primary

  17. Schizophrenia: genetics, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Marino, Elena; Adele, Pirovano; Ferrari, Barbara; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    Genetic factors are largely implicated in predisposing to schizophrenia. Environmental factors contribute to the onset of the disorder in individuals at increased genetic risk. Cognitive deficits have emerged as endophenotypes and potential therapeutic targets for schizophrenia because of their association with functional outcome. The aims of this review were to analyse the joint effect of genetic and environmental (G×E) factors on liability to schizophrenia and to investigate relationships between genes and cognitive endophenotypes focusing on practical applications for prevention and rehabilitation. Medline search of relevant studies published between 1990 and 2008. In schizophrenia, examples of G×E interaction include the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (Val158Met) polymorphism, which was found to moderate the onset of psychotic manifestations in response to stress and to increase the risk for psychosis related to cannabis use, and neurodevelopmental genes such as AKT1 (serine-threonine kinase), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DTNBP1 (dysbindin) and GRM3 (metabotropic glutamate receptor 3), which were associated with development of schizophrenia in adulthood after exposure to perinatal obstetric complications. Neurocognitive deficits are recognised as core features of schizophrenia that facilitate the onset of the disorder and have a great impact on functional outcome. Neurocognitive deficits are also endophenotypes that have been linked to a variety of genes [COMT, neuregulin (NRG1), BDNF, Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and dysbindin] conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia. Recently, it has emerged that cognitive improvement during rehabilitation therapy was under control of COMT (Val158Met) polymorphism. This review could indicate a pivotal role of psychiatric genetics in prevention and rehabilitation of schizophrenic psychoses.

  18. [The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A; Malchow, B; Falkai, P; Schmitt, A

    2014-08-01

    For many years, the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been the leading theory explaining the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, since the first observation showed that NMDA-receptor antagonists (e. g., PCP) can induce all kinds of schizophrenia symptoms in humans, the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia has been established as an additional explanation model. Apart from the PCP-induced psychoses, many other findings from all areas of modern neuroscience have confirmed and extended the glutamate hypothesis. This review discusses the available evidence for the glutamate hypothesis and puts the different findings into relation. Consecutively, the possibilities for a pharmacological modulation of the glutamate system and recent clinical trials are discussed. To sum up, one could note that the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia is now well-established. The development of glutamatergic antipsychotics is still in the early stages, but there is hope for a new generation of antipsychotics based on the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, recent findings from registration trials could not provide positive findings for the recently developed glutamatergic drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. [Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunnlechner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry.

  20. Valproate for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Xia, Jun; Helfer, Bartosz; Li, Chunbo; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-11-24

    Many people with schizophrenia do not achieve a satisfactory treatment response with ordinary antipsychotic drug treatment. In these cases, various add-on medications are used, and valproate is one of these. To examine whether:1. valproate alone is an effective treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses; and2. valproate augmentation of antipsychotic medication is an effective treatment for the same illnesses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (July 2002; February 2007; July 2012; March 04, 2016). We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of relevant studies in order to identify further trials. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing valproate to antipsychotics or to placebo (or no intervention), whether as the sole agent or as an adjunct to antipsychotic medication for the treatment of people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We independently inspected citations and, where possible, abstracts, ordered papers, and re-inspected and quality-assessed these. At least two review authors independently extracted data. We analysed dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to create a 'Summary of findings' table. The 2012 update search identified 19 further relevant studies, most of which were from China. Thus the review currently includes 26 studies with a total of 2184 participants. All trials examined the effectiveness of valproate as an adjunct to antipsychotics. With the exception of two studies, the studies were small, the participants and personnel were not blinded (neither was outcome assessment), and most were short-term and incompletely reported.For this update we prespecified seven main outcomes of interest: clinical response

  1. Risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Stephanie; Hosalli, Prakash; Furtado, Vivek A; Davis, John M

    2016-04-14

    Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug made available in a long-acting injection formulation. To examine the effects of depot risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medication.To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, cost and cost-effectiveness of risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2002, 2012, and October 28, 2015). We also checked the references of all included studies, and contacted industry and authors of included studies. Randomised clinical trials comparing depot risperidone with other treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Twelve studies, with a total of 5723 participants were randomised to the following comparison treatments: Risperidone depot versus placebo Outcomes of relapse and improvement in mental state were neither measured or reported. In terms of other primary outcomes, more people receiving placebo left the study early by 12 weeks (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.74 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88, very low quality evidence), experienced severe adverse events in short term (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.59 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93, very low quality evidence). There was however, no difference in levels of weight gain between groups (1 RCT, n=400, RR 2.11 95% CI 0.48 to 9.18, very low quality evidence). Risperidone depot versus general oral antipsychotics The outcome of improvement in mental state was not presented due to high levels of attrition, nor were levels of severe adverse events explicitly reported

  2. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this issue Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  3. A Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, William Kent; Wertheimer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Research shows a relationship between diagnoses of schizophrenia among twins. It was studied whether information that a twin was schizophrenic would bias diagnoses. Such information almost doubled the rater's estimates of probability of schizophrenia in a hypothetical case history. (NG)

  4. Specific Glial Functions Contribute to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.; de Leeuw, C.A.; Ripke, S.; Hultman, C. M.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smit, A.B.; Posthuma, D.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent

  5. [Hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia. Suffering from and with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneman, M; Sabbe, B G C

    2006-01-01

    Clinical experience shows that feelings of hopelessness quite often arise in patients with schizophrenia. To describe these feelings of hopelessness, obtain insight into interrelated factors, distinguish hopelessness from depression, study the influence of hopelessness on suicidal behaviour andfind out how feelings of hopelessness can influence the treatment that is provided. We searched the literature via MEDLINE and PsyCINFO using the key words 'schizophrenia', 'hopelessness', 'demoralization', and 'disappointment'. Demoralization is a broader term than hopelessness and is used quite often. Positive correlations arefound between hopelessness and: (1) awareness of illness; (2) engulfment; and (3) depressive symptoms. Negative correlations are found between hopelessness and: (1) cognitive disorders; and (2) an avoidant coping style. Hopelessness and demoralisation cannot be equalled with depression. Hopelessness clearly heightens suicidal tendencies. Feelings of hopelessness in a patient suffering from schizophrenia signal that closer attention should be given to that patient. Feelings of hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia are not necessarily a sign of pathology but may point to existential suffering. This needs to be recognised by those dealing with persons sufferingfrom schizophrenia,

  6. Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies t...

  7. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Else-Marie Løberg; Else-Marie Løberg; Kenneth Hugdahl; Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies ...

  8. Nosology, epidemiology and genetics of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuang, M.T.; Simpson, J.C. (Harvard Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Brockton, MA (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: The genetics of schizophrenia: An overview; The genetics of schizo-affective disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum; Mathematical models of genetic transmission; and Genetic studies of biochemical, pathophysiological and pharmacological factors in schizophrenia.

  9. Boulder abundances and size-frequency distributions on Oxia Planum-Mars: Scientific implications for the 2020 ESA ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Quantin, Cathy; Carter, John; Thollot, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the abundances and the size-frequency distributions (SFD) of boulders identified on a sector of the prime landing site for the ExoMars 2020 rover, in Oxia Planum region. By means of a HiRISE image, boulders ≥ 1.75 m across have been identified and subdivided according to the two main Oxia Planum geological units: the Noachian clay-rich formation (Nc), and the Amazonian volcanic deposit (Av). The spatial density of boulders ≥ 1.75 m over the entire study area is 6.75 × 10-4/m2, with a size-frequency that is best fit both with power-law and exponential-law curves with indices of -4.9 + 0.1/-0.2 and -1.29 + 0.04/-0.06 respectively. Significant differences were found by analysing separately the Av and Nc geological units. The data collected in the Av unit are well-fitted with a power-law curve with an index equal to -4.8 +/-0.2 and with an exponential-law curve with an index of -1.24 + 0.05,-0.06, whilst in the Nc unit such indices are -5.5 + 0.3/-0.4 and -1.70 + 0.09/-0.12 (power-law and exponential-law curve, respectively). The spatial density of boulders in the Av unit is 7.0 times larger than in the Nc one. This may be due primarily to the distinct mechanical properties of the two units that may result in a different production rate or preservation of the boulders. Secondly, the Av unit overlies the Nc unit, possibly resulting in more impacts and/or different weathering processes throughout the ages. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m across on Oxia Planum: it is therefore a reference for the ExoMars 2020 mission, both during the landing phase and the rover traverse to specific areas of interest. The landing ellipse presents much higher abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m than all previous Martian rover landing areas. This is particularly evident when the rougher Av unit is taken into account. Contrarily, the Nc unit shows a much more comparable value, but still slightly higher, to the Mars

  10. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. Methods: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student′s tests. Results: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05. Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05, these differences were not significant in females. Conclusions: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia.

  11. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  12. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  13. [Fratricide and Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Leal, Juliana; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Fratricide is the killing of one's own bother. It's a type of homicide rarely seen on psychiatric practice. This is still a theme which is poorly studied, and not well understood by the scientific literature. To report a case of a men, with paranoid schizophrenia that murdered his own bother and had a psychiatric forensic evaluation to establish his penal responsibility. A psychiatric interview was carried out and the psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the interview and analysis of forensic and medical records, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Literature review was held about the theme. The examinee was considered not guilty by reason of insanity, due to the presence of a mental disorder that affected her entire understanding and volition of the practiced act. The study of such cases may illustrate and identify motivating factors related to homicidal behavior in individuals with severe mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Clozapine dose for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Selvizhi; Völlm, Birgit A; Huband, Nick

    2017-06-14

    Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech). However, it is unclear what dose of clozapine is most effective with the least side effects. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine at different doses and to identify the optimal dose of clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (August 2011 and 8 December 2016). All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of blinding status or language, that compared the effects of clozapine at different doses in people with schizophrenia and related disorders, diagnosed by any criteria. We independently inspected citations from the searches, identified relevant abstracts, obtained full articles of relevant abstracts, and classified trials as included or excluded. We included trials that met our inclusion criteria and reported useable data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We identified five studies that could be included. Each compared the effects of clozapine at very low dose (up to 149 mg/day), low dose (150 mg/day to 300 mg/day) and standard dose (301 mg/day to 600 mg/day). Four of the five included

  15. Predicting risk and the emergence of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-09-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The presence of certain molecular, biological, and psychosocial factors at certain points in the life span, has been linked to later development of schizophrenia. All need to be considered in the context of schizophrenia as a lifelong brain disorder. Research interest in schizophrenia is shifting to late childhood\\/early adolescence for screening and preventative measures. This article discusses those environmental risk factors for schizophrenia for which there is the largest evidence base.

  16. “Toda la creencia está allá”. Linderos interculturales, espacios y derechos en migrantes agrícolas temporales de la península de Yucatán en Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Leona Rosales Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan resultados de una investigación efectuada con trabajadores agrícolas temporales en Quebec, Canadá, y en las cabeceras municipales de Maní, Mama y Dzidzantún, Yucatán, así como El Ramonal, Quintana Roo. En él se da cuenta de algunas experiencias de migrantes de la península de Yucatán que participaron en el Programa de Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales en Quebec, Canadá (PTAT) durante 2012. Se realiza una descripción de la interacción entre algunos aspectos de las...

  17. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  18. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  19. [Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Canceil, O; Krebs, M-O; Baylé, F-J

    2003-01-01

    The concept of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia has frequently been subject to debate. Authors widely admit the existence of early specific and non-specific signs preceding the first psychotic episode; however, they have yet to clearly demonstrate their ability to predict and specify the outbreak of a psychosis. These prodromal symptoms consist of behavioral abnormalities, pseudo-neurotic signs, subtle cognitive and affective changes. All these symptoms vary from patient to patient. In general, it is widely believed that future patients go through a variety of abnormal, subjective experiences that progressively develop during their pre-puberty and puberty periods. However, the limit of this assessment is that an individual could present the same prodromal symptoms without necessarily developing a psychotic illness, as a result of toxic intake, a situational crisis, etc. Furthermore, while the prodrome is a retrospective concept, its value and specificity can only be prospective, given that patients' descriptions of pre-morbid changes may be corrupted by inefficient memory reconstruction. DSM III-R included prodromal symptoms; individual presenting such symptoms would potentially present psychopathological vulnerability to psychosis regardless of associated genetic risk. Several investigations have shed doubts on their measurement's reliability; therefore, this classification is no longer present in the latest version (DSM IV). Moreover, recent neurodevelopemental hypothesis on schizophrenia have paved the way for possible early intervention, especially because early treatments could well improve illness prognosis. This viewpoint is reinforced by the improved tolerance of new anti-psychotic treatment. In this report, we review the key Articles published over the last 15 Years on this matter. We distinguish two schools of thought: on one hand, the German school referring to the validity of particular neuro-psychological symptoms: attention, perception

  20. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  1. ¿Qué es y cómo se mide el Turismo Cultural? Un estudio longitudinal con series temporales para el caso Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Mallor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Por su poder diferenciador, y su débil contingencia a la moda el turismo cultural se ha convertido en un reto para los destinos. No solo dinamiza zonas de interior sino que es una manera para algunos destinos de salvar su patrimonio y crear empleos. Sin embargo, el concepto de turismo cultural es complejo y su delimitación y medición difíciles. En una primera parte teórica, este trabajo realiza una revisión conceptual del turismo cultural enfocando la dialéctica existente entre experiencia y autenticidad, y destacando después la diversidad de tipologías de turismo y de turista cultural. En la parte empírica, después de abordar la dificultad de medición, se presenta un estudio con series temporales de datos seleccionados de fuentes públicas analizadas mediante regresiones lineales con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto del turismo cultural sobre el gasto en turismo en España.

  2. Estudio comparativo entre bases de datos temporales y bases de datos relacionales aplicado a historias clínicas electrónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Díaz Montejo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La elección de un paradigma de base de datos cuando se crea un sistema, es una decisión que establece el curso del proyecto, entender las ventajas y desventajas de estos paradigmas proporciona el punto de partida. Por lo anterior el trabajo reflexiona sobre la comparación entre las bases de datos relacionales y bases de datos temporales evaluando su desempeño en un caso práctico: Gestión de historias clínicas electrónicas. El proceso se inicia con la selección de características y sub-características deseables del DBMS, posteriormente el diseño del caso práctico, y una selección de los gestores que representan cada paradigma. Todo esto con el fin de proporcionar un marco para proyectos futuros que se encuentran dentro del área de Telemedicina, registros médicos electrónicos y los sistemas de salud en general que implique el almacenamiento de información temporal.

  3. Modelo estadístico en series temporales para la predicción de la temperatura de gas de tragante del horno alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, A.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available This work, through techniques seldom used in the ironmaking field, establishes a criterion to define the behaviour along the time of significant operating variables of the blast furnace. A time series autoregressive model has been developed, achieving with it an adequate forecasting level. The methodology used has been the Yule-Walker equations to establish the model, the Akaike test to choose the best one and the autocorrelation function analysis to check it.

    En el presente trabajo, a través de técnicas poco usadas en el campo siderúrgico, se establece un criterio para definir el comportamiento en el tiempo de variables de operación significativas del homo alto. Para ello, se ha desarrollado un modelo autorregresivo en series temporales que permite una adecuada predicción. La metodología ha consistido en utilizar las ecuaciones de Yule-Walker y el test de Akaike para establecer y elegir el mejor modelo, y el análisis de la función de autocorrelación para comprobarlo.

  4. ¿El contexto geográfico importa en la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus? Tendencias espacio-temporales en Argentina, 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Leveau

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar conglomerados espacio-temporales de alta y baja mortalidad por diabetes mellitus durante el período 1990-2012 en Argentina. Se realizó un estudio ecológico retrospectivo espacio-temporal. Se consideró la población mayor de 34 años residente en Argentina, según sexo, durante el período 1990-2012. Las unidades espaciales de análisis estuvieron conformadas por departamentos más la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se empleó la técnica de exploración espacio-temporal para la detección de conglomerados de alta y baja mortalidad. Se encontraron áreas de elevada mortalidad por diabetes mellitus en el centro-oeste del país, y zonas de baja mortalidad en la región costera de la provincia de Buenos Aires y Patagonia. Los conglomerados de alta mortalidad ocuparon un período comprendido entre 1995 y 2008; los de baja mortalidad se desplazaron hacia los años 2002-2012. El descenso reciente en la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus no fue geográficamente homogéneo, con una disminución marcada en el este de la Provincia de Buenos Aires y la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

  5. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Meagan A.; Mather, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology class about schizophrenia. Students filled out a questionnaire containing twelve questions on a variety of issues connected to this disorder. The questions were tested in a pilot study using students in a fourth year Psychology course focused on…

  6. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Abstract. Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data ...

  7. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Imbalanced Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena E. Kegel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN. Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22 and those of controls (n = 26 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36. CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls ( P = 0.027. In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Bolding

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI than the normal adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with schizophrenia exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population.Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15% in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with schizophrenia reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis.

