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Sample records for schizophrenia physical health

  1. Management of physical health in patients with schizophrenia: practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, A; Montejo, A L; Millar, H; De Hert, M; McCrae, J; Correll, C U

    2010-06-01

    Improved physical health care is a pressing need for patients with schizophrenia. It can be achieved by means of a multidisciplinary team led by the psychiatrist. Key priorities should include: selection of antipsychotic therapy with a low risk of weight gain and metabolic adverse effects; routine assessment, recording and longitudinal tracking of key physical health parameters, ideally by electronic spreadsheets; and intervention to control CVD risk following the same principles as for the general population. A few simple tools to assess and record key physical parameters, combined with lifestyle intervention and pharmacological treatment as indicated, could significantly improve physical outcomes. Effective implementation of strategies to optimise physical health parameters in patients with severe enduring mental illness requires engagement and communication between psychiatrists and primary care in most health settings. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Health, Medication, and Healthcare Utilization among 70-Year-Old People with Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Maria; Green, Anders; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In light of the excess early mortality in schizophrenia, mainly due to physical illnesses, we investigated medical comorbidity, use of medication, and healthcare utilization among individuals with schizophrenia who survived into older ages to uncover potential factors contributing...... health outcomes for older adults with schizophrenia....

  3. Multiple physical healthcare needs among outpatients with schizophrenia: findings from a health examination study.

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    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Koskela, Tuomas H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Despite the abundant literature on physical comorbidity, the full range of the concurrent somatic healthcare needs among individuals with schizophrenia has rarely been studied. This observational study aimed to assess the distressing somatic symptoms and needs for physical health interventions in outpatients with schizophrenia, and factors predicting those needs. A structured, comprehensive health examination was carried out, including a visit to a nurse and a general practitioner on 275 outpatients with schizophrenia. The required interventions were classified by type of disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, functional limitations, factors related to psychiatric disorder, and healthcare use on the need for interventions. In total, 44.9% of the patients (mean age 44.9 years) reported somatic symptoms affecting daily life; 87.6% needed specific interventions for a disease or condition, most commonly for cardiovascular, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological, and gastrointestinal conditions, and for altered glucose homeostasis. Smoking and obesity predicted significantly a need of any intervention, but the predictors varied in each disease category. Strikingly, use of general practitioner services during the previous year did not reduce the need for interventions. Health examinations for outpatients with schizophrenia revealed numerous physical healthcare needs. The health examinations for patients with schizophrenia should contain a medical history taking and a physical examination, in addition to basic measurements and laboratory tests. Prevention and treatment of obesity and smoking should be given priority in order to diminish somatic comorbidities in schizophrenia.

  4. Improving quality of life and physical health in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...... associations between QoL and physical health. METHODS: This was a naturalistic longitudinal 30-month follow-up study including individual guidance, group sessions and treatment as usual. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. QoL was low among newly diagnosed patients. Higher body mass index was significantly...... associated with lower QoL. Newly diagnosed male patients showed lower QoL compared with females. Newly diagnosed patients experienced worsened health during the study period. In contrast, long-term schizophrenic patients started with worse physical health but improved with regard to weight, waist...

  5. The physical health of people with schizophrenia in Asia: Baseline findings from a physical health check programme.

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    Thongsai, S; Gray, R; Bressington, D

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Physical health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders are far more common in people with severe mental illness (SMI) than the general population. While there are a considerable number of studies that have examined the physical health and health behaviours of people with SMI in Western countries, there have been few studies that have done this in Asia. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Unhealthy body mass index (BMI) values were observed in 44% of Thai service users diagnosed with schizophrenia despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by the majority of participants. Being prescribed two or more antipsychotics was significantly associated with greater body weight and a higher BMI than in people prescribed only one antipsychotic. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health professionals in Asia should be particularly aware of the additional risks of obesity that seem to be associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy when they are promoting the physical health of people with schizophrenia. Introduction People with schizophrenia have worse physical health than the general population, and studies in developed countries demonstrate that their health behaviours are often undesirable. However, as no similar studies have been conducted in Asian countries with emerging healthcare systems, the physical health promotion challenges in these settings is unknown. Aim To identify and explore relationships between cardiometabolic health risks, lifestyle and treatment characteristics in people with schizophrenia in Thailand. Method This cross-sectional study reports the baseline findings from a physical health check programme using the Thai version of the Health Improvement Profile. Results Despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by most of the 105 service users, unhealthy body mass index values were observed in 44% of

  6. A collaborative approach to improve the assessment of physical health in adult consumers with schizophrenia in Queensland mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plever, Sally; McCarthy, Irene; Anzolin, Melissa; Emmerson, Brett; Khatun, Mohsina

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a quality improvement collaborative to increase the number of physical health assessments conducted with consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia in adult community mental health services across Queensland. Sixteen adult mental health service organisations voluntarily took part in the statewide collaborative initiative to increase the number of physical health assessments completed on persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders managed through the community mental health service. Improvement in the physical health assessment clinical indicator was demonstrated across the state over a 3-year period with an increase in the number of physical health assessments recorded from 12% to 58%. Significant improvements were made over a 3-year period by all mental health services involved in the collaborative, supporting the application of a quality improvement methodology to drive change across mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Improving the physical health of patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic nihilism or realism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fevre, P D

    2001-02-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a raised mortality due to both an increase in suicide and factors related to poor physical health. The increased rates of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disease in this population are likely to be due to high rates of smoking and obesity accompanied by a poor diet, lack of exercise and the side effects of medication. The evidence suggests that such risk factors in the schizophrenic population are largely ignored by the medical profession. Research to date has failed to address the health needs of this vulnerable population. Systematic research, with the aim of assessing the potential benefits of health improvement measures, should be a matter of priority.

  8. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  9. Development and reliability testing of a Health Action Process Approach inventory for physical activity participation among individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eArbour-Nicitopoulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia tend to have high levels of cardiovascular disease and lower physical activity (PA levels than the general population. Research is urgently required in developing evidence-based behavioral interventions for increasing PA in this population. One model that has been increasingly used to understand the mechanisms underlying PA is the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. The purpose of this study was to adapt and pilot-test a HAPA-based inventory that reliably captures salient, modifiable PA determinants for individuals with schizophrenia. Initially, twelve outpatients with schizophrenia reviewed the inventory and provided verbal feedback regarding comprehension, item relevance, and potential new content. A content analysis framework was used to inform modifications to the inventory. The resultant inventory underwent a quantitative assessment of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Twenty-five outpatients (Mage= 41.5 ± 13.5 years; 64% male completed the inventory on two separate occasions, one week apart. All but two scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.62–0.98 and test-retest correlations (rs = .21-.96. Preliminary assessment of criterion validity of the HAPA inventory showed significant, large-sized correlations between behavioural intentions and both affective outcome expectancies and task self-efficacy, and small-to-moderate correlations between self-reported minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA and the volitional constructs of the HAPA model. These findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the first-ever inventory for examining theory-based predictors of moderate to vigorous PA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia. Further validation research with this inventory using an objective measure of PA behavior will provide additional support for its psychometric properties within the schizophrenia population.

  10. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  11. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (PHIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  12. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  13. The Utility of the Health Action Process Approach Model for Predicting Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research is needed to develop evidence-based behavioral interventions for preventing and treating obesity that are specific to the schizophrenia population. This study is the precursor to such intervention research where we examined the utility of the social cognitions outlined within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA model for predicting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A prospective cohort design [baseline (T1, week 2 (T2, and week 4 (T3] was used to examine the HAPA constructs and MVPA across a sample of 101 adults (Mage = 41.5 ± 11.7 years; MBMI = 31.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2; 59% male. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted controlling for age, gender, BMI, and previous self-reported MVPA. In the first regression, intentions at T1 were regressed onto the T1 motivational HAPA constructs (risk perception, affective attitudes, task self-efficacy and social support; MVPA status (meeting vs. not meeting the MVPA guidelines assessed via accelerometry at T3 was regressed onto T1 social support and intentions followed by T2 action and coping planning, and maintenance self-efficacy in the second analysis. Overall, the motivational and social support variables accounted for 28% of the variance in intentions, with affective attitudes (β = 0.33, p < 0.01 and task self-efficacy (β = 0.25, p < 0.05 exhibiting significant, positive relationships. For MVPA status, the model as a whole explained 39% of the variance, with the volitional HAPA constructs explaining a non-significant 3% of this total variance. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting self-efficacy and affective attitudes within this clinical population.

  14. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia....

  15. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...

  16. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  17. Physical health behaviours and health locus of control in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional comparative study with people with non-psychotic mental illness.

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    Buhagiar, Kurt; Parsonage, Liam; Osborn, David P J

    2011-06-24

    People with mental illness experience high levels of morbidity and mortality from physical disease compared to the general population. Our primary aim was to compare how people with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e. schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder) and non-psychotic mental illness perceive their: (i) global physical health, (ii) barriers to improving physical health, (iii) physical health with respect to important aspects of life and (iv) motivation to change modifiable high-risk behaviours associated with coronary heart disease. A secondary aim was to determine health locus of control in these two groups of participants. People with SMI and non-psychotic mental illness were recruited from an out-patient adult mental health service in London. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups was conducted by means of a self-completed questionnaire. A total of 146 people participated in the study, 52 with SMI and 94 with non-psychotic mental illness. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with respect to the perception of global physical health. However, physical health was considered to be a less important priority in life by people with SMI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.029). There was no difference between the two groups in their desire to change high risk behaviours. People with SMI are more likely to have a health locus of control determined by powerful others (p locus of control may provide a theoretical focus for clinical intervention in order to promote a much needed behavioural change in this marginalised group of people.

  18. Physical anhedonia in the acute phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between physical anhedonia and psychopathological parameters, pharmacological parameters or motor side-effects in a sample of inpatients with schizophrenia in an acute episode of their illness. Method Eighty one patients with schizophrenia, consecutively admitted, with an acute episode of their illness, at the Eginition Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, during a one-year period were investigated regarding possible relationships between physical anhedonia, social-demographic data and clinical parameters as well as motor side-effects, induced by antipsychotic agents. All patients were assessed using the Chapman Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side-Effects (EPSE, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Simple cross tabulations were initially employed. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was performed. Results Both positive and negative symptoms were associated with physical anhedonia. A positive association between physical anhedonia and the non-paranoid sub-category of schizophrenia was also proved. Conclusion According to these results, it seems that in the acute phase of schizophrenia, physical anhedonia may be a contributing factor to patient's psychopathology.

  19. Considering a frame of reference for physical activity research related to the cardiometabolic risk profile in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Knapen, Jan; Probst, Michel; van Winkel, Ruud; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Peuskens, Joseph; De Hert, Marc

    2010-05-30

    This article reviews evidence that researchers and mental health service providers need to take into account four modifiable factors that affect the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia: (a) physical activity as part of a health-related lifestyle, (b) physical fitness, (c) mental health status and (d) antipsychotic medication. The implementation of physical activity in order to prevent and treat cardiometabolic risk factors in people with schizophrenia is discussed. English language articles published until July 2009 were identified by PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search terms schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome, physical activity, health, fitness, and lifestyle were used. Physical activity interventions result in positive effects on metabolic outcomes, physical fitness, health-related behavior and mental health. Considering present knowledge, physical therapists should take into account the emotional (negative symptoms, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress) and physiological (cardiometabolic parameters) components of mental illness when offering physical activity interventions. The physical activity stimulus should be adapted to the individual's physical fitness level and the side effects of the antipsychotic medications. More research is needed to assist in the practical development of effective evidence-based preventive and curative strategies in psychiatric services for metabolic syndrome in persons with schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, ...

  1. Health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    In a series of eight lectures the following topics are dealt with: 1) interaction of radiation with matter; 2) radiation quantities and units; 3) the physical basis of radiation dosimetry; 4) detection and measurement of radiation; 5) mixed radiation dosimetry; 6) special methods in radiation dosimetry; 7) dose from electrons and beta rays; and 8) introduction to radiation biology

  2. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  3. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low physical activity is strongly correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and poor physical health. Although the prevalence of MetS is high in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), little is still known about the level of and possible barriers for physical activity in FES....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS......: Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication...

  4. [The effects of physical activity intervention on symptoms in schizophrenia, mental well-being and body composition in young adults].

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    Sturludóttir, Kristjana; Gestsdóttir, Sunna; Rafnsson, Rafn Haraldur; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2015-11-01

    Due to an unhealthy lifestyle, individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of morbidity compared to the general population. Studies have shown that physical activity can have positive effects on physical and mental health in these patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a physical activity intervention on symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as on a number of physical and mental health variables. The aim was also to gain more understanding of the participants´ experience of the intervention with interviews. Seventeen individuals between the ages of 21-31, diagnosed with schizophrenia participated in the study. They exercised under professional supervision for a minimum of two sessions per week for 20 weeks and attended weekly lectures on a healthy lifestyle. The participants answered standardized questionnaires (PANSS, DASS, Rosenberg, CORE-OM, BHS, QOLS), and physical measurements (weight, height, body mass index, resting blood pressure, waist circumference and resting heart rate) were taken before and after the intervention. Six participants were interviewed after the intervention and asked about their experience. Negative and general psychiatric symptoms, depression, anxiety and stress scores decreased significantly whereas well-being, quality of life and physical activity increased (pphysical measurements remained unchanged at the end of the intervention. The participants´ physical activity increased, their mental well-being improved, and they did not gain weight during the intervention period. Regular exercise under supervision and education about a healthy lifestyle are a beneficial adjunct to the primary treatment of people with schizophrenia.

  5. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyboom-de Jong Betty

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. Results The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Conclusion Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  6. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-05-09

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  7. Health promotion and schizophrenia: the year 2000 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S M

    1998-01-01

    The health promotion needs of persons with schizophrenia have not been emphasized as a result of historical stigma, the effort required to stabilize symptoms, the relapsing nature of the disease, and the helplessness felt by caregivers. Family members and individuals with schizophrenia experience shame, grief, guilt, fear, and isolation, all of which render them less able to be proactive. Health promotion strategies that change attitudes, build self-esteem, increase insight into the illness, modify behavior, provide sources of income and access to medical care, and support companionship are necessary while research efforts seek a cure for this historically misunderstood illness.

  8. The importance of self-determined motivation towards physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; De Herdt, Amber; Scheewe, Thomas W; Soundy, Andrew; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2013-12-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the commencement and continuation of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in these patients by examining the factor structure of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation and PA. The secondary aim was to study differences in motivation according to gender, educational level, treatment setting and disease stage. A total of 129 patients (44♀) with schizophrenia agreed to participate. Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, external and introjected regulation, while identified and intrinsic regulations loaded on a single factor which we labeled "autonomous regulation". Significant positive correlations were found between the total physical activity score and the subscales amotivation (r = -0.44, P important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Iris structure and minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trixler, Dániel; Tényi, Tamás

    2017-10-01

    This study compared five human iris characteristics and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) between patients with schizophrenia (n = 32) and controls (n = 31). Correlations between iris characteristics and MPAs were expected, due to their same ectodermic origin. Iris macro photos were taken and quantified in five categories mentioned before. MPAs were also examined in both groups. Our results show significant differences in the frequency of pigment dots of the iris and total number of MPAs between groups. Other significant differences were found in the extension of concentric furrows, as they were more common in healthy subjects, while Wolfflin nodules occurred significantly more often in patients with schizophrenia. Expected difference in Fuch's crypts could not be observed between groups. Light eye color was positively correlated to pigment dots and Wolfflin nodules, and negatively correlated with concentric furrows. Dark eye color showed positive correlation with concentric furrows, and negative correlation with pigment dots and concentric furrows. A gender effect could also been observed: male individuals showed moderate positive correlations between pigment dots and total MPAs frequency, while this couldn't be observed in the female group. Our findings suggest possible connections between iris characteristics and MPAs, where males are more prone to deviations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome in First Episode Schizophrenia, Based on the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in a General Hospital in Malaysia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert Muh Haur; Ng, Chong Guan; Koh, Ong Hui; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Aziz, Salina Abdul

    2018-05-07

    Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004⁻2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05⁻5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13⁻1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity.

  12. Impact of obesity on health-related quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Ronette L; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K; Crosby, Ross D; Swanson, Jodi M; Tuomari, Anne V; L'italien, Gilbert J; Mitchell, James E

    2008-04-01

    Studies have reported that up to 60% of individuals with schizophrenia and 68% of those with bipolar disorder are overweight/obese. This paper explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder as a function of obesity status. Two hundred and eleven participants were recruited from four psychiatric programs (outpatient, day treatment, case management, and psychosocial rehabilitation). HRQOL was assessed using both a general measure (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form-36 (SF-36)) and a weight-related measure (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite)). To interpret HRQOL scores obtained by the obese group, we compared scores to those obtained by reference groups from the weight-loss literature. Sixty-three percent of participants with schizophrenia and 68% of those with bipolar disorder were obese. Obese participants were more likely to be women, on mood stabilizers, taking a greater number of psychiatric medications, and to have poorer weight-related and general HRQOL. Weight-related HRQOL in the obese psychiatric sample was more impaired than in outpatient and day treatment samples seeking weight loss but less impaired than in gastric-bypass patients. Several of the physical domains of general HRQOL were more impaired for the obese psychiatric sample than for the outpatient weight-loss sample. However, physical functioning was less impaired for the obese psychiatric sample than for gastric-bypass patients. The presence of obesity among individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder is associated with decreased HRQOL. These results have implications for prevention and management of weight gain in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

  13. Toward a Holistic Approach to Spiritual Health Care for People With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Wan, Adrian H Y; Chan, Caitlin K P

    2016-01-01

    Medical and behavioral treatments are the predominant types of rehabilitation services for people with schizophrenia. Spirituality in people with schizophrenia remains poorly conceptualized, thereby limiting knowledge advancement in the area of spiritual health care services. To provide a framework for better clinical and research practices, we advocate a holistic approach to investigating spirituality and its application in spiritual health care services of people with schizophrenia.

  14. "We're Not Just Sitting on the Periphery": A Staff Perspective of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to…

  15. Dietary patterns and physical activity in people with schizophrenia and increased waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ane Storch; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Karlsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Toft, Ulla

    2018-03-16

    People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population. We interviewed a sample of 428 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference enrolled in the CHANGE trial using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24h recall interview, a Physical Activity Scale (PAS), scale for assessment of positive and negative symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). We compared with information on dietary intake and physical activity in the general Danish population from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011-2013 (DANSDA). The CHANGE participants reported a very low energy intake and their distribution of nutrients (i.e. fat, protein and carbohydrates) harmonized with the recommendations from the Danish Health Authorities, and were similar to the latest report on the dietary habits in the Danish general population. However, the intake of saturated fat, sugar and alcohol exceed the recommended amounts and the corresponding intake in the general population. The intake of fiber, vegetables and fruit and fish were insufficient and also less than in the general population. The overall estimated quality of the dietary habits was poor, only 10.7% of the participants had healthy dietary patterns, and the quality was

  16. Health physics documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stablein, G.

    1980-01-01

    When dealing with radioactive material the health physicist receives innumerable papers and documents within the fields of researching, prosecuting, organizing and justifying radiation protection. Some of these papers are requested by the health physicist and some are required by law. The scope, quantity and deposit periods of the health physics documentation at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are presented and rationalizing methods discussed. The aim of this documentation should be the application of physics to accident prevention, i.e. documentation should protect those concerned and not the health physicist. (H.K.)

  17. Health for smokers with schizophrenia - a struggle to maintain a dignified life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Elisabet; Hallqvist, Johan; Fredriksson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the health and lifestyle habits of smokers with schizophrenia and describe their experience of smoking in relation to health. Semi-structured interviews with 10 smokers with schizophrenia were conducted in Sweden from May to October 2013. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to describe and interpret respondents' experiences. Good health for a person with schizophrenia was defined as accepting their mental illness, having strategies to gain control over psychotic symptoms, and engaging in activities and good relationships. Lifestyle habits were described as structures in the respondents' daily life: arising in the morning, taking a cigarette, reading the newspaper, eating breakfast and doing the things planned for the day. The meaning of health for smokers with schizophrenia is not the same as being well or ill. Rather, health is an experience of a struggle to maintain a dignified life, including self-acceptance of the mental illness and control over the psychotic symptoms. People with schizophrenia have high willingness but low motivation to stop smoking because they fear that cigarette withdrawal will increase their psychotic symptoms. Therefore, they find it difficult to stop smoking. To succeed with health care intervention, health care providers must understand the life style habits and experiences specific to smokers with schizophrenia and the unique experience of health and life style habits that people with schizophrenia experience. Smokers with schizophrenia experience health as a struggle to maintain a dignified life and to maintain control over their psychotic symptoms. In smoking cessation programmes, health care providers must pay attention to the fear that people with schizophrenia have of losing control over their psychotic symptoms, if they stop smoking, and support them to find activities to replace smoking. This study suggests that to provide good support in health prevention for people with schizophrenia, it is vital

  18. Mental-health-related stigma among Japanese children and their parents and impact of renaming of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ohta, Kazusa; Ojio, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Kei-Ichiro; Ando, Shuntaro

    2017-03-01

    Mental-health-related stigma affects help-seeking behavior and service utilization among young people. Whether mental-health-related stigma is different or correlated between parents and their children is unknown. It is also unknown whether the name change of schizophrenia in 2002 has had long-term effects on reducing stigma for adults in the general population. We recruited 143 parent-child pairs (mean ages [SD]: 51.5 [3.6] and 21.2 [1.2] years, respectively) to complete self-report questionnaires regarding mental-health-related stigma and experience. We also assessed negative stereotypes for three psychiatric disease names (old and new names of schizophrenia, and depression), and for diabetes mellitus as a physical illness comparison. The questionnaires also asked respondents to identify the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia, respectively, among 10 names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. Parents showed lower stigma levels toward mental illness and diabetes mellitus, but similar or greater stigma levels toward schizophrenia, compared with their children. Stigma levels toward mental illness in parents and their children were significantly correlated. The rate of correct identification of the old and new names for schizophrenia was higher in parents than in their children (64.7% vs 41.4%, P stigma toward mental illness is shared between family members, and the name change of schizophrenia has effectively reduced stigma levels toward this disorder in adults of various ages. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Health physics information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The records that men have kept over the centuries have made the civilizations of man possible. Recorded history shows that our progress is closely correlated to man's ability to communicate recorded facts to others, and to effectively use knowledge gained by others. During the past few decades our ability to store and use information, and to reach larger audiences has grown dramatically. The advent of computers is discussed and their evolution to the state-of-the-art is described. Data bases, batch and on-line processing, centralized and distributed processing as well as other computer jargon are generally explained and examples are given as they apply specifically to health physics programs. It is proposed that systems designed to manage information cannot be adapted to health physics problems without extensive involvement of the HP who must use the computerized program. Specific problems which arise during the development of a computerized health physics program are explained

  20. Introduction to health physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    "A dynamic and comprehensive overview of the field of health physics"""This trusted, one-of-a-kind guide delivers authoritative and succinctly written coverage of the entire field of health physics including the biological basis for radiation safety standards, radioactivity, nuclear reactors, radioactive waste, and non-ionizing radiation, as well as radiation dosimetry, radiation instrumentation, and principles of radiation protection. This thorough overview of need-to-know topics, from a review of physical principles to a useful look at the interaction of radiation with matter, offers a problem-solving approach that will serve readers throughout their careers. More than 380 "Homework Problems" and 175+ "Example Problems" Essential background material on quantitative risk assessment for radiation exposure Unique Integration of industrial hygiene with radiation safety Authoritative radiation safety and environmental health coverage that supports the International Commission on Radiological Protection's standar...

  1. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti and CVD diamond detectors for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (cosmic-rays on aircraft and radon in dwellings and soil) are also performed using track CR-39 and TLD detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We provide personal and environmental TLD dosimetry service for several customers outside the INP, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments for customers in southern Poland. The year 2000 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. We started three new research projects granted by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research. Mr P. Bilski co-ordinates the project on the measurements of radiation doses on board of commercial aircraft of Polish LOT Airlines. Dr B. Marczewska and I worked on the application of artificial diamonds for dosimetry of ionising radiation. We also participate in a

  2. Adherence to a Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Erin M.; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect® for Xbox® 360 game system (Microsoft®, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Results: Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Conclusions: Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population. PMID:26192371

  3. Adherence to a Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Dowling, Glenna A

    2014-08-01

    Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect(®) for Xbox(®) 360 game system (Microsoft(®), Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population.

  4. Health Physics Measurements Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  5. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  6. Health Physics Measurements Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  7. Physics of Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, Millard; Goldberg, Bennett

    A one-semester algebra-based physics course is being offered to Boston University students whose major fields of study are in allied health sciences: physical therapy, athletic training, and speech, language, and hearing sciences. The classroom instruction incorporates high-engagement learning techniques including worksheets, student response devices, small group discussions, and physics demonstrations instead of traditional lectures. The use of pre-session exercises and quizzes has been implemented. The course also requires weekly laboratory experiments in mechanics or electricity. We are using standard pre- and post-course concept inventories to compare this one-semester introductory physics course to ten years of pre- and post-course data collected on students in the same majors but who completed a two-semester course.

  8. Operational health physics training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  9. Operational health physics training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of α, β, γ, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included

  10. Uranium health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the Summer School on Uranium Health Physics held in Pretoria on the 14 and 15 April 1980. The following topics were discussed: uranium producton in South Africa; radiation physics; internal dosimetry and radiotoxicity of long-lived uranium isotopes; uranium monitoring; operational experience on uranium monitoring; dosimetry and radiotoxicity of inhaled radon daughters; occupational limits for inhalation of radon-222, radon-220 and their short-lived daughters; radon monitoring techniques; radon daughter dosimeters; operational experience on radon monitoring; and uranium mill tailings management

  11. Health-related quality of life, adiposity, and sedentary behavior in patients with early schizophrenia: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassnig M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Strassnig,1 Jaspreet S Brar,2 Rohan Ganguli31Department of Psychiatry, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: To examine adiposity and sedentary behavior in relation to health-related quality of life (QoL in patients with early schizophrenia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to assess adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, habitual physical activity and idle sitting time by the Short Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and health-related QoL by the RAND Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. QoL scores were compared with age-adjusted Canadian normative population data.Results: There were 36 participants with early schizophrenia, average age 25.1 (±3.6. Twenty-nine (72.5% were males. Mean illness duration was 30 (±18 months, and mean body mass index was 28.3 (±5. Females had higher body fat content than males (30.8 ± 6.9 vs 24.7 ± 10.6; t = −2.6, df = 34; P = 0.015. Total body fat (F = 14; P = 0.001, lean body mass (F = 10.2; P = 0.001, and sedentary behavior (F = 5; P = 0.013 significantly increased across body mass index categories. Total body fat was correlated with sedentary behavior (r = 0.62; P = 0.001, and total lean body mass was negatively correlated with sedentary behavior (r = 0.39; P = 0.03. Based on SF-36 scores, participants had significantly lower physical functioning (P = 0.0034, role physical (P = 0.0003, general health (P < 0.0001, vitality (P = 0.03, and physical component scores (P = 0.003 than Canadian population comparisons. Habitual sedentary behavior, more than activity or adiposity levels, was associated with health-related QoL in early schizophrenia.Conclusion: Health-related QoL is lower in early schizophrenia and is predominantly experienced in the physical

  12. Introduction to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, C.

    1983-01-01

    This volume, in textbook format, deals with radiation toxicology, environmental health, and safety procedures related to radiation exposure. The first five chapters give basic information in mechanics, electricity, quantum theory, and atomic and nuclear structure. The remaining chapters deal with the biological effects of radiation and radiation protection. The text is descriptive and basically non-technical nor mathematical. The main purpose of this textbook is to lay the groundwork for attaining technical competency in health physics, i.e., the protection of the individual and population groups against the harmful effects of ionizing and non- ionizing radiation. Illustrated with plates, graphs, charts, and tables

  13. Educative health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    'Full-Text:' There is more to education in radiation protection than curricula, courses and certificates. In a broader sense, education implies the provision of knowledge, the development of competence, and the promotion of understanding. These purposes are served by 'Health Physics', the journal of radiation protection. The leading role of the journal is supported by an Advisory Board composed of members of the IRPA Publications Commission. A review is presented of the diversity of material in Health Physics throughout the last few years and set against the historical background. Expansion in the range of topics is described as well as the increase in didactic content both theoretical and operational. The global range of contributions is noted as is the attempt to provide an international perspective on developments in the discipline. Plans for the future are discussed. (author)

  14. Social support and religion: mental health service use and treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, A; Gearing, R E; Alonzo, D; Baldwin, S; Harmon, S; McHugh, K

    2013-08-01

    The perceptions and religious beliefs held by family members, mental health and health care professionals, and the community may affect the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. To better identify and understand the influence of families, professionals and community members on individual's treatment for schizophrenia, this review paper examines: (1) the religious perceptions of families, professionals, and the public towards schizophrenia; (2) religious perceptions of the etiology of schizophrenia; (3) how others perceive religion as a coping mechanism; and (4) how religion influences treatment engagement and help-seeking behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched from 1980 to 2010 using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and religion, religiosity, spirituality, and faith. Forty-three (n = 43) original research studies met the inclusion criteria. This study found that religious beliefs influence the treatment of schizophrenia in the following ways: Religious themes were positively associated with coping, treatment engagement and help-seeking behavior. Evidence of religious underpinnings was found in perceptions of etiology. The findings also indicate that there is often both a preference among family members and caregivers to utilize religious-based professionals and caution toward mental health professionals. Researchers and professionals may find avenues for improving treatment through examining the interaction of religious and schizophrenia at the social support level.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  16. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  17. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, dosimetry and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti, CaF 2 :Tm and CVD diamond detectors for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and LiF:Mg, Cu, Si, Na for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (cosmic-rays on aircraft and radon in dwellings and soil) are also performed using track CR-39 and TLD detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, supervision of radiation safety on IFJ premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We provide personal and environmental TLD dosimetry services for several customers outside the IFJ, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments (400 per year) for customers in the southern region of Poland. The year 2001 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. M. Waligorski has received his Professor of Physics state nomination from A. Kwasniewski, the President of Poland. P. Bilski and M. Budzanowski were granted their Ph.D. degrees by the Scientific Council of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. We continued several national and international research projects. Dr

  18. Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: a national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.