  10. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  11. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  12. When apparent schizophrenia is excluded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the beginning. Mr R was a 30-year-old male who was diagnosed with schizophrenia at the age of 19, after he presented with a typical combination of disorganised behaviour and persecutory delusions, against a background of daily comorbid polysubstance abuse. Owing to a pattern of frequent readmissions and poor ...

  13. Parkinsonian axial signs in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Barbui, Corrado; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated evidence of nigro-striatal denervation, disease progression and response to levodopa in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who developed parkinsonism. In the present study, we investigated whether axial parkinsonian signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia not necessarily related to chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs (AP) drugs. From a baseline cohort of 299 schizophrenic patients who did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for parkinsonism (presence of at least two of the following appendicular signs: bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity), we identified a group of patients who manifested two out of three axial parkinsonian signs (abnormality of trunk posture, hypomimia and short-step gait). Accordingly, we obtained two sub-groups of patients with schizophrenia, with (Schiz-Axial, N = 26), and without parkinsonian axial signs (Schiz-NO-Axial, N = 273). Clinical and demographical variables were compared between groups. The motor section of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) was employed to measure motor disability. Schiz-Axial patients were significantly older (p = 0.007) and had longer disease duration (p = 0.04) compared to Schiz-NO-Axial. The two groups did not differ for variables related to AP treatment. Total UPDRS motor score (p signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia associated to older age and longer disease duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  15. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  16. Pedestal Craters in Utopia Planitia and Malea Planum: Evidence for a Past Ice-Rich Substrate from Marginal Sublimation Pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadish, S. J.; Head, J. W.; Barlow, N. G.; Marchant, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    Planitia and 21 Pd in Malea Planum that have pits in their marginal scarps [17]. We interpret these as sublimation pits (Fig. 3), providing evidence for snow/ice deposits preserved below the protective cover of the Pd. Marginal Pits in Pedestal Craters: Pedestal craters with marginal pits are a newly identified crater morphology in which one or more pits exist along the marginal scarp of a Pd (Figs. 2,4,5). The ejecta deposit surface (top of the pedestal) is perched ~100 m above the surrounding terrain (Fig. 2), about twice as high as a typical Pd crater. At the Pd plateau edge, the marginal scarp slopes down to the surrounding terrain, except where it is interrupted by a pit. The pits have a typical depth of ~20 m, often contain isolated mesas (Fig. 2), and are elongated, generally spanning age [11,18]. Due to the large number and widespread distribution of Pd (Fig. 1) [8,9,16], we believe that this climate-related deposit persisted for a considerable part of the recent past, implying that obliquity was relatively higher than at present during a significant portion of the Amazonian period of the history of Mars. References: [1] Barlow, N. et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 26733. [2] McCauley, J. (1973) JGR, 78, 4123. [3] Arvidson, R. (1976) Icarus, 27, 503. [4] Osinski, G. (2006) MAPS, 41, 1571. [5] Schultz, P. and Mustard, J. (2004) JGR, 109, E01001. [6] Wrobel, K. et al. (2006) MAPS, 41, 1539. [7] Mouginis-Mark, P. (1979) JGR, 84, 8011. [8] Kadish, S. and Barlow, N. (2006) LPSC 37, #1254. [9] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) LPSC 39, #1766. [10] Jakosky, B. et al. (1995) JGR, 100, 1579. [11] Head, J. et al. (2003) Nature, 426, 797. [12] Barlow, N. (2005) RVAMIC, #3041. [13] Head, J. and Roth, R. (1976) LSI, 50-52. [14] Schultz, P. and Lutz, A. (1988) Icarus, 73, 91. [15] Levrard, B. et al. (2004) Nature, 431, 1072. [16] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) JGR, in progress. [17] Kadish, S. et al. (2008) GRL, in progress. [18] Mustard, J. et al. (2001) Nature, 412, 411. [19] Levy, J. and Head, J

  17. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huilan; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy.

  18. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler's monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler's monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain.

  19. Synapse pathology and translational applications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 0.7%. Despite its relatively low prevalence, the onset of schizophrenia usually occurs early in life, resulting in a severe lifelong disability for patients and increasing the economic and care burden on their families. This makes schizophrenia one of the most catastrophic mental illnesses. Although the etiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood, clinical, genetic, and pharmacological studies have indicated that its pathophysiology involves synaptic disturbances. Here, I review the evidence suggesting synaptic disturbance as the causal pathophysiology of schizophrenia and discuss the possible application of synaptic intervention as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. The Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia Disorders: Perspectives From the Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siever, Larry J; Davis, Kenneth L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This overview focuses on neurobiological abnormalities found in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, the prototype of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and chronic schizophrenia...

  1. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  2. Bleuler and the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler as...

  3. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, J; Addington, D

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...

  4. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    ..., which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression...

  5. Splitting in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    .... A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  6. Neurocognitive functioning and cannabis use in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit substance used among schizophrenia patients. The effects of cannabis are mediated through the endocannabinoid system, which is a major regulator of neurotransmission and may be disturbed in schizophrenia. Though cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia patients are still unclear. This paper reviews 19 studies that examine the cognitive effects of cannabis on schizophrenia by comparing cognitive functioning of cannabis-using and non-using schizophrenia patients across a vast range of domains (memory, attention and processing speed, executive functions, visuospatial, psychomotor and language). Of the studies included in the review, 11 reported better cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users, 5 found minimal or no difference between the groups and 3 found poorer cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users. The inconsistencies in the studies reviewed may stem from significant methodological variance between the studies regarding patient selection, adequate controls, cognitive measures used, measures of cannabis use, additional drugs used, and clinical aspects of schizophrenia. These methodological issues are discussed, as well as possible explanations for the results presented and suggestions for future research in this field.

  7. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapoport, J L; Giedd, J N; Gogtay, N

    2012-01-01

    ... greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis...

  8. Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Sponheim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d' to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

  9. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  10. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Schizophrenia and prospective memory impairments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2017-11-22

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area. We searched and reviewed relevant studies in this area between 2013 and August 2017. Findings of studies conducted so far indicate that PM is severely impaired in schizophrenia. The most frequent type of PM errors in individuals with schizophrenia is no response, or failure to carry out the intended action. PM impairments in schizophrenia have been found to be related to everyday functioning. For individuals with schizophrenia, a number of assessment techniques have been developed to assess PM. These include: self-report questionnaires, computerized tasks, psychometric test batteries, and virtual reality tasks. So far, a few studies have used the compensatory approach to improve PM performance in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk, and the results reported are promising. Based on findings of these studies, suggestions for the development of interventions for PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia are provided. PM dysfunction is an important impairment in individuals with schizophrenia, and more rehabilitation studies to improve PM performance in these individuals are needed.

  12. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  13. La fabrique des normes temporelles du travail Manufacturing time standards for work La fábrica de las normas temporales de trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Thoemmes

    2012-12-01

    certain conditions, might lead to a new time policy that is more in tune with workplace needs.En este artículo se aborda el origen de las normas temporales de trabajo. Por una parte, se postula que esas normas no sólo son el resultado de las orientaciones globales de una sociedad y de la formación de una conciencia de las temporalidades, sino también de la movilización del movimiento sindical y obrero, sin la cual la jornada laboral nunca se habría reducido. Por otra parte, el origen de las normas temporales guarda relación con las dinámicas locales, en particular las de las empresas, con las relaciones sociales y también con el tipo de producción que ha contribuido a definir las reglas efectivas relativas a los tiempos sociales. Primero recordaremos la aparición de un derecho al tiempo libre para los trabajadores, sujeto a las evoluciones societales. A continuación, describiremos los tiempos del sujeto en situación, indicando la persistencia de múltiples tensiones. Por último, adelantaremos la idea de que el paso del tiempo decretado al tiempo negociado abre un espacio de discusión que, en ciertas condiciones, podría dar lugar a una nueva política de los tiempos más vinculada con las necesidades del mundo del trabajo.

  14. Repercusiones sociales y económicas del Programa Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales México-Canadá, en la comunidad de Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrario Lobato Huerta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En México, el estado de Puebla ocupa el tercer lugar con mayor número de migrantes pertenecientes al «Programa Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales México-Canadá» (en adelante PTAT; siendo Guadalupe Zaragoza, Tlahuapan; la Comunidad poblana con más participación al Programa. El municipio de Tlahuapan está clasificado, según el Consejo Nacional de Población, con el estrato n.º 3 de pobreza, siendo los primeros tres estratos los que representan problemas graves de desigualdad social. Por esta situación, no sorprendió encontrar que el motor de la emigración en Guadalupe Zaragoza sea la falta de trabajos locales. Las familias de migrantes habitan en viviendas adecuadas, pero su situación de salud es vulnerable, como también lo está su niñez. Gastan más en educación, servicios de la vivienda y salud, siendo hasta cuatro veces mayor que en las familias promedio a nivel nacional y estatal; destinando un porcentaje de su remesa familiar para uso comunitario. Las mujeres parejas de migrantes continúan desenvolviéndose en relaciones patriarcales, realizan dobles jornadas y además, padecen síntomas subjetivos de estrés y fatiga. En relación al consumo cultural, se practica el de las clases populares. La identidad del migrante miembro del PTAT se transforma de manera mínima; sin embargo, migrar implica un alto costo afectivo familiar

  15. Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, R; Milnes, D

    2005-10-19

    Many people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication. In addition to medication, creative therapies, such as art therapy, may be helpful. Art therapy allows exploration of the patient's inner world in a non-threatening way through a therapeutic relationship and the use of art materials. It was mainly developed in adult psychiatric inpatient units and was designed for use with people for whom verbal psychotherapy would be impossible. To review the effects of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia compared with standard care and other psychosocial interventions. We updated the search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (February 2005), hand searched reference lists and 'Inscape' (the Journal of the British Association of Art Therapists), and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared art therapy with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from the studies. We excluded data where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow up. For continuous outcomes we calculated a weighted mean difference and its 95% confidence interval. For binary outcomes we calculated a fixed effects risk ratio (RR), its 95% confidence interval (CI) and a number needed to treat (NNT). The search identified 61 reports but only two studies (total n=137) met the inclusion criteria. Both compared art therapy plus standard care with standard care alone. More people completed the therapy if allocated to the art therapy group compared with standard care in the short (n=90, 1 RCT, RR 0.97 CI 0.41 to 2.29), medium (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.34 CI 0.15 to 0.80) and long term (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.96 CI 0.57 to 1.60). Data from one mental state measure (SANS) showed a small but significant difference favouring the art-therapy group (n=73, 1 RCT, WMD -2.3 CI -4.10 to -0.5). In

  16. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laruelle, M. [New York, Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Insitute. Brain Imaging Division

    1998-09-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D{sub 2} receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D{sub 2} receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D{sub 2} receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D{sub 2} receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D{sub 2} receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness.

  17. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  18. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  20. Absolute Pitch-Functional Evidence of Speech-Relevant Auditory Acuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) has been shown to be associated with morphological changes and neurophysiological adaptations in the planum temporale, a cortical area involved in higher-order auditory and speech perception processes...

  1. Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. J. Linden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD, and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT] and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

  2. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  3. Schizophrenia: A Review for Family Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Donna R.

    2000-01-01

    Marriage and family counselors can play important roles for both the person with schizophrenia and his or her family. This article provides a resource for family counselors that includes a clinically relevant summary of the schizophrenia literature, its associated family burden, and applicable interventions and issues. (Contains 64 references.)…

  4. Changing the course of schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Glazer WM, iohnsiorte BM, Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia] Clin Psychiatry W97; 58; Suppl 10, 50-54. 3. Robinson DG, Woerner MG, McMenimon M, Mendelowitz A, Bilder RM. Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  5. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  6. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia | Naude | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, underrecognised and clinically important in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients are associated with distinct morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a ...

  7. Lilliputian hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichloroethylene poisoning.1,3-7 Lilliputian hallucinations were first described in schizophrenia by Lewis8, but have been reported as a rare phenomenon. In this report we describe a patient with schizophrenia who presented predominantly with Lilliputian hallucinations and review the literature with respect to Lilliputian.

  8. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  9. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article selectively reviews the literature treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and emphasises the importance of an holistic approach to individual patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment resistance, antipsychotics, augmentation, psychosocial treatments. South African Psychiatry Review Vol. 9(1) 2006: 17-23 ...

  10. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  11. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... cognitive behaviour therapy were described as useful treat- ment modalities for schizophrenic patients who comorbidly suffer from panic and anxiety.10. Panic symptoms. Panic disorder is an often unrecognized, but common comorbid illness in schizophrenia.19 Arieti attributed the etiology of schizophrenia ...

  12. #Schizophrenia: Use and misuse on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adam J; Tandon, Neeraj; Yang, Lawrence H; Duckworth, Ken; Torous, John; Seidman, Larry J; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-07-01

    The role and prevention of stigma in mental illness is an area of evolving research. The present study is the first to examine the use and misuse of the word 'schizophrenia' on Twitter.com in comparison with another illness (diabetes) by analyzing Tweets that use the adjective and noun forms of schizophrenia and diabetes. Tweets containing one of four search terms (#schizophrenia, #schizophrenic, #diabetes, #diabetic) were collected over a forty-day time period. After establishing inter-rater reliability, Tweets were rated along three dimensions: medical appropriateness, negativity, and sarcasm. Chi square tests were conducted to examine differences in the distributions of each parameter across illnesses and across each word form (noun versus adjective). Significant differences were seen between the two illnesses (i.e., among "schizophrenia", "schizophrenic", "diabetes", and "diabetic") along each parameter. Tweets about schizophrenia were more likely to be negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically. The adjective ("schizophrenic") was more often negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically than the noun "schizophrenia." Schizophrenia tweets were more likely to be negative and sarcastic when used non-medically and in a medically inappropriate manner. Our findings confirm the presence of a great deal of misuse of the term schizophrenia on Twitter, and that this misuse is considerably more pronounced by the adjectival use of the illness. These findings have considerable implications for efforts to combat stigma, particularly for youth anti-stigma efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic and treatment hierarchical reductionisms have resulted in an oversight of anxiety syndromes in schizophrenia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of different anxiety disorders in schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on inpatients of a tertiary care psychiatric hospital using a prospective, purposive sampling technique. The study consisted of 93 schizophrenia patients and a similar number of normal controls. The schizophrenia patients and controls were evaluated for psychopathology and the presence of anxiety disorder. Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (45.16% compared to controls (16.12%. Further, the prevalence of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients. No significant correlation was observed between anxiety disorder scores and psychopathology scores. Conclusions: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and OCD in schizophrenia is significantly higher in the general population. The onset of anxiety disorder commonly precedes the onset of schizophrenia.

  14. Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Kirsch, Peter

    Patients with schizophrenia not only suffer from prototypical psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations and from cognitive deficits, but also from tremendous deficits in social functioning. However, little is known about the interplay between the cognitive and the social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Our chapter gives an overview on behavioral, as well as functional imaging studies on social cognition in schizophrenia. Main findings on cognitive and motivational deficits in schizophrenia are reviewed and introduced within the context of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. The reviewed findings suggest that disturbed "social brain" functioning in schizophrenia, depending on the specific context, can either lead to a neglect of the emotions and intentions of others or to the false attribution of these emotions and intentions in an emotionally neutral social content. We integrate these findings with the current knowledge about aberrant dopaminergic firing in schizophrenia by presenting a comprehensive model explaining core symptoms of the disorder. The main implication of the presented model is that neither cognitive-motivational, nor social-cognitive deficits alone cause schizophrenia symptoms, but that symptoms only emerge by the interplay of disturbed social brain functioning with aberrant dopaminergic firing.

  15. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  16. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Ozarowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryngium planum L. (EP is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o. on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, and beta-secretase (BACE-1 mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU, scopolamine (SC was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins in the extract of EP roots.

  17. Concordancia en la determinación de la longitud radicular en dientes temporales entre radiografía convencional y localizador electrónico de ápice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortich Mesa, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: establecer el grado de concordancia existente entre radiografía convencional y localizador electrónico de ápice in vivo para determinar la longitud de trabajo en dientes temporales. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de pruebas diagnósticas, concordancia consistencia, se seleccionaron pacientes pediátricos diagnosticados con caries dental con cavidad extensa, y que requerían tratamiento de pulpectomía, a quienes se les determinó la longitud de trabajo, utilizando inicia...

  18. APLICACIÓN DE UN PROTOCOLO AUTOMATIZADO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE LOS PARÁMETROS TEMPORALES DE LA RESPUESTA DE REACCIÓN EN JUGADORES DE TENIS DURANTE LA EJECUCIÓN DE SPLIT-STEP Y VOLEA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Menayo; J.P. Fuentes; V. Luis; Moreno, F J

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN

    El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar el proceso de diseño y la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de medida para el registro en tiempo real de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de una acción técnico-t&...