  19. Comparing mental health literacy and physical health literacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstead, Robert; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis). Participants were also asked to rate their sympathy and estimates of prevalence for each disorder. Recognition of the mental health disorders was superior compared recognition of the physical disorders. Analysis of treatment beliefs, sympathy and prevalence ratings also showed significant differences between disorders. Results highlight the importance of education and the lack of public knowledge regarding major physical health conditions.

  20. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy, and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (radon in dwellings and in soil air) are also performed using track detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, monitoring and supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. The year 1998 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. In retrospective, the main effort in 1998 has been directed towards preparation and participation in the 12th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry in Burgos, Spain. One of the research projects is aimed at developing novel miniature TLD detectors with improved LET and dose characteristics for precise phantom measurements in eye cancer radiotherapy with proton beams. The second project concerns the application of ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg, Cu, P (MCP-N) TLD detectors in environmental monitoring of gamma ionising radiation. The main objective of this last project is to develop and to test a system for rapid, short-term monitoring of environmental radiation

  1. Relationship between objectively measured sedentary behavior and health outcomes in schizophrenia patients: The PsychiActive project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Oviedo-Caro, Miguel Ángel; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate possible relationships between sedentary behavior and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia patients. Variables contributing to the variability in sedentary behavior were identified. Eighty-two schizophrenia outpatients (mean age±SD: 41.0±8.7years, 87% men, mean illness duration±SD: 17.1±8.9years) wore a multisensor armband for 7 consecutive full days to objectively measure sedentary behavior. BMI, walking capacity (6-minute walking test) as a proxy for CRF estimation and HRQoL (Short Form 36-Item Health Survey questionnaire version 2) were also assessed. Correlation (Pearson or Spearman coefficients) and multiple regression analysis were used. Sedentary behavior was significantly associated with BMI, CRF, and the physical component summary score of HRQoL (r values, -0.34-0.41; all Pdiet, smoking, and antipsychotic medication (all Psedentary behavior. Consistent relationships between sedentary behavior and BMI, CRF, and the physical component summary score of HRQoL were found in schizophrenia patients. All the identified determinants of sedentary behavior are modifiable and may be important areas for future interventions in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The health physics and radiological health handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.

    1992-01-01

    This handbook was conceived in order to fill the need of health physics practitioners, technicians, and students for an easy to use, practical handbook containing health physics and radiological health data. While briefer and more specific data sources are sources are available on single subject areas, as are multi-volume compendia, there is no current up-to-date compilation of information useful on a daily basis by the health physicist. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 16 chapters in this book

  3. Physics measurements and health education

    OpenAIRE

    HAJDUCH, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.

  4. Health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Alize J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention to empirically derived estimates of disability. The aim of this paper is to describe how GBD health states were derived for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These will be used in deriving health state-specific disability estimates. A literature review was first conducted to settle on a parsimonious set of health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A second review was conducted to investigate the proportion of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases experiencing these health states. These were pooled using a quality-effects model to estimate the overall proportion of cases in each state. The two schizophrenia health states were acute (predominantly positive symptoms and residual (predominantly negative symptoms. The three bipolar disorder health states were depressive, manic, and residual. Based on estimates from six studies, 63% (38%-82% of schizophrenia cases were in an acute state and 37% (18%-62% were in a residual state. Another six studies were identified from which 23% (10%-39% of bipolar disorder cases were in a manic state, 27% (11%-47% were in a depressive state, and 50% (30%-70% were in a residual state. This literature review revealed salient gaps in the literature that need to be addressed in future research. The pooled estimates are indicative only and more data are required to generate more definitive estimates. That said, rather than deriving burden estimates that fail to capture the changes in disability within schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the derived proportions and their wide uncertainty intervals will be used in deriving disability estimates.

  5. Physical Health and Dual Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Debbie; Keen, Sarah; Mauro, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The physical health of people with mental illness may be neglected for a variety of reasons. This paper looks at the common physical health problems experienced by people with a dual diagnosis of substance misuse and serious mental illness, and suggests ways of assessing and managing them.

  6. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  7. Actively Negotiating the Mind-Body Divide: How Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients Make Health for Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia E H; Dennis, Simone

    2017-09-01

    It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue. Our observations of 59 participants in England and Australia over 18 months revealed that patients did not observe this hierarchisation of mental treatments and physical outcomes. Patients often actively engaged in the management of their bodily symptoms, leading us to advance the figure of the active, rather than passive, patient. In our paper, we do not take the position that the facility for active management is a special one utilised only by these patients. We seek instead to draw attention to what is currently overlooked as an ordinary capacity to enact some sort of control over life, even under ostensibly confined and confining circumstances. We argue that clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients utilise the clinical dichotomy between mental and physical domains of health to rework what health means to them. This permits patients to actively manage their own phenomenological 'life projects' (Rapport, I am Dynamite: an Alternative Anthropology of Power, Routledge, London 2003), and forces us to reconsider the notion of clinical giveness of what health means. This making of one's own meanings of health may be critical to the maintenance of a sense of self.

  8. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  9. Health physics as a career

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Health physics includes the protection of man and his environment against the effects of radiations and radioactive substances. As a career it deals with research, regulatory aspects of radiation protection and radiation monitoring. For a health physicist a post-graduate degree in Physics is required, while technical personnel should have a degree or technical diploma. NUCOR, UCOR, ESCOM and the Division for Radiation Control of the Department of Health and Welfare are some of the institutions that make use of the services of health physicists. As South Africa is one of the major uranium producers, there will be an increasing demand for health physicists in the future

  10. Self concepts, health locus of control and cognitive functioning associated with health-promoting lifestyles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Liu, Chia Hsuan; Pan, Li Hsiang

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship among self concepts, health locus of control, cognitive functioning and health-promoting lifestyles in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. We examined health-promoting lifestyles through self-efficacy, self-esteem, health locus of control and neurocognitive factors. Fifty-six people with schizophrenia were enrolled in the study group. All subjects participated in the self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), health locus of control (The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales), health-promoting lifestyles (Health Promotion Life-style Profile-II) and a series of neurocognitive measures. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy, internal health locus of control and attentional set-shifting accounted for 42% of the variance in total health-promoting lifestyles scores. Self-efficacy, self-esteem, internal and powerful others health locus of control and attentional set-shifting were significant predictors for domains of health-promoting lifestyles, respectively. Study findings can help mental health professionals maintain and improve health-promoting behaviors through a better understanding of self-esteem, self-efficacy, health locus of control and neurocognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. "I cry every day and night, I have my son tied in chains": physical restraint of people with schizophrenia in community settings in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; De Silva, Mary; Pathare, Soumitra; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-07-11

    A primary rationale for scaling up mental health services in low and middle-income countries is to address human rights violations, including physical restraint in community settings. The voices of those with intimate experiences of restraint, in particular people with mental illness and their families, are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of, and reasons for, restraint of people with schizophrenia in community settings in rural Ethiopia in order to develop constructive and scalable interventions. A qualitative study was conducted, involving 15 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions (n = 35) with a purposive sample of people with schizophrenia, their caregivers, community leaders and primary and community health workers in rural Ethiopia. Thematic analysis was used. Most of the participants with schizophrenia and their caregivers had personal experience of the practice of restraint. The main explanations given for restraint were to protect the individual or the community, and to facilitate transportation to health facilities. These reasons were underpinned by a lack of care options, and the consequent heavy family burden and a sense of powerlessness amongst caregivers. Whilst there was pervasive stigma towards people with schizophrenia, lack of awareness about mental illness was not a primary reason for restraint. All types of participants cited increasing access to treatment as the most effective way to reduce the incidence of restraint. Restraint in community settings in rural Ethiopia entails the violation of various human rights, but the underlying human rights issue is one of lack of access to treatment. The scale up of accessible and affordable mental health care may go some way to address the issue of restraint. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02160249 Registered 3rd June 2014.

  12. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Quality of Online Health-Related Information regarding Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Joseph; Venable, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Social workers are major mental health providers and, thus, can be key players in guiding consumers and their families to accurate information regarding schizophrenia. The present study, using the WebMedQual scale, is a comprehensive analysis across a one-year period at two different time points of the top for-profit and nonprofit sites that…

  14. Physical Activity During Therapy of Self- Disorder Among Patients with Schizophrenia.A Phenomenological Understanding of the Relationship Between Healing and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toft Jim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that physical activity has a positive effect both physiologically and socially for psychologically ill and vulnerable people, and that this effect is the same or greater for psychologically well-functioning people. In spite of this, treatment sites often hesitate to include sports and physical activity as part of the treatment offered. This article argues that there is a strong correlation between the body and mind, but from a different point of view than that adopted by the prevalent scientific research in the field. Specifically, I elucidate how the mind-body relationship and self-consciousness are influenced by physical activity for people with schizophrenia, and argue that symptoms are relieved as a result of physical activity. Consciousness has a bodily component that, for people with schizophrenia, is less well-integrated in the consciousness than for psychologically well-functioning people, and sports and physical activity can help facilitate this integration. My argument is based partly on phenomenological concepts and partly on an empirical research project concerning physical activity for people with schizophrenia. The conclusion is that their level of functioning and self-assessed quality of life increased markedly through physical activity. The purpose of the present article is thus partly to qualify the treatment chosen for people with schizophrenia, and partly to qualify the theoretical discussion concerning the role played by the body and physical activity in connection with consciousness and relief.

  15. Operational power reactor health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Operational Health Physics can be comprised of a multitude of organizations, both corporate and at the plant sites. The following discussion centers around Baltimore Gas and Electric's (BG and E) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, located in Lusby, Maryland. Calvert Cliffs is a twin Combustion Engineering 825 MWe pressurized water reactor site with Unit I having a General electric turbine-generator and Unit II having a Westinghouse turbine-generator. Having just completed each Unit's ten-year Inservice Inspection and Refueling Outge, a total of 20 reactor years operating health physics experience have been accumulated at Calvert Cliffs. Because BG and E has only one nuclear site most health physics functions are performed at the plant site. This is also true for the other BG and E nuclear related organizations, such as Engineering and Quality Assurance. Utilities with multiple plant sites have corporate health physics entity usually providing oversight to the various plant programs

  16. Health-physics Measurements: Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.; Hurtgen, C.; Vanhavere, F.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health-physics (1) offers complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards; (2) contributes to improve continuously these measurement techniques and follows up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) provides support and advise to nuclear and non-nuclear industry on issues of radioactive contamination. Progress and achievements in 1997 are summarised

  17. Health Physics Positions Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1992-05-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of summaries of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics in radiation protection (health physics). The bases for the data base are 247 original documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions

  18. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  19. Running for your life: A review of physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Claire; Karelis, Antony D; Stip, Emmanuel; Abdel-Baki, Amal

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g. central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular diseases and mortality. This risky profile may be explained by the adverse effects of antipsychotic medications and an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking, poor nutrition and low physical activity). In the general population, physical activity has been shown to be the optimal strategy to improve both cardiometabolic parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Accordingly, an emerging literature of non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, diet and physical activity) has been studied in individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review was 1) to conduct a critical literature review of non-pharmacological interventions that included some kind of physical activity (including supervised and unsupervised exercise training) and target cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia. 2) To describe the contribution of physical activity alone by reviewing trials of supervised exercise training programmes only. A literature review via systematic keyword search for publications in Medline, PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO was performed. Many non-pharmacological interventions are efficient in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors when combined with physical activity. Supervised physical activity has been successful in decreasing cardiovascular disease risk, and aerobic interval training appears to provide more benefits by specifically targeting cardiorespiratory fitness levels. In conclusion, physical activity is an effective strategy for addressing cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of exercise training programmes in individuals with schizophrenia.

  20. Activity monitoring using a mHealth device and correlations with psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seunghwan; Yeom, Chan-Woo; Shin, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Uk; Lee, Young Ryeol

    2016-12-30

    There are few studies of mobile-Health (mHealth) device application with schizophrenic patients. We aimed to quantitatively assess patient's activity and the relationship between their physical activity and the severity of their psychopathologies. Then we attempted to identify the patients who required intervention and evaluated the feasibility of using the mHealth device. A total of 61 of the 76 available hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia who participated in the activity programs were enrolled. They wore a mHealth device for a week to assess their activity (steps/day). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was completed by the subjects. As a result, the positive subscale of the PANSS and the positive and negative factors of the PANSS 5-factor structure showed a predictive value for low levels of physical activity. The group of subjects with a high total PANSS score had a significantly lower level of physical activity than the other groups. In conclusion, physical activity showed a significant association with positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms. The mHealth device showed relatively good feasibility for schizophrenic patients. We should pay more attention to the activity of patients with high PANSS scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Physics Education in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Training courses on health physics have been organized regularly in Venezuela since 1962. The basic course consists of 20 hours for theoretical tuition and 10 hours for laboratory practice. Post-graduate courses have been organized by the Central University since 1965. Radiological technicians receive their training through the courses organized by the Ministry of Health. (author)

  2. Impact of a Pilot Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program on Walking Speed in Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, H; Hubbard, E; Cooper, B A; Dowling, G

    2017-11-10

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) on walking speed in adults with schizophrenia. In this randomized controlled trial, 28 participants played either an active videogame for 30 min (intervention group) or played a sedentary videogame for 30 min (control group), once a week for 6 weeks. Walking speed was measured objectively with the Short Physical Performance Battery at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. The intervention group (n = 13) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.08 m/s and the control group (n = 15) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.03 m/s. Although the change in walking speed was not statistically significant, the intervention group had between a small and substantial clinically meaningful change. The results suggest a videogame based physical activity program provides clinically meaningful improvement in walking speed, an important indicator of health status.

  3. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.

    1970-01-01

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  4. Comorbidities and risk factors among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are charged with maintaining a holistic approach to their patients' health. While most patients with schizophrenia attend public mental health services and/or non-government organisations supporting people with mental illness, 88.2% of people with a psychotic illness (the majority being schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) had visited a GP in the previous year. For at least 30-40% of people living with schizophrenia in Australia, ongoing management is provided by their GP alone. Moreover, there is evidence that patients with schizophrenia value the help provided by GPs. Patients with schizophrenia have reduced life expectancy. Overseas research (primarily from the UK and US) has found that the poor physical health of patients with schizophrenia can be attributed to a number of factors such as modifiable lifestyle risk factors and side effects of medication, compounded by causes intrinsic to the illness such as mental stress and loss of initiative.

  5. Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    Medicine increasingly relies on cutting-edge techniques for the early diagnosis and treatment of tumours and other serious diseases. The first “Physics for health in Europe” workshop will be held at CERN on 2-4 February 2010. It will aim to open the way to a European roadmap for using physics tools in the development of diagnostic techniques and new cancer therapies. Physics is not new to producing applications for life sciences. Several detection techniques are currently used in diagnosis instruments and hadron therapy is one of the most promising ways of treating tumours which cannot be treated with conventional irradiation techniques since they are either radio-resistant or located very close to critical organs.. However, despite this potential synergy, the two communities – physicists and medical doctors – do not often meet to plan common actions. The “Physics for Health in Europe” workshop is one of the first attempts to get both communities to...

  6. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  9. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  10. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.

  11. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  12. Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdahl, H; Knapp, M; Edgell, E T; Ghandi, G; Haro, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

  13. [The resilience and health status of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Chi; Chen, Mei-Bih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Bai, Ya-Mei; Wei, Shiow-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Resilience has been shown to have a positive effect on health status. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of resilience on the health of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients. This study investigated the correlations between resilience and the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Data collection was conducted using a set of questionnaires that included a demographic datasheet, the SOC-13 (Sense of Coherence), the DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), and the SF-36 (short form). Seventy caregivers of schizophrenia patients were enrolled as participants at the psychiatric inpatient department of a medical center. SPSS 17.0 and SAS.9.2 statistical software packages were used to conduct descriptive analysis, the Sobel test, and Tobit model analysis. (1) The mean QOL (quality of life) scale score was 67.46 (SD = 17.74). Nearly one-fifth (18.6%) of caregivers were classified in the low to high depression range; 17.1% were classified in the low to high anxiety level; and 10% were classified in low to high stress level. (2) Duration of the caring period correlated negatively with caregiver QOL; having a concomitant disease significantly impacted QOL and resilience; and number of patient hospitalization days correlated negatively with level of caregiver anxiety. (3) The numbers of incidents of patient violence and patient suicide attempts correlated negatively with caregiver resilience and QOL. (4) Resilience was a mediator between care-giver demographic data and QOL. (5) Caregiver resilience was a predictor of QOL, depression, anxiety, and stress. The findings of the present study increase our understanding of the impact of resilience on the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. The authors hope these finding may be referenced in the development of resilience-based nursing caring models in the future.

  14. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  15. Medication adherence levels and differential use of mental-health services in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to antipsychotics for schizophrenia is associated with favorable clinical outcomes. This study compared annual mental-health service utilization by recent medication adherence levels for patients treated for schizophrenia, and assessed whether adherence levels change from pre- to post-psychiatric hospitalization. Methods We analyzed data from a large prospective, non-interventional study of patients treated for schizophrenia in the United States, conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Detailed mental-health resource utilization was systematically abstracted from medical records and augmented with patients' self report. Medication possession ratio (MPR with any antipsychotic in the 6 months prior to enrollment was used to categorize patients as: adherent (MPR ≥ 80%, N = 1758, partially adherent (MPR ≥ 60% Results Adherent patients had a lower rate of psychiatric hospitalization compared with partially adherent and non-adherent patients (p Conclusion Adherence is associated with lower utilization of acute care services and greater engagement in outpatient mental-health treatment. Adherence is a potentially dynamic phenomenon, which may improve, at least temporarily, following patients' psychiatric hospitalizations.

  16. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  17. Lay beliefs about the causes and cures of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Furnham, Adrian; Jeon, Mina; Ko, Young-Mi

    2017-09-01

    Lay beliefs about schizophrenia are an important factor associated with treatment-seeking behavior. This study was conducted to investigate the lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia in South Korea. A total of 654 adults (mean age, 35.96 ± 11.33 years) completed two questionnaires assessing their views on the causes and cures of schizophrenia. The factor structures of lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were then analyzed and the correlations between the resultant factors investigated. From the cause items, four factors were extracted: Health/Lifestyle, God/Fate, Social/Environmental and Biological. Four factors were also extracted from the treatment items: Self-Help/Stress Management, Physical Treatment/Health Management, Religious Help and Mental Health Service Utilization. Notably, most participants believed that items in the Social/Environmental and Biological factors were the causes of schizophrenia, while they believed that items in the Mental Health Service Utilization and Self-Help/Stress Management factors were the treatments. Participants' beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were systematically correlated. Overall, laypeople have reasonably accurate beliefs and a multidimensional view of the causes and treatments of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, our results suggest that public education about the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia are necessary to increase actual usage of mental health services and treatments for schizophrenia.

  18. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  19. Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M

    2014-01-17

    Current guidance suggests that we should monitor the physical health of people with serious mental illness, and there has been a significant financial investment over recent years to provide this. To assess the effectiveness of physical health monitoring, compared with standard care for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (October 2009, update in October 2012), which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. All randomised clinical trials focusing on physical health monitoring versus standard care, or comparing i) self monitoring versus monitoring by a healthcare professional; ii) simple versus complex monitoring; iii) specific versus non-specific checks; iv) once only versus regular checks; or v) different guidance materials. Initially, review authors (GT, AC, SM) independently screened the search results and identified three studies as possibly fulfilling the review's criteria. On examination, however, all three were subsequently excluded. Forty-two additional citations were identified in October 2012 and screened by two review authors (JX and MW), 11 of which underwent full screening. No relevant randomised trials which assess the effectiveness of physical health monitoring in people with serious mental illness have been completed. We identified one ongoing study. There is still no evidence from randomised trials to support or refute current guidance and practice. Guidance and practice are based on expert consensus, clinical experience and good intentions rather than high quality evidence.

  20. Treatment of adult patients with schizophrenia and complex mental health needs - A national clinical guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Østrup Rasmussen, Jesper; Klokker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Danish Health and Medicines Authority assembled a group of experts to develop a national clinical guideline for patients with schizophrenia and complex mental health needs. Within this context, ten explicit review questions were formulated, covering several identified key...... therapy for persistent positive and/or negative symptoms, and the combination of cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for cannabis and/or central stimulant abuse. SSRI or SNRI add-on treatment for persistent negative symptoms should be used only cautiously. Where no evidence...

  1. Exploring the relationship between mental health stigma, knowledge and provision of pharmacy services for consumers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists' provision of medication counseling and medication review has been shown to improve adherence and resolve drug-related problems. Lack of knowledge of mental health conditions and negative beliefs may act as a barrier to the provision of pharmacy services. It is unclear how pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes impact their provision of pharmacy services. To explore the relationship between pharmacists' level of mental health stigma, mental health literacy and behavioral intentions in relation to providing pharmacy services for consumers with schizophrenia. A survey instrument containing a measure of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items relating to the provision of pharmacy services for consumers with schizophrenia compared to cardiovascular disease, was mailed to a random sample of 1000 pharmacists registered with the Pharmacy Board of New South Wales in November 2009. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between stigma, knowledge and behavior. Responses were received from 188 pharmacists. Pharmacists were significantly more confident and comfortable to provide services to consumers with a cardiovascular illness than a mental illness. Social distance, β = -0.11 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.01, P = 0.03), and schizophrenia literacy scores, β = 1.02, (95% CI: 0.54, 1.50, P mental health stigma and high levels of schizophrenia literacy were associated with pharmacists being more willing to provide medication counseling and identify drug-related problems for consumers with schizophrenia. This demonstrates the importance of improving knowledge and stigma surrounding schizophrenia to improve service delivery for consumers taking medications for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New directions in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1975-04-01

    Present statutory and other requirements placed on health physics groups include many areas besides that of radiological monitoring. It is not unusual for health physics groups to also monitor metal contamination and accidental release of certain toxic chemicals. The general approach in terms of medical surveillance, monitoring, sampling, and measurement technology will be applicable outside the nuclear area. With the creation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, and with abolition of the former U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, it is clear that technologies beyond strictly nuclear technology will be implemented to meet energy needs of the next decade. The impact of some of these technologies for electric power production on the environment are discussed with emphasis on coal. It is pointed out that coal consumption can be expected to increase, and the scale of operation for individual plants can be unbelievably large. The contributions of nuclear power plants and fossil fuels to meet energy demands by the year 2000 are estimated. Both health and environmental implications of such operations are discussed in relation to anticipated research and monitoring programs. (U.S.)

  3. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  4. Relationship between Mental Health and Burden among Primary Caregivers of Outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Jia; Hu, Jize; Hu, JingChu

    2018-01-24

    There is growing recognition that caring for a patient with schizophrenia often results in high levels of perceived burden and poorer overall mental health for caregivers. A quantitative cross-sectional design and standardized instruments were used to collect data from 355 primary caregivers of adults in outpatient care with schizophrenia in China. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between caregiver burden and mental health among primary caregivers and whether this association is influenced by personality, coping style, and family functioning, based on a diathesis-stress perspective. Goodness-of-fit indices (χ 2 /df = 1.406, GFI = 0.919, CFI = 0.957, etc.) confirmed that the modified model fit the data well. In line with the diathesis-stress model, and with this study's hypotheses, we found that caregiver burden was significantly related to mental health outcomes directly. The final model showed that personality traits, coping style, and family function influenced the relationship between caregiver burden and mental health. The neuroticism personality traits have a direct effect on caregiver burden and family functioning in this sample. Coping style had a direct effect on the caregiver burden, and family functioning had a direct effect on the caregiver burden. Our final model about primary caregivers can be applied clinically to predict mental health outcomes from caregiver burden. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  5. Living with schizophrenia: Health-related quality of life among primary family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-12-01

    To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterizing Smartphone Engagement for Schizophrenia: Results of a Naturalist Mobile Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Staples, Patrick; Slaters, Linda; Adams, Jared; Sandoval, Luis; Onnela, J P; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2017-08-04

    Despite growing interest in smartphone apps for schizophrenia, little is known about how these apps are utilized in the real world. Understanding how app users are engaging with these tools outside of the confines of traditional clinical studies offers an important information on who is most likely to use apps and what type of data they are willing to share. The Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America, in partnership with Self Care Catalyst, has created a smartphone app for schizophrenia that is free and publically available on both Apple iTunes and Google Android Play stores. We analyzed user engagement data from this app across its medication tracking, mood tracking, and symptom tracking features from August 16 th 2015 to January 1 st 2017 using the R programming language. We included all registered app users in our analysis with reported ages less than 100. We analyzed a total of 43,451 mood, medication and symptom entries from 622 registered users, and excluded a single patient with a reported age of 114. Seventy one percent of the 622 users tried the mood-tracking feature at least once, 49% the symptom tracking feature, and 36% the medication-tracking feature. The mean number of uses of the mood feature was two, the symptom feature 10, and the medication feature 14. However, a small subset of users were very engaged with the app and the top 10 users for each feature accounted for 35% or greater of all entries for that feature. We find that user engagement follows a power law distribution for each feature, and this fit was largely invariant when stratifying for age or gender. Engagement with this app for schizophrenia was overall low, but similar to prior naturalistic studies for mental health app use in other diseases. The low rate of engagement in naturalistic settings, compared to higher rates of use in clinical studies, suggests the importance of clinical involvement as one factor in driving engagement for mental health apps. Power law

  7. Health physics in JAERI, 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In the annual report No.26 (fiscal 1983) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. In all the three research establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of measuring instruments were carried out as in the previous years. There were no occupational exposures exceeding the maximum permissible doses and no releases of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivities due to facilities. (J.P.N.)

  8. Health physics training of plant staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heublein, R.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The scope of this document entitled Health Physics Training of Plant Staff addresses those critical elements common to all health physics training programs. The incorporation of these elements in a health physics training program will provide some assurances that the trainees are competent to work in the radiological environment of a nuclear plant. This paper provides sufficient detail for the health physicist to make managerial decisions concerning the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of health physics training programs. Two models are provided in the appendices as examples of performance based health physics training programs

  9. Vitamin D in schizophrenia: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mathew; Natarajan, Radhika; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D (vitD) is known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health. VitD is made endogenously in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. VitD is now considered as a potent neurosteroid hormone, critical to brain development and normal brain function, and is known for its anti-inflammatory property affecting various aspects of human health. VitD ligand-receptor, a receptor that mediates much of vitD's biological actions, has been found throughout the body including the central nervous system. VitD deficiency is common in patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a debilitating chronic mental illness characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms including flat affect and lack of motivation. Several environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as season of birth, latitude and migration, have been linked to vitD deficiency. Recent studies have suggested a potential role of vitD in the development of schizophrenia. For example, neonatal vitD status is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia in later life obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease, which are commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia. It has been well established that vitD deficiency is related to these metabolic problems. The biological mechanism is most likely related to vitD's action on the regulation of inflammatory and immunological processes, consequently affecting the manifestation of clinical symptoms and treatment response of schizophrenia. Potential benefits of vitD supplementation to improve schizophrenia symptoms as well as physical health in patients with schizophrenia should be further explored in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Beyond diagnosis: the Core Sets for persons with schizophrenia based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Guilera, Georgina; Barrios, Maite; Rojo, Emilio; Pino, Oscar; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Balluerka, Nekane; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Padilla, José Luis; Benítez, Isabel; Selb, Melissa

    2017-07-30

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), this paper presents the results of the process to develop the Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia that allow to comprehensively describe functioning in persons with schizophrenia. Twenty health professionals from diverse backgrounds participated in a formal and iterative decision-making process during an international consensus conference to develop these Core Sets. The conference was carried out based on evidence gathered from four preparatory studies (systematic literature review, qualitative study, expert survey, and empirical study). The first step of this decision-making and consensus process comprised of discussions and voting in working groups and plenary sessions to develop the comprehensive version. The categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia served as the basis for the second step -a ranking and cutoff procedure to decide on the brief version. Of the 184 candidate categories identified in the preparatory studies, 97 categories were included in the Comprehensive Core Set for schizophrenia. A total of 25 categories were selected to constitute the Brief Core Set. The formal decision-making and consensus process integrating evidence from four preparatory studies and expert opinion led to the first version of the Core Sets for schizophrenia. Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia may provide a common language among different health professionals and researchers, and a basic international standard of what to measure, report, and assess the functioning of persons with schizophrenia. Implications for rehabilitation Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that has a tremendous impact on functioning and daily life of persons living with the disorder. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an internationally recognized standard for describing the functioning status of these

  11. The Pathways to the First Contact with Mental Health Services among Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that delay in the commencement of treatment, following the onset of schizophrenia, may be related to the pathways patients navigate before accessing mental health care. Therefore, insight into the pattern and correlates of pathways to mental care of patients with schizophrenia may inform interventions that could fast track their contact with mental health professionals and reduce the duration of untreated psychosis. This study assessed the pathways to mental health care among patients with schizophrenia (n=138, at their first contact with mental health services at the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Yaba Lagos, Nigeria. Traditional and religious healers were the first contact for the majority (69% of the patients. Service users who first contacted nonorthodox healers made a greater number of contacts in the course of seeking help, eventuating in a longer duration of untreated psychosis (P<0.001. However, the delay between the onset of psychosis and contact with the first point of care was shorter in patients who patronized nonorthodox practitioners. The findings suggest that collaboration between orthodox and nonorthodox health services could facilitate the contact of patients with schizophrenia with appropriate treatment, thereby reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. The need for public mental health education is also indicated.