  19. Análisis de los estudios clínicos sobre la eficacia de las técnicas alternativas al formocresol en las pulpotomías de dientes temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Calatayud Sierra, Jesús; Casado, Inmaculada; Álvarez Quesada, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Después de analizar los estudios clínicos de las técnicas de pulpotomía en dientes temporales alternativas al formocresol: hidróxido de calcio, electrocoagulación, glutaraldehido, sulfato férrico y Mineral Trióxido Agregado (MTA), hemos llegado a la conclusión de que las tres últimas son las mejores alternativas por presentar los mejores resultados y tener menor número de fracasos a lo largo del tiempo. En general todas tienden a empeorar sus resultados a medida que pasa el tiempo, desde un é...

  20. Modelo de cupos de inversiones temporales para entidades del sector real a partir del análisis de riesgo de crédito y riesgo de mercado

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Uribe, Paula Andrea

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es diseñar un modelo para una empresa del sector real, que permita asignar cupos de inversiones temporales a instituciones financieras como bancos, compañías de financiamiento comercial, corporaciones financieras y bancos de segundo piso, a partir del análisis del riesgo de crédito y del riesgo de mercado, que permita generar alertas oportunas en cuanto a montos de inversión y máximas pérdidas probables, derivadas del mercado o del impago de diferentes entidades f...

  1. Series temporales de imágenes de satélite, para el análisis del cambio en la vegetación, en un contexto de explotación minera a cielo abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Manuel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Se evaluaron los cambios en una serie temporal de productos NDVI (Índice de Vegetación de Diferencia Normalizada), obtenidos de imágenes satelitales del programa LANDSAT, periodo 1991 – 2015. El área de estudio abarca parte del entorno de la mina Pierina en Perú. Los NDVI fueron clasificados con un árbol de decisión, de acuerdo a criterios estadísticos y de interpretación visual de imágenes de elevada resolución espacial. Se cuantificaron los cambios temporales de las clases y analizaron las ...

  2. Estudios de series temporales de energía solar UV-B de 305 nm y espesor de la capa de ozono estratosférico en Arica, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas,Miguel; Leiva,Carlos; Rojas,Elisa

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se muestran los resultados del análisis de las series temporales de la energía solar medida a nivel del suelo, en la banda de 305 nm, y el espesor de la capa de ozono estratosférico. El rasgo más importante es la independencia de los valores de energía a nivel del suelo respecto de la variabilidad de corto periodo de la capa de ozono, siendo probablemente efectos meteorológicos locales los que llevan el mayor peso de la varianza.

  3. The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMüller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigh levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22.1, in a region related to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and other immune functions. Another line of evidence demonstrates that chronic (disstress is associated with immune activation. The vulnerability-stress-inflammation model of schizophrenia includes the contribution of stress on the basis of increased genetic vulnerability for the pathogenesis

  4. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Ophoff, Roel A; Steinberg, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease...... conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have.......2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition....

  5. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... disorders, and eliminate the classic subtypes of schizophrenia. A dimensional assessment will be measured on a 0-4 point scale. It is recommended that the concept of attenuated psychosis syndrome is further investigated. The propositions affecting characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia might increase...... stigmatization and pharmacological treatment on poor indication. The introduction of dimensional assessments may make schizophrenia subtyping redundant and has the potential to enrich clinical practice and bridge communication between child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. The most recent guidelines...

  6. Stereotype Knowledge and Endorsement in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; D'Alpaos, Francesca; Carraro, Luciana; Pavan, Florencia; Galfano, Giovanni; Forti, Bruno

    2017-09-07

    Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2). Results showed that respondents in the clinical sample displayed less stereotype endorsement as compared to the matched healthy respondents. Most importantly, the contents of the responses provided by the 2 samples were strongly overlapped. Findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia tend to hold less negative attitudes toward stigmatized outgroups and, most notably, that knowledge about culturally transmitted stereotypes is relatively preserved in schizophrenia. Future research should address the generalizability of the findings in relation to the perception of other stigmatized social groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore...... whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...... liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other...

  8. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  9. Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, H.; Rujescu, D.; Cichon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...

  10. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  11. Osteoporosis Associated with Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common global mental diseases, with prevalence of 1%. Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis, than the normal. In comparison with the metabolic syndrome, for instance, there are little reports about osteoporosis which occurs secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. There are extensive recent works of literature indicating that osteoporosis is associated with schizophrenia particularly in patients under psychotropic medication therapy. As osteoporotic fractures cause significantly increased morbidity and mortality, it is quite necessary to raise the awareness and understanding of the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on physical health in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will review the relationship between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, hyperprolactinaemia, and osteoporosis.

  12. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, I...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  13. [Epigenetics of schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivollier, F; Lotersztajn, L; Chaumette, B; Krebs, M-O; Kebir, O

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent and disabling disease associated with heterogeneous psychiatric phenotypes. It emerges during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and has dramatic consequences for the affected individuals, causing considerable familial and social burden, as well as increasing health expenses. Although some progress has been made in the understanding of their physiopathology, many questions remain unsolved, and the disease is still poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis regarding psychotic disorders proposes that a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors, during critical periods of brain development increases the risk for these illnesses. Epigenetic regulations, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene x environment interactions at the level of the genome and may provide a potential substrate to explain the variability in symptom severity and family heritability. Initially, epigenetics was used to design mitotic and meiotic changes in gene transcription that could not be attributed to genetic mutations. It referred later to changes in the epigenome not transmitted through the germline. Thus, epigenetics refers to a wide range of molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and post-translational histone modifications. These mechanisms alter the way the transcriptional factors bind the DNA, modulating its expression. Prenatal and postnatal environmental factors may affect these epigenetics factors, having responsability in long-term DNA transcription, and influencing the development of psychiatric disorders. The object of this review is to present the state of knowledge in epigenetics of schizophrenia, outlining the most recent findings in the matter. We did so using Pubmed, researching words such as 'epigenetics', 'epigenetic', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'psychiatric'. This review summarizes evidences mostly for two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and post

  14. Métodos de series temporales en los estudios epidemiológicos sobre contaminación atmosférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saez Marc

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los métodos de series temporales en los estudios epidemiológicos sobre contaminación atmosférica, ilustrándolo mediante una regresión de Poisson autoregresiva, la cual ha sido utilizada en los proyectos APHEA y EMECAM. Se relacionan las variaciones en el número diario de muertos mayores de 70 años (todas las causas, CIE-9:001-799 en Barcelona, 1991-1995, con las variaciones en los niveles diarios promedio de contaminación por humos negros. Se utiliza una regresión de Poisson por cuanto la variable aleatoria dependiente sigue presumiblemente tal distribución de probabilidad. Como confusores se consideran variables meteorológicas (promedios diarios de temperatura y de humedad, comportamientos tendenciales, estacionales y efectos de calendario presentes en la mortalidad (todos ellos aproximados de forma determinista así como cualquier otra variable que tenga un comportamiento que pueda relacionarse con la variable dependiente (ocurrencia de epidemias de gripe por ejemplo. La relación entre la mortalidad y las variables confusoras se modeliza de forma no lineal y se tienen en cuenta además los previsibles periodos de latencia (utilizando retardos de variables explicativa por ejemplo. Sin embargo, y debido a que el control no es perfecto, se opta por estimar un modelo de Poisson autoregresivo (introduciendo como variables explicativas diversos retardos de la mortalidad corrigiendo la autocorrelación residual. La principal ventaja del método de análisis descrito es la de permitir un control de variables confusoras desde un punto determinista, con un software al alcance de todos los grupos que participan en el proyecto. Además, permite que el método se pueda aplicar de una formar protocolizada y estandarizada que facilite la comparación de resultados y permita la realización de un meta-análisis.

  15. Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: therapeutic prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J; Guy, G W; Di Marzo, V

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not achieve adequate symptom control with standard antipsychotic drugs (APs). Some of these may prove responsive to clozapine, but non-response to APs remains an important clinical problem and cause of increased health care costs. In a significant proportion of patients, schizophrenia is associated with natural and iatrogenic metabolic abnormalities (obesity, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus), hyperadrenalism and an exaggerated HPA response to stress, and chronic systemic inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the brain plays an important role in maintaining normal mental health. ECS modulates emotion, reward processing, sleep regulation, aversive memory extinction and HPA axis regulation. ECS overactivity contributes to visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance and impaired energy expenditure. The cannabis plant synthesises a large number of pharmacologically active compounds unique to it known as phytocannabinoids. In contrast to the euphoric and pro-psychotic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), certain non-intoxicating phytocannabinoids have emerged in pre-clinical and clinical models as potential APs. Since the likely mechanism of action does not rely upon dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, synergistic combinations with existing APs are plausible. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are well established and are summarised below. Preliminary data reviewed in this paper suggest that CBD in combination with a CB1 receptor neutral antagonist could not only augment the effects of standard APs but also target the metabolic, inflammatory and stress-related components of the schizophrenia phenotype.

  16. [Schizophrenia-like personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V

    2009-03-01

    According to DSM-IV the cluster A personality disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. There exists a phenomenological similarity between the experience and behaviour of the so-called odd or eccentric personality disorders and the symptoms of schizophrenia. Evidence of common etiological factors is still the best for the schizotypal personality disorder. The cluster A personality disorders are among the less common personality disorders with a high co-occurrence. Present findings about the neurobiological substrate of the schizotypal personality disorder are discussed also taking neuropsychological results into consideration. A central prerequisite of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of cluster A personality disorders is a strong therapeutic patient relationship.

  17. Genetics and etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Janet L; Mikesell, Marci J; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2002-10-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most common, devastating, and least understood neuropsychiatric illnesses present in the human population. Despite decades of research involving neurochemical, neuroanatomical, neuropathologic, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychological, and genetic approaches, no clear etiopathophysiology has been elucidated. Among the most robust findings, however, is the contribution of genetics to disease development. Statistical models suggest that susceptibility to the disorder is governed by the effects of multiple genes, coupled with environmental and stochastic factors. This review briefly summarizes recent etiopathologic findings and hypotheses, with special attention to genetics.

  18. Evaluation of Dream Content among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Leeba Rezaie; Masoud Rezaei; Schwebel, David C.; Golrokh Younesi; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Mehrak Mohamadi; Arezo Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content...

  19. Dysregulations of Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbujo, Chijioke N; Sinclair, Duncan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism. This set of molecular events is an evolutionarily well-conserved process that involves vesicle recruitment, docking, membrane fusion, and recycling, leading to efficient neurotransmitter delivery at the synapse. Accumulated evidence indicate dysregulation of this mechanism impacting postsynaptic signal transduction via different neurotransmitters in key brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. In recent years, after ground-breaking work that elucidated the operations of this mechanism, research efforts have focused on the alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of presynaptic neurotransmitter release molecules in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In this review article, we present recent evidence from schizophrenia human postmortem studies that key proteins involved in the presynaptic release mechanism are dysregulated in the disorder. We also discuss the potential impact of dysfunctional presynaptic neurotransmitter release on the various neurotransmitter systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  20. Sibling caregivers of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.

  1. Vergence eye movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolding, Mark S; Lahti, Adrienne C; White, David; Moore, Claire; Gurler, Demet; Gawne, Timothy J; Gamlin, Paul D

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that smooth pursuit eye movements are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. However, under normal viewing conditions, targets move not only in the frontoparallel plane but also in depth, and tracking them requires both smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Although previous studies in humans and non-human primates suggest that these two eye movement subsystems are relatively independent of one another, to our knowledge, there have been no prior studies of vergence tracking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we have investigated these eye movements in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited substantially lower gains compared to healthy controls during vergence tracking at all tested speeds (e.g. 0.25 Hz vergence tracking mean gain of 0.59 vs. 0.86). Further, consistent with previous reports, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower gains than healthy controls during smooth pursuit at higher target speeds (e.g. 0.5 Hz smooth pursuit mean gain of 0.64 vs. 0.73). In addition, there was a modest (r≈0.5), but significant, correlation between smooth pursuit and vergence tracking performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our observations clearly demonstrate substantial vergence tracking deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In these patients, deficits for smooth pursuit and vergence tracking are partially correlated suggesting overlap in the central control of smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  3. Alignment and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Suzanne L K; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard J

    2008-09-01

    We predicted that participants with schizophrenia would be able to successfully "align" during conversation in the context of impaired theory of mind. Alignment is a process by which interlocutors' representations of the conversational situation converge; and it may, in part, explain how people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in dialogue despite experiencing impaired mentalising. Fifty-nine people with schizophrenia and 38 healthy adults completed a standardised, empirical conversational alignment task with a mentalising component and a measure of current IQ. The patients also completed two independent theory of mind tests. We used ANCOVAs to compare the groups' performances. The participants with schizophrenia and the healthy participants demonstrated equivalent alignment skills even though the schizophrenia participants displayed clear theory of mind difficulties. Symptom subtype analyses found no differences between subtype groups in alignment, but healthy controls and remitted patients performed significantly better on the mentalising component than the paranoia group. These results are consistent with the schizophrenia participants having intact alignment skills alongside mentalising impairments. We propose that this explains why people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in conversation but have difficulties with more complex dialogues, with resolving misunderstandings, and with untangling ambiguities during conversation.

  4. Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that personality traits differ in schizophrenia patients and family members compared to controls, suggesting familial risk. This study evaluated personality traits in a family study of schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between personality traits and symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 28 adult non-psychotic relatives, and 27 community controls completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Schizophrenia patients differed on many dimensions of the DAPP-BQ compared to controls and/or relatives: affective lability, anxiousness, callousness, conduct problems, cognitive dysregulation, identity problem, intimacy, insecure attachment, low affiliation, narcissism, oppositionality, restricted expression, self-harm, submissiveness, and suspiciousness. No differences were found between relatives and controls. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, associations were found between personality and particularly general symptoms, as well as social functioning. Personality traits can be conceptualized as an extended phenotype in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. “Toda la creencia está allá”. Linderos interculturales, espacios y derechos en migrantes agrícolas temporales de la península de Yucatán en Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Leona Rosales Mendoza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan resultados de una investigación efectuada con trabajadores agrícolas temporales en Quebec, Canadá, y en las cabeceras municipales de Maní, Mama y Dzidzantún, Yucatán, así como El Ramonal, Quintana Roo. En él se da cuenta de algunas experiencias de migrantes de la península de Yucatán que participaron en el Programa de Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales en Quebec, Canadá (PTAT durante 2012. Se realiza una descripción de la interacción entre algunos aspectos de las culturas de origen y de destino, poniendo énfasis en las estrategias que desarrollan los migrantes en el proceso de migración, trascendiendo el modelo dicotómico –de los estudios sobre la migración– enfocado en la sociedad receptora y las afectaciones subsecuentes en la sociedad autóctona. Este estudio exploratorio incluye técnicas de recolección cuantitativas, y cualitativas como observación etnográfica y entrevistas semiestructuradas, realizadas en México y Canadá.

  6. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  7. Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades, and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30°/sec (p=0.007. The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively. The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001 for both 15°/sec and 30°/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.

  8. Anquilosis alveolodentaria de dientes temporales

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Blanco, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    La anquilosis dental de dientes deciduos es una patología de gran importancia, ya que los estudios publicados muestran una alta prevalencia y múltiples complicaciones. El diagnóstico temprano es muy importante en esta patología ya que gran parte de las complicaciones clínicas que puede dar podrían ser evitadas con un diagnóstico temprano. La anquilosis se presenta por una alteración del ligamento periodontal que conlleva una fusión del diente al hueso alveolar. Suele presentar diferentes clín...

  9. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    It was first suggested that disordered proprioception was a core feature of schizophrenia by Sandor Rado in 1953. Using a recently designed proprioceptive event-related potential paradigm based on a change of load, we studied 12 unmedicated male out-patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls....... In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  10. Methamphetamine enhances the development of schizophrenia in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huabing; Lu, Qiong; Xiao, Enhua; Li, Qiuyun; He, Zhong; Mei, Xilong

    2014-02-01

    Although there is some evidence that methamphetamine (MA) abuse may play a causative role in the development of schizophrenia, studies directly linking these 2 are rare. In our study, the effect of MA abuse on the development of schizophrenia was investigated in 15 MA abusers who are offspring of patients with schizophrenia and 15 siblings of MA abusers without a history of drug abuse. Cognitive deficits and resting-state brain function were evaluated in all participants. Correlations between cognitive deficits and schizophrenia development were investigated. Significantly more cognitive impairments were observed in MA abusers, compared with their siblings without a history of drug use. Significant abnormalities in regional homogeneity (ReHo) signals were observed in resting brain in MA abusers. Decreased ReHo was found to be distributed over the bilateral cingulate gyrus, right Brodmann area 24, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. Seven MA abusers were diagnosed with schizophrenia, while 1 control sibling was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the 5-year follow-up. The cognitive scores correlated with the development of schizophrenia in MA abusers. Our study provides direct evidence for the causative role of MA use in the etiology of schizophrenia and highlights the role of MA-induced brain abnormalities in cognitive deficiency and development of schizophrenia.