  12. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  13. Physical activity in schizophrenia is higher in the first episode than in subsequent ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eWalther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is frequently associated with abnormal motor behavior, particularly hypokinesia. The course of the illness tends to deteriorate in the first years. We aimed to assess gross motor activity in patients with a first episode (n = 33 and multiple episodes (n = 115 of schizophrenia spectrum disorders using wrist actigraphy. First episode patients were younger, had higher motor activity and reduced negative symptom severity. Covarying for age, chlorpromazine equivalents and negative symptoms, first episode patients still had higher motor activity. This was also true after excluding patients with schizophreniform disorder from the analyses. In first episode patients but not in patients with multiple episodes, motor activity was correlated with antipsychotic dosage. In conclusion, after controlling for variables related to disorder chronicity, patients with first episodes were still more active than patients with multiple episodes. Thus, reduced motor activity is a marker of deterioration in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  14. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  15. Mental health literacy about schizophrenia and depression: a survey among Chinese caregivers of patients with mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shubao; Wu, Qiuxia; Qi, Chang; Deng, Huiqiong; Wang, Xuyi; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Xiong, Yifan; Liu, Tieqiao

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the knowledge of schizophrenia and depression among caregivers of patients with mental disorder in China. A convenience sample of 402 caregivers at the Department of Psychiatry of a general hospital in China was investigated (response rate 95.7%), using vignettes based investigation methodology. The number of caregivers using the term "depression" to describe the depression vignette was 43.6%, which was significantly higher than the number of caregivers using the term "schizophrenia" to describe the schizophrenia one (28.5%). A high percentage of caregivers believed that "psychiatrist", "psychologist" and "close family members" would be helpful, and the top three most helpful interventions were "becoming more physically active", "getting out and learning more" and "receiving psychotherapy". The number of caregivers endorsed "antipsychotics" and "antidepressants" as helpful for the schizophrenia and the depression vignettes were 82.0 and 80.7%, respectively. Regarding the causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial factors, including "daily problems" and "work or financial problems", and "weakness of character" were highly rated, with half considered genetic or chemical imbalance causes. Caregivers expressed a high knowledge about treatments and interventions of mental disorders. But there are still some areas, particularly regarding the recognition and causes of mental disorders, that are in need of improvement. This is particularly the case for schizophrenia.

  16. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  17. Health care resource use and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wu,1 Xiaoning He,1 Li Liu,2 Wenyu Ye,2 William Montgomery,3 Haibo Xue,2 Jeffery S McCombs41School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAObjective: Information concerning the treatment costs of schizophrenia is scarce in People’s Republic of China. The aims of this study were to quantify health care resource utilization and to estimate the direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Data were obtained from the Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI database. Adult patients with ≥1 diagnosis of schizophrenia and 12-month continuous enrollment after the first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2008 and 2009 were included. Both schizophrenia-related, psychiatric-related, and all-cause related resource utilization and direct medical costs were estimated.Results: A total of 2,125 patients were included with a mean age of 52.3 years, and 50.7% of the patients were female. The annual mean all-cause costs were $2,863 per patient with psychiatric-related and schizophrenia-related costs accounting for 84.1% and 62.0% respectively. The schizophrenia-related costs for hospitalized patients were eleven times greater than that of patients who were not hospitalized. For schizophrenia-related health services, 60.8% of patients experienced at least one hospitalization with a mean (median length of stay of 112.1 (71 days and a mean cost of $1,904 per admission; 59.0% of patients experienced at least one outpatient visit with a mean (median number of visits of 6.2 (4 and a mean cost of $42 per visit during the 12-month follow-up period. Non

  18. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Hallgren, Mats; Probst, Michel; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; De Hert, Marc; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) die up to 15 years prematurely due to chronic somatic comorbidities. Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are independent yet modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in these people. A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring these risk factors is lacking in this vulnerable population. We conducted a meta-analysis investigating sedentary behavior and physical activity levels and their correlates in people with severe mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to April 2017 for articles measuring sedentary behavior and/or physical activity with a self-report questionnaire or an objective measure (e.g., accelerometer). Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-nine studies were included (N=35,682; 39.5% male; mean age 43.0 years). People with severe mental illness spent on average 476.0 min per day (95% CI: 407.3-545.4) being sedentary during waking hours, and were significantly more sedentary than age- and gender-matched healthy controls (p=0.003). Their mean amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity was 38.4 min per day (95% CI: 32.0-44.8), being significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p=0.002 for moderate activity, pphysical activity guidelines (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, pphysical activity levels and non-compliance with physical activity guidelines were associated with male gender, being single, unemployment, fewer years of education, higher body mass index, longer illness duration, antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use, lower cardiorespiratory fitness and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. People with bipolar disorder were the most physically active, yet spent most time being sedentary. Geographical differences were detected, and inpatients were more active than outpatients and those living in the community. Given the

  19. Satisfaction with mental health services among people with schizophrenia in five European sites: Results from the EPSILON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bisoffi, Giulia; Thornicroft, Graham; Vàzquez-Barquero, Josè Luis; Becker, Thomas; Knapp, Martin; Knudsen, Helle Charlotte; Schene, Aart; Tansella, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with services is an important outcome variable that is increasingly used in mental health service evaluation. This study includes 404 people with schizophrenia in five European sites and addresses five questions focused on site, service, and patient characteristics as variables

  20. Mental health nurses' experiences of schizophrenia rehabilitation in China and India: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Louise; Dey-Ghatak, Priya; Davey, Gareth

    2007-02-01

    Nursing methods based on Western models may not be culturally relevant to patients from ethnic minority groups or other countries. In order to meet the needs of all patients, more research is needed to understand the cultural and social factors that influence nursing approaches. This paper reports preliminary open-ended discussions with mental health nurses in China and India in order to gain insights into the cultural and social issues that surround social rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Rehabilitation methods included cognitive behavioural therapy, psychosocial methods, and employment/vocational training. Several cultural and social issues drive the rehabilitation process in both countries, including the use of traditional medicine and healers, emphasis on family involvement, stigma, gender inequality, and lack of resources. Participants in both countries were working hard to tackle some of these issues, but also expressed need for improved resources. The study provides an insight into the cultural and social factors that shape schizophrenia rehabilitation in China and India, and serves as a baseline for further research about nursing across cultures. The study also highlights the marked differences in attitudes, values, and behaviours across cultural groups that need to be considered by nursing professionals to ensure that services are culturally competent.

  1. Health physics operations in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.; Trott, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    The special problems of applying the basic principles of radiological protection in the environment of a hospital are outlined, the hospital being not only a workplace but also the temporary home of the patients. In these circumstances, close co-operation is needed between all groups of hospital staff. Many technical innovations have been made over the past 50 years in the applications of both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy and, at the present time, an intensive development of these applications is in progress. Within that context, the role of health physics has become a major one. There is the need to provide high standards in radiological protection of the staff, of members of the public, and increasingly, of the patient. At the same time, there is the need to provide sound perspective on hazards arising from exposure to various forms of radiation, whether ionizing or non-ionizing, for that perspective will influence future developments in this field. (author)

  2. Health physics in JAERI, 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    In the annual report No. 22 (fiscal 1979) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. In all the three research establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of measuring instruments were carried out as in previous years. There were no occupational exposures exceeding the maximum permissible doses and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivities due to facilities. In Tokai and Oarai Research Establishments radioactive waste management including decontamination works was also carried out and radioactive solid wastes were stored in the same way as in previous years. Construction of the Packaged Waste Storage Facility was completed, and of the Facility of Radiation Standards and the Medium-Level Waste Treatment Facility progressed on schedule in Tokai Research Establishment. In Oarai Research Establishment, construction was completed on the latter project of radioactive waste treatment facilities, starting in 1974. Technical development and research were made as in previous years for improving techniques and methods in monitoring of individuals, facilities and environment and also in waste management and decontamination. (author)

  3. Screening physical health? Yes! But...: nurses' views on physical health screening in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Scott, David; Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2013-08-01

    To explore nurses' views on the role of nurses in screening and monitoring for physical care of consumers with serious mental illness, at a regional mental health care service. People with serious mental illness experience heightened incidence of preventable and treatable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Screening and monitoring are considered universal clinical safeguards. Nurses can potentially facilitate systematic screening, but their views on physical health care practices are rarely investigated. Qualitative exploratory study. Focus group interviews with 38 nurses of a regional mental health care service district of Australia. To facilitate discussion, participants were presented with a screening system, called the Health Improvement Profile (HIP), as an exemplar of screening of physical health risks by nurses. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analysis framework. Nurses argued that treatable and preventable physical health problems were common. Four main themes were identified: screening - essential for good practice; the policy-practice gap; 'screening then what?' and, is HIP the answer? Screening and monitoring were considered crucial to proper diagnosis and treatment, however, were not performed systematically or consistently. Nurse readiness for an enhanced role in screening was shaped by: role and responsibility issues, legal liability concerns, funding and staff shortages. Participants were concerned that lack of follow up would limit effectiveness of these interventions. Screening was considered an important clinical step in effective diagnosis and treatment; however, identified barriers need to be addressed to ensure screening is part of a systemic approach to improve physical health of consumers with serious mental illness. Nurses have potential to influence improvement in physical health outcomes for consumers of mental health services. Such potential can only be realised if a

  4. Women and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, child...

  5. Towards an integrated management of health physics and medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommaert, Chantal; Rogge, Frank; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    AVN is a licensed body that performs health physics control in different types of installations, from large nuclear facilities to small dentist cabinets. AVN can also provide medical physics services for the quality control of, for instance, medical devices used in a radiology or nuclear medicine department. Radiation protection for personnel and environment (health physics) and radiation protection for the patient (medical physics) are usually treated separately, using different referential documents, such as the European Directives 96/29/Euratom for health physics and 97/43/Euratom for medical physics. This difference is also clearly reflected in the Belgium legislation (two types of accreditation/licence for inspectors, different chapters in the law,..) From a practical point of view it is sometimes rather difficult to split the task 'on site' during an inspection. An RX system not complying with radiation protection criteria can definitively affect the patient as well as the workers. On the other hand, the hospitals, cannot easily differentiate these two tasks because they are not fully aware of the legislation and they are mixing both. Taking into account the health physics guidelines as well as medical physics guidelines, we have decided to move to an integrated approach of these two concepts. (orig.)

  6. Health-physics personnel: a need unfulfilled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    Current trends and conditions in the health physics profession are discussed. The need for health physics personnel in academia, nuclear power plants, other nuclear industry, national laboratories, and other sectors and the shortfall in qualified personnel to fill the available positions is described. Reasons for the present situation and recommendations for alleviating it are presented

  7. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  8. Occupational training in the health physics curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; Ziemer, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    In response to projected demands for health physics personnel with field training at the bachelor's degree level, the Bionucleonics Department has revised its curriculum in Radiological Health to provide applied training in health physics. The basic program provides a strong background in math, physics, chemistry and biology and an in-depth background in the fundamentals of health physics and field training in applied health physics. The field training is also open to graduate students. The field exercises are coordinated with Purdue's Radiological Control Program and include such tasks as contamination and direct radiation surveys; facility and personnel decontamination; reactor, accelerator, and analytical and diagnostic X-ray monitoring; instrument calibration; personnel monitoring; and emergency planning and accident evaluation. In a weekly discussion period associated with the field exercises, the students evaluate their field experience, discuss assigned problems, and receive additional information on regulations, regulatory guides, and management of radiation protection programs

  9. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  10. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  11. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  12. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  13. The Impact of a Videogame-Based Pilot Physical Activity Program in Older Adults with Schizophrenia on Subjectively and Objectively Measured Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. These results suggest participants' perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  14. Progress report - physics and health sciences - physics section 1990 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This is the ninth semi-annual report on the Physics section of Physics and Health Sciences. Major areas of discussion include: nuclear physics, accelerator physics, general physics, neutron's solid state physics, theoretical physics and fusion

  15. Direct medical mental health care costs of schizophrenia in France, Germany and the United Kingdom - findings from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dirk; Bernert, Sebastian; König, Hans-Helmut; Matschinger, Herbert; Hogh, Theresa; Brugha, Traolach S; Bebbington, Paul E; Azorin, Michel; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Toumi, Mondher

    2009-05-01

    To quantify and compare the resource consumption and direct costs of medical mental health care of patients suffering from schizophrenia in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. In the European Cohort Study of Schizophrenia, a naturalistic two-year follow-up study, patients were recruited in France (N=288), Germany (N=618), and the United Kingdom (N=302). Data about the use of services and medication were collected. Unit cost data were obtained and transformed into United States Dollar Purchasing Power Parities (USD-PPP). Mean service use and costs were estimated using between-effects regression models. In the French/German/UK sample estimated means for a six-month period were respectively 5.7, 7.5 and 6.4 inpatient days, and 11.0, 1.3, and 0.7 day-clinic days. After controlling for age, sex, number of former hospitalizations and psychopathology (CGI score), mean costs were 3700/2815/3352 USD-PPP. Service use and estimated costs varied considerably between countries. The greatest differences were related to day-clinic use. The use of services was not consistently higher in one country than in the others. Estimated costs did not necessarily reflect the quantity of service use, since unit costs for individual types of service varied considerably between countries.

  16. Health physics personnel: a need unfulfilled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    For the past decade, the demand for health physics personnel, at both the professional and technical levels, has been increasing, and indeed has become quite acute in recent years. The need for health physics personnel is demonstrated by a summary of projected requirements and potential candidates by the year 1991. Suggestions made for ensuring the availability of qualified health physics personnel includes: 1) a characterization study of health physicists should be conducted, with emphasis on industry, to determine qualifications, job satisfaction factors, and other data pertinent to entry and retention in the field; 2) the curricula currently offered by post-secondary schools should be evaluated for quality and relevance; and 3) an industry standard or protocol for qualification and training of health physics should be developed and implemented

  17. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  18. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded

  19. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  20. Impacts on power reactor health physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The impacts on power reactor health physics programs form implementing the revised 10 CFR Part 20 will be extensive and costly. Every policy, program, procedure and training lesson plan involving health physics will require changes and the subsequent retraining of personnel. At each power reactor facility, hundreds of procedures and thousands of people will be affected by these changes. Every area of a power reactor health physics program will be affected. These areas include; ALARA, Respiratory Protection, Exposure Control, Job Coverage, Dosimetry, Radwaste, Effluent Accountability, Emergency Planning and Radiation Worker Training. This paper presents how power reactor facilities will go about making these changes and gives possible examples of some of these changes and their impact on each area of power reactor health physics program

  1. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-02-01

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators

  2. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community...

  3. Health(y) Education in Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies)…

  4. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  5. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Adana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family such as the patients disturbing behaviors, economic difficulties, and loss of income, restricted social activities, distressed household atmosphere, and undesirable influences on physical and mental health of the family members. The subjective burden refers to the extent of emotional distress caused by the objective burden. The data in the pertinent literature suggest an association between caregivers’ burden and sex, ethnicity, culture, caregivers’ health and quality of life, social support, and the symptomatology as presented by the patient. In order to promote mental health of schizophrenia patients along with their caregivers, the mental health workers should strive to find the means of supporting, informing, and cooperating with the family members. Psychosocial interventions designed for families and psychosocial rehabilitations programs designed for schizophrenia patients are effective means of easing caregivers’ burden.

  6. The role of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan: a substantive grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan-Yi; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Chouh-Jiuan

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to develop a practice theory that can be used to guide the direction of community nursing practice to help clients with schizophrenia and those who care for them. Substantive grounded theory was developed through use of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. Two groups of participants in Taiwan were selected using theoretical sampling: one group consisted of community mental health nurses and the other group was clients with schizophrenia and those who cared for them. The number of participants in each group was determined by theoretical saturation. Semi-structured one-to-one in-depth interviews and unstructured non-participant observation were utilized for data collection. Data analysis involved three stages: open, axial and selective coding. During the process of coding and analysis, both inductive and deductive thinking were utilized and the constant comparative analysis process continued until data saturation occurred. To establish trustworthiness, the four criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability were followed along with field trial, audit trial, member check and peer debriefing for reliability and validity. A substantive grounded theory, the role of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan, was developed through utilization of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. In this paper, results and discussion focus on causal conditions, context, intervening conditions, consequences and phenomenon. The theory is the first to contribute knowledge about the field of mental health home visiting services in Taiwan to provide guidance for the delivery of quality care to assist people in the community with schizophrenia and their carers.

  7. Overview. Health Physics Laboratory. Section 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics are presented and namely: research in the area of radiation physics and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, theoretical research concerns radiation detectors, radiation protection and studies of concepts of radiation protection and experimental research concerns solid state dosimetry. In this report, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  8. Overview. Health Physics Laboratory. Section 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waligorski, M.P.R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics are presented and namely: research in the area of radiation physics and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, theoretical research concerns radiation detectors, radiation protection and studies of concepts of radiation protection and experimental research concerns solid state dosimetry. In this report, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  9. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  10. Psychological trauma, physical health and somatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Norwood, A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between trauma, physical health and somatisation. A search was made on the Procite Database at the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences for research articles with the following key words: posttraumatic stress disorder, somatisation, trauma (the Procite Database holds more than 15,000 articles related to trauma and disaster). A review of the current research findings show a link between prior exposure to traumatic events (such as war, disaster, motor vehicles and industrial accidents, crime and sexual assault, domestic violence and child abuse) and subsequent physical heath and medical care utilisation. Possible mechanisms and conceptualisations which may explain the association between trauma and physical health, such as high-risk health behaviours, neurobiology, alexithymia and culture are discussed. Because traumatised persons show high medical utilisation, good screening, thorough assessment, empirically-based treatment and appropriate referral of such patients are essential.

  11. A randomised controlled trial of adjunctive yoga and adjunctive physical exercise training for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Wood, Joel; He, Fanyin; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N

    2017-04-01

    Yoga and physical exercise have been used as adjunctive intervention for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ), but controlled comparisons are lacking. Aims A single-blind randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether yoga training or physical exercise training enhance cognitive functions in SZ, based on a prior pilot study. Consenting, clinically stable, adult outpatients with SZ (n=286) completed baseline assessments and were randomised to treatment as usual (TAU), supervised yoga training with TAU (YT) or supervised physical exercise training with TAU (PE). Based on the pilot study, the primary outcome measure was speed index for the cognitive domain of 'attention' in the Penn computerised neurocognitive battery. Using mixed models and contrasts, cognitive functions at baseline, 21 days (end of training), 3 and 6 months post-training were evaluated with intention-to-treat paradigm. Speed index of attention domain in the YT group showed greater improvement than PE at 6 months follow-up (pattention domain showed greater improvement than TAU alone at 6-month follow-up (pattention and additional cognitive domains well past the training period, supporting our prior reported beneficial effect of YT on speed index of attention domain. As adjuncts, YT or PE can benefit individuals with SZ.

  12. General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M

    2014-03-28

    There is currently much focus on provision of general physical health advice to people with serious mental illness and there has been increasing pressure for services to take responsibility for providing this. To review the effects of general physical healthcare advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search October 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on general physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Seven studies are now included in this review. For the comparison of physical healthcare advice versus standard care we identified six studies (total n = 964) of limited quality. For measures of quality of life one trial found no difference (n = 54, 1 RCT, MD Lehman scale 0.20, CI -0.47 to 0.87, very low quality of evidence) but another two did for the Quality of Life Medical Outcomes Scale - mental component (n = 487, 2 RCTs, MD 3.70, CI 1.76 to 5.64). There was no difference between groups for the outcome of death (n = 487, 2 RCTs, RR 0.98, CI 0.27 to 3.56, low quality of evidence). For service use two studies presented favourable results for health advice, uptake of ill-health prevention services was significantly greater in the advice group (n = 363, 1 RCT, MD 36.90, CI 33.07 to 40.73) and service use: one or more primary

  13. Experiences of mental health services for 'black' men with schizophrenia and a history of disengagement: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Christopher; Graham, Hermine; Farrell, Derek; Larkin, Michael; Nettle, Mary

    2018-02-01

    Whilst mental disorders can be disabling they are also treatable, yet engagement with services is often poor and disengagement from treatment is a major concern for mental health nurses. Participants were service users typically perceived as the most disengaged from mental health services, yet they were willing to engage in the research interviews. The seven participants were all male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, a history of disengagement from mental health services and described their ethnicity as 'black'. Participants were under the care of Assertive Outreach Teams and were recruited after the researcher was introduced to them by clinicians who were working with them. After ethical approval, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to elicit the experiences of participants. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis, themes were developed. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis generated four themes: (i) "People just keep hounding me", (ii) Antipathy to Medication, (iii) Choice and the value of services, (iv) Stigmatisation and identity. By rigorously examining how service users with schizophrenia make sense of their experience of their relationship with mental health services, there is potential to give voice to the experiences of the recipients of mental health services. This study uncovered the complex nature of disengagement and in view of this there may never be a straightforward mechanism developed to engage all people with schizophrenia with mental health services. When the participants' experiences are considered in a broader social context it may be possible to reflect on how services can be adapted to facilitate better engagement. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Perspectives on reasons for non-adherence to medication in persons with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a qualitative study of patients, caregivers and health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Teferra, Solomon; Hanlon, Charlotte; Beyero, Teferra; Jacobsson, Lars; Shibre, Teshome

    2013-01-01

    Background: Levels of non-adherence to antipsychotic medication in persons with schizophrenia in rural African settings have been shown to be comparable to those found in high-income countries. Improved understanding of the underlying reasons will help to inform intervention strategies relevant to the context. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among persons with schizophrenia (n = 24), their caregivers (n = 19), research field workers (n = 7) and health workers (n = 1) involved in th...

  15. Socioeconomic disadvantage and schizophrenia in migrants under mental health detention orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Jan; Hoffmann, Klaus; Querengässer, Jan; Ross, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Migrants with mental hospital orders according to section 63 of the German criminal code are overrepresented in relation to their numbers in the general population. Subgroups originating from certain world regions are diagnosed with schizophrenia at a much higher rate than others. In the present literature, there is a strong evidence for a substantial correlation between migration, social disadvantage and the prevalence of schizophrenia. This study investigates the relationship between countries of origin, the risk of becoming a forensic patient and the proportion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data from a comprehensive evaluation tool of forensic inpatients in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg (FoDoBa) were compared with population statistics and correlated with the Human Development Index (HDI) and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). For residents with migration background, the risk ratio to receive a mental hospital order is 1.3 in comparison to non-migrants. There was a highly significant correlation between the HDI of the country of origin and the risk ratio for detention in a forensic psychiatric hospital. The proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses also correlated significantly with the HDI. In contrast, the MPI country rankings were not associated with schizophrenia diagnoses. Two lines of explanations are discussed: first, higher prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants originating from low-income countries, and second, a specific bias in court rulings with regard to involuntary forensic treatment orders for these migrant groups.

  16. Psychosocial health mediates the gratitude-physical health link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Brenda H; Killeen-Byrt, Mary

    2018-04-29

    There is now a growing body of research demonstrating the physical health benefits of being grateful. However, research has only just began to explore the mechanisms accounting for this gratitude-health relationship. This study examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and self-reported physical health symptoms, and explores whether this relationship is explained through reduced levels of perceived loneliness and stress. This study employed a cross-sectional design with a sample of 607 healthy adults. Serial mediation analysis revealed that the positive effect of gratitude on physical health was significantly mediated by lower reported levels of perceived loneliness and stress. These findings are important given evidence that gratitude can be cultivated, and may serve to buffer against stress and loneliness and improve somatic health symptoms in the general population.

  17. Intervention to promote physical health in staff within mental health facilities and the impact on patients' physical health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, Annette S; Kilian, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    of an intervention programme for improving physical health in staff working in longtermpsychiatric treatment facilities. Furthermore, the paper measured the association betweenstaff’s changes in physical health and the patients’ changes in physical health. Methods: Thestudy was a cluster randomized controlled 12......-month intervention study, and the interventionwas active awareness on physical health. Results: In the intervention group the staff reducedtheir waist circumference by 2.3 cm (95% CI: 0.3–4.4) when controlling for gender, age andcigarette consumption. In the control group, the staff changed their waist...... blood pressure was seen. Indications that staff acted aspositive role models for the patients’ physical health were seen....

  18. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  19. Health physics research abstracts no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The present issue No. 11 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of Bulletins published by the Agency since 1967. They collect reports from Member States on Health Physics research in progress or just completed. The main aim in issuing such reports is to draw attention to work that is about to be published and to enable interested scientists to obtain further information through direct correspondence with the investigators. The attention of users of this publication is drawn to the fact that abstracts of published documents on Health Physics are published eventually in INIS Atomindex, which is one of the output products of the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. The present issue contains 235 reports received up to December 1983 from the following Member States. In parentheses the country's ISO code and number of reports are given

  20. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  1. Health physics research abstracts No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    No. 13 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of bulletins published by the IAEA since 1967 and which collect reports from Member States on health physics research in progress or just completed. The present issue contains 370 reports received up to March 1987 and covers the following topics: Personnel monitoring, dosimetry, assessment of dose to man, operational radiation protection techniques, radiation levels, effects of radiation, environmental studies, pathways and monitoring, analysis and evaluation of radiation hazards resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, epidemiology of radiation damage, optimization of radiation protection, research programmes and projects

  2. Health Physics Society: origins and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1978-08-01

    Events leading up to the birth of the Health Physics Society in June, 1955, are reviewed. Membership requirements, chapters, and sections are discussed. An international organization, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), founded in 1963, was the outgrowth of the Health Physics Society. Other events in the history of the organization, such as the initiation of publishing of a society journal in 1957, the employment of the first Executive Secretary in 1965, and the establishment of awards, are reviewed. The two appendixes include lists of the officers of the society and award recipients

  3. Health physics research abstracts No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The No. 12 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of Bulletins published by the IAEA since 1967 and which collect reports from Member States on Health Physics research in progress or just completed. The present issue contains 386 reports received up to December 1984 and covering the following topics: personnel monitoring, dosimetry, assessment of dose to man, operational radiation protection techniques, biological effects of radiations, environmental studies, pathways and monitoring, radiation hazards resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities, radiation accidents and emergency plans, epidemiology of radiation damage, optimization of radiation protection, research programs and projects

  4. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Madhumitha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and

  5. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Madhumitha; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Koschorke, Mirja; Rangaswamy, Thara; Chavan, Animish; Dabholkar, Hamid; Dakshin, Lilly; Kumar, Pratheesh; John, Sujit; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram

    2012-02-16

    Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge about the subject matter

  6. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  8. Automated testing of health physics instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Endres, A.W.; Hadley, R.T.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1983-12-01

    A microcomputer controlled CAMAC system has been adapted for automated testing of health physics survey instruments. Once the survey instrument is positioned, the system automatically performs tests for angular dependence or battery lifetime. Rotation of the instrument is performed by a computer controlled stepping motor while readout is performed by an auto ranging digital volt meter and data stored on computer disks

  9. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  10. The changing emphases in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Kathren, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper explores the changing emphases in health physics as evidenced by the subject matter of published papers in four primary English language journals of interest to health physicists. Articles from each journal were first grouped by subject and date of publication and were then compiled according to the list of professional domains practiced by health physicists. Five domains of practice were examined, measurements including dosimetry and environmental monitoring; regulations and standards; facilities and equipment including shielding, ventilation, and instrumentation; operations and procedures; and education and training. 2 tabs

  11. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...

  12. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue Health Capsule Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  13. Long-term effect of a name change for schizophrenia on reducing stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ojio, Yasutaka; Shimada, Takafumi; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Ando, Shuntaro

    2015-10-01

    A name change for schizophrenia was first implemented in Japan for reducing stigma in 2002; however, little is known of its long-term impact. Total 259 students from 20 universities answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about their mental health-related experiences, and stigma scales including feasible knowledge and negative stereotypes for four specific diseases, including schizophrenia (old and new names), depression, and diabetes mellitus. We also asked to choose the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia among ten names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. The participants had more feasible knowledge and fewer negative stereotypes for the new name of schizophrenia than the old name, but were still significantly worse than for depression and diabetes mellitus (p stereotypes (β = 0.13, p = 0.020). The rate of correct responses for the old and new names of schizophrenia was significantly lower than that of dementia (41 vs. 87%, p media was associated with the recognition of name change for schizophrenia (p = 0.008), which was associated with less feasible knowledge for new name of schizophrenia. The name change of schizophrenia has reduced stigma since 12 years have passed. More effective campaigns, educational curricula, and policy making are needed to reduce stigma toward schizophrenia.