  11. Synthetic (Hydrothermal) Hematite-Rich Mars-Analog Spherules from Acid-Sulfate Brines: Implications for Formation and Diagenesis of Hematite Spherules in Outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter discovered a large area at Meridiani Planum (MP) covered with the Fe-oxide hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) [1,2]. This discovery and favorable landing site characteristics led to selection of MP as the landing site for the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover (MER) [3]. The Athena science payload onboard the Opportunity rover identified hematite-rich spherules (mean spherule diameter approx.4.2+/-0.8 mm) embedded in S-rich outcrop rock and also as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Although the chemical and mineralogical compositions of spherules are not fully constrained, Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and chemical analyses from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) are consistent with a hematite mineralogical composition and an oxide bulk chemical composition consisting of Fe2O3. MGS-TES, also provides an important constraint that emission from the hematite-rich spherules is dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [1,2,10,11]. The formation of hematite-rich spherules with similar chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and crystallographic properties to the MP spherules is rare on Earth, to date, only two natural analogs have been proposed; one from Utah (Navaho Concretions) and the other from Mauna Kea, Hawaii [12,13]. In this study, we synthesized in the laboratory hematite-rich spherules using conditions that may have existed on Early Mars [14] and compared their properties to those for MP hematite spherules of Mars and the analog spherules from Utah and Mauna Kea in order to assess their relative merit as MP hematite spherule analogs. Such comparisons yield clues to the formation pathway for MP spherules.

  12. Quantitative Motor Activity Differentiates Schizophrenia Subtypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walther, Sebastian; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Koschorke, Philipp; Müller, Thomas J; Strik, Werner

    2009-01-01

    ...: In total, 60 patients with schizophrenia (35 paranoid, 12 catatonic, 13 disorganized) were investigated using continuous wrist actigraphy over 24 h in an inpatient setting on average 38 days after admission...

  13. Schizophrenia and psychoneuroimmunology: an integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-05-01

    Since decades immunological aberrancies have been reported in schizophrenia patients. As schizophrenia represents a heterogenous disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations, complex interactions between the immune system in the brain might have important etiological implications. Recent findings of altered expression of immune-related genes, changes of peripheral and central cytokines, antibodies and immune cells point toward dysbalanced immune response processes in schizophrenia. Based on immunogenetic factors, immune dysfunctions caused by infections, increased autoimmune reactivity and low-grade inflammatory processes in the periphery as well as in central nervous system may affect neurobiological circuits including changed neurotransmitter metabolisms contributing to pathophysiological alterations in schizophrenia. These immunological abnormalities might provide tools for better diagnostic characterization of this heterogenous disease and on the other side, they may also support the development of immune-related therapeutic strategies.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOBACCO DEPENDENCE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhidewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  15. A Role for Noncoding Variation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Roussos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of common variant loci associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia reside within noncoding sequence of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate promoter and enhancer enrichment in schizophrenia variants associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL. The enrichment is greater when functional annotations derived from the human brain are used relative to peripheral tissues. Regulatory trait concordance analysis ranked genes within schizophrenia genome-wide significant loci for a potential functional role, based on colocalization of a risk SNP, eQTL, and regulatory element sequence. We identified potential physical interactions of noncontiguous proximal and distal regulatory elements. This was verified in prefrontal cortex and -induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons for the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C risk locus. Our findings point to a functional link between schizophrenia-associated noncoding SNPs and 3D genome architecture associated with chromosomal loopings and transcriptional regulation in the brain.

  16. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  17. [Does cannabis use lead to schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, K

    2011-11-02

    There is a high comorbidity between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Several factors contribute to this comorbidity: secondary development of addiction, cannabis-related induction of psychosis and shared neurobiological alterations. Meanwhile, there is evidence that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that a frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for schizophrenia. Interestingly, schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis use often show significantly better performances in neuropsychological tests than patients without cannabis use. This is nevertheless not due to a positive effect of cannabis, but a sign of cannabis-related psychosis induction in subjects with a higher level of function and less cognitive impairment. Whether cannabis use leads to schizophrenia is determined by the individual vulnerability.

  18. Telepsychiatry and carer education for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haley, C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scientific evidence, most families of people with schizophrenia in Europe never receive a carer education programme. We evaluated whether a carer education course delivered by telepsychiatry was as effective as a carer education course delivered in situ.

  19. Functional disorganization of representations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Pachoud, B; Claudel, B; Granger, B

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this article describes a model of disorganization of representations in schizophrenia. We assume that subjects with schizophrenia have some interfering activity in memory. Such an interfering activity induces a functional decontextualization of information and the reciprocal is true. This model accounts for different classes of cognitive troubles that have been observed in schizophrenia. In the second part, we describe a text-comprehension experiment that studies two paradigmatic cases of episodic and semantic contextualization of information: the "compartmentalization" and the "thematization" of fictional narratives. Compartmentalization refers to the way in which representations of different narratives are separated in memory; thematization refers to the way in which representations of one narrative are structured in function of a theme. In our experiment, compartmentalization and thematization are assessed by a method of priming in word recognition. In agreement with our model, the results show that subjects with schizophrenia are impaired in compartmentalization and thematization when compared with anxious-depressed subjects.

  20. The nature of relapse in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emsley, Robin; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Asmal, Laila; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple relapses characterise the course of illness in most patients with schizophrenia, yet the nature of these episodes has not been extensively researched and clinicians may not always be aware...

  1. The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC-SOHO) study: baseline clinical and functional characteristics and antipsychotic use patterns in the North Africa and Middle Eastern (AMEA) region: original article.

  2. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  3. Brain connectomics imaging in schizophrenia study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder of which the biological underpinning is still unclear. Increasing evidence in neuroscience has indicated that schizophrenia arises from abnormal connections within or between networks, hence called dysconnectvity syndrome. Recently, we established an automatic method to analyze integrity of the white matter tracts over the whole brain based on diffusion MRI data, named tract-based automatic analysis (TBAA), and used this method to study white matter connection in patients with schizophrenia. We found that alteration of tract integrity is hereditary and inherent; it is found in siblings and in patients in the early phase of disease. Moreover, patients with good treatment outcome and those with poor outcome show distinctly different patterns of alterations, suggesting that these two groups of patients might be distinguishable based on the difference in tract alteration. In summary, the altered tracts revealed by TBAA might become potential biomarkers or trait markers for schizophrenia.

  4. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  6. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal...... ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  7. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  8. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between...... psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts...... of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted...

  9. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  10. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...

  11. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    44 years worldwide. ... of emotion among people with schizophrenia. They found that ethnicity also influences perception of the ... felt inside the female sexual organ, abdomen or throat. Mamlambo. (a hallucination of a beautiful seductive ...

  12. Amygdalofrontal Functional Disconnectivity and Aggression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J.; Shehzad, Zarrar E.; Kelly, A.M. Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Javitt, Daniel C.; Michael P. Milham

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity i...

  13. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Šagud, Marina; Radoš, Iva

    2016-03-01

    Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. There is accumulating evidence that alterations in DHEA(S) levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The possible effects of DHEA(S) as augmentation therapy in schizophrenia, related to psychological and somatic aspects of this disease, are discussed.

  14. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  15. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  16. Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual...... of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap...

  17. Selective Loss of Smaller Spines in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Matthew L; Alhassan, Jamil; Newman, Jason T; Richard, Michelle; Gu, Hong; Kelly, Ryan M; Sampson, Alan R; Fish, Kenneth N; Penzes, Peter; Wills, Zachary P; Lewis, David A; Sweet, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss. Primary auditory cortex deep layer 3 spine density and volume was assessed in 20 pairs of schizophrenia and matched comparison subjects in an initial and replication cohort (12 and eight pairs) by immunohistochemistry-confocal microscopy. Targeted mass spectrometry was used to quantify postsynaptic density and voltage-gated calcium channel protein expression. The effect of increased voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression on spine density and volume was assessed in primary rat neuronal culture. Only the smallest spines are lost in deep layer 3 of the primary auditory cortex in subjects with schizophrenia, while larger spines are retained. Levels of the tryptic peptide ALFDFLK, found in the schizophrenia risk gene CACNB4, are inversely correlated with the density of smaller, but not larger, spines in schizophrenia subjects. Consistent with this observation, CACNB4 overexpression resulted in a lower density of smaller spines in primary neuronal cultures. These findings require a rethinking of the overpruning hypothesis, demonstrate a link between small spine loss and a schizophrenia risk gene, and should spur more in-depth investigations of the mechanisms that govern new or small spine generation and stabilization under normal conditions as well as how this process is impaired in schizophrenia.

  18. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  19. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  20. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, David L.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Roberts, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide an overview of social cognition in schizophrenia. The column begins with a short introduction to social cognition. Then, we describe the application of social cognition to the study of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on key domains (i.e., emotion perception, Theory of Mind, and attributional style). We conclude the column by discussing the relationship of social cognition to neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functioning, with an eye toward strateg...

  1. Schizophrenia: two-faced meaning of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Naudin, Jean

    2002-12-08

    The authors stress the current two-faced meaning of vulnerability that conveys both an objective and a subjective direction of sense, leading to a naturalistic model as well as a humanistic one. These models are heirs of both the Kraepelinian and Bleulerian conceptions of schizophrenia. Coping strategies and resilience are core concepts of the humanistic model. Research on these protective factors may be of major importance in the current debate on prevention in schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  3. Variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los ríos tributarios y emisario del embalse C. Gelsi (Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N Martinez de Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las variaciones temporales del fitoplancton de los tributarios (ríos Salí, Tapia y Vipos y del emisario (río Salí del embalse C. Gelsi. La abundancia algal mínima se obtuvo en verano con una biomasa de 0,19-0,58 µg Cl-a L-1 y la máxima en invierno o primavera con una biomasa de 5,43-6,79 µg Cl-a L-1. En los tributarios se destacaron las diatomeas pennadas sobresaliendo Diatoma vulgare y Cymbella affinis y en el río Salí (emisario dominaron las céntricas especialmente Aulacoseira granulata y Cyclotella meneghiniana. Las Chlorophyta se ubicaron en segundo término en el río Salí, las Cyanobacteria codominaron en los ríos Vipos y Tapia en marzo de 1998 y las Dinophyta sólo fueron observadas en el Salí (emisario. El índice de diversidad específica osciló entre 0,2 y 4,2 y el sapróbico caracterizó las aguas como "no poluídas" o "ligeramente poluídas" en invierno y como "moderadamente poluídas" en verano. El NMDS ordenó temporalmente las muestras según la abundancia de las especies algales consideradas. Los dos primeros ejes del RDA separaron los sitios según gradientes de temperatura, pH, conductividad, DBO5 y nitrato, además de la abundancia de Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Ulnaria ulna, Cymbella affinis y Leptolyngbya foveolarum.Temporal variations of the phytoplankton of the tributaries and effluent from the C. Gelsi reservoir (Tucumán, Argentina. In this paper we analyzed the phytoplankton variation in the tributaries (Salí, Tapia, and Vipos rivers and effluent (Salí River from the C. Gelsi reservoir according to a seasonal gradient. The minimum algal abundance took place in summer with a biomass of 0.19-0.58 µg Cl-a L-1, while the maximum occurred in winter or in spring, with a biomass of 5.43-6.79 µg Cl-a L-1. In the tributaries pennate diatoms prevailed, Diatoma vulgare and Cymbella affinis were most abundant, while in the Salí river (Gelsi effluent centric

  4. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritani Makiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Methods Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p Results No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57 was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39. Conclusion The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  5. The social brain hypothesis of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURNS, JONATHAN

    2006-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Wittgenstein allow us to arrive at a new "philosophy of interpersonal relatedness", which better reflects the "embodied mind" and signifies the end of Cartesian dualistic thinking. In this paper I review the evolution, development and neurobiology of the social brain - the anatomical and functional substrate for adaptive social behaviour and cognition. Functional imaging identifies fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain, while the discovery of "mirror neurons" provides an understanding of social cognition at a cellular level. Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and affective responsiveness. Furthermore, recent research indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder of functional and structural connectivity of social brain networks. These findings lend support to the claim that schizophrenia represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Individuals with this disorder find themselves seriously disadvantaged in the social arena and vulnerable to the stresses of their complex social environments. This state of "disembodiment" and interpersonal alienation is the core phenomenon of schizophrenia and the root cause of intolerable suffering in the lives of those affected. PMID:16946939

  6. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  8. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  9. The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Sean P; Gurvich, Caroline T; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence has implicated the central muscarinic system as contributing to a number of symptoms of schizophrenia and serving as a potential target for pharmaceutical interventions. A theoretical review is presented that focuses on the central muscarinic system's contribution to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim is to bridge the void between pertinent neuropsychological and neurobiological research to provide an explanatory account of the role that the central muscarinic system plays in the symptoms of schizophrenia. First, there will be a brief overview of the relevant neuropsychological schizophrenia literature, followed by a concise introduction to the central muscarinic system. Subsequently, we will draw from animal, neuropsychological and pharmacological literature, and discuss the findings in relation to cognition, schizophrenia and the muscarinic system. Whilst unifying the multiple domains of research into a concise review will act as a useful line of enquiry into the central muscarinic systems contribution to the symptoms of schizophrenia, it will be made apparent that more research is needed in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  11. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  12. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409

  13. Risperidone versus placebo for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattehalli, Ranganath D; Zhao, Sai; Li, Bao Guo; Jayaram, Mahesh B; Xia, Jun; Sampson, Stephanie

    2016-12-15

    Risperidone is the first new-generation antipsychotic drug made available in the market in its generic form. To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of risperidone compared with placebo for treating schizophrenia. On 19th October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We checked the references of all included studies and contacted industry and authors of included studies for relevant studies and data. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing oral risperidone with placebo treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently screened studies, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and the 95% CI. We created a 'Summary of findings table' using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The review includes 15 studies (N = 2428). Risk of selection bias is unclear in most of the studies, especially concerning allocation concealment. Other areas of risk such as missing data and selective reporting also caused some concern, although not affected on the direction of effect of our primary outcome, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis. Many of the included trials have industry sponsorship of involvement. Nonetheless, generally people in the risperidone group are more likely to achieve a significant clinical improvement in mental state (6 RCTs, N = 864, RR 0.64, CI 0.52 to 0.78, very low-quality evidence). The effect withstood, even when three studies with >50% attrition rate were removed from the analysis (3 RCTs, N = 589, RR 0.77, CI 0.67 to 0.88). Participants receiving placebo were less

  14. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  15. Apoptotic engulfment pathway and schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Xiangning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.

  16. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish lon...... first admitted for epilepsy at later ages. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between epilepsy and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. The two conditions may share common genetic or environmental causes.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... longitudinal registers. SUBJECTS: The cohort comprised 2.27 million people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epilepsy, psychosis, personal birth data. RESULTS: We found an increased risk of schizophrenia (relative risk 2.48, 95% confidence interval 2.20 to 2.80) and schizophrenia-like psychosis (2.93, 2.69 to 3...

  17. The incidence of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark in the period 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhl, Johanne Olivia Gronne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic co...

  18. Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p schizophrenia-associated variant (rs75059851) may modulate negative symptoms. Multi-locus models may provide interesting insights about the biological mechanisms that mediate psychopathological dimensions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the person hearing them. Delusions. These are false beliefs that don’t change even when the ... NAMI Ending the Silence, NAMI FaithNet, NAMI Family & Friends, NAMI Family Support Group, NAMI Family-to-Family, ...

  20. Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, L.; Sno, H. N.; Goedhart, S.; van der Stel, J.; Heering, H. D.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the potential relationship between multisensory disintegration and self-disorders in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sensory processing impairments affecting multisensory integration have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. From a developmental perspective

  1. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  2. 'Recovery-Oriented' Talk Therapy May Help Curb Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 'Recovery-Oriented' Talk Therapy May Help Curb Schizophrenia Even very ill patients progressed over time, researchers ... of talk therapy may provide lasting benefits for schizophrenia patients, a new study suggests. This approach is ...

  3. Use of the word schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Nuno; Falcão de Almeida, Telma; Araújo, Filipa; Molodynski, Andrew; Venâncio, Ângela; Bouça, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Stigmatizing references to schizophrenia have a negative impact on self-esteem, deter treatment seeking and diminish the effectiveness of treatment. To analyze the reporting of schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers. We analyzed five high circulation Portuguese newspapers between 2007 and 2013. We selected all news containing the word "esquizofrenia" (schizophrenia). Several variables were collected. About 1058 news items contained the word schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was mentioned metaphorically in 40% of the cases and in the context of Crime in 22%. When used in a Criminal context, schizophrenia was mostly attributed to people who were the perpetrators of the crime (93%). When used metaphorically, schizophrenia had a negative connotation in 90% of cases. We found an increasing reporting of schizophrenia in the criminal news and serious crimes. Our results suggest the media has an active role promoting stigma, as well as passively broadcasting and thus passing on prejudices.