  14. Weight change from 3-year observational data: findings from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2012-06-01

    Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  16. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  17. [Economic evaluation of the demand of medical care for mental health in Mexico: schizophrenia and depression, 1996-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Ramos, René; Zúñiga, Alexis

    2003-01-01

    Financing protection for both, users and providers of health care services is one of the main objectives of National Program of Health in Mexico, 2001-2006. In fact one of the elements of the present health care reform initiatives is need for the efficient allocation of financial resources, using resource allocation schemes by specific health care demands that combine both the economic, clinical and the epidemiological perspectives. The evaluation of such schemes has been approached in several ways; however, in the case of mental health services, there is dearth of studies that use economic assessment methods. Moreover, such studies are of limited scope, often a response to unmated health needs, disregarding the economic implication for health services production and financing and ensuing medical care market imbalances. This paper presents the results of an evaluative research work aimed to assess the average cost of depression and schizophrenia case management, the financial resources required to meet the health care demands by type of institution, period 1996-2000, in Mexico by type of health care provider. The case management average cost for schizophrenia was $211.00 US, and that for depression was $221.00 US. The demand of services for both conditions in each type of institution showed that the greatest relative demands (96% of the national total for depression and 94% of the national total for schizophrenia) occur in three institutions: IMSS, SSA and ISSSTE. The greatest demand of the health services for the two study condition corresponded to those insured by the IMSS, followed by those uninsured who use the SSA services, and those insured by the ISSSTE. The case management costs for mental conditions are in the middle range between hypertension and diabetes in the upper end, pneumonia and diarrhea in the lower end. The case managment costs of health care demands for the selected tracer conditions differ considerably among institutions for insure populations

  18. Everyday discrimination and physical health: Exploring mental health processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Santilli, Alycia; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the mental health processes whereby everyday discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes. Data are drawn from a community health survey conducted with 1299 US adults in a low-resource urban area. Frequency of everyday discrimination was associated with overall self-rated health, use of the emergency department, and one or more chronic diseases via stress and depressive symptoms operating in serial mediation. Associations were consistent across members of different racial/ethnic groups and were observed even after controlling for indicators of stressors associated with structural discrimination, including perceived neighborhood unsafety, food insecurity, and financial stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Rethinking Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Insel, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current uns...

  20. Physical activity level and medial temporal health in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Dean, Derek J; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Smith, Ashley K; Robustelli, Briana L; Leopold, Daniel R; Millman, Zachary B

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, MRI, and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared with healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r = .44, left: r = .55) and with occupational functioning (r = -.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. [Neurophysiological Features of Perception of Emotional Stimuli in Health and in Patients with Paranoid Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A Yu; Strelets, V B

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional disorders, as far as is known, are the main syndromes of schizophrenia. Disorders of these functions are mainly determined by the clinical picture, as well as by psychophysiological correlates. The purpose of our study was to identify some psychophysiological factors which cause perceptual and emotional disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. These disorders of mental functions form the first rank (top) syndrome in patients with schizophrenia [1]. The studied patients had acute psychosis with a predominance of paranoid hallucinatory syndrome and did not receive antipsychotic therapy; i.e., the disturbances of sensory perception were most pronounced. The analysis of early component P100 and intermediate one N170 of event related potentials (ERPs) in the control group showed an increased level of excitation in response to emotionally threatening stimuli; the amplitude increased and the latency decreased in all leads. In contrast the analysis of components P100 and N170 in the group of patients with schizophrenia showed the increased latency and decreased amplitude. The obtained data provide evidence of pathological inhibition in the passive perception of emotionally significant stimuli.

  2. Contemporary health physics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2009-01-01

    This is the first text specifically designed to train potential health physicists to think and respond like professionals. Written by a former chairman of the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Panel of Examiners with more than 20 years of professional and academic experience in the field, it offers a balanced presentation of all the theoretical and practical issues essential for a full working knowledge of radiation exposure assessments. As the only book to cover the entire radiation protection field, it includes detailed coverage of the medical, university, reactor, fuel cycle, e

  3. Health physics aspects of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    After briefly describing the methods of production, radioactive, chemical and biological properties of californium-252, its health physics aspects are reviewed in detail. Its external and internal radiation hazards can be minimised through control of radiation and contamination and proper shield design. Use of various shielding materials is evaluated. The following aspects are also discussed : (1) radiation detectors for neutrons and gamma radiation (2) personnel monitoring techniques (3) bioassay and (4) storage and transportation. (M.G.B.)

  4. T253. THE CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN RENAMING SCHIZOPHRENIA AND VISITING FREQUENCY OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES BY BIG DATA ANALYSIS (INTERNET SEARCHES AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES) IN SOUTH KOREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Kyung Sue; Joo, Yeon Ho; Koike, Shinsuke; Lee, Yu Sang; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Korean Neuropsychiatric Association changed the Korean term for schizophrenia from ‘split-mind disorder’ to ‘attunement disorder’ in 2012, to dispel the stigma associated with name, and to promote early detection and treatment. Information on the internet affects the public awareness and attitude toward schizophrenia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between renaming schizophrenia and the pattern of mental health services utilization by big data analysis of internet (newspaper articles and internet searches) in Korea. Methods From January 2016 to September 2017, newspaper articles on “attunement disorder” and “split-mind disorder” available on the internet were classified as related with negative images like crime and helpful or positive in dispelling the stigma. The relationship between the number of anti-stigma newspaper articles and newspaper articles of schizophrenia containing both positive and negative images was examined. In addition, using Naver, a major internet search engine in Korea, we investigated the total number of internet searches of both old and new name of schizophrenia by gender differences. Finally, the frequency of the visits of mental health services of patients with schizophrenia was measured using the Korean Healthcare Bigdata Hub (http://opendata.hira.or.kr/home.do#none) for 14 months and the correlation between the frequency of the visits and the above big data was examined. The data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 24.0. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to analyze correlations. Results The amounts of newspaper articles containing anti-stigma of schizophrenia were correlated with the amounts of newspaper articles containing negative images like crime of the new name (attunement disorder) of schizophrenia (r=0.528, p0.05) in next month was larger than the correlation of “split-mind disorder” searches with mental health services utilization (r = 0.082, p>0

  5. The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-12-01

    There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL). We find significant direct and indirect effects for both forms of health, with indirect effects explaining 10% of the effect of past mental health on physical health and 8% of the effect of past physical health on mental health. Physical activity is the largest contributor to the indirect effects. There are stronger indirect effects for males in mental health (9.9%) and for older age groups in mental health (13.6%) and in physical health (12.6%). Health policies aiming at changing physical and mental health need to consider not only the direct cross-effects but also the indirect cross-effects between mental health and physical health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  7. An operational health physics quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, S.A.; McAtee, J.L. III; Somers, W.M.; Huchton, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, stipulates QA requirements for all DOE activities. This order is now codified as 10CFR830.120, Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements, which is applicable to DOE nuclear facilities. A Quality Assurance Management Plan (QAMP) was developed by the Health Physics Operations Group (ESH-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the ESH-1 QAMP is to ensure that operational radiation protection activities meet the criteria outlined in DOE Order 5700.6C, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 and 10CFR830.120. The ten required elements are QA Program, Personal Training and Qualifications, Quality Improvement, Documents and Records, Work Processes, Design, Procurement, Inspection and Acceptance Testing, Management Assessment and Independent Assessment. The QAMP has been useful for the development of QAMPs at nuclear facilities and has helped ensure uniformity of institutional requirements where Health Physics services are deployed to facilities. To implement a subset of QAMP requirements, a Quality Assurance Self-Evaluation Program (QASE) was established. This program provides a novel self-audit mechanism for the formal identification and correction of non-conforming items related to Operational Health Physics. Additionally, the QASE is a useful management tool for Radiological Control Technician Supervisors and staff and provides a tracking mechanism for ongoing problem areas. Data have been Collected for two calendar years on a number of concerns that fall into four general categories: radiological posting and labeling, instrumentation, monitoring requirements, and radiological documents/records

  8. A systematic review of controlled interventions to reduce overweight and obesity for people with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, P.; Davidsen, A.S.; Killian, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity are generally found among patients with schizophrenia. This may lead to serious implications for health and wellbeing. The aim was to review controlled intervention studies on reducing overweight/obesity and/or reducing physical illness in patients...... reduction and/or reducing physical illness, with standard care for patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: All 1713 references were evaluated for inclusion in the review. Twenty-three met the inclusion criteria and were categorised into four subgroups according to tested interventions: diet, exercise...... and cognitive behavioural therapy, or mixed combinations of the three. In this review, interventions showed efficacy in reducing weight and improving physical health parameters confirming that physical health improvement was possible in patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The included studies indicate...

  9. Examining the impact of migrant status on ethnic differences in mental health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame J; Kurdyak, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Some ethnic groups have more negative contacts with health services for first-episode psychosis, likely arising from a complex interaction between ethnicity, socio-economic factors, and immigration status. Using population-based health administrative data, we sought to examine the effects of ethnic group and migrant status on patterns of health service use preceding a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder among people aged 14-35 over a 10-year period. We compared access to care and intensity of service use for first-generation ethnic minority groups to the general population of Ontario. To control for migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and compared service use indicators for ethnic minority groups to the European migrant group. Our cohort included 18,080 people with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, of whom 14.4% (n = 2607) were the first-generation migrants. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of ethnic differences in health service use is reduced and no longer statistically significant when the sample is restricted to first-generation migrants. Of exception, nearly, all migrant groups have lower intensity of primary care use, and Caribbean migrants are consistently less likely to use psychiatric services. We observed fewer ethnic differences in health service use preceding the first diagnosis of psychosis when patterns are compared among first-generation migrants, rather than to the general population, suggesting that the choice of reference group influences ethnic patterning of health service use. We need a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms behind observed differences for minority groups to adequately address disparities in access to care.

  10. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and physical and mental health risk in people with severe mental illness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Basangwa, David; De Hert, Marc; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Winkel, Ruud; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James

    2017-11-29

    This study investigated cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients with severe mental illness who do or do not meet the recommendations of 150min per week of physical activity. A secondary aim was to assess whether those that do meet the recommendations report lower levels of mental health symptoms. 107 (60♀) Ugandan in- and outpatients (mean age=34.4 ± 9.7 years) with severe mental illness (depression=7, bipolar disorder=55, schizophrenia=45) completed the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) method and Brief Symptoms Inventory -18. Participants were also screened for abdominal obesity (waist circumference>90cm), overweight (body mass index≥25) and hypertension (systolic pressure≥140mmHg and/or diastolic pressure≥90mmHg).48.6% (n = 52) of patients met the physical activity recommendations as assessed by the PAVS method. 41.1% (n = 44) were overweight, 40.2% (n = 43) had abdominal obesity and 23.4% (n = 25) had hypertension. Those who did not meet the physical activity recommendations were significantly older, had a higher BSI-18 somatisation score, and had a higher risk of overweight [relative risk (RR) = 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59-4.99], abdominal obesity (RR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.13-2.93), and hypertension (RR = 2.16, 95%CI = 0.99-4.73). The PAVS is a feasible method of assessing physical activity among patients with severe mental illness in a low resource setting. The PAVS may have clinical utility for physical and mental health risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antipsychotic treatment, psychoeducation & regular follow up as a public health strategy for schizophrenia: Results from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Suresha, Kudumallige K; Venkatesh, Basappa K; Arunachala, Udupi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2017-07-01

    In low- and middle-income countries such as India, a feasible public health strategy could be to ensure continuous antipsychotics and psychoeducation for those with schizophrenia. Whether such a strategy favourably influences its course and outcome is not well-studied. The objectives of this study were to examine these issues in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia in a rural south Indian taluk (an administrative block). This cohort was part of a community intervention programme running in the place since the past one decade. A total of 201 patients were assessed after an average of four years of follow up. Psychopathology, disability and course of illness were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) and Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS), respectively. Interventions included ensuring continuous antipsychotic treatment and low-intensity psychoeducation. One hundred and forty two [70.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 64.35-76.95] of the 201 patients achieved clinical remission by the end of follow up period (four years); 140 (69.6%; 95% CI: 63.29-76.07) had satisfactory outcome (42.3% best outcome and 27.4% intermediate outcome). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with disability [134/201 (66.7%) at baseline; 55/201 (27.3%) at follow up; PInterpretation & conclusions: Treatment with antipsychotics and psychoeducation can favourably influence the course of schizophrenia and reduce disability in a substantial proportion of patients. Structured psychosocial interventions may be indicated in the significant minority who show suboptimal outcome with this strategy.

  13. Impact of Paliperidone Palmitate Versus Oral Atypical Antipsychotics on Health Care Resource Use and Costs in Veterans With Schizophrenia and Comorbid Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Patrick; Muser, Erik; Joshi, Kruti; DerSarkissian, Maral; Bhak, Rachel H; Duh, Mei Sheng; Shiner, Brian; Young-Xu, Yinong

    2017-07-01

    Almost half of all patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have a history of substance abuse (SA). However, data on treatment of schizophrenia with paliperidone palmitate (PP) among patients with comorbid SA are limited. The objective of this study was to compare all-cause and SA-related health care resource utilization and costs in veterans with schizophrenia and co-occurring SA who were treated with PP versus oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs). Veterans Health Administration electronic health record data were used to conduct a retrospective longitudinal study in veterans with schizophrenia who initiated PP or OAA between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016, had ≥12 months of enrollment before treatment initiation (baseline), were diagnosed with SA, and had ≥1 Global Assessment of Functioning score during baseline. Differences in baseline characteristics were adjusted for using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Adjusted cost differences and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the association between PP versus OAA and all-cause and SA-related health care costs and health care resource utilization in the 12 months after treatment initiation were estimated with corresponding 95% CIs using weighted linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. Of 6872 veterans in the study, 1684 (25%) and 5188 (75%) were treated with PP and OAA, respectively. After adjustment, PP was associated with fewer all-cause inpatient (IRR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.90), mental health-related inpatient (IRR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91), and long-term care stays (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.64), but more frequent mental health intensive case management visits (IRR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.49 to 1.53) compared with OAA (all P schizophrenia and comorbid SA. Thus, PP appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients in this subpopulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Problematic Internet use and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kevin J; Gruber, Elon M

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims A considerable body of literature has emerged over the past two decades assessing the relationship between problematic or addictive use of the Internet and various indices of psychological well-being. Conversely, comparatively little research has assessed the relationship between problematic or addictive use of the Internet and one's physical health. Method The current study assesses this relationship using a sample of college students (N = 133) who responded online to two questionnaires: the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ; Demetrovics, Szeredi&Rózsa, 2008) and the SF-36v2 Health Survey (Ware et al., 2008). Results The findings indicate that problematic Internet use is associated with poorer physical health. These results are consistent with other data that assessed the relationship between these two variables. Furthermore, this relationship supersedes the influence of the number of hours spent online per day. Conclusions The findings are discussed in terms of the limitations of the study design and conclusions that can be drawn from this preliminary empirical effort.

  15. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  16. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Exercise Improves Blood Glucose Level in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ... Physical activity and health in children: How much do we know?

  17. Poverty, urbanisation, physical inactivity and health in African societies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... health, social and psychological benefits of engaging in sufficient, regular physical activities. ... The recreational alternatives brought about by technological advances especially in the ...

  18. Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Schizophrenia Spectrum Traits: Gender, Season of Birth, and Mental Health Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with and without co-occurring schizophrenia spectrum traits (SST) were examined for differences in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, background characteristics, and mental health risk factors. Participating mothers and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale and a background questionnaire…

  19. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Adiposity and physical activity among children in countries at different stages of the physical ... The world in turmoil: Promotion of peace and international understanding ...

  20. Rethinking schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-11-11

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.

  1. Importance of health physics records in litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear insurance pools, through American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU), have been providing the third-party liability insurance required of the nuclear industry by the Price-Anderson Act since 1957. Records of claims of radiation injury have been kept for twenty-five years, and a recent upsurge of the claim rate has been noted. An explanation for this new trend is postulated and some examples are discussed. The use of health physics records as evidence in litigation is described, and specific examples of the types of records required to defend against past and future claims are given

  2. Assessment of health physics manpower needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.; Eliassen, R.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of data on current employment and projected need indicates that there is a serious impending shortage of qualified professional health physicists within the U.S. Because of the withdrawal and curtailment of Federal financial support, health physics programs at the Master of Science degree levels at many of the nation's colleges and universities are on the decline. Estimates are that during the next 5 to 10 yr, the number of graduates from these programs will be sufficient to meet only about half the projected requirements. Through the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, a major responsibility for addressing this problem at the Federal level has been assigned to the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. (author)

  3. Human radiation experimentation: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper observes ethical human experimentation can be considered in terms of two basic principles or tests: informed, willing and knowledgeable subjects; and expectation of benefits. A number of human experiments are evaluated in terms of these principles, including a sixteenth century toxicology experiment, the deliberate exposure by an x-ray pioneer, and the plutonium injection cases of the 1940's. The following rational ethic is proposed for the practice of health physics with respect to human radiation experimentation: At all levels, the health physicist has a professional as well as personal obligation to ensure that proper human requirements, including proper informed consent and willing subjects, arc carried out with respect to human radiation experimentation, and must be convinced that the real or potential benefits to be derived from the experiment clearly exceed the potential detriment and risk. (author)

  4. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  5. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  6. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  7. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  8. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004

  9. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  10. Operational Health Physics-Science or Philosophy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    Operational health physics is concerned with protecting workers and the public from harm due to ionizing radiation. This requires the application of philosophy (ethics) as well as science. Operational health physics philosophy has been dominated by the ICRP. A particular aspect of ICRP's philosophy that is often misunderstood is (As low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account). (ALARA) Although the ALARA philosophy has been interpreted as a cost-benefit approach it is in fact a risk-benefit approach including social considerations as the ICRP has emphasised from time to time. A recent report has accused the ICRP of using a discarded philosophical approach, namely Utilitarianism, as a result of which its recommendations are unethical. The report suggests that a (rights) based philosophy such as Rawls' Theory of Justice would be a more appropriate basis. This paper discusses this accusation, considers some relevant philosophies and concludes that the accusation is not valid and that ICRP's recommendations are ethical but are frequently misinterpreted. (Author)

  11. Operational Health Physics-Science or Philosophy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M. W.

    2004-07-01

    Operational health physics is concerned with protecting workers and the public from harm due to ionizing radiation. This requires the application of philosophy (ethics) as well as science. Operational health physics philosophy has been dominated by the ICRP. A particular aspect of ICRP's philosophy that is often misunderstood is (As low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account). (ALARA) Although the ALARA philosophy has been interpreted as a cost-benefit approach it is in fact a risk-benefit approach including social considerations as the ICRP has emphasised from time to time. A recent report has accused the ICRP of using a discarded philosophical approach, namely Utilitarianism, as a result of which its recommendations are unethical. The report suggests that a (rights) based philosophy such as Rawls' Theory of Justice would be a more appropriate basis. This paper discusses this accusation, considers some relevant philosophies and concludes that the accusation is not valid and that ICRP's recommendations are ethical but are frequently misinterpreted. (Author)

  12. Health Physics Positions Data Base: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-02-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics involving radiation protection (health physics). It consists of 328 documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions. Staff members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assisted the NRC staff in summarizing the documents during the preparation of this NUREG report. These summaries are also being made available as a open-quotes stand aloneclose quotes software package for IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers. The software package for this report is called HPPOS Version 2.0. A variety of indexing schemes were used to increase the usefulness of the NUREG report and its associated software. The software package and the summaries in the report are written in the context of the open-quotes newclose quotes 10 CFR Part 20 (section section 20.1001--20.2401). The purpose of this NUREG report is to allow interested individuals to familiarize themselves with the contents of the HPPOS Data Base and with the basis of many NRC decisions and regulations. The HPPOS summaries and original documents are intended to serve as a source of information for radiation protection programs at nuclear research and power reactors, nuclear medicine, and other industries that either process or use nuclear materials

  13. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  14. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components in employees of a financial institution

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Wilders, Cilas J.; Moss, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was determined by using the Health Risk Assessment (HRA) and Monitored Health Risk (MHM). Assessment included a physical activity, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk question...

  15. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected : Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, Rene C. W.; Scheewe, Thomas W.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We

  16. Comprehensive Assessment of Step Aerobics Exercises Effect on Women’s Physical Performance and Physical Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. П. Масляк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the dynamics of physical performance and physical health indicators in young and middle-aged women under the effect of step aerobics exercises. Material and methods. The grounds for the study were Kharkiv fitness club “Zorianyi”. The participants were 28 women aged 20-35. The study used the following methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, methods of determining physical performance (Harvard step test and physical health (anthropometry, pulsometry, tonometry, spirometry, dynamometry. Results: The study assessed the level of physical performance and physical health; analyzed age-related performance differences; determined the level of the effect of step aerobics on women’s physical performance and physical health. Conclusions: Step-aerobics exercises proved to have a positive effect on the level of physical performance and physical health of the young and middle-aged women.

  17. The influence of organisational climate on care of patients with schizophrenia: a qualitative analysis of health care professionals' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane; Family, Hannah E; Scott, Jennifer A; Gage, Heather; Taylor, Denise A

    2016-04-01

    Organizational climate relates to how employees perceive and describe the characteristics of their employing organization. It has been found to have an impact on healthcare professionals' and patients' experiences of healthcare (e.g. job satisfaction, patient satisfaction), as well as organizational outcomes (e.g. employee productivity). This research used organizational theory to explore dynamics between health care professionals (pharmacists, doctors and nurses) in mental health outpatients' services for patients taking clozapine, and the perceived influence on patient care. Seven clozapine clinics (from one NHS mental health Trust in the UK) which provided care for people with treatment resistant schizophrenia. This study used qualitative methods to identify organizational climate factors such as deep structures, micro-climates and climates of conflict that might inhibit change and affect patient care. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 healthcare professionals working in the clinics to explore their experiences of working in these clinics and the NHS mental health Trust the clinics were part of. Health Care Professionals' perceptions of the care of patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia. Three superordinate themes emerged from the data: philosophy of care, need for change and role ambiguity. Participants found it difficult to articulate what a philosophy of care was and in spite of expressing the need for change in the way the clinics were run, could not see how 'changing things would work'. There was considerable role ambiguity with some 'blurring of the boundaries between roles'. Factors associated with organizational climate (role conflict; job satisfaction) were inhibiting team working and preventing staff from identifying the patients' health requirements and care delivery through innovation in skill mix. There were mixed attitudes towards the pharmacist's inclusion as a team member

  18. Health physics assistant. A special training in health physics in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany knowledge in health physics is imparted mainly as a supplement training in courses of some days up to a few weeks duration. This may be adequate for strictly defined sectors, although it is not sufficient as to the education of a true health physicist. Already in the early sixties the necessity of such special training was recognized at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and training was started of 'health physics assistants' as this profession is called. Significant details are given about training, the contributions of the individual training institutions (Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, nuclear medical hospital, Euratom institute, S.C.P.R.I.) examinations and subjects examined, experience regarding future employments and activities

  19. Health physics education and training in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Health physics education and training (HPET) are close counterparts for an effective enforcement of radiation protection (RP) regulations and development of an advanced RP infrastructure in a country. The related history in Iran dates back to over 30 years ago advancing towards promotion of a 'Sustainable Training Program' (STP) through programs such as academic courses, intensive courses, research, on-the-job training and media training. The STP has been effective in development of an advanced national infrastructure for effective enforcement of regulations in different applications and provision of self-sustained national services. In this paper, the elements of a long-term national STP are discussed with a hope it could act as a model in developing countries. (author)

  20. Health physics instrumentation - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1992-01-01

    Health Physics Instruments have changed rather dramatically in the past decade. On the one hand, technological innovations like Microprocessors, data storage facilities and imaging displays have altered shape, size and appearance of the classical devices, particularly the hand-held ones. On the other hand, instruments are increasingly being considered as an integral part of Radiation Protection procedures and organizations, supporting a smooth and reliable implementation of all necessary measures. This implies ease of operation, and extensive self-checking and performance control features. Since there are different categories of users with quite different degrees of motivation and training, the measuring instruments of the future will have to be adapted to specific types of users. Instruments for 'professional' radiation protection - for example in nuclear power plants and nuclear technology - will differ from instruments used in the radionuclide laboratory, where radiation protection will necessarily have to be done as a 'side-job'. (author)

  1. Health physics in JAERI, No.27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    In the annual report No. 27 (fiscal 1984) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. In all the three research establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of measuring instruments were carried out as in the previous years. There were no occupational exposure exceeding the maximum permissible dose and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid waste beyond the release limit specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivity due to facilities. In Tokai and Oarai Research Establishment, radioactive waste management including decontamination was carried out and radioactive solid waste was stored in the same way as in the previous years. (author)

  2. Health Physics Positions Data Base: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics involving radiation protection (health physics). It consists of 328 documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions. Staff members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assisted the NRC staff in summarizing the documents during the preparation of this NUREG report. These summaries are also being made available as a {open_quotes}stand alone{close_quotes} software package for IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers. The software package for this report is called HPPOS Version 2.0. A variety of indexing schemes were used to increase the usefulness of the NUREG report and its associated software. The software package and the summaries in the report are written in the context of the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} 10 CFR Part 20 ({section}{section}20.1001--20.2401). The purpose of this NUREG report is to allow interested individuals to familiarize themselves with the contents of the HPPOS Data Base and with the basis of many NRC decisions and regulations. The HPPOS summaries and original documents are intended to serve as a source of information for radiation protection programs at nuclear research and power reactors, nuclear medicine, and other industries that either process or use nuclear materials.

  3. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  4. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy's ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections)

  5. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  6. Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program: facilitating physical health care for people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David

    2013-10-01

    People with serious mental illness have increased rates of physical ill-health and reduced contact with primary care services. In Australia, the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) was developed to facilitate access to mental health services. However, as a primary care service, the contribution to physical health care is worthy of consideration. Thirty-eight nurses who were part of the MHNIP participated in a national survey of nurses working in mental health about physical health care. The survey invited nurses to report their views on the physical health of consumers and the regularity of physical health care they provide. Physical health-care provision in collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) and other health-care professionals was reported as common. The findings suggest that the MHNIP provides integrated care, where nurses and GPs work in collaboration, allowing enough time to discuss physical health or share physical health activities. Consumers of this service appeared to have good access to physical and mental health services, and nurses had access to primary care professionals to discuss consumers' physical health and develop their clinical skills in the physical domain. The MHNIP has an important role in addressing physical health concerns, in addition to the mental health issues of people accessing this service. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by ...

  8. Pathways to health in a deprived population: relationships between smoking, mental health & physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently there has been increasing interest in understanding and addressing health inequalities and enhancing the well-being of the population as a whole through anticipatory care and better health care delivery. The current study aimed to investigate the predictive relationships between smoking behaviour, physical health, and mental health in a deprived population using models of mediation. Method: Participants had attended a Keep Well health check, a natio...

  9. Year Book 1977. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Inst. of Physical Culture and Health, Jyvaskyla (Finland).

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundation of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  10. Year Book 1978. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Inst. of Physical Culture and Health, Jyvaskyla (Finland).

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundation of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  11. Year Book 1979. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haajanen, Timo, Ed.

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundatlon of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  12. Social Support and Physical Health: The Importance of Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Cara J.; Hannum, James W.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is a multifaceted construct recognized as a significant predictor of physical health. In this study, the authors examined several support domains simultaneously in a sample of 247 college students to determine their unique prediction of physical health perceptions and physical symptoms. They also examined gender differences across…

  13. Views from the Japan health physics society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushita, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Health Physics Society set an ad hoc working group (hereinafter 'the Working Group') to investigate the proposals presented by Professor Roger Clarke, chairman of the ICRP, 111 1999 towards new ICRP recommendations, and to make suggestions from the standpoint as an academic society for radiological protection in Japan. The Working Group discussed the present situation of the system of radiation protection and the ICRP Proposals with regard to the items oh definition of dose, health effect of radiation, dose and dose level, category of exposure, optimisation and role of stakeholder, collective dose, exclusion and exemption, and medical exposure. The basic policy of the Working Group is that the philosophy and criteria of the system of radiation protection, which are now effectively used for relevant regulations or some other purposes and are functioning well, should be basically retained unless there are positive reasons for revising them on specific; grounds. The ICRP Proposals, an individual-oriented radiation protection concept, should basically be coherent with present protection system, a societal-oriented radiation protection concept, and should have enough rational scientific grounds. The Working Group: (1) suggests there is a need for scientific rationality in any newly introduced criteria or standards for the system of radiation protection; (2) understands, for the present, that there is no other option but to adopt the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis relating dose and risk of health effects at low level radiation exposures. This is the precautionary principle as applied to radiological protection; (3) recommends the role of stakeholders be explained as an example of one of the steps in the optimisation process; (4) suggests protective action level or dose limits should he related to radiation risk, even though these levels indicate only when to begin considering protective actions; and (5) believes that establishing a system of radiation

  14. Mental Health Consumer Experiences and Strategies When Seeking Physical Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie B. Ewart; Julia Bocking; Brenda Happell; Chris Platania-Phung; Robert Stanton

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness have higher rates of physical health problems and consequently live significantly shorter lives. This issue is not yet viewed as a national health priority and research about mental health consumer views on accessing physical health care is lacking. The aim of this study is to explore the experience of mental health consumers in utilizing health services for physical health needs. Qualitative exploratory design was utilized. Semistructured focus groups were held wit...

  15. Dyslipidaemia and Medical Outcome (Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia Taking Antipsychotics in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Omamurhomu Olose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine association between use (and type of antipsychotics and dyslipidaemia in newly diagnosed schizophrenia patients attending Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Enugu. Methods. From sixty antipsychotic naive patients with schizophrenia and sixty first-degree relatives matched for gender and age, fasting blood lipid profiles were measured at baseline and after twelve weeks. Medical Outcome Study Short Form General Health Survey was administered to patients on both occasions. Fasting lipid profile changes of both groups were compared. Results. Mean endpoint of total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LD, and triglycerides (TG in mmol/l for cases was significantly higher than initial values (TC 4.5 versus 4.3, t=4.3, p<0.0001, (LDL 2.8 versus 2.6, t=14.3, p<0.0001, and (TG 1.3 versus 1.0, t=12.1, p<0.0001. Mean endpoint of high density lipoprotein (HDL in mmol/l for cases was significantly lower than initial values (1.1 versus 1.2, t=12.1, p<0.0001. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia for cases was 13%. Mean endpoint of TC, LDL, TG, and HDL in mmol/l for controls was not significantly different from initial values (TC 4.30 versus 4.27, t=1.09, p=0.279, (LDL 2.49 versus 2.46, t=1.28, p=0.205, (TG 0.96 versus 0.94, t=1.27, p=0.207, and (HDL 1.37 versus 1.38, t=1.61, p=0.113. Subjects on atypical antipsychotics had higher risk for dyslipidaemia. Conclusion. Use of antipsychotics was significantly associated with dyslipidaemia.

  16. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  17. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  18. Physical exercise and psychological wellness in health club ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...

  19. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  20. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of the Mental Health and Development model for schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menil, V; Knapp, M; McDaid, D; Raja, S; Kingori, J; Waruguru, M; Wood, S K; Mannarath, S; Lund, C

    2015-10-01

    The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries. In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature. Costs were analysed from societal and health system perspectives. From the societal perspective, MHD cost Int$ 594 per person in the first year and Int$ 876 over 2 years. The cost per healthy day gained was Int$ 7.96 in the first year and Int$ 1.03 over 2 years - less than the agricultural minimum wage. The cost per disability-adjusted life year averted over 2 years was Int$ 13.1 and Int$ 727 from the societal and health system perspectives, respectively, on par with antiretrovirals for HIV. MHD achieved increasing returns over time. The model appears cost-effective and equitable, especially over 2 years. Its affordability relies on multi-sectoral participation nationally and internationally.

  2. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... severity and mechanism of acute injuries in elite male African youth soccer players ... on golfers' physical and functional fitness as well as golf performance: A pilot study ...

  3. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Anthropometry, physical and motor performance determinants of sprinting and long ... Anatomical fat patterning in male Nigerian soccer players · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  4. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Association between physical activity level and demographic variables in patients with ... activity participation among university students and variation in terms of gender ...

  5. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... From pioneer pastime to international status: Jukskei as South Africa's only white ... Comparison of physical activities among Beninese adolescents attending schools in ...

  6. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non ... of physical education curriculumin six Arab countries: International perspective ...

  7. Mental health system funding of cognitive enhancement interventions for schizophrenia: summary and update of the New York Office of Mental Health expert panel and stakeholder meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Mueser, Kim T; Covell, Nancy H; Cicerone, Keith D; Drake, Robert E; Silverstein, Steven M; Medialia, Alice; Myers, Robert; Bellack, Alan S; Bell, Morris D; Essock, Susan M

    2013-09-01

    A growing research literature indicates that cognitive enhancement (CE) interventions for people with schizophrenia can improve cognitive functioning and may benefit psychosocial functioning (e.g., competitive employment, quality of social relationships). Debate continues regarding the strength of evidence for CE and related policy implications, such as the appropriateness of funding CE services. This paper summarizes and updates a meeting of experts and stakeholders convened in 2008 by the New York Office of Mental Health to review evidence on the impact of CE for people with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses, and addresses whether the evidence base for CE interventions is sufficient to warrant funding. Specific recommendations based on the extant literature are provided regarding the structure and components of CE programs that should be present in order to improve cognitive and psychosocial outcomes and therefore merit consideration of funding. These recommendations may serve as a starting point in developing standards for CE programs. Establishing evidence-based practice standards for implementing CE interventions for people with serious mental illnesses may facilitate dissemination of programs that have the greatest potential for improving individuals' functional outcomes while minimizing incremental costs associated with providing CE services. Important open questions include how the performance of CE programs should be monitored and which individuals might be expected to benefit from CE as evidenced by improved functioning in their everyday lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Computerized health physics record system at a Canadian fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    This poster session will describe the types of Health Physics data input into a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer. The Health Physics data base at this facility includes the following: employee hours data, airborne uranium concentrations, external dosemetry (badge readings), internal dosemetry (bioassay) and environmental health physics (stack sample results) data. It will describe the types of outputs achievable in the form of various reports, such as: individual employee health physics report for a given period, a general health physics summary report for a given period, individual urinalysis report, local air concentration report and graphs. The use of this computerized health physics record system in the overall radiation protection program at this facility is discussed

  9. Health physics appraisal guidelines for fusion/confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeson, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Several types of fusion/confinement devices have been developed for a variety of research applications. The health physics considerations for these devices can vary, depending on a number of parameters. This paper presents guidelines for health physics appraisal of such devices, which can be tailored to apply to specific systems. The guidelines can also be useful for establishing ongoing health physics programs for safe operation of the devices

  10. Health physics training at V.C. Summer Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, L.A.; Bellmore, J.R.; Shultz, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Health Physics training for radiation workers and Health Physics Specialists continues to receive full attention by regulatory agencies such as the NRC and ANI. Guidance for such training continues to develop in a direction which forces utilities to continuously increase the quality and quantity of their Health Physics Training Program. This occurs at a time when our rapidly growing industry is placing greatly increased demands on the available work force of highly trained nuclear workers

  11. Introduction to nuclear power reactors and their health physics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to: (1) the major systems of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's), (2) the production and distribution of radiation sources in BWR's and PWR's, (3) the regulatory and functional requirements for nuclear power reactor design from a health physics standpoint, (4) the health physics systems provided to meet such requirements, and (5) a bibliography of documents germane to power reactor health physics design

  12. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  13. Health physics in JAERI No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In the annual report No. 32 (fiscal 1989) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, Mutsu Establishment and Nuclear Ship Mutsu. There were no occupational exposure exceeding the dose equivalent limit and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivity due to the facilities. The following works were made in the researches of radiation dosimetry, body radioactivity, airborne radioactivity and waste treatment. For radiation dosimetry: preparation of β-ray plain source for dose estimation on skin contamination, 4π directional dependence of external effective dose equivalent (III), analysis of career dose to workers, distribution of annual collective dose of workers among nuclear power reactors. For body radioactivity: theoretical study for correction of plutonium chest counting data (II), radiosensitivity of chromosomes of rabbit lymphocytes (V), and dicentric and indirect action. For airborne radioactivity: tritium oxide permeability of membranes used for protective appliances (V), effect of hydrogen isotope composition on conversion reaction of tritium gas to tritiated water, development of models of tritium dispersion in the environment near nuclear facilities, and effectiveness of sheltering in a wooden building against radioactive airborne contaminations. For waste treatment: effects of residual radioactivity on scientific and industrial instruments (II), and safety verification test of rational disposal of very low-level radioactive solid wastes. (J.P.N.)

  14. Health physics in JAERI No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    In the annual report No. 33 (fiscal 1990) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, Mutsu Establishment and Nuclear Ship Mutsu. In all the establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of monitoring instruments were carried out as in the previous years. There were no occupational exposure exceeding the dose equivalent limit and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivity due to the facilities. In Tokai and Oarai Research Establishment and Mutsu Establishment, radioactive waste management including decontamination was carried out and radioactive solid wastes were stored in the same way as in the previous years. Technology developments were made as in the previous years for improving the techniques and methods in monitoring of individuals, facilities and environment, radiation measurement instrumentation and also in waste management and decontamination. The following works were made in the researches of radiation dosimetry, body radioactivity, airborne radioactivity and waste disposal. (J.P.N.)

  15. Simulation and computation in health physics training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, S.R.A.; Gibbs, D.C.C.; Marchant, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    The Royal Naval College has devised a number of computer aided learning programmes applicable to health physics which include radiation shield design and optimisation, environmental impact of a reactor accident, exposure levels produced by an inert radioactive gas cloud, and the prediction of radiation detector response in various radiation field conditions. Analogue computers are used on reduced or fast time scales because time dependent phenomenon are not always easily assimilated in real time. The build-up and decay of fission products, the dynamics of intake of radioactive material and reactor accident dynamics can be effectively simulated. It is essential to relate these simulations to real time and the College applies a research reactor and analytical phantom to this end. A special feature of the reactor is a chamber which can be supplied with Argon-41 from reactor exhaust gases to create a realistic gaseous contamination environment. Reactor accident situations are also taught by using role playing sequences carried out in real time in the emergency facilities associated with the research reactor. These facilities are outlined and the training technique illustrated with examples of the calculations and simulations. The training needs of the future are discussed, with emphasis on optimisation and cost-benefit analysis. (H.K.)

  16. Health physics in JAERI, No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In the annual report No.23 (fiscal 1980) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. In all the three research establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of measuring instruments were carried out as in previous years. There were no occupational exposures exceeding the maximum permissible doses and no releases of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivities due to facilities. In Tokai and Oarai Research Establishments radioactive waste management including decontamination works was also carried out and radioactive solid wastes were stored in the same way as in previous years, except that in Tokai Research Establishment, the Packaged Waste Storage Facility started storing packaged wastes and in Oarai Research Establishment, the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (the Latter Project) started routine operation. Construction of the Facility of Radiation Standards and the Medium-Level Waste Treatment Facility was completed in Tokai Research Establishment. Technology development and research were made as in previous years for improving the techniques and methods in monitoring of individuals, facilities and environment and also in waste management and decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  17. RPL dosimetry. Radiophotoluminescence in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The luminescence phenomena described in this book are those that are most likely to be of practical use; RPL is particularly suitable for the measurement of absorbed dose resulting from interactions with ionising radiations. The book examines the phenomena of radio-photoluminescence and proceeds to describe particular materials which exhibit the necessary fluorescence, their behaviour, dosimetric properties and the wide range of alternative measurement techniques that may be applied to them in a variety of monitoring environments. The emphasis is primarily on implementation in health physics as a personal and environmental monitor and particular reference is made to the use of RPL as a research tool for radiotherapy treatment planning and in the context of civil defence. The author reviews the design, operation and basic operational principles of some of the readers currently in service or being developed. The logistics of operating small and large monitoring services are considered and there is a useful comparison between glass, thermoluminescence and film methods of dosimetry to enable potential users to evaluate the merits of each from a theoretical and practical point of view. (author)

  18. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trouble sleeping Irritability or depressed mood Lack of motivation Strange behavior Substance use Compared with schizophrenia symptoms ... may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion ― doesn't make eye contact, doesn't change ...

  19. Health physics educational program in the Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, Wesley L.

    1978-01-01

    In the spring of 1977, the Radiological Hygiene Branch of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) instituted a training program for health physics technicians to ensure availability of qualified personnel for the agency, which is rapidly becoming the world's largest nuclear utility. From this, a health physics education program is developing to also include health physics orientation and retraining for unescorted entry into nuclear power plants, health physics training for employees at other (non-TVA) nuclear plants, specialized health physics training, and possibly theoretical health physics courses to qualify technician-level personnel for professional status. Videotaped presentations are being used extensively, with innovations such as giving examinations by videotape of real-life, in-plant experiences and acted out scenarios of health physics procedures; and teaching health physics personnel to observe, detect, and act on procedural, equipment, and personnel deficiencies promptly. Video-taped lectures are being used for review and to complement live lectures. Also, a 35-mm slide and videotape library is being developed on all aspects of the operational health physics program for nuclear plants using pressurized and boiling water reactors. (author)

  20. Health physics problems encountered in the Saclay linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsaut, R.

    1979-01-01

    The safety and health physics problems specific to the Saclay linear accelerator are presented: activation (of gases, dust, water, structural materials, targets); individual dosimetry; the safety engineering [fr

  1. Parents with Schizophrenia – Insights from notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Ranning, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Children of parents with acute symptoms of schizophrenia are at high risk of being exposed to adverse environmental circumstances known to predict future mental and physical illness. To ensure a healthy development of children human services must address the needs of children of patients...... with schizophrenia. In this study, notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect was used to elicit difficulties in parental role functioning in schizophrenia patients. Qualitative text analysis was used to elicit common themes in 49 written documents from social workers at mental health centres expressing...... concerns about the wellbeing of children of patients with schizophrenia. We found the most recurring themes to be “parents’ delusions”, “parents being absorbed in their private reality”, “parents’ distress as a result of symptoms”, “fierce or violent scenes in the home” and “burden on other caretakers...

  2. Exercise and Physical Fitness: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn to love exercise Make time to move Outdoor fitness routine Physical activity Working with a personal trainer Yoga for health Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise for Children Exercise for Seniors ...

  3. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21, No 3 (2015) ... Factors Influencing the Health of Men in Polygynous Relationship · EMAIL FULL ... Views of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Accessibility of the Prevention of ...

  4. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of cognitive remediation for a national cohort of forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ken; Donohoe, Gary; O'Sullivan, Danny; Coyle, Ciaran; Mullaney, Ronan; O'Connell, Paul; Maddock, Catherine; Nulty, Andrea; O'Flynn, Padraic; O'Connell, Carina; Kennedy, Harry G

    2016-01-13

    Evidence is accumulating that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is an effective intervention for patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. To date there has been no randomised controlled trial (RCT) cohort study of cognitive remediation within a forensic hospital. The goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a trial of cognitive remediation for forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An estimated sixty patients will be enrolled in the study. Participants will be randomised to one of two conditions: CRT with treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU. CRT will consist of 42 individual sessions and 14 group sessions. The primary outcome measure for this study is change in cognitive functioning using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Secondary outcomes include change in social and occupational functioning, disorganised symptoms, negative symptoms, violence, participation in psychosocial treatment and recovery. In addition to these effectiveness measures, we will examine patient satisfaction. Cognitive difficulties experienced by schizophrenia spectrum patients are associated with general functioning, ability to benefit from psychosocial interventions and quality of life. Research into the treatment of cognitive difficulties within a forensic setting is therefore an important priority. The results of the proposed study will help answer the question whether cognitive remediation improves functional outcomes in forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forensic mental health patients are detained for the dual purpose of receiving treatment and for public protection. There can be conflict between these two roles perhaps causing forensic services to have an increased length of stay compared to general psychiatric admissions. Ultimately a focus on emphasising cognition and general functioning over symptoms may decrease tension between the core responsibilities of

  5. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  6. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  7. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia in high and low care supported housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avirup; Craig, Tom K J

    2009-01-01

    People suffering from schizophrenia have markedly increased physical morbidity and mortality. A poor diet and sedentary lifestyle make a significant contribution to this ill health. Healthcare professionals need to include assessments of diet and to promote a 'healthy living' lifestyle. To describe the dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors of people with chronic schizophrenia living in supported accommodation and to audit the provision of cardiovascular health screening in this population. The dietary habits of 69 people with chronic schizophrenia living in community settings were assessed. Tobacco smoking, body mass indices and waist circumference were also measured. The dietary behaviour of patients living in high care settings with care staff present every day was compared with those in low care settings. Residents in both levels of care made poor dietary choices. Patients in high care were consuming more fast food than those in low care. The dietary habits of men and women in both levels of care were worse than reported by surveys of the general population in England. All patients had seen their GP in the previous year though only 3 had received diabetes screening and fewer than half had lipid profiles. People with schizophrenia do not improve their diet just by the provision of healthy food as was the case in high care settings. Secondary care services must address physical health monitoring as well as mental health if the increased mortality of patients with schizophrenia is to be addressed effectively. More effective interventions are necessary to improve and sustain a healthy diet.

  8. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  9. Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical education - a historical perspective. ... In this respect some medical aid funds supported this philosophy of health promotion, as the curative treatment of health problems are becoming increasingly expensive and are burdening health-care costs. At present ...

  10. Health physics in JAERI, no.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    In the annual report No.28 (fiscal 1985) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. There were no occupational exposure exceeding the maximum permissible dose and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid waste beyond the release limit specified according to the regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivity due to facilities. Technology development and research; Technology developments were made as in the previous years for improving the techniques and methods in monitoring of individuals, facilities and environment, radiation measurement instrumentation and also in waste management and decontamination. The following works were made in the researches of radiation dosimetry, body radioactivity, airborne radioactivity and estimation of radiation dose due to low level waste disposal. For radiation dosimetry: portable apparatus for calibration of radioactive gas monitors, evaluation of β-ray depth dose distribution, and exposure analysis through an extended series of specific jobs at JRR-2. For body radioactivity: characteristic of JAERI phantom for an assessment of Pu in lung, transfer compartment in the internal dose evaluation method, and radiosensitivity of chromosomes of rabbit lymphocytes. For airborne radioactivity and estimation of radiation dose due to wastedisposal: sheltering effect of houses for radioactive effluent, tritium oxide permeability of membrance in protective appliances, conversion rate of low concentration tritium gas to tritiated water, computer code for calculation of radiation dose from very low-level radioactive waste disposal and safety demonstration tests of national disposal of very low-level radioactive solid waste. (J.P.N.)

  11. [Psychological benefits of physical activity for optimal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel

    Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health. The aim of the present article is to propose a biopsychosocial model on the basis of a literature review on the psychological benefits of physical activity. In view of the findings we assume that physical activity increases mental well-being and optimal mental health as opposed to poor mental health. Hence, physical activity provides a state of well-being that enables individuals to realize their own potential, and that helps to cope with the normal stresses of life or adversity. The model certainly opens the way for research and new hypothesis, but it also aims at the promotion of the benefits of physical activity on psychological well-being for optimal mental health.

  12. Sexual Minority Stress, Coping, and Physical Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L

    2017-12-01

    Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.

  13. Agreement between clients with schizophrenia and mental health workers on clients' social quality of life: The role of social cognition and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir-Eyal, Shani; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Kravetz, Shlomo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-06-01

    Studies have showed that therapists and mental health workers of persons with schizophrenia tend to estimate their patients' social quality of life (SQoL) as poorer than the clients' own estimation. This study explores the hypothesis that this discrepancy is related to clients' social cognition and symptomatology. Cross-sectional assessment of both clients and their mental health workers. Ninety persons with schizophrenia and 12 persons who were formal care providers participated in the study. All responded to a parallel version (client and clinician) of social quality-of-life scales. Clients' emotion identification, theory of mind and symptoms were also assessed. Low social cognitive abilities of persons with schizophrenia, as well as negative symptomatology and having children, may be related to the negative bias of mental health workers, with regard to their client's SQoL. While more severe levels of negative symptoms and more deficits of social cognition were related to reduced levels of agreement, paradoxically, a relatively normative family life that includes parenting was also related to lower levels of agreement. Attention should be given to low agreement between clients with schizophrenia and clinicians with regard to the client's quality of life, as it is central to alliance and outcome. Clinicians tend to estimate clients' social quality of life as poorer than the clients' own estimation when those clients have low social cognition, high negative symptomatology and children. There is a need to identify additional factors that contribute to agreement and alliance in therapy. Longitudinal assessment during therapy can trace the process of construction of agreement. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Internet use, eHealth literacy and attitudes toward computer/internet among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study in two distant European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Välimäki, Maritta; Koutra, Katerina; Löttyniemi, Eliisa; Bertsias, Antonios; Basta, Maria; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lionis, Christos

    2017-09-20

    Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders use the Internet for general and health-related purposes. Their ability to find, understand, and apply the health information they acquire online in order to make appropriate health decisions - known as eHealth literacy - has never been investigated. The European agenda strives to limit health inequalities and enhance mental health literacy. Nevertheless, each European member state varies in levels of Internet use and online health information-seeking. This study aimed to examine computer/Internet use for general and health-related purposes, eHealth literacy, and attitudes toward computer/Internet among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from two distant European regions. Data were collected from mental health services of psychiatric clinics in Finland (FI) and Greece (GR). A total of 229 patients (FI = 128, GR = 101) participated in the questionnaire survey. The data analysis included evaluation of frequencies and group comparisons with multiple linear and logistic regression models. The majority of Finnish participants were current Internet users (FI = 111, 87%, vs. GR = 33, 33%, P eHealth literacy of Internet users (previous and current Internet users) was found significantly higher in the Finnish group (FI: Mean = 27.05, SD 5.36; GR: Mean = 23.15, SD = 7.23, P eHealth literacy and Interest. The Finnish group of Internet users scored higher in eHealth literacy, while the Greek group of never Internet users had a higher Interest in computer/Internet. eHealth literacy is either moderate (Finnish group) or low (Greek group). Thus, exposure to ICT and eHealth skills training are needed for this population. Recommendations to improve the eHealth literacy and access to health information among these individuals are provided.

  15. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  16. Increased Mortality in Schizophrenia Due to Cardiovascular Disease – A Non-Systematic Review of Epidemiology, Possible Causes, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringen, Petter Andreas; Engh, John A.; Birkenaes, Astrid B.; Dieset, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed. Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors’ experience from clinical work and research in the field. Results: In most countries, the standardized mortality rate in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40 to 50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking, and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD-risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD-risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. Discussion: The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task. PMID:25309466

  17. Increased mortality in schizophrenia due to cardiovascular disease – a non-systematic review of epidemiology, possible causes and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andreas eRingen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed.Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors experience from clinical work and research in the field.Results: In most countries, the standardized mortality rate (SMR in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40-50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of life-style interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. Discussion: The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task.

  18. Increased mortality in schizophrenia due to cardiovascular disease - a non-systematic review of epidemiology, possible causes, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringen, Petter Andreas; Engh, John A; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Dieset, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed. Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors' experience from clinical work and research in the field. In most countries, the standardized mortality rate in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40 to 50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking, and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD-risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD-risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task.

  19. The West Virginia Health and Physical Education Leadership Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, Lynn; Chapman, Don; Childers, Sue; Deem, Rick; Elliott, Eloise; Klemick, Peggy; McCracken, Bane; Weikle, Mary; Workman, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Health and physical education are expected to improve the wellness of children and youths. Unfortunately, many health and physical educators may not be fully prepared to meet the challenge of providing high quality, standards-based programs that produce tangible results. In view of the current standards and policies and the important role that…

  20. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, U.; Demerouti, E.; Bergström, G.; Samuelsson, M.; Asberg, M.; Nygren, A.

    2008-01-01

    Title. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers Aim. This paper is a report of a study to investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors. Background. Previous research on the possible

  1. Programed Instruction in Health Education and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayshark, Cyrus; Evaul, Thomas W.

    This book contains eight chapters by several different authors, most of them professors of health or physical education. Focus is on applications and implications of programed instruction for professionals in the health and physical education fields. "Overview of Programed Instruction" defines programing, its development and implications for…

  2. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  3. Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ming-Kai, Ed.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    "Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice" draws together global scholars, researchers, and practitioners to provide a review and analysis of new directions in physical education and health worldwide. The book provides descriptive information from 40 countries regarding contemporary practices, models, and…

  4. The impact of physical health on the postponement of retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boissonneault, M.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Scherbov, Sergei; Sanderson, Warren

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of population ageing, measures aimed at encouraging people to work longer are being implemented in many countries. However, older people are usually in poorer physical health, and poorer physical health is associated with premature labour force withdrawal. We investigate

  5. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  6. The prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R I G

    2015-08-01

    Primary prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is an important priority for people with schizophrenia. This review aims to identify lifestyle and pharmacological interventions that reduce diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. PubMed and other electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Lifestyle interventions that focus on diet and physical activity reduce the incidence of diabetes. Similar programmes in people with schizophrenia have led to significant weight loss and may reasonably be expected to reduce diabetes in the long-term. Metformin may be considered when lifestyle change is not feasible or effective. Lifestyle interventions, particularly smoking cessation, are likely to be effective in reducing cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. Although cardiovascular prevention trials with statins have not been performed in people with schizophrenia, similar reductions in cholesterol has been seen as in the general population and statins should be considered for those at high risk. Traditional cardiovascular risk prediction models perform well in identifying those at high cardiovascular risk, but bespoke prediction models using data from people with schizophrenia perform better. Reducing diabetes and cardiovascular disease requires a coordinated and concerted effort from mental and physical health teams working across primary and secondary care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lack of cardinal symptoms of meningitis in a hospitalized patient with chronic schizophrenia: lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Hirota, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    There are prior reports describing a diagnostic delay in medical emergencies in patients with schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the risk of diagnostic delay of acute meningitis due to reduced pain perception as well as other factors related to schizophrenia and its treatment. We report a case of meningitis in a patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and poor treatment response despite high doses of antipsychotics. Potential difficulties and pitfalls when suspecting or diagnosing meningitis as a physical comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia are discussed. A 33-year-old man with chronic and treatment-resistant schizophrenia developed acute meningitis. The definite diagnosis was delayed because the cardinal symptoms other than fever were not clearly elicited by physical examination. The characteristic symptoms of meningitis were concealed by reduced pain perception, rigidity due to the administration of antipsychotics, disorganized thinking and potentially diminished communication with health care professionals as commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia. Meningitis should not be dismissed as a possibility in patients with fever of unknown origin just because a patient with schizophrenia does not present with cardinal features of meningitis other than fever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  9. Predictors of Obesity and Physical Health Complaints Among 911 Telecommunicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Michelle M; London, Melissa J; Mercer, Mary C

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to: (1) examine rates of obesity and physical health complaints among 911 telecommunicators; and (2) document the role of emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, duty-related distress and dissociation, and psychopathology in predicting obesity and physical health complaints in this population. The sample consisted of 911 telecommunicators from across the country (N = 758). Participants completed an online survey assessing their mental and physical health functioning. A total of 82.5% of the sample reported a body mass index that fell within the overweight or obese category and an average of 17 physical health complaints within the past month. Peritraumatic reactions (distress and dissociation), emotion dysregulation, and psychological inflexibility had effects on physical health largely through psychopathology (alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression). Development of adapted prevention and intervention efforts with this population is needed.

  10. W-026, health physics instrumentation operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the testing of the Health Physics Instrumentation associated with phase 2 and 3 start-up of Project W-026, WRAP. The Health Physics Instrumentation includes: Alpha and Beta Continuous Air Monitors (CAMS), Personnel Contamination Monitors (PCMs), Gamma Area Radiation Monitors (ARMs), Criticality Monitors, Alpha and Beta Smear Sample Counters, Portable Friskers, and Operator Breathing Zone Air Samplers. This OTR will cover only the Health Physics Instrumentation that was tested under the Operational test Plan for Health Physics Instrumentation (Phase 2 and 3). That instrumentation included: Alpha CAMS, Beta CAMs and ARMs located in rooms 107 and 113 of 2336-W. The remaining Health Physics Instrumentation that will be used for phase 2 and 3 start-up is tested during calibrations. These calibrations are outside the scope of the Operational Test Plan

  11. Antipsychotic treatment, psychoeducation & regular follow up as a public health strategy for schizophrenia: Results from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Treatment with antipsychotics and psychoeducation can favourably influence the course of schizophrenia and reduce disability in a substantial proportion of patients. Structured psychosocial interventions may be indicated in the significant minority who show suboptimal outcome with this strategy.

  12. Physical therapists familiarity and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewley, Derek; Rhon, Dan; Flynn, Tim; Koppenhaver, Shane; Cook, Chad

    2018-02-21

    Physical therapists' familiarity, perceptions, and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour have not been previously assessed. The purposes of this study were to identify physical therapists' characteristics related to familiarity of health services utilization and health seeking behaviour, and to assess what health seeking behaviour factors providers felt were related to health services utilization. We administered a survey based on the Andersen behavioural model of health services utilization to physical therapists using social media campaigns and email between March and June of 2017. In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. We asked respondents to rate familiarity with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour and collected additional characteristic variables. Physical therapists are more familiar with health services utilization than health seeking behaviour. Those who are familiar with either construct tend to be those who assess for health services utilization, use health services utilization for a prognosis, and believe that health seeking behaviour is measurable. Physical therapists rated need and enabling factors as having more influence on health services utilization than predisposing and health belief factors. Physical therapists are generally familiar with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour; however, there appears to be a disconnect between what is familiar, what is perceived to be important, and what can be assessed for both health services utilization and health seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. All rights reserved.

  13. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress report, Physics and Health Sciences: Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the research and operational activities of the TASCC Division, the Physics Division, and the Fusion Office of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. TASCC, the 8π spectrometer, the on-line isotope separator, and the large scattering chamber completed their first year of operation with results including the discovery of the first nucleus, 153 Dy, to exhibit more than one superdeformed band. DUALSPEC, the double neutron spectrometer at the NRU reactor, should be commissioned in 1990. Investigations were carried out into the cold fusion phenomenon with negative results. Studies on food irradiation showed that the induced radioactivity is less than 0.25 percent of that already present. Substantial funding commitments have been made to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Theoretical work on multiple scattering of heavy ions appears to be expandable to relativistic energies. Canadian contributions to the NET project have been endorsed and continue to grow

  15. Progress report, Physics and Health Sciences: Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report reviews the research and operational activities of the TASCC Division, the Physics Division, and the Fusion Office of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Commissioning of the TASCC facilities continues; the cyclotron's 17 beams are routinely used in experiments. The MP tandem accelerator has operated at 15 MV. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry group has shown that it is able to measure internal strain and temperature in engineering components. Work is continuing on a cold source to be installed in NRU at the same time as the third reactor vessel. Assembly of the DUALSPEC spectrometer has begun. Progress in understanding and developing the theory of quantum groups resulted in the discovery of a new structure, the twisted quantum group

  16. Perspectives on reasons for non-adherence to medication in persons with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a qualitative study of patients, caregivers and health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, Solomon; Hanlon, Charlotte; Beyero, Teferra; Jacobsson, Lars; Shibre, Teshome

    2013-06-17

    Levels of non-adherence to antipsychotic medication in persons with schizophrenia in rural African settings have been shown to be comparable to those found in high-income countries. Improved understanding of the underlying reasons will help to inform intervention strategies relevant to the context. A qualitative study was conducted among persons with schizophrenia (n = 24), their caregivers (n = 19), research field workers (n = 7) and health workers (n = 1) involved in the ongoing population-based cohort study, 'The Butajira Study on Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder', based in rural Ethiopia. Six focus group discussions and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted to elicit perspectives on non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. Thematic analysis was used to identify prominent perspectives. Predominant reasons for non-adherence specific to a low-income country setting included inadequate availability of food to counter appetite stimulation and the perceived strength of antipsychotic medications. The vital role of the family or other social support in the absence of a statutory social safety net was emphasised. Expectations of cure, rather than need for continuing care, were reported to contribute to non-adherence in the longer-term. Many of the factors associated with non-adherence in high-income countries were also considered important in Ethiopia, including lack of insight, failure to improve with treatment, medication side effects, substance abuse, stigma and dissatisfaction with the attitude of the care provider. This study identifies additional barriers to medication adherence faced by persons with schizophrenia in Ethiopia compared to those in high-income countries. In this era of scaling up of mental health care, greater attention to provision of social and financial assistance will potentially improve adherence and thereby enable patients to benefit more fully from medication.