  4. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekar, Aswin; Bialas, Allison R.; de Rivera, Heather; Davis, Avery; Hammond, Timothy R.; Kamitaki, Nolan; Tooley, Katherine; Presumey, Jessy; Baum, Matthew; van Doren, Vanessa; Genovese, Giulio; Rose, Samuel A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Daly, Mark J.; Carroll, Michael C.; Stevens, Beth; McCarroll, Steven A.; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging

  5. Cognitive control and discourse comprehension in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context."There is no "centre of Speech" in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind.The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language"William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890"The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor"Kraepelin, 1919.

  6. Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eAnticevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to ‘maintain’ affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical ‘cold’ cognitive operation may result in ‘affective’ deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia – namely an intact ability to perceive emotion ‘in the moment’ but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We discuss the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex

  7. Altered functional and anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camchong, Jazmin; MacDonald, Angus W; Bell, Christopher; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a lack of integration between thought, emotion, and behavior. A disruption in the connectivity between brain processes may underlie this schism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used to evaluate functional and anatomical brain connectivity in schizophrenia. In all, 29 chronic schizophrenia patients (11 females, age: mean=41.3, SD=9.28) and 29 controls (11 females, age: mean=41.1, SD=10.6) were recruited. Schizophrenia patients were assessed for severity of negative and positive symptoms and general cognitive abilities of attention/concentration and memory. Participants underwent a resting-fMRI scan and a DTI scan. For fMRI data, a hybrid independent components analysis was used to extract the group default mode network (DMN) and accompanying time-courses. Voxel-wise whole-brain multiple regressions with corresponding DMN time-courses was conducted for each subject. A t-test was conducted on resulting DMN correlation maps to look between-group differences. For DTI data, voxel-wise statistical analysis of the fractional anisotropy data was carried out to look for between-group differences. Voxel-wise correlations were conducted to investigate the relationship between brain connectivity and behavioral measures. Results revealed altered functional and anatomical connectivity in medial frontal and anterior cingulate gyri of schizophrenia patients. In addition, frontal connectivity in schizophrenia patients was positively associated with symptoms as well as with general cognitive ability measures. The present study shows convergent fMRI and DTI findings that are consistent with the disconnection hypothesis in schizophrenia, particularly in medial frontal regions, while adding some insight of the relationship between brain disconnectivity and behavior. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome study of differential expression in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alan R.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Duan, Jubao; Drigalenko, Eugene I.; Moy, Winton; Freda, Jessica; He, Deli; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common SNPs, rare copy number variants (CNVs) and a large polygenic contribution to illness risk, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Bioinformatic analyses of significantly associated genetic variants point to a large role for regulatory variants. To identify gene expression abnormalities in schizophrenia, we generated whole-genome gene expression profiles using microarrays on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 413 cases and 446 controls. Regression analysis identified 95 transcripts differentially expressed by affection status at a genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05, while simultaneously controlling for confounding effects. These transcripts represented 89 genes with functions such as neurotransmission, gene regulation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) processing and immunity. This functional diversity is consistent with schizophrenia's likely significant pathophysiological heterogeneity. The overall enrichment of immune-related genes among those differentially expressed by affection status is consistent with hypothesized immune contributions to schizophrenia risk. The observed differential expression of extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) region histones (HIST1H2BD, HIST1H2BC, HIST1H2BH, HIST1H2BG and HIST1H4K) converges with the genetic evidence from GWAS, which find the xMHC to be the most significant susceptibility locus. Among the differentially expressed immune-related genes, B3GNT2 is implicated in autoimmune disorders previously tied to schizophrenia risk (rheumatoid arthritis and Graves’ disease), and DICER1 is pivotal in miRNA processing potentially linking to miRNA alterations in schizophrenia (e.g. MIR137, the second strongest GWAS finding). Our analysis provides novel candidate genes for further study to assess their potential contribution to schizophrenia. PMID:23904455

  9. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  10. SCHIZOPHRENIA IN A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE clinical and neurocognitive aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the long-term course and to study factors of potential relevance for the treatment and rehabilitation process of patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders. Specific issues concerned cognitive reduction, tardive dyskinesia (TD), prolactin-induced side effects, remission and lack of insight. Method: A naturalistic multicenter study of 225 patients, diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders and treated with risperido...

  11. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia.......Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  12. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the ......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...

  13. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy......, predict violence, regardless of other symptomatology associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, emergent data suggest that specific mentalizing profiles can be associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia, an issue that warrants further consideration in future research....

  14. Pulpotomías de molares temporales en pulpas muertas con tintura de propóleos al 10% Pulpotomies of dead pulps in temporal molars using 10% propolis tinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkyria del Carmen González Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico fase II aleatorizado comparado en 50 niños de 4 a 10 años que presentaron molares temporales con muerte pulpar, los cuales acudieron a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial de Santiago de Cuba entre septiembre del 2005 y septiembre del 2006, con el objetivo de demostrar la eficacia de la tintura de propóleos al 10 % en pulpotomías (necropulpotomías. Se conformaron 2 grupos de tratamientos de 26 pacientes cada uno: en el grupo A se empleó tintura de propóleos al 10 % y en el B el formocresol. Los pacientes se evaluaron a los 7, 15 y 30 días, sin observarse diferencias ni reacciones adversas. El grupo dentario más tratado fue el constituido por los segundos molares temporales inferiores, donde la tintura de propóleos al 10 % en las pulpotomías, resultó ser tan eficaz como el formocresol, por lo que se recomienda incluir en tratamientos endodónticos esta nueva terapéutica.A comparative phase II randomized clinical assay of 50 children aged 4 to 10 years, who presented with temporal molars with dead pulp and were seen at the Provincial Dental Clinic of Santiago de Cuba from September 2005 to September 2006, was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of 10% propolis tinction in pulpotomies (necropulpotomies. Two groups of 26 patients were formed; group A used 10% propolis tinction and group B was treated with formocresol. The patients were evaluated at 7th , 15th and 30th days; neither difference nor adverse reaction was observed. The most treated dental group was the second lower temporal molars where 10% propolis tinction in pulpotomies proved to be as effective as formocresol, so it was recommended to include this new therapy in the endodontic treatment.

  15. Bridging the science-to-service gap in schizophrenia care in the Netherlands : the Schizophrenia Quality Improvement Collaborative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duin, Danielle; Franx, Gerdien; Van Wijngaarden, Bob; Van der Gaag, Mark; Van Weeghel, Jaap; Slooff, Cees; Wensing, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Many patients with schizophrenia are not treated in line with evidence-based guidelines. This study examines the large-scale implementation of the National Multidisciplinary Guideline for schizophrenia in the Netherlands. Design. Observational, prospective study, with repeated

  16. Bridging the science-to-service gap in schizophrenia care in the Netherlands: the Schizophrenia Quality Improvement Collaborative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, D. van; Franx, G.; Wijngaarden, B. van; Gaag, M. van der; Weeghel, J. Van; Slooff, C.; Wensing, M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: /st> Many patients with schizophrenia are not treated in line with evidence-based guidelines. This study examines the large-scale implementation of the National Multidisciplinary Guideline for schizophrenia in the Netherlands. DESIGN: /st> Observational, prospective study, with

  17. Impaired perception of negative emotional prosody in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; van den Bosch, R.J; Brouwer, W.H.

    This paper aims to report on the perception of emotional prosody, in schizophrenia and to discuss its relationship with perfomance on neurocognitive measures. It consists of a comparison of 20 clinically stable schizophrenia patients with 20 healthy, controls. Schizophrenia patients were impaired in

  18. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa | Mosotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical presentation of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers. Method: A sample of 100 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia was evaluated using the Psychiatric Interview Questionnaire. Results: Core symptoms of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers do not ...

  19. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  20. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use ge...

  1. Neuregulin-1 genotypes and eye movements in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P eye movement variables...

  2. Raloxifene trial in postmenopausal woman with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharoor, Hema; Goyal, Aparna

    2015-10-01

    Raloxifene augmentation in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia has shown promising results. Younger patients diagnosed as treatment-resistant schizophrenia and treated with raloxifene (120 mg/day) have reported significant improvement in symptoms. This case highlights how raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can play a major role in alleviating positive and negative symptoms in postmenopausal women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

  3. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  4. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Do People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Burton, Cassandra; Galletly, Cherrie

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program. PMID:23304499

  6. Do People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.

  7. [Schizophrenia and Liver Transplantation: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood stressors and symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2013-10-01

    There are many psychiatric disorders for which severe adverse events in childhood have been shown to be significant risk factors. This is particularly true for schizophrenia. The authors designed this study to determine whether specific childhood stressors might contribute to the specific symptoms of schizophrenia and not merely to increased risk for the psychosis. The authors divided childhood stressors into two domains: 1-"Childhood Neglect" in which the stressor is passively experienced as in the case of absent parenting and 2-"Childhood Abuse" in which the trauma is actively inflicted as in the case of physical maltreatment. Data for the study consist of the cumulative anonymous records of 134 schizophrenia patients carefully separated by positive or negative symptomatology. MANOVA testing yielded a statistically significant finding; childhood neglect is correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia and childhood abuse is associated with positive symptoms of the psychosis. The authors speculate that type of childhood stressor may incubate the specific symptoms of adult schizophrenia. They also call for more research on this topic since this is the first study of its kind.

  10. Environmental Adaptations Improve Everyday Action in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rachel K; Rhodes, Emma; Giovannetti, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive functioning, particularly executive functioning, is a strong predictor of functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation has been shown to improve specific cognitive processes, but adjunctive interventions are required for meaningful gains in adaptive functioning, particularly in people with chronic illness. This study examined whether (and how) environmental adaptations, used without training, may circumvent cognitive difficulties and facilitate everyday task performance in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered cognitive measures and two versions of the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)-a standard version (ST-NAT), and a user-centered version (UC-NAT) that incorporated environmental adaptations designed to facilitate task performance. The NAT conditions were counterbalanced across participants. Analyses compared performance between the NAT versions and examined the cognitive correlates of each NAT condition. Individuals with schizophrenia made fewer errors on the UC-NAT as compared to the ST-NAT; this between-group difference was significant for all error types. Compared to the ST-NAT, the UC-NAT performance was not significantly associated with an executive function measure of planning. Environmental adaptations may be implemented without extensive training to improve everyday action in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Environmental adaptations that reduce planning demands may be most effective in this population.

  11. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients.

  12. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Structural Connectivity, and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Whitford

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental tenet of the “disconnectivity” theories of schizophrenia is that the disorder is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. Given that the white matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain, abnormalities in these fiber bundles have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique that enables the visualization of white matter macrostructure in vivo, and which has provided unprecedented insight into the existence and nature of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The paper begins with an overview of DTI and more commonly used diffusion metrics and moves on to a brief review of the schizophrenia literature. The functional implications of white matter abnormalities are considered, particularly with respect to myelin's role in modulating the transmission velocity of neural discharges. The paper concludes with a speculative hypothesis about the relationship between gray and white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

  14. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

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    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  15. Anlysis of Variables in a Game of Badminton Análisis de los parámetros temporales en un partido de Bádminton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabello

    2010-09-01

    and their duration. Finally, we can say that the temporal structure of the game is usually higher in men's singles than in women's singles in the case of national competitions while no significant differences are found between the play in the case of the highest level international competitions.
    KEY WORDS: Badminton, temporal structure, total time, playing time

    En el estudio de la estructura temporal de un deporte el primer factor de análisis es el volumen total de trabajo que tiene esa actividad o competición, normalmente reflejado en los juegos deportivos a través del tiempo total de actividad, completado por el tiempo real de juego, y el tiempo de actuación y pausa, como parámetros temporales representativos de la duración de la jugada y del tiempo que transcurre entre ellas, siendo indicativos del esfuerzo y recuperación media del partido. El presente estudio, trata de establecer las diferencias existentes entre el individual masculino y femenino, y los diferentes grupos de nivel nacional (jugadores de las selecciones españolas e internacional (los mejores jugadores del mundo. Los datos de tiempo total en relación a la modalidad y los diferentes grupos de nivel muestran valores mayores en todos los grupos para el individual masculino, explicado por la diferente puntuación, exceptuando el caso del campeonato del mundo. Mientras que en las cuatro competiciones de menor nivel el tiempo de actuación medio en individual masculino fue superior al de individual femenino en más de un segundo, con una media en los partidos de individual masculino de 7,3 1,3 seg., y en los partidos de individual femenino de 6,3 1,3 seg. Según los datos obtenidos en relación a la estructura temporal y teniendo en cuenta el volumen e intensidad de las acciones de juego, podemos sugerir que el bádminton está basado en esfuerzos de tipo explosivo con predominancia del metabolismo de los fosfágenos (ATP y PC, existiendo una gran

  16. Schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia: Paul E. Meehl's blueprint for the experimental psychopathology and genetics of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2006-05-01

    Paul E. Meehl proposed a model of the cause and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related states in the early 1960s (Meehl, 1962), which he later revised in 1990 (Meehl, 1990). His model emphasized a genetically influenced aberration in neural transmission that could eventuate in clinical schizophrenia, nonpsychotic schizotypic states, or apparent normalcy depending on the coexistence of other factors. His model embodied the core ideas of the diathesis-stressor framework that would come to dominate experimental and developmental psychopathology for the next 40 years. The author reviews Meehl's model of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia and reviews and clarifies some frequent misunderstandings of the model.

  17. Neuregulin-1 genotypes and eye movements in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... dysfunctions underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of NRG-1 genotypes with AS and SPEM in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Patients (N = 113) and controls (N = 106) were genotyped for two NRG-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P

  18. [Genetic classification of clinical forms of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I A; Trubnikov, V I

    1989-01-01

    In an analysis of 225 families of probands with different forms of the course of children's schizophrenia, a hypothesis on the degree of their genetical similarity (or dissimilarity) was tested. Malignant and slow progredient form of children schizophrenia showed major genetical similarity (correlation coefficient 1.0) with the recurrent schizophrenia occupying a separate position having no common genetical predisposition factors with nuclear forms of schizophrenia. Paroxysmal progredient schizophrenia displayed a distinct genetical relation to any other form (genetical correlation coefficient ranging in 0.5-0.7).

  19. Autoimmune diseases and infections as risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B; Eaton, William W

    2012-01-01

    Immunological hypotheses have become increasingly prominent when studying the etiology of schizophrenia. Autoimmune diseases, and especially the number of infections requiring hospitalization, have been identified as significant risk factors for schizophrenia in a dose-response relationship, which....... However, the findings could also be an epiphenomenon and not causal, due to, for instance, common genetic vulnerability, which could be supported by the observations of an increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases and infections in parents of patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, autoimmune...... diseases and infections should be considered in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia symptoms, and further research is needed of the immune system's possible contributing pathogenic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia....

  20. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  1. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...

  2. The relationship between psychoanalysis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard

    2003-02-01

    In this article, the author considers psychoanalysts' current attitudes towards schizophrenia. After early optimism of a psychoanalytic approach, interest has waned, other than in the field of first-onset psychosis. This was because of poor outcome figures and regarding schizophrenia as now having a biological, rather than psychological, base. The author argues that there is a paradox, because only psychoanalysis offers a framework for relating to psychotic patients in a way that helps them to make sense of their experiences. A framework is described, with clinical examples, to illustrate the application of analytic thinking to patients with schizophrenia. Psychoanalysis needs to revitalize its attitude to psychosis, as it has a significant contribution to make within general psychiatry, not least in the training of the next generation of psychiatrists.

  3. [Neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia--preclinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Wisłowska, Aleksandra; Zienowicz, Małgorzata; Maciejak, Piotr; Skórzewska, Anna; Płaźnik, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder of unknown origin, characterised by abnormalities in the realms of perception, thinking and the experience of emotions that onset is restricted to young adulthood. Many techniques that range from neuropathology to neuroimaging identified subtle brain abnormalities particularly in frontal, temporal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia test hypotheses that this disease is caused by a defect in cerebral development which results in altered neural connectivity, brain neurochemistry and aberrant behaviour observed in adult life. Recent evidence indicates that neonatal hippocampal damage may affect prefrontal neuronal integrity. The developmental lesion model appears to have predictive validity because treatment with antipsychotic drugs normalises some abnormal behaviour changes. Therefore it will be a useful paradigm in the work on new therapies and in providing new insights about pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia.

  4. [Blonanserin in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjin, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Seiya

    2013-04-01

    Blonanserin was developed in Japan in 2008 as an antipsychotic drug. It has high affinity for dopamine D2/3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but shows low affinity for adrenergic alpha1, histamine H1, and muscarinic M1 receptors. Several short-term double-blind trials demonstrated that blonanserin was well tolerated and had equal efficacy to haloperidol and risperidone in terms of positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. It was also superior to haloperidol in improving negative symptoms. We have recently reported that blonanserin may improve some types of cognitive function associated with the frontal lobe activity in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Taken together, blonanserin may be a promising candidate for a first-line antipsychotic for patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia.

  5. Phospholipid, arachidonate and eicosanoid signaling in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messamore Erik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential role of arachidonic acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We discuss how abnormal levels of arachidonic acid may arise, and how dysregulation of signaling molecules derived from it have the potential to disrupt not only dopamine signaling, but numerous other physiological processes associated with the illness. Pharmacological doses of niacin stimulate the release of arachidonic acid; and arachidonic acid-derived molecules in turn dilate blood vessels in the skin. A blunted skin flush response to niacin is reliably observed among patients with schizophrenia. The niacin response abnormality may thus serve as a biomarker to identify a physiological subtype of schizophrenia associated with defective arachidonic acid-derived signaling.

  6. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  7. [Typical forms of schizophrenia in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E; Konzewoi, V

    1978-01-01

    Aside from typical forms of late schizophrenia which generally conform to the definition given by M. Bleuler, there also are psychoses appearing in old age which differ significantly from the atypical symptoms and consequently present certain diagnostic difficulties. This report contains descriptions of late manifestations in schizophrenic psychoses, which develop with a continuous or assault-like course with a prevalence of parnoial disorders. Paranoid delusions, in such cases, are characterized by aging traits (concrete and short-term delusions, exaggeration of the degree of superficial persecution and prejudice, and a limited number of people involved in the delusions). The development of such forms of late schizophrenia takes a slowly progressing course. The results of these studies, especially the psychopathological symptomatology, the genetic-constitutional background and the development and outcome of these psychoses are analyzed in detail. The data permit to consider such forms of psychose as atypical variants of late schizophrenia.

  8. Exploring imagined movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Rossetti, Yves; d'Amato, Thierry; Dalery, Jean; Saoud, Mohamed

    2002-04-16

    Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments indicative of an inability to accurately monitor internally generated images. Motor imagery measures the ability to generate internal images of intended but not executed motor movements. Ten patients with schizophrenia completed actual and imagined versions of a pointing task with a well defined speed-accuracy trade-off function. For controls, movement time increases as target size decreases for both actual and imagined movements. Despite showing the expected speed-accuracy trade-off for actual movements, the imagined movements of schizophrenics showed no reliable relationship to target size. This was true for each patient and appeared to be independent of symptom profile. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are unable to generate accurate internal images of their own motor movements.

  9. Osteomyelitis of zygoma in a schizophrenia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonori, Mizutani; Hiroki, Adachi; Masayuki, Hojo

    2012-07-03

    A 43-year-old man with schizophrenia presented to our hospital with appetite loss and general fatigue lasting 1-2 months. His face was flared and swollen, and he shed tears of pus. He could answer any questions, but never complained of pain. We found dacryocystitis with subcutaneous abscess with contiguous osteomyelitis with culture-proven Stapylococcus aureus, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Although DM neuropathy was mild, he did not complain of pain. We searched thoroughly for other abscesses since S aureus grew in all four of his blood cultures. We re-examined his whole body by CT, which revealed multiple muscle abscesses in both legs. It is reviewed that schizophrenia patients are relatively insensitive to physical pain. Thus, we should keep in mind that they may have multiple, unpredictable and rare underlying diseases, such as our case. Careful and thorough examinations are essential for treatment in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Aripiprazole for late-life schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Rado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Rado, Philip G JanicakPsychiatric Clinical Research Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger ­populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high co-morbidity rates (both psychiatric and ­medical in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics leading to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, focusing on the potential role of aripiprazole.Keywords: aripiprazole, schizophrenia, elderly, dopamine partial antagonist

  11. [Descriptive approach to latent forms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, B; Bougerol, T; Cura, B; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Scotto, J C

    1994-01-01

    The computerized medical file, used in routine work in an Adult Psychiatry University-Hospital Unit enabled us to select 113 cases among 1,000 consecutive hospitalizations, the diagnosis of which could possibly lead to schizophrenia. These cases which we named "paraschizophrenic states" are linked to DSM III-R criteria of borderline (27 cases), schizoid (40 cases) or schizotypical (15 cases) personalities, schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble (17 cases), brief reactional psychosis (14 cases). We selected 196 cases of schizophrenia in the same cohort of hospitalized patients. As it is now usually admitted, we marked out two subgroups in this second group: the positive schizophrenia which gather together the paranoid and undifferentiated patterns and the negative schizophrenia which correspond to disorganized, catatonic and residual models, according to DSM III-R criterion. We compared the "paraschizophrenic states'" group and its five subgroups (we indeed joined schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble under the name of "other psychotic trouble" by reason of their relative nosographic lacks of precision and of their too small sizes) with the schizophrenia's group and its two subgroups. Each group is matched for sex (1.51 men for 1 woman in the first group and 1.45 men for 1 woman in the second group). We evaluated statistics for markers usually studied in schizophrenia in each subgroup. These markers are of three classes: biographical: age during the study, age of troubles' onset, season of birth; socioeconomic: socioeconomic level of family and patient's student status; psychiatric: family (history affective trouble, psychotic trouble, alcoholism), treatment response and short- and middle-term prognosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Epidemiology of Schizophrenia in Bandarabbass in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a harmful disorder with an unknown etiology that causes dysfunction and interferes with work, school and the patient's communications. The prevalence and incidence rate of schizophrenia varies in different countries. The aim of the current study is to investigate the epidemiology of schizophrenia in Bandarabbass in 2009.Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2009 in Ebnesina Mental Hospital and patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria were enrolled (198 patients. Then, by using a checklist prepared by a psychiatry specialist, the data was extracted from the medical records. The gathered data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using the descriptive statistics test.Results: The mean age of the 198 participants was 36.5±11.591, and 69.2 percent of them were male and 30.8 percent were female. Also 60.6 percent of the patients were married and 76.8 percent were unemployed. Four percent had diabetes and 3 percent were hypertensive and 84.3 percent didn't have substance use comorbidity. Hallucinations were seen in 45.4 percent of the patients and 60.1 percent experienced delusions. Conclusion: As discussed above, many of the symptoms were different in Bandarabbass and this confirms that race plays a significant role in schizophrenia and its symptoms. Therefore more research must be performed about schizophrenia in different regions. Since the presentation of this disorder varies, unique treatments according to patient’s race might be needed.

  13. Neurodynamics and schizophrenia research: editors' introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R E; McGlashan, T H

    1993-01-01

    The term, "neurodynamics," refers to interactions of large numbers of neurons that, in the short term, transform input information derived from their environments into meaningful outputs and, in the long term, use this information to alter their own architectures. This general concept may be useful in framing and investigating research questions that could advance our understanding of the nature, course, and treatment of schizophrenia. The mechanism of action of neuroleptics, the anatomic localization of schizophrenia, the stability of associated brain disturbances over time, and the distinction of state versus trait variables are briefly discussed as examples of issues whose understanding may be enhanced by a neurodynamic perspective.

  14. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Muta, Hiromi; Somada, Shinichi; Maeda, Toyoki; Mutoh, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kanako; Suehiro, Yoko; Hisano, Terumasa; Kurita, Ryo; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Mori, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Tsunetomi, Nobuto; Uchida, Akihiro; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia. A 64-year-old man, who had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic disorder at the age of 30, presented with alopecia, atrophic nail changes, hyperpigmentation of the skin, and inflammatory polyposis of the stomach and colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography of the stomach and colon revealed diffuse mucosal thickening with small hypoechoic areas, corresponding to edema of the lamina propria. After treatment with parenteral hyperalimentation and tranexamic acid, his physical findings and polyposis gradually improved. This is the first report of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia.

  15. Sulpiride treatment of Cotard's syndrome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Ito, Masanao; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Otani, Koichi

    2004-05-01

    A 33-year-old male suffering from schizophrenia developed the typical symptoms of Cotard's syndrome, i.e., various delusions of negation and severe depressive symptoms. Atypical symptoms such as delusions of persecution and control related to body parts were also observed. These symptoms gradually improved by the treatment with sulpiride 300 mg/day. In the course of improvement of Cotard's syndrome, the patient developed Capgras syndrome. This report suggests that sulpiride is effective for Cotard's syndrome in schizophrenia. It also suggests that the symptoms of Cotard's syndrome are modified according to basic disorders, and this syndrome has a close connection with Capgras syndrome.

  16. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study

  17. Modeling cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellendonk, Christoph; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that is still characterized by its symptoms rather than by biological markers because we have only a limited knowledge of its underlying molecular basis. In the past two decades, however, technical advances in genetics and brain imaging have provided new insights into the biology of the disease. Based on these advances we are now in a position to develop animal models that can be used to test specific hypotheses of the disease and explore mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we consider some of the insights that have emerged from studying in mice the relationship between defined genetic and molecular alterations and the cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:19409625

  18. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  19. Aripiprazole for late-life schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2010-09-07

    Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high co-morbidity rates (both psychiatric and medical) in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics leading to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, focusing on the potential role of aripiprazole.

  20. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia.

  1. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning......) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  2. Inflammation and the Two-Hit Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, Keith A.; Kusnecov, Alex W.; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and individual cost of schizophrenia necessitates finding better, more effective treatment, diagnosis, and prevention strategies. One of the obstacles in this endeavor is the diverse set of etiologies that comprises schizophrenia. A substantial body of evidence has grown over the last few decades to suggest that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome with overlapping symptoms and etiologies. At the same time, an increasing number of clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have shown links between schizophrenia and inflammatory conditions. In this review, we analyze the literature on inflammation and schizophrenia, with a particular focus on comorbidity, biomarkers, and environmental insults. We then identify several mechanisms by which inflammation could influence the development of schizophrenia via the two-hit hypothesis. Lastly, we note the relevance of these findings to clinical applications in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24247023

  3. Inverse association between urbanicity and treatment resistance in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Pedersen, Carsten B; MacCabe, James H

    2016-01-01

    ) as a more severe form of schizophrenia or separate entity of schizophrenia has not been fully explored yet. We aimed to investigate the association between urbanicity and incidence of TRS. METHODS: A large Danish population-based cohort of all individuals with a first schizophrenia diagnosis after 1996......BACKGROUND: Living in a larger city is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia; and world-wide, consistent evidence shows that the higher the degree of urbanicity the higher the risk of schizophrenia. However, the association between urbanicity and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS...... was followed until 2013 applying survival analysis techniques. TRS was assessed using a treatment-based proxy, defined as the earliest observed instance of either clozapine initiation or hospital admission due to schizophrenia after having received two prior antipsychotic monotherapy trials of adequate...

  4. Non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives The primary treatment for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is antipsychotic medication. One of the many public health challenges in mental illness, is to identify contributing factors to non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The objective...... of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of risk factors for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia in a European and American context. Methods The study was a systematic literature review of studies that included at least two measurements of pharmacological adherence...... of illness, alcohol or drug abuse and unspecified younger age. Conclusions The findings in this systematic literature review are consistent with previous reviews on non-adherence and schizophrenia. It stresses the methodological challenges in psychiatric adherence research and establishes the need for more...

  5. Los efectos geoecológicos del cambio global en el Pirineo Central español: una revisión a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ruiz, José M.

    2015-12-01

    evapotranspiration; (ii the spatial shrinkage of sediment source areas; (iii the increasing uncoupled geomorphic dynamics between hillslopes and channels; (iv the decreasing importance of snow accumulation and snowmelt processes in the fluvial regime of the Pyrenean rivers, with earlier onset of the high spring discharges; (v the changes in reservoir hydrological dynamics and the need for new management policies; and (vi the increasing scouring processes that affect most of the Pyrenean rivers. The studies carried out on Global Change and its consequences in the Central Pyrenees confirm the extreme complexity of interactions occurring in the natural systems, and the quick response of plant cover, runoff generation and soil erosion as a consequence of climatic and land use changes.Se revisan los efectos de la evolución del clima y los cambios de uso del suelo / cubierta vegetal en el Pirineo Central español a diferentes escalas espaciales y temporales. Los estudios paleoclimáticos, basados en análisis multiproxy de sedimentos lacustres, glaciares, espeleotémicos y registros dendrológicos, entre otros, han demostrado la ocurrencia de importantes fluctuaciones climáticas durante la deglaciación de finales del Pleistoceno Superior y durante el Holoceno, afectando a la distribución de la vegetación, la generación de escorrentía, la frecuencia de avenidas y las formas de organización del espacio por parte de las sociedades humanas, en particular durante el evento 8.2, la Edad del Bronce, la Anomalía Climática Medieval y la Pequeña Edad del Hielo. El estudio del impacto de las actividades humanas sobre la dinámica del paisaje en el último siglo y medio ha revelado cambios espectaculares en la estructura y distribución de la vegetación, tanto en el piso montano como en el subalpino y, consecuentemente, cambios en la generación de escorrentía, la intensidad de la erosión del suelo y las fuentes de sedimento, cualquiera que sea la escala espacial a la que se contempla

  6. Omega – 3 fatty acids in schizophrenia – part I: importance in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róg Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing offer of antipsychotic drugs, the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia is still unsatisfactory. Drug resistance, lack of complete remission and the increasing risk of metabolic complications are the reasons why the new forms of therapy in schizophrenia among which unsaturated essential fatty acids omega 3 (EFAs ω-3 affecting the proper functioning of nervous system, are mentioned, are being looked for.

  7. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The

  8. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Misty; Lyon, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), particularly when diagnosed prior to the age of 13, is considered to be especially rare and severe. This article provides an in-depth look into its symptomatology, general course, long-term functioning, diagnostic criteria, and methods of assessing the disorder. It also includes discussions of the various…

  9. Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patient at risk of victimisation, homelessness and a poorer outcome.20. Culture mediating the relationship between family therapy and schizophrenia. Culture has been shown to influence EE and studies have explored the role of cultural ideas and practices in relapse. In western based studies, a relapse rate of over ...

  10. Zoophilic recidivism in schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours involving animals.1 Sexual contact with animals often occurs as a substitute for heterosexual relations ... was observed to be unusually attached to pet dogs. Many of his pets died in curious circumstances. ... deviant behaviour may form part of psychotic symptoms occurring in the context of schizophrenia7, none ...

  11. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  12. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... nin also plays a role.4 Serotonin is implicated in anxiety and .... Symptoms of anxiety and depression can develop at any time .... depression. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia are of considerable clinical importance. Their existence may compromise social and vocational functioning, they ...

  13. Dimensions of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrop, R.; Matuschek, E.; Ruhrmann, S.; Brockhaus, A.; Tendolkar, I.; Bertsch, A.; Klosterkötter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of eight working memory tests used to assess prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia research [Letter-Number Span (LNS), Digit-Symbol Test (DST), Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B), Delayed Response Task (DRT) for spatial working memory,

  14. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients with schizophr...

  15. Magnetization transfer imaging in chronic schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antosik-Biernacka, A.; Peuskens, H.; Hert, M. de; Peuskens, J.; Sunaert, S.; Hecke, P. van; Goraj, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that new imaging methods such as magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) may play an important role in detecting subtle gray- and white-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate whether MTI, analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel

  16. Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex

    2017-05-01

    As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence - especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey - can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.

  17. Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease: Selected therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are very much linked to the dopaminergic system, yet a larger understanding that goes behind this ''simplified explanation'' of the linked phenomena remains important to further novel advances. The description of factors related to both disorders including implicated receptors, ...

  18. Effort and cognition in schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Marielle; Sanz, Juan Carlos; Schmand, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether low cognitive test scores in schizophrenia patients are due to insufficient effort and, if so, to what extent. Method: Mental effort was measured with the Word Memory Test (WMT), an effort test that has been extensively validated.

  19. Self construction in schizophrenia: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Trudy; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use subject positions to identify self construction in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia that the dialogical model, using analysis of narrative, does not as easily recognize. The paper presents a discourse analysis of self construction in eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews are analysed, wherein focus falls on how participants construct self in talk through the use of subject positioning. The findings indicate that Harr's theory of self and the implied method of discourse analysis enables more subtle and nuanced constructions of self to be identified than those highlighted by Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002). The analysis of subject positions revealed that participants constructed self in the form of Harr's (The singular self: An introduction to the psychology of personhood, 1998, London: Sage) self1, self2, and self3. The findings suggest that there may be constructions of self used by people diagnosed with schizophrenia that are not recognized by the current research methods focusing on narrative. The paper argues for the recognition of these constructions and by implication a model of self that takes into account different levels of visibility of self construction in talk.

  20. Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a Nigerian with Schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a well-characterized syndrome in alcoholism and malnutrition, little is written of its prevalence or presentation in patients with psychiatric illness. We present a case of a 37-year-old Nigerian male with schizophrenia and malnutrition who presented with delirium and ophthalmoplegia ...