  17. Federal support for health physics education in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    In the USA there is a critical shortage of highly trained and educated health physicists. The university programmes in health physics have had difficulties in keeping up with this high employment demand. In order to solve this problem the US Department of Energy has instituted two graduate fellowship programmes to encourage talented students to enter education and eventually accept a career in health physics. (author). 8 refs

  18. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.

  19. Progress report. Physics and Health sciences, Physics Section (1988 January 01-June 30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    A report on the progress made in the Physics and Health Sciences Physics Section between January 01 and June 30 1988 was compiled. This document contains an overview of operations and research carried out by the nuclear physics branch, the TASCC operations branch, and the cyclotron group. In addition, a general discussion of the tandem and cyclotron operations for this period was presented

  20. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  1. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature deat...

  2. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  3. Participative mental health consumer research for improving physical health care: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    People with mental illness have a significantly lower life expectancy and higher rates of chronic physical illnesses than the general population. Health care system reform to improve access and quality is greatly needed to address this inequity. The inclusion of consumers of mental health services as co-investigators in research is likely to enhance service reform. In light of this, the current paper reviews mental health consumer focussed research conducted to date, addressing the neglect of physical health in mental health care and initiatives with the aim of improving physical health care. The international literature on physical healthcare in the context of mental health services was searched for articles, including mental health consumers in research roles, via Medline, CINAHL and Google Scholar, in October 2015. Four studies where mental health consumers participated as researchers were identified. Three studies involved qualitative research on barriers and facilitators to physical health care access, and a fourth study on developing technologies for more effective communication between GPs and patients. This review found that participatory mental health consumer research in physical health care reform has only become visible in the academic literature in 2015. Heightened consideration of mental health consumer participation in research is required by health care providers and researchers. Mental health nurses can provide leadership in increasing mental health consumer research on integrated care directed towards reducing the health gap between people with and without mental illness. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  5. Mental Health Nurses Attitudes and Practice Toward Physical Health Care in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiah, Amal N; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Alhadidi, Majdi M B

    2017-08-01

    Patients with mental illnesses are at high risk for physical disorders and death. The aim of this study is to describe mental health nurses' attitudes and practice toward physical health care for patients with mental illnesses. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data using self- reported questionnaire from 202 mental health nurses working in mental health settings in Jordan. The study adopted translated version of Robson and Haddad Physical Health Attitudes Scale to the Arabic language. There was significant positive correlation between the participants' positive attitudes and their current practice (r = .388, p = .000), mental health nurses who have more positive attitudes regarding physical health care involved physical health care more in their current practice. Mental health nurses' attitudes affect the quality of care provided to patients with mental illnesses. The results provide implications for practice, education, and research.

  6. The value of physical examination in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carolyn T

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the use of a physical examination assignment in a mental health general nursing clinical placement course that addresses the poor physical health of people with mental illness and the barriers traditionally impeding health care provision for this population. A descriptive qualitative approach utilizes inductive content analysis to investigate 145 student survey responses. The assignment assists student nurses in understanding that physical and mental well-being are intrinsically linked. Students report increased comfort performing a physical examination on patients with mental illness post assignment. Students' initial bias towards this population was minimized post the clinical assignment. Poor physical health is common among people with mental health problems. Many view the provision of care as a major public health issue. Nurses are the front line caregivers of mental health service consumers and are well positioned to assess their physical needs. Their assessment may be the first step in recognizing health care issues in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  8. Associations between physical activity and physical and mental health--a HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheussen, Gro F; Romundstad, Pål R; Landmark, Tormod; Kaasa, Stein; Dale, Ola; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2011-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been characterized as the ultimate goal for health interventions such as physical activity (PA). We assessed how frequency, duration, and intensity of PA were related to HRQoL in younger (physical and mental health. HRQoL was measured by SF-8 Health Survey. Frequency and duration were assessed by items validated in a previous HUNT study, and intensity was assessed by Borg RPE scale. Associations between PA and physical and mental health were estimated using general linear modeling. A total of 4500 participants (56% females), age 19-91 yr, with mean age of 53±15 yr, were included. Of these, 40% were less active than recommended by international guidelines. In general, mean physical health (PCS-8) in females and males was 47.4±9.7 and 48.8±8.9, and mental health (MCS-8) was 50.5±8.0 and 51.9±7.3, respectively. Age-adjusted association between PA and HRQoL was stronger for physical than mental health in both genders and age groups. The largest differences were between no exercise and exercise groups at any level for frequency, duration, and intensity of PA. We found no substantial gender differences in association between PA and HRQoL, but association was stronger in older (≥65 yr) than younger (physical and mental health in both genders compared with no exercise, particularly among the older individuals.

  9. m-RESIST, a complete m-Health solution for patients with treatmentresistant schizophrenia: a qualitative study of user needs and acceptability in the Barcelona metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Marcó-García, Silvia; Escobar-Villegas, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Grasa Bello, Eva M; Alonso Solís, Anna; Rabella, Mireia; Berdun, Jesús; Hospedales, Margarita; M-Resist, Group; Corripio, Iluminada; Usall, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Despite the theoretical potential of m-health solutions in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, there remains a lack of technological solutions in daily practice. The aim of this study was to measure the receptivity of patients, informal carers, and clinicians to an integral intervention model focused on patients with persistent positive symptoms: Mobile Therapeutic Attention for Patients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia (m-RESIST). A qualitative study of the needs and acceptability of outpatients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia was carried out in Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu (Barcelona). We analyzed the opinions of patients, informal carers, and clinicians concerning the services initially thought to be part of the solution. Five focus groups and eight interviews were carried out, using discourse analysis as the analytical approach. A webpage and a virtual forum were perceived as suitable to get reliable information on both the disease and support. Data transmission service, online visits, and instant messages were evaluated as ways to improve contact with clinicians. Alerts were appreciated as reminders of daily tasks and medical appointments. Avoiding stressful situations for outpatients, promoting an active role in the management of the disease, and maintaining human contact with clinicians were the main suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the solution. Positive acceptance of m-RESIST services is related to its usefulness in meeting user needs, its capacity to empower them, and the possibility of maintaining human contact.

  10. Health, physical education and physical development of students in historically and personally developing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the general health situation of the population of Europe. It is shown that in the last decade in the European Union there is a steady trend towards better health. It is noted that in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Ukraine, the reverse process. Revealed the possibility of improved system of physical education students in improving indicators of physical development, functional status and health of students and the general population. It is noted that the intense physical activity of young people is only 3 - 4 minutes per day, and moderate and total - just over 1 hour. It is noted that the enhancement of the educational component of university discipline Physical Education is defined professional and personal characteristics of teachers of physical education departments, their willingness to self-improvement and development. The prospects for the use of personal-oriented campaign in the reform of university academic discipline Physical Education.

  11. THE EFFECT OF FAMILY THERAPY WITH SPIRITUAL APPROACH TOWARD FAMILY’S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL IN TAKING CARE OF PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is the problem with kognitive, mal-adaptive thought and behavior. Family who have a member with mental disorder can experience serious conflict, become an objective and subjective burden, blame each other, get involved in hostility among family members. Various negative effect faced by family can caused by wrong family’s health belief model about Schizophrenia, hence the failure on choosing the treatment and taking care of patient at home. Someone with severe stress will seek comfort and strength from God. But so far, the most effective spiritual models to improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with schizophrenia has not been found. Method: Design used in this study was experimental (pre post test control group design. The population was every family of patient with mental disorder in Menur Mental Hospital along the year of 2010, chosen by alocation simple random. Samples were 13 persons in each treatment and control group. The intervention was given in 60–120 minute in 8 times meeting with average interval about 1 week. Data analysis was done using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: There were significant changes in total of family’s health belief model (p=0,004, there was significantly change in aspects of (1 perceptions about bene fi ts (p=0,009, (2 perception about barriers (p=0,035 and perception about self efficacy (p=0,002. There were no significant changing in perception about susceptibility and severity (p=0,052. Discussion: Family believes that all events experienced by the patient and the family is God's will, hoping the patient can be more independent, and believe mental disorders can be changed for the better. The conclusion of this study is that family therapy with a spiritual approach can improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with mental disorders.

  12. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formati...

  13. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  14. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  15. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  16. Physical improvement and its impact on the health of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konova L.A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The directions of physical improvement in personal and individual approach and its impact on the health of students. The definitions of the concept of physical perfection and its main components: strength, speed, endurance, agility, flexibility. Special attention is paid to the importance of physical perfection as part of positive self-identity. Outlines the theory of the acquisition of physical improvement in the availability of a clear human motivation. It is noted that physical perfection is in need of motivation on the part of the student, the proper selection of a complex exercise and may be based only on a personal and individual approach based on the physical abilities of each student. Show the direction of their own physical fitness improvement during the self-study. It is shown that promoting the harmonious development of all-round, avoiding harmful habits, improve mental and physical performance and confidence in their own ability to significantly change the person's self esteem.

  17. Health physics and safety in JAERI, No.17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    In the annual report No.17 (fiscal 1974), the activities of health physics and safety in the Tokyo Office, Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, and Oarai Research Establishment are described. (auth.)

  18. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... in conjunction with appointed reviewers throughout Africa and overseas for special topics. ... Professor A.L. Toriola (Exercise and Sports Science) Tshwane University of ...

  19. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Employee interactive quality and perceived value effects on satisfaction and patronage ... Transforming tourism in South Africa: Towards a youth empowerment model ...

  20. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Graduate attributes for contemporary business event tourism management qualifications: ... Utilising sustainable tourism indicators to determine the environmental performance ... The mediating role of tourist attractions in the relationship between hotel ...

  1. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Physiological demands of simulated elite Karate kumite matches · EMAIL FULL ... Parental involvement in school sport: Perceptions of competitive rugby union players ...

  2. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... The relationship between Parenting styles and childhood trauma: A study of street children in ... Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire validation in an Afrikaans speaking ...

  3. Health physics and safety in JAERI, No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    In the annual report No.18 (fiscal 1975), the activities of health physics and safety in the Tokyo Office, Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, and Oarai Research Establishment are described. (auth.)

  4. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... The socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on infected individuals in the ... influence the travel behaviour of visitors to nature-based tourism products in South Africa?

  5. Applied health physics and safety annual report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.; Davis, D.M.

    1977-08-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: personnel monitoring; health physics instrumentation; atmospheric monitoring; water monitoring; radiation background measurements; soil samples; laboratory operations monitoring; radiation incidents; laundry monitoring; accident analysis; and industrial safety

  6. The psychology of the heart: Implications for health, physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for health, physical activity and sport of psychophysiological resonance, coherence and heart rate variability feedback applications involving respiration and facilitation of positive emotion. Keywords: Heart psychology, psychophysiology, resonance, coherence, transcultural context, heart rate variability, biofeedback.

  7. Applied Health Physics and Safety annual report for 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report describes and summarizes the activities of the applied sections and/or groups of the Health Physics Division. Projects and activities covered include personnel monitoring, environmental monitoring, radiation and safety surveys, and industrial safety

  8. Health physics standards for cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The safety criteria applicable to the design of the stimulator and of its battery and radioisotope source are announced: physical and chemical form of the fuel; containment (isolation of the radioisotope fuel, compatibility of the materials, containment lifetime); external radiation. It is stressed that all radioactive substances must be recovered at the final stage and evacuated under controlled conditions, which implies the labelling of the radioisotope source, battery case and stimulator [fr

  9. Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: a study exploring mental health nurses' views of their role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebe, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor

  10. Experience acquired in health physics at Saclay Nuclear Research Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, L.; Joffre, H.

    1963-06-15

    Description is given of the general organization and functions of the Health Physics Department of Saclay Nuclear Research Establishment. The means employed for the various installations covered and the general rules adopted for health physics are presented. From an overall survey of the results obtained in 1962, conclusions were drawn from past experience and to foresee improvements for the future are foreseen. (P.C.H.)

  11. Predictors of Obesity and Physical Health Complaints Among 911 Telecommunicators

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle M. Lilly; Melissa J. London; Mary C. Mercer

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to: (1) examine rates of obesity and physical health complaints among 911 telecommunicators; and (2) document the role of emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, duty-related distress and dissociation, and psychopathology in predicting obesity and physical health complaints in this population. Methods: The sample consisted of 911 telecommunicators from across the country (N = 758). Participants completed an online survey assessing their mental and ph...

  12. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  13. The Effects of Cannabis Use on Physical and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use affects physical and mental health. To do so, information on prime aged individuals living in Amsterdam in 1994 is used. Dutch data offer a clear advantage in estimating the health impacts of cannabis use because the legal status of cannabis in the Netherlands ensures that estimates are free from confounding with the physical and psychological effects of engaging in a criminal activity. Accounting for selection into cannabis use and shared frailtie...

  14. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children’s physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Sources: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articl...

  15. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS Kongstad, M. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Christensen, JR. 1 1: SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Workplace health promotion involving physical exercise training may negate lifestyle......-sectional sample of health care workers, as well as 2) the change in WP in relation to changes in the before mentioned physiological variables following workplace health promotion. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on a subsample of 139 Danish, female health care workers participating in a cluster...... randomized controlled trial. WP was assessed as a summed score using selected, validated questions from three questionnaires (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability, and Quantity and Quality Method). Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, CRF was measured using a bicycle ergometer...

  16. Hygienic aspects of physical education and health of schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    J.D. Svystun; V.M. Trach; Kh.E. Shavel; J.M. Kukujuk

    2017-01-01

    Aim: to analyze the state of physical education in secondary schools of Ukraine and to observe hygienic requirements during physical education lessons. Material: the study was attended by schoolchildren (n=40, age - 12-13 years) and schoolchildren of specialized sports classes (n=40, age - 14-16 years). Studied: the level of physical health; functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; the state of energy supply of children’s organism; the influence of mobile games on the f...

  17. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  18. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  19. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Costa, Rui A; Lamela, Diogo J P V; Figueiredo, Bárbara F C

    2009-01-01

    To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children's physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articles on the subject. Special attention was paid to contributions by internationally renowned investigators on the subject. Divorce may be responsible for a decline of physical and psychological health in children. The developmental maladjustment of children is not triggered by divorce itself, but rather by other risk factors associated with it, such as interparental conflict, parental psychopathology, decline in socio-economic level, inconsistency in parenting styles, a parallel and conflicting co-parenting relationship between parents and low levels of social support. Such risk factors trigger maladjusted developmental pathways, marked by psychopathological symptoms, poor academic performance, worst levels of physical health, risk behavior, exacerbated psychophysiological responses to stress and weakening of the immune system. Clear links were observed between experiencing parental divorce and facing problems of physical and psychological maladjustment in children. Divorce is a stressor that should be considered by health professionals as potentially responsible for maladjusted neuropsychobiological responses and for decline in children's physical health.

  20. Has physical activity anything to do with health promotion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Lone Friis

    2016-01-01

    Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientation...... of Danish society as an expression of a continued civilizing of the body. In national governmental health messages sports participation and general physical activity are presented as an essential health-promoting instrument that keeps illness and disease away, thereby prolong life. But the all......-pervading guide to physical activity and sport - often with a focus on quantitative dimensions like frequency, duration and intensity - as measurable effects and risks, has resulted in a rationalisation of many movement cultures for large selections of the population. Health messages are then presented using...

  1. PHYSICAL CULTURE AND HEALTH CULTURE – INNOVATIONAL CULTUROLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Inaugural discusses of metatheoretical innovatinal forming of upgrading the cultural health and pedagogical technology of children’s and youth’s health progress and protection systems in the system of generally educational and health-school organizations. Establishment of a dynamical cumulative knowledge exchange and cooperative harmonization of the pedagogues of teaching obligations in the constitution of knowledge management educational space on rising health culture, physicality, and enriching sport and recreative lifestyle. Working out of con ceptual structural-functional scheme of health management measures in school and of evaluation of psychophysical and functional potentials, from the aspect of personalorientation. Establishment of complex system monitoring for physical development and physical capabilities and achieved results in domain of self-organized sport and sport-recreative selected activities.

  2. Physical Activity and Health: "What is Old is New Again".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Byrne, Nuala M

    2015-01-01

    Much recent interest has focused on the relationship between physical activity and health and supported with an abundance of scientific evidence. However, the concept of Exercise is Medicine™ copromoted by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association and similar august bodies worldwide is far from new--the importance of exercise for health has been reported for centuries. Participation in regular physical activity and exercise provides numerous benefits for health with such benefits typically varying according to the volume completed as reflected by intensity, duration, and frequency. Evidence suggests a dose-response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is preferable to being inactive or sedentary. Greatest benefits are commonly associated with the previously sedentary individual assuming a more active lifestyle. There is an apparent linear relationship between physical activity and health status and as a general rule, increases in physical activity and fitness result in additional improvements in health status. This narrative review provides a selective appraisal of the evidence for the importance of physical activity for health, commencing with a baseline historical perspective followed by a summary of key health benefits associated with an active lifestyle. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A partnership between physics and health

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

      Ever since pioneers like Rolf Wideröe and Ernest Lawrence built the first particle accelerators in the 1920s and 30s, particle physics has contributed to advances in medicine. Today, over half of the world’s particle accelerators are used in medicine, and more and varied uses are being found for them all the time. The same is true for particle detector technology. In the 1970s, CERN played an important role in the emerging technology of positron emission tomography (PET), building prototype scanners in a collaboration with Geneva’s hospital. That tradition continues to this day, with crystal technology developed for LEP, coupled to electronics developed for the LHC, pointing the way to combined PET/MRI scanners. It’s a proud track record by any standards, but we can do better. In the past, the transfer of knowledge and technology between the biomedical professions and physics has been sporadic: based on chance rather than strategy. That’s why...

  4. Occupational health physics at a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Shoup, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Future generation of electrical power using controlled thermonuclear reactors will involve both traditional and new concerns for health protection. A review of the problems associated with exposures to tritium and magnetic fields is presented with emphasis on the occupational worker. The radiological aspects of tritium, inventories and loss rates of tritium for fusion reactors, and protection of the occupational worker are discussed. Magnetic fields in which workers may be exposed routinely and possible biological effects are also discussed

  5. Physical health and well-being: Experiences and perspectives of young adult mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Kerley, David; Delgado, Cynthia; Turnell, Adrienne

    2016-08-01

    Compromised physical health and raised levels of morbidity and mortality are experienced by young people (16-24 years) with mental illness, and are compounded by psychotropic medication. How this group conceives and experiences physical health is not well understood. We investigated the meanings, beliefs, and endeavours of young people that impact their physical health understandings and behaviours. The present study formed the qualitative phase of a sequential mixed-methods study, and incorporated semistructured interviews with 12 hospitalized young people. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. Participants held a holistic ideal of physical health that they did not meet. Weight change, poor sleep, and limited exercise adversely impacted their lives and self-image. Sedentary behaviour, reduced energy, and limited health literacy compromised effective management of physical health. Young people needed structure and support to assist them in addressing their physical health needs when amotivation overwhelmed their internal resources. Nurses are well placed to help young people increase their competency for health management. Individualized information and methods to promote good physical health are required for this group in jeopardy from physical morbidity and mortality. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Health physics measurement of Princeton Tokamaks, 1977-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.; Gilbert, J.D.; Couch, J.G.; Griesbach, O.A.; Fennimore, J.J.; Greco, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) began fusion experiments in 1951. In the early years, the major health physics concerns were associated with x radiation produced by energetic electrons in the plasma. Within the past year, neutron and 3 H production from 2H-2H (represented hereafter as D-D) reactions has increased significantly on the larger fusion devices. Tritium retention noted in graphite tiles underscores the significance of material selection in present and future 3 H-fueled fusion devices. This paper reports on operational health physics radiation measurements made on various PPPL machines over the past 10 y

  7. Physical activities to improve the aged people’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydelin Hernández-Porraspita

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical activities have as main function the establishment of ways, forms and means that facilitate a stable health and a high capacity of physical yield in the practitioners, so that they can satisfactorily carry out their activities in all the spheres of their lives serving as base for their development as active citizens of the society. The imperious necessity to increase daily realization of physicalrecreational activities to improve the state of our adults' health is one of the highpriority tasks of the Revolution, besides the mediator role that professionals of physical culture and sport carry out when favouring the benefit of a healthier elderly.

  8. Determinants of subjective quality of life in first-episode schizophrenia: perspective from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to examine the determinants of subjective quality of life among patients with first-episode schizophrenia in a developing country. One-hundred and twenty patients registered with National Mental Health Registry for Schizophrenia from 1 January 2003 to 31 August 2005 were included. They were diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders and had been compliant to treatment. Sociodemographic data were obtained and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Anchored Version, Health of The Nation Outcome Scales, Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life were used to assess psychopathology, side effects from antipsychotics and subjective quality of life. Gender, positive and disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia, and cognitive and physical impairments appeared to be the most important predictors of subjective quality of life among the patients from this centre in Malaysia. Different domains of self-rated quality of life correlated with different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Some of the characteristics were malleable and a better understanding of these could lead to improvements in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.

  10. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  11. The effect of cannabis use on physical and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use affects physical and mental health. To do so, information on prime aged individuals living in Amsterdam in 1994 is used. Dutch data offer a clear advantage in estimating the health impacts of cannabis use because the legal status of cannabis in the

  12. The Effects of Cannabis Use on Physical and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use aects physical and mental health. To do so, information on prime aged individuals living in Amsterdam in 1994 is used. Dutch data offer a clear advantage in estimating the health impacts of cannabis use because the legal status of cannabis in the

  13. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, J.E.; van der Velden, P.G.; Grievink, Linda; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physicianrecorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  14. Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

  15. Explaining Outsourcing in Health, Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2015-01-01

    Outsourcing is a complex, controversial and pervasive practice that is increasingly becoming a matter of concern for educational researchers. This article contributes to this literature by examining outsourcing practices related to health, sport and physical education (HSPE). Specifically, it reports data on specialist health and physical…

  16. Sexual harassment and discrimination. Impact on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, D K

    1990-02-01

    Sexual harassment and sexual discrimination continue to be pervasive problems for women in business, academia, and medicine, with widespread and often serious health, emotional, and economic consequences. It is important that health care providers become aware of the common physical and emotional symptoms associated with these victimization experiences and serve as supportive and informed resources to their patients.

  17. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Velden, P.G. van der; Grievink, L.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physician-recorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n = 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  18. Interdisciplinary career full of challenges and opportunities. Health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van As, D. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1982-09-01

    South Africa is one of the largest uranium producers in the world. Because of this nuclear energy must be used to its full extent. The development of the nuclear industry and uranium enrichment led to a greater demand for health physics. The career of a health physicist is discussed.

  19. Physical Education at Preschools: Practitioners' and Children's Engagements with Physical Activity and Health Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of a qualitative study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and children at three preschools in Scotland. We examine the ways in which the participants engaged with discourses related to physical activity and health in order to construct their…

  20. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  1. Operational health physics at the Los Alamos meson physics proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The operational health physics practices and procedures at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), a medium energy, high intensity proton accelerator are reviewed. The operational philosophy used for the control of personnel exposures and radioactive materials is discussed. A particular operation involving the removal of a radioactive beam stop reading in excess of 1000 R/h is described

  2. Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, J L; Gona, J; Omondi, F O; Kifalu, M K; Newton, C R; Hartley, S

    2013-05-01

    The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Aspiring to physical health: the role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2009-02-01

    To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change=.05), relative to community care (mean change=-.13), t=2.66, p<.01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z'=1.68, p<.01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z'=2.16, p<.01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (beta=.08, p<.05). Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use.

  4. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  5. Improving the physical health in long-term psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Davidsen, A.S.; Killian, R.

    2014-01-01

    programme to improve physical health is effective. METHODS: An extension of the European Network for Promoting the Health of Residents in Psychiatric and Social Care Institutions (HELPS) project further developed as a 12-month controlled cluster-randomized intervention study in the Danish centre. Waist......, but not significant, reduction in waist circumference, while participants in the control group showed a significant increase in waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention had a positive effect on the physical health of the patients measured by a reduction in the increase of waist circumference....

  6. Health Physics and Medical Services report for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, A.K.; Bird, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    A Health Physics and Medical Services report is presented for Harwell Laboratory for 1986. Health physics aspects covered include safety policy and organisation, monitoring results for the working environment and personnel, an analysis of radiological incidents and radioactive waste disposal, and protection of the public. Other non-radiological aspects of health and safety are briefly considered. The section on Medical Services contains details of the staffing, the types of medical examinations performed, the treatments received, work on the safety of asbestos and manmade mineral fibres and training and education programmes. (UK)

  7. Towards the effective introduction of physical activity interventions in primary health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of primary health care-based physical activity interventions and recommendations for primary health care professionals to promote physical activity, the introduction of physical activity interventions in routine daily primary health care

  8. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  9. Physical activity and its importance for the health of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sztandera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim of the study. World society is aging. In Poland, in 2015 the proportion of older people is almost 23%, and the world is 12%. Forecasts show that by 2050 this proportion will reach 32.7%, the world 22%, and 1 in 5 people will be 60+. The purpose of the study was to analyze the literature of physical activity and its benefits to elderly people’ health. Actual knowledge. The health condition worsens with age, the number of long-term health problems and chronic diseases rising with age. These problems are mainly related to cardiological problems, joint problem and diabetes. The World Health Organization has pointed out that physical activity has measurable effects on the health of the elderly. Summary.From the available literature, there is clearly a positive effect of physical activity on the health of people in the third period of life. Physical activity started in any age will have beneficial health effects associated with improved functional status, improved quality of life and mood.

  10. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  12. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  13. Physical activity recommendations for health: what should Europe do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelholm Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating scientific evidence shows physical activity to have profound health benefits amenable to substantial public health gains. Accordingly, recommendations on how much and what kind of physical activity enhances health have been issued. The 1995 recommendation from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine has been adapted worldwide, including Europe. Recently an extensive review of new evidence was undertaken and refined recommendations were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We summarise the development of physical activity recommendations and consider the need and possible ways to update the current European situation. Discussion The new recommendations include several new elements when compared to the 1995 recommendation, the most notable being the greater emphasis on the contribution of vigorous-intensity activities, and the inclusion of activities for muscle strength and bone health. They also include specific recommendations for young people, middle-aged adults, older adults and some special groups. The existing Pan-European and national physical activity recommendations in Europe are mostly based on the 1995 recommendation and primarily target adults and young people. Thus the degree to which they are compatible with the new recommendations varies. In view of the growing public health importance of physical activity, we discuss the need to review the existing physical activity recommendations at the European level and assess their consistency with the new evidence and the new recommendations. Summary We argue that a review of the current physical activity recommendations in Europe should be undertaken in view of the most recent research evidence. We recommend that such a task should be taken on by WHO Europe in parallel with the ongoing work by WHO global Headquarters. Following this, each country should develop communication

  14. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Margje; Maaskant, Marian A; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; van Nieuwpoort, I Caroline; Drent, Madeleine L; Curfs, Leopold M G; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M

    2011-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in adults with PWS are scarce. We report on the prevalence of physical health problems in a Dutch cohort of adults with PWS in relation to age, BMI, and genetic subtype. Participants (n = 102) were retrieved via the Dutch Prader-Willi Parent Association and through physicians specializing in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Details regarding physical health problem spanning the participants' lifespan were collected from caretakers through semi-structured interviews. Cardiovascular problems included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cerebrovascular accidents. Respiratory infections were frequent in adulthood. In males, cryptorchidism was almost universal, for which 28/48 males had a history of surgery, mostly orchidopexy. None of the women had a regular menstrual cycle. Sixteen individuals had a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Spinal deformation, hip dysplasia, and foot abnormalities were common. Skinpicking, leg edema, and erysipelas were frequent dermatological problems. The findings in our group support the notion that the prevalence of physical health problems is underestimated. This underscores the importance of developing monitoring programs which would help to recognize physical health problems at an early stage. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business frequent flyers may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved

  16. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  17. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  18. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Paulo R.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  19. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Menezes

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  20. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  1. Patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotics prescriptions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stella de Azevedo Silveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of its global underuse, clozapine is still the golden standard antipsychotic for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS. Objective To evaluate the patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs prescription in TRS in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A multiple-choice questionnaire was applied to fifteen psychiatrists at five centers inquiring about patients’ clinical condition, adherence to oral treatment and current antipsychotic treatment. History of previous and current antipsychotic treatment was collected through medical chart review. Results Out of 442 schizophrenia patients, 103 (23.3% fulfilled the criteria for TRS. Fifty-eight patients (56.3% were receiving polypharmacy; 30 (29.1% were on atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, 14 (13.6% were on typical antipsychotic monotherapy, 25 (24.3% were taking depot antipsychotic medication and only 22 (21.4% were receiving clozapine. Discussion As well as in other parts of the world, many TRS patients (78.6% receive other drugs instead of clozapine in São Paulo, the best evidence-based medication for patients with TRS. The government should make every effort to provide medical training and the equipment and logistic support to adequately serve those who could benefit from clozapine treatment at the community health centers.

  2. Exploring physical health perceptions, fatigue and stress among health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice V

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Rice,1 Nel Glass,2 KR Ogle,2 Nasrin Parsian21School of Exercise Science, 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Nurses, midwives, and paramedics are exposed to high degrees of job demand, which impacts health status and job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health with a group of nurses, midwives and paramedics in Australia. Specifically, this paper reveals the findings related to the dataset on physical health. In this regard, the researchers sought to explore the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and the relationship between health status and stress levels. The study adopted a mixed methodology and used two methods for data collection: one-on-one interviews exploring the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and a survey questionnaire focusing on self-rated stress management. The individual interviews were conducted for further exploration of the participants' responses to the survey. There were 24 health care participants who were drawn from metropolitan and regional Australia. The findings revealed participants: had a desire to increase their physical activity levels; had different perspectives of physical health from those recommended by government guidelines; and viewed physical health as important to job satisfaction, yet related to stress and fatigue.Keywords: workforce, job satisfaction, health status

  3. Health physics program for the Edgemont Uranium Mill decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polehn, J.L.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Wilson, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is actively involved in decommissioning a uranium mill located near the town of Edgemont, South Dakota. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project, which is unique in many respects, will involve dismantlement of the old inactive mill building and excavation and transportation of several million tons of uranium mill tailings to a permanent disposal site. To ensure that workers are adequately protected from radiation exposure during decommissioning operations, a health physics program appropriate for the decommissioning situation was developed. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project Health Physics Manual (HPM) gives the programmatic requirements for worker radiation protection. The requirements of the HPM are implemented by means of detailed onsite operating procedures. The Edgemont project health physics program was developed using currently available regulations and guidance for an operating uranium mill with appropriate modifications for decommissioning. This paper discusses the development, implementation, and documentation of that program

  4. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  5. Health physics practices and experience at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.

    1986-01-01

    The history and development of the health physics and as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) program at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station is described as are the fundamental elements of the program and how the program works. The benefits of this health physics/ALARA program have been determined to be (a) improved quality of manpower planning and scheduling, (b) increased efficiency of shutdown activities, (c) reduced cost of shutdown, (d) immediate awareness of adverse job exposure trends, (e) better management information on exposure-related problems, (f) improved accuracy of personnel and job dose records, and (g) in general, improved outage performance and subsequent plant operation. Experience with the health physics/ALARA program is discussed in terms of (a) savings of critical path time, (b) maintaining ALARA personnel doses, and (c) record capacity factors

  6. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  7. Valuing Individuals? Preferences and Health Choices of Physical Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Aboagye, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-specific low back pain (LBP) is well documented, but little is known about how individuals value specific components of physical exercise, such as the type and design or the intensity and frequency of exercise. Other factors that influence individual differences in health choices and adherence are associated with individuals? attitudes toward and likelihood of performing recommended exercise regimens. Current evidence s...

  8. Workplace Neighborhoods, Walking, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Perceived Health

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Oakes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on how the built environment in residential neighborhoods affects walking and other physical activity. The neighborhood around the workplace has been examined far less. This study explored the neighborhood around the workplace and its correlation with the amount of walking, level of physical activity, body mass index, and perceived health of those who (a) worked away from home (N = 446) and (b) were retired or unemployed (N = 207). Study participants were recruited...

  9. Do workplace physical activity interventions improve mental health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2014-06-01

    Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Strategies, barriers, and motivation for weight loss among veterans living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Viverito, Kristen M; Medoff, Deborah R; Hoffmann, Rebecca M; Goldberg, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss programs for veterans living with schizophrenia have demonstrated mixed efficacy, highlighting unique obstacles faced by this population. Data from a large national sample provide an opportunity to characterize the unique factors related to weight loss for veterans with schizophrenia. The present study compared veterans living with schizophrenia (n = 5,388) to veterans with no mental health diagnoses (n = 81,422) on responses to the MOVE!23, a multidimensional assessment of factors related to weight management. Responses to the MOVE!23 between August, 2005 and May, 2013 by veterans with a body mass index in the overweight or obese range were used to describe clinical characteristics, current strategies, perceived barriers, stages of readiness, and importance of and confidence to change behaviors related to their weight management. Both groups reported similar stages of readiness and high ratings of importance and confidence regarding weight loss behaviors. Compared with veterans with no mental health diagnoses, over 5 times as many veterans living with schizophrenia reported smoking to control weight, and a greater number endorsed 18 of the 21 barriers to modifying eating and physical activity. RESULTS highlight the necessity of addressing healthy lifestyles from a holistic perspective for all veterans. Adding regular physical activity as part of daily treatment may address the accessibility, safety concerns, and lack of social support reported as physical activity barriers. Increased access to healthier food choices and addressing smoking in conjunction with weight loss are also warranted. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. [Researching subordinate personality atavism in schizophrenia from the perspective of physical, mental and spiritual healing, and helping the patient to recover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tien-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Schizophrenia is not an incurable condition. If we had not understood the operating model of schizophrenia in its spiritual phase, we would not know what its causes were, and there would be no cure for it. The author has studied The Seth Material for more than twenty years. New Age thinking has it that schizophrenia can be redefined as a phenomenon of subordinate personality or secondary personality. This new definition has directly pointed out and solved the core problems of schizophrenia. It has provided a perfect explanation of phenomenology. Also, the etiology of schizophrenia has been built. A guide to diagnosis and the new treatment has been produced. The secondary personality, as described above, prevents the patient from being willing to face and grow with his main personality, and causes him to split from it. A new vision of mind and spirit enables a schizophrenic episode to be seen in fact as a process which forces him to face himself and push him to grow into one and self-heal. According to the symptoms of schizophrenia (auditory hallucinations, thought withdrawal, insertion and interruption, thought broadcasting, somatic hallucinations, delusional perception, external agents), which are the key points of recovery, the author proposes the theory of recorder as a spiritual prescription for healing which has succeeded in helping our patients.

  12. Health physics aspects of the 1.5M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, W.J.; Du, H.L.; Wei, Z.Q.; Xia, X.S.; Zheng, H.Z.; Jiang, G.F.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The 1.5m cyclotron in Institute of Modern Physics, Academia Sinica had operated for about 20 years until 1984 then converted to 1.7m sector focusing cyclotron. In this period it mainly used for fast neutron physics, light ion induced nucleus reactions, radioisotope production and heavy ion reactions. The health physics performed on this cyclotron including personnel dose monitoring, area monitoring (radiation field, radioactive aerosol, surface contamination and activated components etc.), maintenance inspection, environment survey and waste disposal is presented in this paper

  13. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  14. Exploring physical health perceptions, fatigue and stress among health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Vanessa; Glass, Nel; Ogle, Kr; Parsian, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Nurses, midwives, and paramedics are exposed to high degrees of job demand, which impacts health status and job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health with a group of nurses, midwives and paramedics in Australia. Specifically, this paper reveals the findings related to the dataset on physical health. In this regard, the researchers sought to explore the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and the relationship between health status and stress levels. The study adopted a mixed methodology and used two methods for data collection: one-on-one interviews exploring the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and a survey questionnaire focusing on self-rated stress management. The individual interviews were conducted for further exploration of the participants' responses to the survey. There were 24 health care participants who were drawn from metropolitan and regional Australia. The findings revealed participants: had a desire to increase their physical activity levels; had different perspectives of physical health from those recommended by government guidelines; and viewed physical health as important to job satisfaction, yet related to stress and fatigue.

  15. Factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increases the economic burden on health care systems because of its associated morbidity .... Depression in schizophrenia has been associated with higher rates of relapse ... The researchers approached the psychiatric nursing staff of mental.

  16. Health discourses, slimness ideals and attitudes to physical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; With-Nielsen, Ninna; Lenneis, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Studies conducted in Denmark reveal that many young women drop out of sport and exercise in their teenage years even though they possess good knowledge about health recommendations and the benefits of physical activity. This raises the question as to how they interpret and make use of the current...... messages about a healthy and active lifestyle. Based on five focus-group interviews and a survey among 784 female students aged 16-20, we explored their attitudes and practices with regard to physical activity and health. The analysis of the material is theoretically informed by the work of Foucauldian...... scholars who have used the concepts of governmentality and disciplinary power to explore current public health policies and young people’s health-related attitudes and practices. We found that for the participants in our study ‘health’ was inextricably intertwined with slimness and fitness, to which...

  17. The Perception of Time: Influences on Physical and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo Oyanadel Véliz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With a broad understanding of time perception, the dimensions positive past, negative past, fatalistic present, hedonistic present and future were grouped in profiles to assess relations with physical and mental health. Using a quasi-experimental design, 50 subjects matched for age and sex completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and the SF-36, with 3 measures of time estimation. Pearson correlations and ANOVA showed significant relationships between dimensions, physical and mental health, and estimation. Three profiles were obtained, with the balanced one (BTP having the best health indicators. These results support the idea that it is good to have a balanced profile that implies a positive attitude to the past, future orientation, and enjoying pleasant experiences. Also, health is influenced by time estimation

  18. Physical activity measurement in older adults: relationships with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah J; Strath, Scott J; Swartz, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55-87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling-William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

  19. The different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activity and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E

    2012-03-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined the different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activities and physical health. We hypothesized that physical activities would exert beneficial effects on physical health by preventing chronically high levels of perceived stress. We assessed baseline levels of physical activities and repeated measures of perceived stress and physical symptoms in 3 waves of data from a sample of 157 older adults. Among participants with high (but not low) baseline levels of perceived stress, physical activity predicted a 2-year reduction of perceived stress and a 4-year prevention of physical health symptoms. Moreover, the interaction effect on 4-year changes in physical symptoms was mediated by 2-year changes in perceived stress. Physical health benefits of physical activity are particularly pronounced among older adults who perceive high levels of stress, and this effect is mediated by a prevention of chronically high perceptions of stress.

  20. Comorbid mental and physical health and health access in Cambodian refugees in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, S Megan; Kong, Sengly; Mollica, Richard F; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary; Franke, Todd

    2014-12-01

    Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of physical health problems in Cambodian refugees and the relationship between their mental and physical health. We identified the relationship between mental and physical health problems and barriers to healthcare access in Cambodian refugee adults. We used a cross-sectional survey design with a snowball sample of 136 Cambodian refugee adult residents of Connecticut and Western Massachusetts. 61% reported being diagnosed with three or more physical conditions and 73% with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or both. Language and transportation problems were the primary barriers to accessing care. Participants with probable comorbid PTSD and depression had 1.850 times more physical health problems than those without either condition (p > .001; CI 1.334-2.566). Age moderated this relationship. Participants who had been diagnosed with both depression and PTSD reported a consistent number of health conditions across the age span while those who had no mental health conditions or only one of the two reported fewer health conditions when they were younger and more when they were older. These two groups were significantly different from the group reporting both. There is a significant relationship between chronic comorbid mental and physical health diseases affecting Cambodian refugees resettled in the US Having comorbid depression and PTSD puts Cambodian refugees at risk for physical health problems no matter their age. It is vital that those treating Cambodian genocide survivors identify and treat their prevalent comorbid health conditions. Language and transportation barriers must be addressed to improve access to mental and physical health care in this population.

  1. Female health and physical fitness at the Naval Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Stamper, Trevis L.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Stress related health disorders may he an indication that some female midshipmen at the Naval Academy are making exceptional efforts to meet specified physical performance standards. The stress at the service academies is much higher than in many civilian occupations and may increase the risk of females developing gender related health problems such as amenorrhea, bone loss, and eating disorders. The purpose of this research is to shed...

  2. Health physics, safety and medical services report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, A.K.; Bird, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Health Physics, Safety and Medical Services Report for Harwell Laboratory for 1989 includes data on the monitoring of the working environment, personnel monitoring, radiological incidents, disposal of radioactive waste and protection of the public. Work on emergency planning, non-radiological health and safety, occupational hygiene, operations support is also discussed. Finally the medical services available and the medical examinations performed are described. (UK)

  3. Health status of teachers who teach physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Petan, Mateja

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical part of this thesis describes the most common health problems, defects, and injuries faced by physical education teachers in elementary schools and those who are involved in the sports education process. Presented are occupational diseases and injuries occurring among employees in the education profession. In the second, empirical part, I explored the health problems and disabilities that teachers most often face and whether these types of problems are related to the teaching ...

  4. Impact of the priority follow-up system on quality of life in Chinese schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Leung, Chi-Ming; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor Sandor

    2008-02-01

    Priority follow up (PFU) is a particular aspect of mental health care in Hong Kong whereby psychiatric patients with a history of violence or suspected proclivity to violence are identified and their management is closely monitored. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a PFU system on quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients. Two hundred and sixty-seven clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia were randomly selected and interviewed in Hong Kong using standardized assessment instruments that covered their clinical condition and QOL. Patients with PFU status constituted 8.2% of the sample. PFU patients were more likely to be men, have a history of violence, and were poorer in the physical, psychological, social and environmental QOL domains than their non-PFU counterparts even after controlling for the effects of potential confounding variables. More effective measures should be taken to improve QOL in PFU schizophrenia patients who are prone to violent behavior.

  5. Health Literacy Teaching Beliefs, Attitudes, Efficacy, and Intentions of Middle School Health and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Wu, Der-Min; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jhang, Yu-Siang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Health education (HE) courses in schools are vital paths for improving teenagers' health literacy. HE and physical education (PE) teachers lead HE courses, and their teaching intentions and competency influence the effectiveness of the courses and the ability to promote students' health literacy. This study attempted to understand HE…

  6. Where now for schizophrenia research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Need, Anna C

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia continues to pose a serious challenge to neuroscience and psychiatry as well as to health care systems and to the patients and families who suffer this terrible and disabling illness. Major developments in the past few months in both genetics and drug development oblige us to consider novel drug discovery tactics for future schizophrenia research. Here we review what we consider to be the key issues and some suggested solutions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of the medicine administration route on health-related quality of life: Results from a time trade-off survey in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in 2 Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Tine Rikke; Emborg, Charlotte; Dahlen, Karianne; Bøgelund, Mette; Carlborg, Andreas

    2016-07-16

    Agitation episodes are common among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Oral and intramuscular administration methods are commonly used in pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Recently, an innovative inhalation product with loxapine(Adasuve®)has become available for treatment of acute agitation episodes associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The objective for the present study was to investigate the impact of the pharmacological treatment's administration methods on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in Denmark and Sweden using a time trade-off (TTO) approach. The TTO methodology was used to examine the HRQoL impact of administration method of pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Data were collected via an internet-based survey, using an existing panel of respondents with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Respondents considered living with schizophrenia/ bipolar disorder, having one yearly agitation episode treated with inhaler better than living with the same conditions and receiving treatment with tablet or injection. The utility value was 0.762 for inhalable treatment, 0.707 for injection and 0.734 for tablet treatment. Patients' preference for treatment delivery options showed that inhalation was associated with a significant utility gain when compared to injection or tablets. Inhalable loxapine may be a new tool for control of agitation episodes for strengthening the patient provider alliance when taking patient's preference for delivery method into consideration.

  8. Health and Physical Education in Australia: A Defining Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum in Australia in the context of the ongoing development of a new national curriculum. Drawing on policy documents and academic commentaries it reviews and problematises the current position and prospective development of HPE in the Australian Curriculum, examining key…

  9. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  10. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  11. Winning with Pinning: Enhancing Health and Physical Education with Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Hillary; Krause, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Social media can enhance teaching and learning by contributing to a quality health and physical education (HPE) program. Social networking has equipped HPE teachers with many novel resources for use in their classrooms. Pinterest (www.pinterest.com) is a social media website that allows teachers to search and find lesson ideas and professional…

  12. Managing health physics departmental data via a local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.J.; Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the multiuser data management system that can be accessed simultaneously by all department members, in use at the Dept of Health Physics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, U.S.A., which makes use of the Local Area Network. (UK)

  13. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  14. Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2008-01-01

    The associations between physical and psychological health and being an informal caregiver are well established. In this article, "caregiving" denotes care that is provided by a family member or friend rather than by a professional who is reimbursed for services. Clinical observation and early empirical research showed that assuming a caregiving…

  15. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Nieuwpoort, I.C. van; Drent, M.L.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in

  16. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.; Davis, D.M.

    1978-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following: radiation monitoring with regard to personnel monitoring and health physics instrumentation; environs surveillance with regard to atmospheric monitoring, water monitoring, radiation background measurements, and soil and grass samples; radiation and safety surveys with regard to laboratory operations monitoring, radiation incidents, and laundry monitoring; industrial safety and special projects with regard to accident analysis, disabling injuries, and safety awards

  17. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

  18. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Reimann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.

  19. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  20. Family intervention for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, F M; Mari, J J; Streiner, D

    2000-01-01

    It has been showed that people with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of their emotions. Psychosocial interventions designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families now exist for mental health workers. These interventions are proposed as adjuncts rather than alternatives to drug treatments, and their main purpose is to decrease the stress within the family and also the rate of relapse. To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for the care of those with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared to standard care. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1998), the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (June 1998), EMBASE (1981-1995) and MEDLINE (1966-1995) were undertaken and supplemented with reference searching of the identified literature. Randomised or quasi-randomised studies were selected if they focused on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention of more than five sessions to standard care. Data were reliably extracted, and, where appropriate and possible, summated. Peto odds ratios (OR), their 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to treat (NNT) were estimated. The reviewers assume that people who died or dropped out had no improvement and tested the sensitivity of the final results to this assumption. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (one year OR 0.57 CI 0.4-0.8, NNT 6.5 CI 4-14). The trend over time of this main finding is towards the null and some small but negative studies may not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may decrease hospitalisation and encourage compliance with medication but data are few and equivocal. Family intervention does not

  1. Using Technology to Increase Physical Activity in Health Profession Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Stark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health profession students may need help establishing and maintaining positive health behaviors when they are in college. This study explored the effectiveness of text messaging as an innovative method for promoting an increase in daily physical activity. A convenience sample (N = 134 was recruited from students at a college of Health and Human Services in Michigan. The participants were randomized into an intervention or control group (n = 67 each. The intervention group received daily affective text messages encouraging more physical activity by taking more steps. The control group received only messages reminding them to report their number of steps. All of the participants received a pedometer, completed a demographics and daily habits questionnaire, and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their number of daily steps. However, the most inactive participants had a significant increase in steps during the study period. Health profession students’ lifestyle behaviors have consequences, as they become caregivers in our dynamic, demanding health-care system. For those with the greatest need for physical activity, encouraging such activity via text messaging may improve their ability to care for themselves and their clients.

  2. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2014-01-01

    Background: The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and te...

  3. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  4. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services.

  5. Lay health supporters aided by a mobile phone messaging system to improve care of villagers with schizophrenia in Liuyang, China: protocol for a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong Roman; Gong, Wenjie; Caine, Eric D; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Hughes, James P; Ng, Marie; Simoni, Jane; He, Hua; Smith, Kirk L; Brown, Henry Shelton; Gloyd, Stephen

    2016-01-20

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and disabling mental illness. Non-adherence to medication and relapse may lead to poorer patient function. This randomised controlled study, under the acronym LEAN (Lay health supporter, e-platform, award, and iNtegration), is designed to improve medication adherence and high relapse among people with schizophrenia in resource poor settings. The community-based LEAN has four parts: (1) Lay health supporters (LHSs), mostly family members who will help supervise patient medication, monitor relapse and side effects, and facilitate access to care, (2) an E-platform to support two-way mobile text and voice messaging to remind patients to take medication; and alert LHSs when patients are non-adherent, (3) an Award system to motivate patients and strengthen LHS support, and (4) iNtegration of the efforts of patients and LHSs with those of village doctors, township mental health administrators and psychiatrists via the e-platform. A random sample of 258 villagers with schizophrenia will be drawn from the schizophrenic '686' Program registry for the 9 Xiang dialect towns of the Liuyang municipality in China. The sample will be further randomised into a control group and a treatment group of equal sizes, and each group will be followed for 6 months after launch of the intervention. The primary outcome will be medication adherence as measured by pill counts and supplemented by pharmacy records. Other outcomes include symptoms and level of function. Outcomes will be assessed primarily when patients present for medication refill visits scheduled every 2 months over the 6-month follow-up period. Data from the study will be analysed using analysis of covariance for the programme effect and an intent-to-treat approach. University of Washington: 49464 G; Central South University: CTXY-150002-6. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals with deidentified data made available on FigShare. ChiCTR-ICR-15006053; Pre-results. Published by the

  6. Lay health supporters aided by a mobile phone messaging system to improve care of villagers with schizophrenia in Liuyang, China: protocol for a randomised control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjie; Caine, Eric D; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Hughes, James P; Ng, Marie; Simoni, Jane; He, Hua; Smith, Kirk L; Brown, Henry Shelton; Gloyd, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and disabling mental illness. Non-adherence to medication and relapse may lead to poorer patient function. This randomised controlled study, under the acronym LEAN (Lay health supporter, e-platform, award, and iNtegration), is designed to improve medication adherence and high relapse among people with schizophrenia in resource poor settings. Methods/analysis The community-based LEAN has four parts: (1) Lay health supporters (LHSs), mostly family members who will help supervise patient medication, monitor relapse and side effects, and facilitate access to care, (2) an E-platform to support two-way mobile text and voice messaging to remind patients to take medication; and alert LHSs when patients are non-adherent, (3) an Award system to motivate patients and strengthen LHS support, and (4) iNtegration of the efforts of patients and LHSs with those of village doctors, township mental health administrators and psychiatrists via the e-platform. A random sample of 258 villagers with schizophrenia will be drawn from the schizophrenic ‘686’ Program registry for the 9 Xiang dialect towns of the Liuyang municipality in China. The sample will be further randomised into a control group and a treatment group of equal sizes, and each group will be followed for 6 months after launch of the intervention. The primary outcome will be medication adherence as measured by pill counts and supplemented by pharmacy records. Other outcomes include symptoms and level of function. Outcomes will be assessed primarily when patients present for medication refill visits scheduled every 2 months over the 6-month follow-up period. Data from the study will be analysed using analysis of covariance for the programme effect and an intent-to-treat approach. Ethics and dissemination University of Washington: 49464 G; Central South University: CTXY-150002-6. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals with deidentified data made available on

  7. Children with mental versus physical health problems: differences in perceived disease severity, health care service utilization and parental health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-03-01

    To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p mental health problem (although only a trend was observable for internalizing problems). The large impact of children's mental health conditions on themselves and their families might be reduced by adapting the provision of health care and by increasing parents' health literacy.

  8. Quality indicators in the treatment of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miquel; de Dios, Consuelo; Pérez, Víctor; Ignacio, Emilio; Serrano, Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Mira, José Joaquín; Guilabert, Mercedes; Roca, Miquel

    To define a set of indicators for mental health care, monitoring quality assurance in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders in Spain. Qualitative research. Consensus-based study involving 6 psychiatrists on the steering committee and a panel of 43 psychiatrists working in several health services in Spain. An initial proposal of 44 indicators for depression, 42 for schizophrenia and 58 for bipolar disorder was elaborated after reviewing the literature. This proposal was analysed by experts using the Delphi technique. The valuation of these indicators in successive rounds allowed those with less degree of consensus to be discarded. Feasibility, sensitivity and clinical relevance were considered. The study was carried out between July 2015 and March 2016. Seventy indicators were defined by consensus: 17 for major depression, 16 for schizophrenia, 17 for bipolar disorder and 20 common to all three pathologies. These indicators included measures related to adequacy, patient safety, exacerbation, mechanical restraint, suicidal behaviour, psychoeducation, adherence, mortality and physical health. This set of indicators allows quality monitoring in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder. Mental health care authorities and professionals can use this proposal for developing a balanced scorecard adjusted to their priorities and welfare objectives. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Adana; Hulya Arslantas

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family suc...

  10. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  11. Progress report, physics and health sciences, physics section, 1986 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The two progress reports PR-PHS-P-1 (AECL-9262) and PR-PHS-HS-1 (AECL-9263) are continuations of the former series in Physics, PR-P-142, (AECL-9103) and in Health Sciences, PH-HS-20 (AECL-9102). The new series have been initiated to take into account the reorganization of the Research Company effective 1986 February 1. It is intended to issue the reports semi-annually on June 30 and December 31 covering the previous six months. The new series cover the same areas as before except that the Accelerator Physics Branch and the Mathematics and Computation Branch activities are no longer included in Physics, and the activities of the Medical Biophysics Branch at Whiteshell are now included in Health Sciences. The latest progress report on the Medical Biophysics work appeared in the WNRE report PR-WHS-73. This report (AECL-9262) covers the research, business and commercial activities of Nuclear Physics, TASCC Operations, Neutron and Solid State Physics, Theoretical Physics and the Fusion Office

  12. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  13. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  14. Mental and Physical Health of Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Each year, nearly 1% of US children spend time in foster care, with 6% of US children placed in foster care at least once between their birth and 18th birthday. Although a large literature considers the consequences of foster care placement for children's wellbeing, no study has used a nationally representative sample of US children to compare the mental and physical health of children placed in foster care to the health of children not placed in foster care. We used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized children in the United States, and logistic regression models to compare parent-reported mental and physical health outcomes of children placed in foster care to outcomes of children not placed in foster care, children adopted from foster care, children across specific family types (eg, single-mother households), and children in economically disadvantaged families. We find that children in foster care are in poor mental and physical health relative to children in the general population, children across specific family types, and children in economically disadvantaged families. Some differences are explained by adjusting for children's demographic characteristics, and nearly all differences are explained by also adjusting for the current home environment. Additionally, children adopted from foster care, compared with children in foster care, have significantly higher odds of having some health problems. Children in foster care are a vulnerable population in poor health, partially as a result of their early life circumstances. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into five sections: factors determining what people eat, the role of food in growth and development, the uses of nutrients in food, selection of foods to meet bodily needs, and food in the history of man. The…

  17. Physical health of the student as the main value of pedagogical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deminskaya L.A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of physical health of students are considered. Factors which influence on the physical health of children of school age are rotined. Methodical experience of teachers of physical education is presented. It is determined maintenance of concept «Physical health». The methods of estimation of the functional state of organism of schoolboys are selected. It is set that the axiological going near the health of students requires knowledge of methods of control after the functional state of organism and methods of development of physical health. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education can not execute the educational, educate and health tasks of pedagogical process without knowledge of level of development of physical health and physical preparedness of students. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education must know and able to estimate the indexes of physical health and physical preparedness of organism of children level.

  18. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  19. Does perceived discrimination affect health? Longitudinal relationships between work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavalko, Eliza K; Mossakowski, Krysia N; Hamilton, Vanessa J

    2003-03-01

    This study uses longitudinal data to examine the causal relationships between perceived work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health. Using data on 1,778 employed women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we investigate the structural and individual characteristics that predict later perceptions of discrimination and the effects of those perceptions on subsequent health. We find that perceptions of discrimination are influenced by job attitudes, prior experiences of discrimination, and work contexts, but prior health is not related to later perceptions. However, perceptions of discrimination do impact subsequent health, and these effects remain significant after controlling for prior emotional health, physical health limitations, discrimination, and job characteristics. Overall, the results provide even stronger support for the health impact of workplace discrimination and suggest a need for further longitudinal analyses of causes and consequences of perceived discrimination.

  20. Physical and Sport Education as a Tool for Development of a Positive Attitude toward Health and Physical Activity in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena; Dobay, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    The study explains the importance and the role of physical and sport education in development of a positive attitude toward physical activity and health in adulthood. The empirical study was aimed at finding the factor that contributed to the transfer of respondents' physical activity into their adulthood with regard to their health status. The…

  1. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaite, L.; Vázquez-Barquero, J. L.; Borra, C.; Ballesteros, J.; Schene, A.; Welcher, B.; Thornicroft, G.; Becker, T.; Ruggeri, M.; Herrán, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare subjective quality of life (QOL) and objective, QOL indicators in patients with schizophrenia from five European sites: Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Santander and Verona. Method: A representative sample of 404 patients with schizophrenia, in contact with mental health

  2. Diet and physical activity--interactions for health; public health nutrition in the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, M; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Warm, D; Ekelund, U

    1999-09-01

    For the majority of European adults, who neither smoke nor drink excessively, the most significant controllable risk factors affecting their long-term health are what they eat, and how physically active they are. Scientists are supposed to clarify to policy makers and health professionals the usefulness of their health messages. However, to be able to do that, a more detailed understanding is needed of the basic mechanisms behind the effects on health of diet and physical activity and, especially, the two in combination. Further, better methods for assessment of nutrition and physical activity in the population have to be developed, and more and better baseline data have to be collected. Increased and more efficient interventions are then needed. People trained and competent in the new discipline of Public Health Nutrition are required. Through the stimulating support that the European Commission, as well as other national and international partners, are presently giving to the development of Public Health Nutrition across Europe, we can hope for an increased mobility, networking and understanding between European nutrition and physical activity professionals. This will most likely result in greater and better policy making, strategy development, implementation and evaluation. We now have a great possibility to develop the integrated field of preventive nutrition and health enhancing physical activity.