  1. Cloze Procedure and Written Language in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between relevant clinical symptoms and the predictability of language utterances in schizophrenia. Specifically, investigates the sensitivity of the Cloze procedure to various modes of language response, attempting to detect differences between language samples written by schizophrenics and controls. Analyzes experimental…

  2. Targeting the inflammatory component of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rahmoune (Hassan); L.W. Harris (Laura); P.C. Guest (Paul); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease characterised by an array of clinical manifestations. A large number of studies over the last 20 years have pointed towards immune system abnormalities in patients suffering from this condition. In addition, the psychosis and cognitive dysfunction

  3. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data to ...

  4. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  5. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia | Scribante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of both anxiety and hysterical symptoms have been described in schizophrenic populations. Various explanations exist. The issue of whether such symptoms represent discrete clinical entities or are intrinsic to the schizophrenic process, requires further research. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Hysterical

  6. The Diagnosis of Schizophrenia According to Kraepelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Gamito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's methodology and clinical descriptions are still influential in the XXIst century psychiatry. Concerning schizophrenia, the author questions the internal cohesion and predicitve validity of the actual "phenotypes", returning to Kraepelin's concepts regarding the psychopathology and evolution of the disease. The author suggests that the validation of such concepts could influence research and clinical practice.

  7. Nature vs. nurture: two brothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, N L; James, C A; Darling, R J; Findley, L S; Oliver, K

    2001-01-01

    The nature vs. nurture argument as it pertains to two brothers. To explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Review of the literature and the authors' clinical experience. The nature vs. nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces.

  8. Fetal programming of schizophrenia: select mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with adverse intrauterine experiences. An adverse or suboptimal fetal environment can cause irreversible changes in brain that can subsequently exert long-lasting effects through resetting a diverse array of biological systems including endocrine, immune and nervous. It is evident from animal and imaging studies that subtle variations in the intrauterine environment can cause recognizable differences in brain structure and cognitive functions in the offspring. A wide variety of environmental factors may play a role in precipitating the emergent developmental dysregulation and the consequent evolution of psychiatric traits in early adulthood by inducing inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and epigenetic dysregulation. However, the precise mechanisms behind such relationships and the specificity of the risk factors for schizophrenia remain exploratory. Considering the paucity of knowledge on fetal programming of schizophrenia, it is timely to consolidate the recent advances in the field and put forward an integrated overview of the mechanisms associated with fetal origin of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Critique of the Diagnostic Construct Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines problems in the clinical utility of the diagnosis of schizophrenia including reliance on questionable data, arbitrary criteria and categorization, inadequate precision for assessment and treatment evaluation, and omission of information on causal current and historical environmental factors. Some alternatives to the…

  10. Automatization and working memory capacity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalten, Tamar R; Ramsey, Nick F; Jansma, J Martijn; Jager, Gerry; Kahn, René S

    2008-03-01

    Working memory (WM) dysfunction in schizophrenia is characterized by inefficient WM recruitment and reduced capacity, but it is not yet clear how these relate to one another. In controls practice of certain cognitive tasks induces automatization, which is associated with reduced WM recruitment and increased capacity of concurrent task performance. We therefore investigated whether inefficient function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia was associated with a failure in automatization. FMRI data was acquired with a verbal WM task with novel and practiced stimuli in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls. Participants performed a dual-task outside the scanner to test WM capacity. Patients showed intact performance on the WM task, which was paralleled by excessive WM activity. Practice improved performance and reduced WM activity in both groups. The difference in WM activity after practice predicted performance cost in controls but not in patients. In addition, patients showed disproportionately poor dual-task performance compared to controls, especially when processing information that required continuous adjustment in WM. Our findings support the notion of inefficient WM function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia. This was not related to a failure in automatization, but was evident when processing continuously changing information. This suggests that inefficient WM function and reduced capacity may be related to an inability to process information requiring frequent updating.

  11. Schizophrenia and sex differences in emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, M.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to be impaired in several domains of emotional processing. These deficits have been associated with impaired social functioning. Since female patients show better social skills than male patients and healthy women outperform men in emotion recognition and

  12. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...

  13. Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and implementation barriers in the South African context. ... Additionally, in adapting models designed for first-world settings, consideration needs to be given to aspects such as language, educational level and accessibility of mental health care facilities. Family ...

  14. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Langdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure required participants to judge whether various social behaviors were normal or reasonable in the context in which the behaviors occurred. Whereas patients demonstrated clear deficits in theory-of-mind, they performed similarly to controls when judging socially appropriate behaviors and violations of social norms. Patients, however, were less likely than controls to judge social behavior as reasonable when the behavior was impolite but understandable if the characters’ thoughts were taken into account. This latter difficulty correlated with patients’ performance deficits on the theory-of-mind tasks. Overall, findings suggest that basic social knowledge is intact in schizophrenia, though judgments of social behavior are affected by patients’ theory-of-mind deficits.

  15. Self-mutilation of nose in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilation is not a single clinical entity and occurs in various psychiatric syndromes. Major self-mutilation is rare and catastrophic complication of severe mental illness. Patients with command hallucinations, religious preoccupations, substance abuse and social isolation are the most vulnerable. We report and discuss a case of complete self-mutilation of nose in a patient with schizophrenia.

  16. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Al Zuhairi, Karam Sadoon Majeed

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...

  17. The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-12-29

    Dec 29, 2004 ... The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness. Sean Exner Baumann. Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ..... Darwins' dangerous idea. Evolution and the meaning of life. Penguin, 1995. 13. Libet B. How does conscious experience arise? The neural time fac- tor.

  18. Thalamocortical synchronization and cognition: implications for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Roux, Frederic; Singer, Wolf

    2013-03-20

    Cognitive deficits are a core dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this issue of Neuron, Parnaudeau et al. (2013) investigated synchronization in thalamocortical pathways in an animal model to address the disconnection between brain regions as a mechanism for working memory impairments in the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Narcolepsy-cataplexy and schizophrenia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lai, Ping-Chin; Hwang, Fan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding of narcolepsy, little information the on association between narcolepsy and psychosis is available, except for amphetamine-related psychotic reactions. Our case-control study aimed to compare clinical differences and analyze risk factors in children who developed narcolepsy with cataplexy (N-C), schizophrenia, and N-C followed by schizophrenia. Three age- and gender-matched groups of children with N-C schizophrenia (study group), N-C (control group 1), and schizophrenia only (control group 2) were investigated. Subjects filled out sleep questionnaires, sleep diaries, and quality of life scales, followed by polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), routine blood tests, HLA typing, genetic analysis of genes of interest, and psychiatric evaluation. The risk factors for schizophrenia also were analyzed. The study group was significantly overweight when measuring body mass index (BMI) (P=.016), at narcolepsy onset compared to control group 1, and the study group developed schizophrenia after a mean of 2.55±1.8 years. Compared to control group 2, psychotic symptoms were significantly more severe in the study group, with a higher frequency of depressive symptoms and acute ward hospitalization in 8 out of 10 of the subjects. They also had poorer long-term response to treatment, despite multiple treatment trials targeting their florid psychotic symptoms. All subjects with narcolepsy were HLA DQ B1(∗)0602 positive. The study group had a significantly higher frequency of DQ B1(∗)-03:01/06:02 (70%) than the two other groups, without any significant difference in HLA-DR typing, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels, hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 gene, HCRTR1, and the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene, HCRTR2, or blood infectious titers. BMI and weight at onset of narcolepsy as well as a higher frequency of DQ B1(∗)-03:01/06:02 antigens were the only significant differences in the N-C children with secondary

  20. Role of cannabis and endocannabinoids in the genesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Núñez, Luis; Ellenbroek, Bart A; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia. It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabis sativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand. On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people, may lead to a worse outcome of the disease, or it can affect normal brain development during adolescence, increasing the risk for schizophrenia in adulthood. Regarding genetic predisposition, alterations affecting the cannabinoid CNR1 gene could be related to schizophrenia. On the other hand, the endogenous cannabinoid system is altered in schizophrenia (i.e., increased density of cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in corticolimbic regions, enhanced cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels), and dysregulation of this system can interact with neurotransmitter systems in such a way that a "cannabinoid hypothesis" can be integrated in the neurobiological hypotheses of schizophrenia. Finally, there is also evidence that some genetic alterations of the CNR1 gene can act as a protectant factor against schizophrenia or can induce a better pharmacological response to atypical antipsychotics. Cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in predisposed people, it can affect neurodevelopment during adolescence leading to schizophrenia, and a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system can participate in schizophrenia. It is also worth noting that some specific cannabinoid alterations can act as neuroprotectant for schizophrenia or can be a psychopharmacogenetic rather than a vulnerability factor.

  1. Elderly patients with schizophrenia and depression: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney; Kasckow, John W

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms poses many challenges for clinicians. Current classifications of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia include: Major Depressive Episodes that occur in patients with schizophrenia and are not classified as schizoaffective disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression in which depressive symptoms do not meet criteria for Major Depression. Research indicates that the presence of any of these depressive symptoms negatively impacts the lives of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to older patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and to guide mental health professionals to better understand the diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms includes first reassessing the diagnosis to make sure symptoms are not due to a comorbid condition, metabolic problems or medications. If these are ruled out, pharmacological agents in combination with psychosocial interventions are important treatments for older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. A careful assessment of each patient is needed in order to determine which antipsychotic would be optimal for their care; second-generation antipsychotics are the most commonly used antipsychotics. Augmentation with an antidepressant medication can be helpful for the elderly patient with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. More research with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions is needed, however, to better understand how to treat this population of elderly patients.

  2. Experiential pleasure deficits in different stages of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Lui, Simon S Y; Geng, Fu-Lei; Li, Ying; Li, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Tan, Shu-Ping; Cheung, Eric F C; Kring, Ann M; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-08-01

    Prior research has found dampened anticipatory pleasure but relatively intact consummatory pleasure in people with first-episode and more chronic schizophrenia, but no study has examined anticipatory and consummatory pleasure across the schizophrenia spectrum. To confirm the factor structure of the Chinese version of the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), which measures four components of anhedonia, we recruited 364 people with schizophrenia for confirmatory factor analysis. To examine anhedonia in people across the schizophrenia spectrum, we recruited people with first-episode (n=76) and chronic schizophrenia (n=45), people with schizotypal traits (n=210), first-degree relatives (n=45) of people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Deficit in abstract anticipatory pleasure appeared to be most severe in people with chronic schizophrenia, while dampened abstract consummatory pleasure was observed in people with schizotypal personality features and in people with chronic schizophrenia. In addition, both abstract anticipatory and abstract consummatory pleasure were negatively correlated with negative schizotypal personality features and schizophrenia symptoms. Our results suggest that deficits in anticipatory pleasure are present across the schizophrenia spectrum, particularly in the abstract domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney; Kasckow, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Background The treatment of older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms poses many challenges for clinicians. Current classifications of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia include: Major Depressive Episodes that occur in patients with schizophrenia and are not classified as schizoaffective disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression in which depressive symptoms do not meet criteria for Major Depression. Research indicates that the presence of any of these depressive symptoms negatively impacts the lives of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to older patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and to guide mental health professionals to better understand the diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusions The treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms includes first reassessing the diagnosis to make sure symptoms are not due to a comorbid condition, metabolic problems or medications. If these are ruled out, pharmacological agents in combination with psychosocial interventions are important treatments for older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. A careful assessment of each patient is needed in order to determine which antipsychotic would be optimal for their care; second-generation antipsychotics are the most commonly used antipsychotics. Augmentation with an antidepressant medication can be helpful for the elderly patient with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. More research with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions is needed, however, to better understand how to treat this population of elderly patients. PMID:21177241

  4. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  5. Evidence of Common Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Leon; Tansey, Katherine E; Rai, Dheeraj; Jones, Peter; Ripke, Stephan; Chambert, Kimberly D; Moran, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Steven A; Linden, David E J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Walters, James T R; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia but there is limited understanding of the genetic relationship between cognition in the general population and schizophrenia. We examine how common variants associated with schizophreniaen massecontribute to childhood cognitive ability in a population-based sample, and the extent to which common genetic variants associated with childhood cognition explain variation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n= 69 516) and tested for association with IQ, attention, processing speed, working memory, problem solving, and social cognition in over 5000 children aged 8 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Polygenic scores for these cognitive domains were tested for association with schizophrenia in a large UK schizophrenia sample (n= 11 853). Bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) estimated the amount of shared genetic factors between schizophrenia and cognitive domains. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was associated with lower performance IQ (P= .001) and lower full IQ (P= .013). Polygenic score for performance IQ was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (P= 3.56E-04). Bivariate GCTA revealed moderate genetic correlation between schizophrenia and both performance IQ (rG= -.379,P= 6.62E-05) and full IQ (rG= -.202,P= 5.00E-03), with approximately 14% of the genetic component of schizophrenia shared with that for performance IQ. Our results support the presence of shared common genetic factors between schizophrenia and childhood cognitive ability. We observe a genetic relationship between schizophrenia and performance IQ but not verbal IQ or other cognitive variables, which may have implications for studies utilizing cognitive endophenotypes for psychosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  6. Neurobiology of aggression and violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael

    2011-09-01

    There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome 22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism of this gene affects COMT activity. Methionine (Met)/Met homozygote schizophrenia patients show 4- to 5-fold lower COMT activity than valine (Val)/Val homozygotes, and some but not all studies have found an association with aggression and violence. Recently, a new functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Ala72Ser, was found to be associated with homicidal behavior in schizophrenia, but this finding warrants further replication. Studies published so far indicate that an association with the monoamine oxidase A, B, or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 genes is unlikely. Data for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene are conflicting and limited. Data from the limited number of neuroimaging studies performed to date are interesting. Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.

  7. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-09-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine amygdala/ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) functional connectivity (FC) and its relation to aggression in schizophrenia. Twenty-one healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Regions of interest were placed in the amygdala based on previously published work. A voxelwise FC analysis was performed in which the mean time series across voxels for this bilateral amygdala seed was entered as a predictor in a multiple regression model with motion parameters and global, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter signals as covariates. Patients showed significant reductions in FC between amygdala and vPFC regions. Moreover, in patients, the strength of this connection showed a significant inverse relationship with aggression, such that lower FC was associated with higher levels of self-rated aggression. Similar results were obtained for 2 other measures--Life History of Aggression and total arrests. These results suggest that amygdala/vPFC FC is compromised in schizophrenia and that this compromise is associated with aggression.

  8. Sistem Pakar Untuk mendiagnosis Gangguan Jiwa Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landung Sudarmana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mental illness (schizophrenia are quite large. According to the results of Basic Health Research in 2015, there is 0.467 percent of the population in Indonesia, in other hands, 1.093.150 Indonesians were suffered from schizophrenia, if schizophrenia does not get attention and appropriate treatment, it will be very bad for the patient. Community stigma about mental disorder often leads schizophrenia patients to be too late taken to a health facility. People believed that schizophrenia is caused by mystical things so that the first treatment is brought the patients to alternative medications. The development of a very rapid computer nowadays makes us easily build a web-based expert system. This expert system is trying to find a satisfactory solution as an expert does. The system was developed to diagnose the schizophrenic mental disorder and the diagnosis was done by analyzing the inputs symptoms, in the form of checklists of what people were felt, then choosing the density of its severity. The results of the diagnosis provide an outcome, i.e. the names of the disease along with the possible percentage value generated based on the selected symptoms. This research intended to build an expert system using PHP and MySQL programming language to store its database, while the inference method using forward chaining is the process of tracing that begins by displaying a data set or convincing facts to the final conclusion. This research resulted a diagnosis schizophrenic mental disorder expert system that is capable to early diagnosing schizophrenic disorder, based on the symptoms that have been selected by the user with a simple appearance that is easy to understand and can be accessed by many users.

  9. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  10. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  11. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A; Abramovic, Lucija; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; van Eijk, Kristel R; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  12. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Oosterwijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  13. Análisis exploratorio de estructuras temporales desde la óptica de tablas múltiples. Una aplicación // Exploratory Analysis of Temporal Structures from the Multiple Tables Optic. An Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Landaluce Calvo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque alternativo a los gráficos habituales de series temporales para su análisis comparativo exploratorio. Al disponer de varias series temporales medidas en diversos contextos, sugerimos su estructura en tablas múltiples para estudiar de forma adecuada sus similitudes y diferencias. El Análisis Factorial Múltiple (AFM es la técnica seleccionada como la más idónea para alcanzar los objetivos planteados, a través de sus medidas numéricas y gráficas. Este enfoque del AFM supone una novedad, ya que en otros estudios el tiempo ha sido utilizado como criterio de estructuración de los grupos y no como unidad estadística como se plantea en este artículo. Una aplicación empírica a partir de datos mensuales, de los últimos 10 años, relativos a tres indicadores estrechamente relacionados con el turismo, desde el punto de vista de la demanda, y medidos en siete territorios nacionales, permite evidenciar la versatilidad y potencialidad de la propuesta. ------------------------------------ In this work we present an alternative approach to the usual graphics of time series for its comparative exploratory analysis. By having several time series measures in various contexts, we suggest its structure in multiple tables to study adequately their similarities and differences. The Multiple Factorial Analysis (MFA is the technique that is selected as the most suitable for achieving the stated objectives, through their numerical measures and graphs. This approach of AFM is a novelty, since in other studies the time has been used as a criterion for structuring groups and not as statistical unit as discussed in this article. An empirical application from monthly data, of the last 10 years, relating to three indicators closely related to tourism, from the point of view of demand, and measured in seven national territories, makes evident the versatility and potential of the proposal.