  3. Physical health condition and physical organism readiness levels of sports veteran wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Goncharov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and an assessment of the physical state of health and the degree of physical fitness of the organism among active veteran wrestlers. Material & Methods: participants: 16 active veteran athletes, 7 of them judoka and 9 sambo wrestlers aged 36–45. Sports qualification of athletes: MS – 10 people, MSIC – 6 people. The stability of the organism to the conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia was assessed by the results of the Stange and Genci tests. To determine the statistical balancing, the Bondarevsky trial was used. The degree of physical readiness was evaluated by the results of the distance traveled on the treadmill of Kettler, comparing it with the Cooper table. To assess the level of physical state, the formula was used by E. A. Pirogova. Results: investigation determined that the actions of the wrestlers – sports veterans of the body's resistance to the conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia, as well as the indicator VC indices correspond young people. Indicators of statistical balancing among the acting veterans of judoists and sambo wrestlers corresponded to those of 20–30-year-old people. Level of physical condition (LPC of health in 71,4% of veteran-judoists at the average level and only 28,6% is of a high level. Sambo veterans observed the following: 44,4% of sportsmen of the LPC are above the average; 33,3% have an average level of physical health; in 11,1% of athletes the average LPC and 11,1% of the judo veterans have indicators corresponding to the level below the average. Conclusion: conducted step-by-step medical and pedagogical control allowed to reveal some violations of the adaptive mechanisms of the cardiovascular system, which once again confirms the possibility of using the data of heart rate, blood pressure, Cooper's test for studying and analyzing the physical state of health and the degree of physical preparedness, as well as forecasting the health status of veterans sports.

  4. A room for design: Through participatory design young adults with schizophrenia become strong collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D

    2016-12-01

    Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Validation of physical activity instruments: Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.

  6. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  7. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (Pexercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  8. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  9. The dynamics of physical and mental health in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Mental and physical aspects are both integral to health but little is known about the dynamic relationship between them. We consider the dynamic relationship between mental and physical health using a sample of 11,203 individuals in six waves (2002-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We estimate conditional linear and non-linear random-effects regression models to identify the effects of past physical health, measured by Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and past mental health, measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, on both present physical and mental health. We find that both mental and physical health are moderately state-dependent. Better past mental health increases present physical health significantly. Better past physical health has a larger effect on present mental health. Past mental health has stronger effects on present physical health than physical activity or education. It explains 2.0% of the unobserved heterogeneity in physical health. Past physical health has stronger effects on present mental health than health investments, income or education. It explains 0.4% of the unobserved heterogeneity in mental health. These cross-effects suggest that health policies aimed at specific aspects of health should consider potential spill-over effects.

  10. Inequality in health and physical inactivity among senior citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research addressing physical activity among senior citizens tend to focus on the actual benefits of being active hence approaching the topic from a physiological and medical perspective. Addressing a gap in interdisciplinary research combining the physiological with the built...... will be focusing on intervention design in everyday life activities, social community and local urban spaces. Aims: The research seeks to investigate and explore issues linked to health promotion; e.g. how architecture and design can influence and enhance new body cultures and public health among senior citizens...... – both mentally, socially and physically. Theoretical approach: Hypothesizing that in order to address these issues and sustain the solutions local stakeholders and end-users must be engaged in all phases of the process – from identifying and defining the problem, through developing the design...

  11. Health physics coverage during the 1993 Maralinga geophysical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1994-01-01

    Between September and November 1993 geophysical examinations of various types were carried out at Maralinga. These examinations were intended to provide information for the planning of strategies for the planning of strategies for the clean up of most contaminated areas at Maralinga. Approximately 40 people were involved in the project at different times, with the majority working inside controlled areas where Plutonium-239, Americium-241 or Uranium-238 contamination was present. Health physics procedures and monitoring programs were put in place to minimise the radiation exposure to the work force. These procedures and programs were similar to those which might be found in a number of different stations. However, the location and nature of the work did lead to the need for some slightly different solutions to routine Health Physics problems. This paper, and poster presentation, describes the procedures and programs used at Maralinga and indicates their effectiveness. 1 ref

  12. Health physics coverage during the 1993 Maralinga geophysical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1994-01-01

    Between September and November 1993 geophysical examinations of various types were carried out at Maralinga. These examinations were intended to provide information for the planning of strategies for the clean up of most contaminated areas at Maralinga. Approximately 40 people were involved in the project at different times, with the majority working inside controlled areas where Plutonium-239, Americium-241 or Uranium-238 contamination was present. Health physics procedures and monitoring programs were put in place to minimise the radiation exposure to the work force. These procedures and programs were similar to those which might be found in a number of different stations. However, the location and nature of the work did lead to the need for some slightly different solutions to routine Health Physics problems. This paper, and the poster presentation, describes the procedures and programs used at maralinga and indicates their effectiveness

  13. Health Physics and Waste Minimization Best Practices benchmarking study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The Health Physics and Waste Minimization Best Practices project examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a tool for identifying health physics and waste minimization best practices for low-level solid radioactive waste (LLW) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The goal of the project is to identify best practices from the nuclear power industry that will reduce the amount of LLW going to disposal in a cost-effective manner. An increase in worker efficiency and productivity is a secondary goal. These practices must be adaptable for implementation in the DOE complex. Once best practices are identified, ranked, and funded for implementation, a pilot implementation will be done at the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  14. Operating manual for the Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This manual is intended to serve as a guide in the operation and maintenance of the Health Physics Researh Reactor (HPRR) of the Health Physics Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Facility. It includes descriptions of the HPRR and of associated equipment such as the reactor positioning devises and the derrick. Procedures for routine operation of the HPRR are given in detail, and checklists for the various steps are provided where applicable. Emergency procedures are similarly covered, and maintenance schedules are outlined. Also, a bibliography of references giving more detailed information on the DOSAR Facility is included. Changes to this manual will be approved by at least two of the following senior staff members: (1) the Operations Division Director, (2) the Reactor Operations Department Head, (3) the Supervisor of Reactor Operations TSF-HPRR Areas. The master copy and the copy of the manual issued to the HPRR Operations Supervisor will always reflect the latest revision. 22 figs

  15. SCHIZOPHRENIA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Sharma Kailash

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia continues to be a mysterious disease fascinating the minds of psychiatrists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists all over the world for more than a century. The crucial welfare of the millions afflicted with schizophrenia is at stake. The cause of schizophrenia is not yet identified. However, it appears from the available reports that schizophrenia results from genetic, occupational and environmental risk factors, which act independently or combine synergistically to develop sch...

  16. PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION FACING THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Lucretia Pop

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This essay aims to signal up the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviours determined by extensive use of technology. Material: The paper is a survey of the most relevant data related to physical inactivity consequences with a specific reference to the Eastern Europe countries. Results. There is no doubt that children and young people will prefer the technology and its commodities, but they need to be encouraged to practice exercise, to control their posture and weight. Physical activity favorably influences on mental health and reduces the incidence and severity of diseases and pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and obesity. Conclusions. Promoting physical activity as a healthy life style component in schools and in universities targets the enhancement of vigour, resilience, employement and social outcomes for graduates and comunities.

  17. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Dahn, Jason R

    2005-03-01

    This review highlights recent work evaluating the relationship between exercise, physical activity and physical and mental health. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as randomized clinical trials, are included. Special attention is given to physical conditions, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, studies relating physical activity to depression and other mood states are reviewed. The studies include diverse ethnic populations, including men and women, as well as several age groups (e.g. adolescents, middle-aged and older adults). Results of the studies continue to support a growing literature suggesting that exercise, physical activity and physical-activity interventions have beneficial effects across several physical and mental-health outcomes. Generally, participants engaging in regular physical activity display more desirable health outcomes across a variety of physical conditions. Similarly, participants in randomized clinical trials of physical-activity interventions show better health outcomes, including better general and health-related quality of life, better functional capacity and better mood states. The studies have several implications for clinical practice and research. Most work suggests that exercise and physical activity are associated with better quality of life and health outcomes. Therefore, assessment and promotion of exercise and physical activity may be beneficial in achieving desired benefits across several populations. Several limitations were noted, particularly in research involving randomized clinical trials. These trials tend to involve limited sample sizes with short follow-up periods, thus limiting the clinical implications of the benefits associated with physical activity.

  18. Twenty years of health physics research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Gilley, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been in regular use for more than two decades. Safe operation of this fast reactor over this extended period indicates that (1) fundamental design, (2) operational procedures, (3) operator training and performance, (4) maintenance activites, and (5) management have all been eminently satisfactory. The reactor and its uses are described, the operational history and significant events are reviewed, and operational improvements and maintenance are discussed

  19. Health physics aspects of a research reactor fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    In June 1982, 92 irradiated fuel elements were shipped from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor to Westinghouse Hanford Corporation to be used in the Fuel Materials Examination Facility, This paper describes some of the health physics aspects of the planning, preparation and procedures associated with that shipment. In particular, the lessons learned are described in order that the benefits of the experience gained may be readily available to other small institutions. (author)

  20. Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

  1. Health physics manual of good practices for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.R.; Miller, A.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Coulson, L.V.

    1988-04-01

    It is hoped that this manual will serve both as a teaching aid as well as a useful adjunct for program development. In the context of application, this manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff, and designers since the achievement of a good radiation program indeed involves a combined effort. Ultimately, radiation safety and good work practices become the personal responsibility of the individual. The practices presented in this manual are not to be construed as mandatory rather they are to be used as appropriate for the specific case in the interest of radiation safety. As experience is accrued and new data obtained in the application of this document, ONS will update the guidance to assure that at any given time the guidance reflects optimum performance consistent with current technology and practice.The intent of this guide therefore is to: define common health physics problems at accelerators; recommend suitable methods of identifying, evaluating, and managing accelerator health physics problems; set out the established safety practices at DOE accelerators that have been arrived at by consensus and, where consensus has not yet been reached, give examples of safe practices; introduce the technical literature in the accelerator health physics field; and supplement the regulatory documents listed in Appendix D. Many accelerator health physics problems are no different than those at other kinds of facilities, e.g., ALARA philosophy, instrument calibration, etc. These problems are touched on very lightly or not at all. Similarly, this document does not cover other hazards such as electrical shock, toxic materials, etc. This does not in any way imply that these problems are not serious. 160 refs

  2. Association between health-related quality of life, physical fitness, and physical activity in older adults recently discharged from hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mowe, Morten; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical fitness, and physical activity in older patients after recent discharge from hospital. One hundred fifteen independent-living older adults (ages 70-92 years) were included. HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), and physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) were measured 2-4 weeks after discharge. Higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness were correlated with higher self-reported HRQOL. Although cause and effect cannot be determined from this study, the results suggest that a particular focus on the value of physical activity and physical fitness while in hospital and when discharged from hospital may be important to encourage patients to actively preserve independence and HRQOL. It may be especially important to target those with lower levels of physical activity, poorer physical fitness, and multiple comorbidities.

  3. Lecture - Physical activity for health and weight loss?

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Lecture organised by the Medical Service in the framework of the campaign "Move! Eat better", by Dr Per Bo Mahler. Thursday, 21 June, 6.30 p.m. Main Auditorium Subject and context Physical activity plays a vital role in human evolution and is one of man's most important basic needs. However, it was not until the 1990s that scientific literature started to take a real interest in it. World Health Day in 2002 helped to raise awareness of the impact of physical activity on health in industrialised and developing countries alike. The benefits of moderate physical activity are universally recognised. Today a sedentary lifestyle is known to be a risk factor on a par with or even greater than smoking.  The recommendations are an hour of moderate physical activity per day for children and at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week for adults. Nevertheless, a large proportion of the population continues to be insufficiently active....

  4. Progress report. Physics and Health Sciences, Physics Section (1987 January 01-June 30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report covers the third semi-annual period since the Research Company was reorganized. A highlight of the period was the first peer review of all the activities in Physics and Health Sciences by external examiners. The review was conducted in April by three separate Technical Review Committees (TRC) one for each of the three main areas: health sciences, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. In all cases the TRCs gave strong support to our programs under the following mandate. To assess research programs with respect to (a) their quality, and (b) their relevance to Canada. The programs by the Nuclear Physics TRC reviewed were: heavy ion reaction studies; gamma-ray studies of high spin states; exotic nuclei and weak interactions; neutron and neutrino physics; TASCC operation and development; and theoretical physics. The programs reviewed by the Condensed Matter TRC were: liquid helium; amorphous ice; orientationally disordered solids; structural phase transitions; low dimensional systems; actinide magnetism and heavy fermion superconductors; molecular biophysics; applied neutron diffraction (ANDI); and theoretical solid state physics. A mechanism for the evaluation of the strategy for the National Fusion Program has been developed and the process is under way. The successful completion of the 8-pi spectrometer by Chalk River and the Universities of Montreal and McMaster, plus the vigorous and highly successful experimental program in progress on it were the outstanding achievement of the period. Good progress is being made in the detailing of a program in heavy ion nuclear reactions, and the specification of equipment for that program have been made. Some difficulties with the new Vivirad resistors for the MP tandem were encountered, however the manufacturer now seems to have solved the problem

  5. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

  6. Spillovers of health education at school on parents' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Valdés, Nieves

    2013-09-01

    This paper exploits state health education (HED) reforms as quasi-natural experiments to estimate the causal impact of HED received by children on their parents' physical activity. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1999-2005 merged with data on state HED reforms from the National Association of State Boards of Education Health Policy Database and the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. To identify the spillover effects of HED requirements on parents' behavior, we use several methodologies (triple differences, changes in changes, and difference in differences) in which we allow for different types of treatments. We find a positive effect of HED reforms at the elementary school on the probability of parents doing light physical activity. Introducing major changes in HED increases the probability of fathers engaging in physical activity by between 6.3 and 13.7 percentage points, whereas on average, this probability for mothers does not seem to be affected. We analyze several heterogeneous impacts of the HED reforms to unveil the mechanisms behind these spillovers. We find evidence consistent with hypotheses such as gender specialization of parents in childcare activities or information sharing between children and parents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Vandborg, Kirsten; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgaard; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any baseline characteristics were associated with positive outcomes. All outpatients treated for schizophrenia at two Danish hospitals were included in this 1-year follow-up study. The patients were offered health interventions both individually and in groups. Weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline BMI and patients with duration of treated illness beyond 2 years had significantly better intervention outcomes. Our results show that it was difficult to improve physical health in a group of non-selected patients with schizophrenia as part of routine care. The patients were not easily motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  9. First episode schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.

  10. Clozapine use and sedentary lifestyle as determinants of metabolic syndrome in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients are in danger of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its outcomes type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Antipsychotic treatment and adverse lifestyle increase the burden of metabolic problems in schizophrenia, but little is known about the role of patients' current psychiatric problems and living arrangements in MetS. This study aims to evaluate correlations between MetS, severity of psychiatric symptoms, living arrangements, health behaviour and antipsychotic medication in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A general practitioner and psychiatric nurses performed a comprehensive health examination for all consenting patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated in a psychosis outpatient clinic. Examination comprised of an interview, a questionnaire, measurements, laboratory tests and a general clinical examination. Diagnosis of MetS was made according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Correlations were calculated and logistic regression analysis performed with SAS. 276 patients (men n = 152, mean age ± standard deviation = 44.9 ± 12.6 years) participated in the study; 58.7% (n = 162) of them had MetS according to the IDF definition. Clozapine use doubled the risk of MetS (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.82, P = 0.03), whereas self-reported regular physical activity decreased the risk significantly (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.18-0.57, P < 0.001). We found no correlations between MetS and living arrangements or current severity of psychiatric symptoms. MetS was alarmingly common in our sample. Even moderate physical activity was associated with decreased risk of MetS. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle should be one of the targets in treatment of schizophrenia, especially in patients using clozapine.

  11. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Bo, Li; Sampson, Stephanie; Roberts, Samantha; Zhang, Guoyou; Wu, Weiping

    2014-05-19

    Horticultural therapy is defined as the process of utilising fruits, vegetables, flowers and plants facilitated by a trained therapist or healthcare provider, to achieve specific treatment goals or to simply improve a person's well-being. It can be used for therapy or rehabilitation programs for cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and recreational benefits, thus improving the person's body, mind and spirit. Between 5% to 15% of people with schizophrenia continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication, and may also develop undesirable adverse effects, horticultural therapy may be of value for these people. To evaluate the effects of horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care or other additional psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (Janurary 2013) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, and manually searching reference lists. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing horticultural therapy plus standard care with standard care alone for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD) and for binary outcomes we calculated risk ratio (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 24). The overall risk of bias in the study was considered to be unclear although the randomisation was adequate. It compared a package of horticultural therapy which consisted of one hour per day of horticultural activity plus standard care with standard care alone over two weeks (10 consecutive days) with no long-term follow-up. Only two people were lost to follow-up in the study, both in the horticultural therapy group (1 RCT

  12. Older People's Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activ­ity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the follow­ing 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disor­der, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults.

  13. Health by Stealth--Exploring the Sociocultural Dimensions of Salutogenesis for Sport, Health and Physical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Louise; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Sport, health and physical education (SHPE) researchers have increasingly embraced the salutogenic model of health devised by Aaron Antonvosky, to re-understand and problematise the relation between movement, physical activity or physical education on one hand, and health on the other. However, contemporary research employing Antonovsky's theories…

  14. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  15. Nuts for Physical Health and Fitness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are rich in various nutrients. Recent evidence suggests that nut consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipid profile, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that nut consumption improves body composition without causing weight gain, despite total energy intake increases. However, evidence regarding nut consumption and physical fitness is limited. The aim of this mini review is to summarize the evidence regarding effects of nuts on physical health, fitness, and exercise performance. Almond supplementation improves exercise performance, but pistachio supplementation does not. The effect of nuts on exercise performance was controversial. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid-enriched nuts had a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle mass and oxygen consumption. A diet enriched with nuts also improved physical fitness, which was enhanced by exercise. Although the characteristics of the study participants and the interventions used in the studies are heterogeneous, nuts have a potential to improve physical fitness. However, further studies are required to reveal the effects of nuts on physical fitness, exercise performance, and endurance capacity.

  16. Predicting physical health: implicit mental health measures versus self-report scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.

  17. Valuing Individuals' Preferences and Health Choices of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-specific low back pain (LBP) is well documented, but little is known about how individuals value specific components of physical exercise, such as the type and design or the intensity and frequency of exercise. Other factors that influence individual differences in health choices and adherence are associated with individuals' attitudes toward and likelihood of performing recommended exercise regimens. Current evidence shows that efficacy is similar among exercise interventions, but their features vary widely. Thus it may be difficult for clinicians to discriminate between available options in clinical practice. Considering the many challenges in determining the form of exercise best suited to the individual patient, this commentary discusses some of the practical methods that could be used to elicit individual preference for recommended health care interventions. Such methods have the advantage of providing more information for health care decision making, particularly with regard to exercise interventions for LBP. This commentary also advocates for the use of patient preference in health care decisions.

  18. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  19. Hygienic aspects of physical education and health of schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Svystun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze the state of physical education in secondary schools of Ukraine and to observe hygienic requirements during physical education lessons. Material: the study was attended by schoolchildren (n=40, age - 12-13 years and schoolchildren of specialized sports classes (n=40, age - 14-16 years. Studied: the level of physical health; functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; the state of energy supply of children’s organism; the influence of mobile games on the functional capabilities of the body of children. To study the effects of physical exercises on the development of the muscular system of children, excretion of creatinine with urine was studied. Results: high levels of physical and functional status of young players are noticed. These data are significantly higher than similar data from their peers from non-sports classes. In the course of systematic training and competitions, excretion of creatinine decreases at the end of the season to 0.8 g/l. These changes point to a decrease in energy resources and are consistent with a decrease in the rapid qualities of young players (as a measure of overall physical fitness. In this group of pupils, there were 2-4% lessons in the classes: mostly because of colds. In schoolchildren of ordinary schools, indicators of physical development and functional status were significantly worse. The indicators of the lung capacity were 3500-3800 ml. The distance of 30 m children ran for 5,5±0,4 seconds. The index of the brush dynamometer was 35±1,8 kg. The results of the recovery of the heart rate after the metered loading were from 2 to 3 minutes. There is a shortage of body weight in 12% of schoolchildren. There is an overweight in 1,8% of schoolchildren. Conclusions: in the structure of children’s morbidity a high level of respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract, and eyes is allocated. Therefore, when taking physical training, such data should be taken into account. It

  20. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  1. Hardware and software for physical assessment work and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Юрійович Азархов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hardware and software used to assess the state of the students’ health by means of information technology were described in the article and displayed in the form of PEAC – (physical efficiency assessment channel. The list of the diseases that students often suffer from has been prepared for which minimum number of informative primary biosignals have been selected. The structural scheme PEAC has been made up, the ways to form and calculate the secondary parameters for evaluating the health of students have been shown. The resulting criteria, indices, indicators and parameters grouped in a separate table for ease of use, are also presented in the article. The given list necessitates the choice of vital activities parameters, which are further to be used as the criteria for primary express-diagnostics of the health state according to such indicators as electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, spirogram, blood pressure, body mass length, dynamometry. But these indicators (qualitative should be supplemented with measurement methods which provide quantitative component of an indicator. This method makes it possible to obtain assessments of students’ health with desired properties. Channel of the student physical disability assessment, along with the channel of activity comprehensive evaluation and decision support subsystem ensure assessment of the student's health with all aspects of his activity and professional training, thereby creating adequate algorithm of his behavior that provides maximum health, longevity and professional activities. The basic requirements for hardware have been formed, and they are, minimum number of information-measuring channels; high noise stability of information-measuring channels; comfort, providing normal activity of a student; small dimensions, weight and power consumption; simplicity, and in some cases service authorization

  2. Characteristics and Service Use of Older Adults with Schizoaffective Disorder Versus Older Adults with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Stephanie A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Whiteman, Karen L; Scherer, Emily; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if schizoaffective disorder in older adults is differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with respect to community functioning, cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and service use. Secondary analysis of baseline data collected from the Helping Older People Experience Success psychosocial skills training and health management study. Three community mental health centers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Adults over the age of 50 (N = 139, mean age: 59.7 years, SD: 7.4 years) with persistent functional impairment and a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (N = 52), schizophrenia (N = 51), or bipolar disorder (N = 36). Health status (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), performance-based community living skills (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment), neuropsychological functioning (Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning subtests), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), medical severity (Charlson comorbidity index), and acute service use. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had depressive symptoms of similar severity to bipolar disorder, and thought disorder symptoms of similar severity to schizophrenia. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia was associated with better community functioning, but poorer subjective physical and mental health functioning as measured by the SF-36. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had greater acute hospitalization compared with adults with schizophrenia, though their use of acute care services was comparable to individuals with bipolar disorder. Findings from this study suggest that schizoaffective disorder in older adults occupies a distinct profile from either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with respect to community functional status, symptom profile, and acute services utilization. Copyright © 2017

  3. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.

    2016-01-01

     depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...

  4. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  5. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before t...

  7. The Association Between Sexual Health and Physical, Mental, and Social Health in Adolescent Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Nance, Jennifer; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-10-01

    Developmental models link sexual well-being to physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being, yet little empirical literature evaluates these relationships in adolescents. Better understanding of how and when sexuality complements other aspects of health may yield important points to enhance existing health education and prevention efforts. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behavior among adolescent women (N = 387; 14-17 years at enrollment). Sexual health data were drawn from quarterly partner-specific interviews and were linked to physical, mental/emotional, and social health information in annual questionnaires. Random intercept, mixed effects linear, ordinal logistic, or binary logistic regression were used to estimate the influence of sexual health on health and well-being outcomes (Stata, v.23, StataCorp, College Station, TX). All models controlled for participant age and race/ethnicity. Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less frequent nicotine and substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership. Sexual health was not associated with the number of friends who used cigarettes. Positive sexually related experiences in romantic relationships during adolescence may complement physical, mental/emotional, and social health. Addressing specific aspects of healthy sexual development during clinical encounters could dually help primary prevention and health education address other common adolescent health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HEALTH WORKER AND FIBROMYALGIA: relationship between pain, and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to address the concept of fibromyalgie, as well as the painful symptomatology and physical exercise as a therapeutic manner, stressing the importance of this alteration in the field of workers health. It is in fact a revision, carried out through consultations of scientific articles selected in periodicals indexed at the basis of the Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO and PubMed. In spite of the absence of scientific evidences that point to physical efforts as factors that cause fibromyalgie, there are some studies relating the repetitive microtrauma stemming from work as ethiological agent. It is characterized as a syndrome whose main symptom is pain, which is utilized as a manner of evaluation and pathology follow-up, through such tools as scales. With regard to the treatment, physical exercises are able to minimize the algie and other symptoms. Finally, all related research works pursue correct and deep understanding of this pathology, so as to define more appropriate treatments, whilst keeping the person’s position as worker, under the assistance of specialized workers health services, thus providing quality of life.

  9. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  11. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Schroeder

    Full Text Available This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health.Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204 and non-members (n = 201 from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ.The odds ratios (95% confidence interval of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8-27.6, 10.1 (6.2-16.3, and 13.8 (8.5-22.4, respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06, compared to non-members.Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences.

  12. Smoking in Schizophrenia: an Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šagud, Marina; Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Jakšić, Nenad; Mihaljević-Peleš, Alma; Rojnić Kuzman, Martina; Pivac, Nela

    2018-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia continue to have the highest rate of both smoking and heavy nicotine dependence. The interaction between smoking and schizophrenia is complex. There is evidence of the shared genetic background. Recent preclinical and clinical research has further investigated self-medication hypothesis, given that nicotine might alleviate cortical dysfunction. While prior research indicated some favorable effects of smoking on cognitive performance, particulatly on attention/vigilance, recent studies did not confirm those findings. Lower severity of negative symptoms in smokers was not confirmed across studies. Cigarette smoking decreases clozapine and olanzapine concentrations. There is no consistent evidence of favorable effects of nicotine on symptoms in schizophrenia, but the evidence of detrimental effects of smoking on general health is highly consistent. Smoking cessation should be a priority in patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Health-related physical fitness in healthy untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups...... weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body...... improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training...

  14. PUBLIC COMMENT ON THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 2018 FEDERAL PHYSICAL ACITIVTY GUIDELINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title: Public Comment on Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Author: Wayne E. Cascio, Director, Environmental Public Health Division, US EPA Abstract: In the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines, the effects of air pollution and advers...

  15. Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in Semnan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and one of the ten leading causes of mental disability. Level of education, family factors and individual culture affect the patients’ quality of life. Objectives Due to the greater prevalence of this disease and the impact of its symptoms on the one’s quality of life, this study was conducted on the people with chronic schizophrenia to determine in which aspects of their quality of life is more likely affected in Semnan, Iran. Patients and Methods This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia. To evaluate their quality of life, the short-form of the questionnaire of world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-26 was used. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results The participants in this study gained the highest quality of life in the domain of physical, environmental and psychological health and social relationships. There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of the quality of life in this study. Conclusions It can be concluded that schizophrenia can have an effect on the quality of life. Some items such as family care, early and on time treatment play an important role in increasing the quality of life.

  16. Estimating 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in Asian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Gurpreet; Khyne, Toe Toe; Lee, Jimmy

    This study aims to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of Asian patients with schizophrenia. Data was extracted from the databases of 139 patients with schizophrenia and 206 controls from two previous studies conducted at the Institute for Mental Health (IMH), Singapore. Their medical and smoking histories were obtained, and anthropometric parameters measured. Framingham risk score (FRS) calculator using body mass index was used to compute the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (FRS BMI ) and the vascular age (VA BMI ) for each participant. Data on fasting lipids were available for 80 patients and all the controls; hence the FRS for lipids (FRS lipids ) and VA (VA lipids ) were also computed. The difference between VA and actual age was computed as VA diff . The 10-year CVD risk and VA diff based on lipids as well as BMI were significantly higher for patients compared to controls (all prisk of CVD in patients with schizophrenia as compared to controls; and conclude that patients with schizophrenia need regular physical health monitoring, especially for cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  18. Computing in radiation protection and health physics - 10 years further

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.; Greif, N.; Struwe, H.; Wissmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Computing influences radiation protection and health physics more extensively as ever before. The good old data processing and main frame computing has changed towards information technology in a wider sense. Technologies and operating systems out of workplace computing have amended microprocessor technology in measuring devices. The boundaries between them are constantly in a state of flux. The use of the world wide web has become indispensable. No radiation protection expert could still manage without a workplace computer. Measuring networks, radiation protection information systems, data bases, computer simulation and other challenging applications form the image of today. (orig.)

  19. Health Physics, Safety and Medical Services report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, A.K.; Bird, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    This annual report summarizes Health Physics and Medical Services activities at Harwell Laboratory. Topics covered include liaison with emergency authorities, organization, policy, training and staffing problems, major changes to plant and the decommissioning projects. Monitoring of the working environment and that surrounding the Laboratory are discussed, together with surface contamination and waste disposal. Summaries of doses for 1988, and cumulative doses in selected buildings for Harwell staff and contractors are presented in tabular form and a summary of attendance for medical treatment is also given. (UK)

  20. Culture of health of a person as a part of physical culture

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Khalajtsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to determine the general concepts of the theory and methods of physical education. On the basis of their form defining the components of physical culture and personality reflect the place of culture health of individuals among these components. Material: processed more than 40 references. Results: a definition of generalizing concepts of "culture", "health", "physical culture", "culture of health" formulated defining components of physical culture personality: health culture personal...