  14. APLICACIÓN DE UN PROTOCOLO AUTOMATIZADO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE LOS PARÁMETROS TEMPORALES DE LA RESPUESTA DE REACCIÓN EN JUGADORES DE TENIS DURANTE LA EJECUCIÓN DE SPLIT-STEP Y VOLEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Menayo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar el proceso de diseño y la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de medida para el registro en tiempo real de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de una acción técnico-táctica denominada “split-step y segunda volea”. El conocimiento generado en cuanto a las características temporales de la acción se empleará para identificar las variables que determinan la eficacia en la misma y diseñar una investigación que permita optimizar el rendimiento de los tenistas en esta secuencia del juego. Así, el empleo de este sistema tecnológico permitirá un análisis preciso de la respuesta motriz de los jugadores y la extracción de información relevante acerca de la acción definida.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Tenis, split-step y volea, sistema automatizado de medida, respuesta de reacción.

     

    ABSTRACT

    This study is aimed to show the design and application process of an automated system to recording in real time the temporary parameters of tennis players reaction response during the execution of the technical-tactical movement called “split-step and second volley”. The knowledge about temporary characteristics of the action will be make used of identify the variables to cause in that and also to design an investigation to permit an improvement of the tennis players efficiency in this sequence of the play. In this way, the use of the technological system will allow a precise analysis of player’s motor response and the eminent information about the defined action
    KEY WORDS: Tennis, split-step and volley, automated system of measure, reaction response

  15. Schizophrenia patients with high intelligence: A clinically distinct sub-type of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černis, E; Vassos, E; Brébion, G; McKenna, P J; Murray, R M; David, A S; MacCabe, J H

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients are typically found to have low IQ both pre- and post-onset, in comparison to the general population. However, a subgroup of patients displays above average IQ pre-onset. The nature of these patients' illness and its relationship to typical schizophrenia is not well understood. The current study sought to investigate the symptom profile of high-IQ schizophrenia patients. We identified 29 schizophrenia patients of exceptionally high pre-morbid intelligence (mean estimated pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) of 120), of whom around half also showed minimal decline (less than 10 IQ points) from their estimated pre-morbid IQ. We compared their symptom scores (SAPS, SANS, OPCRIT, MADRS, GAF, SAI-E) with a comparison group of schizophrenia patients of typical IQ using multinomial logistic regression. The patients with very high pre-morbid IQ had significantly lower scores on negative and disorganised symptoms than typical patients (RRR=0.019; 95% CI=0.001, 0.675, P=0.030), and showed better global functioning and insight (RRR=1.082; 95% CI=1.020, 1.148; P=0.009). Those with a minimal post-onset IQ decline also showed higher levels of manic symptoms (RRR=8.213; 95% CI=1.042, 64.750, P=0.046). These findings provide evidence for the existence of a high-IQ variant of schizophrenia that is associated with markedly fewer negative symptoms than typical schizophrenia, and lends support to the idea of a psychosis spectrum or continuum over boundaried diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Procedural memory predicts social skills in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Yuki; Rogers, Mark A; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2006-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies that have investigated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial outcome in schizophrenia, no studies have looked at the relationship between procedural memory and social skills measures in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to investigate whether procedural memory, often preserved in schizophrenia, could predict nonverbal social skills in chronic patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen outpatients with schizophrenia participated in our study. Procedural memory was evaluated using the Mirror Reading Test, and nonverbal and verbal social skills were evaluated using a structured role play test. As predicted, there was a significant positive correlation between the learning index of the Mirror Reading Test and nonverbal skills (Spearman rho=0.559, p = 0.038), but not for verbal communication skills or processing skills. Although preliminary, these results provide the first evidence of an association between procedural memory and nonverbal social skills in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  18. Oxytocin and Social Cognitions in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovskaya, Oksana; Shmukler, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic multifactorial disorder. Over the last years, there has been a growing interest in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which is considered by many as the core abnormality of the disease. In the systematic review we focus on the social cognition and its correlation with the neuropeptide oxytocin, which is shown to be involved in the emotion recognizing processes, in the trust behavior and many other aspects of social functioning. The systematic review was performed in order to summarize the data on the liaison of oxytocin with the social cognition impairment in schizophrenia patients. Oxytocin is assumed to be a potential therapeutic agent for schizophrenia, with a special link to social cognitive functions. The oxytocinergic system is a promising neuromodulator of emotion recognition that may have the potential to normalize the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Further studies are required to provide more data on the correlations between oxytocin and socialcognition as well as other schizophrenia symptoms.

  19. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms......, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  20. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  1. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    SHINN, ANN K; Baker, Justin T.; Kathryn Eve Lewandowski; Dost eOngur; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the cognitive dysmetria and dysmetria of thought models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the to...

  2. Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: Evidence for distinct cognitive profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients’ neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or ...

  3. Prenatal Nutritional Deficiency and Risk of Adult Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alan S.; Susser, Ezra S.

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring. The plausibility of several candidate micro...

  4. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: relationship to medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Sarah A; Maye, Jacqueline; Rogers, Alexandra; Correll, David; Zamroziewicz, Marta; Kurtz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.

  5. Gray matter changes in patients with deficit schizophrenia and non-deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Halil İbrahim; Eker, Mehmet Çağdaş; Zengin, Burçak; Yılmaz, Dinçer Akaydın; İşman Haznedaroğlu, Damla; Çınar, Cem; Kitiş, Ömer; Akay, Ahmet; Gönül, Ali Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Reduced gray matter volume is a frequently reported finding in brain imaging studies performed with schizophrenia patients. Some studies suggest a probable link between the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and gray matter loss; however, some of the negative symptoms observed in schizophrenia patients are not primarily linked to the core of schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare gray matter volumes in patients with primary negative symptoms (deficit schizophrenia [DS]), non-DS (NDS) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 11 DS patients, 18 non-DS patients, and 17 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. The Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to determine which patients were DS and non-DS. MR images were compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Contrary to expectations, no evidence to support less gray matter in DS patients than in NDS patients was observed. Furthermore, NDS patients had less gray matter volume in several brain regions (frontal and temporal cortices) than did the DS patients. All patients had perisylvian gray matter volume deficits, though the NDS patients had more widespread volume deficiencies. No evidence to support the hypothesis that DS patients have less gray matter volume than those of NDS patients was observed. On the contrary, DS patients had more gray matter volume in some regions; the differences observed in gray matter volume in these brain regions between the 2 patient groups may be responsible for the differences in their clinical manifestations.

  6. Experiencia Estética y Desarrollo Humano: Las Artes Temporales en la Génesis de Procesos Psicológicos Complejos Aesthetic Experience and Human Development: The Temporal Arts in the Genesis of Complex Psychological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Español

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available En el área de la psicología del desarrollo se están generando nuevas hipótesis acerca de la génesis de la subjetividad e intersubjetividad infantil. Básicamente, se trata (a de la detección de habilidades perceptuales infantiles muy tempranas ligadas al tiempo y (b del reconocimiento de la presencia de antecedentes de las artes temporales (la música y la danza en los primeros intercambios entre adulto y bebé. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar este modo naciente de acercamiento a la infancia y señalar su afinidad con lo que en filosofía de la mente se denomina "perspectiva de segunda persona".In the field of developmental psychology new hypotheses are currently being brought forward about the infant's subjectivity and intersubjectivity. Namely, these are related to (a the detection of very early perceptual abilities linked to time and (b the recognition of the presence of antecedents of temporal arts (music and dance in the mother-infant interactions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this emerging approach to infancy and to outline its affinity with what is called "the second person perspective" in the field of philosophy of mind.

  7. New Clinically Relevant Findings about Violence by People with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh; Klein, Sanja

    2017-02-01

    To review findings with clinical relevance that add to knowledge about antisocial and aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia. Nonsystematic literature review. Recent evidence shows that individuals who develop schizophrenia present cognitive deficits, psychotic-like experiences, and internalizing and externalizing problems from childhood onwards. Many of their relatives present not only schizophrenia-related disorders but also antisocial behaviour. While the increased risk of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia has been robustly established, recent findings show that by first contact with clinical services for psychosis, most people with schizophrenia who will engage in aggressive behaviour may be identified. At first episode, 2 distinct types are distinguishable: those who present a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood and those who began engaging in aggressive behaviour as illness onsets. Antipsychotic medications and other treatments shown to be effective for schizophrenia are needed by both types of patients. Additionally, those with a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood require cognitive-behavioural programs aimed at reducing these behaviours and promoting prosocial behaviour. Reducing physical victimisation and cannabis use will likely reduce aggressive behaviour. Evidence suggests that threats to hurt others often precede assaults. At first contact with services, patients with schizophrenia who have engaged in aggressive behaviour should be identified and treated for schizophrenia and for aggression. Research is needed to identify interactions between genotypes and environmental factors, from conception onwards, that promote and that protect against the development of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia.

  8. Potential role of amino acids in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shamaila; Shaukat, Faiza; Gul, Anjuman; Arooj, Mahwish; Malik, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a syndrome of inconclusive etiopathogenesis with a prevalence of about 1% in general population. Underlying factors include genetic predisposition and defected neurodevelopment in early stages of life. The role of amino acids has been indicated in some reports. However, very few workers have detailed the effect of each amino acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of amino acids levels during schizophrenia. Any single amino acid defect cannot lead to the development of the disease. Higher concentration of glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, and arginine are reported by many scientists in blood samples of patients of schizophrenia. Levels of rest of the amino acids show inconsistent results. Involvement of glutamate in pathophysiology of schizophrenia was hypothesized as early as the 1980s. It was demonstrated that dissociative anesthetics which are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists can produce all negative, psychotic, cognitive, and physiological features of schizophrenia in healthy controls. This led to the development of hypothesis of NMDA receptor hypofunctioning in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Later on, it was also found that agents enhancing functioning of NMDA receptor at glycine modulatory site, improved symptoms in patients of schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic medications. Thus, the relationship of perturb amino acid levels with the biological basis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia is an important area to be further explored for effective management of schizophrenic patients.

  9. Prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with psoriasis: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Tu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified, the finding that psoriatic patients with comorbid cerebrovascular disease or chronic pulmonary disease have higher odds for schizophrenia may imply psoriatic patients with those comorbidities are likely to have higher inflammatory burden, which would contribute to the development of schizophrenia if a disruption of the blood–brain barrier is present. Further investigations are indicated to validate the hypothesis explaining the association between known comorbidies of psoriasis and schizophrenia.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenya Nan; Feng Wan; Lanshin Chang; Sio Hang Pun; Mang I. Vai; Agostinho Rosa

    2017-01-01

    .... Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia...

  11. [Clinico-diagnostic evaluation of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P

    1989-01-01

    Psychopathologic and nosologic issues of acute paranoid and Kandinsky-Clerambault syndromes are discussed on the background of clinical studies of 225 schizophrenic patients with these syndromes being initial manifestations. The data on the syndromes typology, clinical value and prognosis of acute delirious disorders are presented. These are shown to be not confined to progredient schizophrenia, including its paranoid form. Rather, they can manifest a course of the disease unspecific for schizophrenia, the so-called schizophrenic reactions and phasic states thus reflecting the course of latent schizophrenia. A differentiated approach to clinical and psychopathological analysis of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia is essential for adequate choice of medicosocial measures and epidemiologic investigations.

  12. Treatment patterns for schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia among Medicaid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Wan, George J

    2009-02-01

    This study compared background characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and service use of adults treated for schizoaffective disorder and adults treated for schizophrenia. Medicaid claims data from two states were analyzed with a focus on adults treated for schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia. Patient groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and health service use during 180 days before and after a claim for either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A larger proportion of patients were treated for schizophrenia (N=38,760; 70.1%) than for schizoaffective disorder (N=16,570; 29.9%). During the 180 days before the index diagnosis claim, significantly more patients with schizoaffective disorder than those with schizophrenia were treated for depressive disorder (19.6% versus 11.4%, pdisorder (14.8% versus 5.8%, pdisorder (11.8% versus 9.7%, pdisorder (6.9% versus 5.3%, pschizoaffective disorder, 87.3%; schizophrenia, 87.0%), although patients with schizoaffective disorder were significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive antidepressants (61.7% versus 44.0%, pschizoaffective disorder were also significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive psychotherapy (23.4% versus 13.0%, pSchizoaffective disorder is commonly diagnosed among Medicaid beneficiaries. These patients often receive complex pharmacologic regimens, and many also receive treatment for mood disorders. Differences in service use patterns between schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia argue for separate consideration of their health care needs.

  13. Is there any role of latent toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Nuran; Bilgiç, Serkan; Gürok, Mehmet Gürkan; Karaboğa, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    A large number of studies have hypothesized that Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially relevant etiological factor in some cases of schizophrenia. By contrast, some studies have disproved this association. The aim of this study was to investigate whether latent toxoplasmosis has any role in schizophrenia disease. Additionally, the association between T. gondii and subtypes of schizophrenia, and the impacts of toxoplasmosis on psychopathology were examined in the study. A total of 85 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to T. gondii was examined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay method. Seropositivity rates were 43.5% for the patients with schizophrenia and 43.3% for the healthy controls (odds ratio: 1.008, 95% confidence interval: 0.517-1.964, p = 0.981).There was no significant difference in T. gondii IgG positivity between the schizophrenia and control groups with respect to sex and age. The difference in seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies among the schizophrenia subtypes was not statistically significant (p = 0.934). No significant difference was found in Positive and Negative Syndrome Subscales between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free patients. In the study area with a high prevalence of T. gondii, no association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia was detected. These findings showed that toxoplasmosis has no role in the risk of schizophrenia disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Schizophrenia in Medline 1950-2006: a bibliometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, Sten S; Wetterberg, Lennart

    2010-05-01

    The aim was to perform a bibliometric study, and compare the quantity of publications on schizophrenia with the total medical literature in Medline during 57 years, 1950-2006. The annual additions of literature to Medline are continually increasing and form the Medline growth curve. Comparisons of the number of publications on schizophrenia, or any other disease, to this curve, may be used to estimate the research activity. Methods for the identification of relevant references to papers on schizophrenia were evaluated and three different samples were operationally defined, retrieved and counted. During 1950-2006, 16.28 million references were added to Medline. Nearly 68000, 0.42%, references were related to schizophrenia. The percentage of papers on schizophrenia among the psychiatric literature decreased from 5.2 to 2.6%. The present study indicates that the number of references on schizophrenia in Medline has followed the general increase of medical publications. This pattern differs compared to some other research fields such as dementia, HIV, and peptic ulcer. Samples of references on schizophrenia may be retrieved in Medline by operational definitions of search methods. The quantity of schizophrenia research during 57 years has kept pace with the total medical literature. One interpretation of the results is that more resources are needed to enhance research activities on schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hospital Contacts With Infection and Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-01-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence...... a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact...... of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families....

  16. Schizophrenia genetic variants are not associated with intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Scheltinga, A.F.T.; Bakker, S.C.; Van Haren, N.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with lower pre-morbid intelligence (IQ) in addition to (pre-morbid) cognitive decline. Both schizophrenia and IQ are highly heritable traits. Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic variants associated with schizophrenia, including copy number variants (CNVs......) and a polygenic schizophrenia (risk) score (PSS), may influence intelligence. Method IQ was estimated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). CNVs were determined from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using the QuantiSNP and PennCNV algorithms. For the PSS, odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data...

  17. Emotional Response Deficits in Schizophrenia: Insights From Affective Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kring, Ann M; Moran, Erin K

    2008-01-01

    ... our understanding of emotional response deficits in schizophrenia. We review naturalistic studies and elicitation studies that evoke emotion responses among participants, including emotion expression, experience, and autonomic physiology...

  18. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent Advances in Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alex Kopelowicz; Robert Paul Liberman; Roberto Zarate

    2006-01-01

      Social skills training consists of learning activities utilizing behavioral techniques that enable persons with schizophrenia and other disabling mental disorders to acquire interpersonal disease...

  20. Current understandings about cognition and the neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder. Cognitive deficits are one of the core features of schizophrenia. Multiple domains of cognition (executive function, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal fluency, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and social cognition are affected in patients with schizophrenia. Deficits in cognition led to impairment in the real world functioning. Identifying the cognitive deficits and early intervention is required for better functional outcome. This review focuses on conceptual understanding of cognition with its neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia and its different clinical implications.