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Sample records for schizophrenia patients methods

  1. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

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    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  2. Defining functioning levels in patients with schizophrenia: A combination of a novel clustering method and brain SPECT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Faget-Agius; Aurélie, Vincenti; Eric, Guedj; Pierre, Michel; Raphaëlle, Richieri; Marine, Alessandrini; Pascal, Auquier; Christophe, Lançon; Laurent, Boyer

    2017-12-30

    This study aims to define functioning levels of patients with schizophrenia by using a method of interpretable clustering based on a specific functioning scale, the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and to test their validity regarding clinical and neuroimaging characterization. In this observational study, patients with schizophrenia have been classified using a hierarchical top-down method called clustering using unsupervised binary trees (CUBT). Socio-demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging SPECT perfusion data were compared between the different clusters to ensure their clinical relevance. A total of 242 patients were analyzed. A four-group functioning level structure has been identified: 54 are classified as "minimal", 81 as "low", 64 as "moderate", and 43 as "high". The clustering shows satisfactory statistical properties, including reproducibility and discriminancy. The 4 clusters consistently differentiate patients. "High" functioning level patients reported significantly the lowest scores on the PANSS and the CDSS, and the highest scores on the GAF, the MARS and S-QoL 18. Functioning levels were significantly associated with cerebral perfusion of two relevant areas: the left inferior parietal cortex and the anterior cingulate. Our study provides relevant functioning levels in schizophrenia, and may enhance the use of functioning scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

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    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  4. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  5. Rorschach Inkblot Method data at baseline and after 2 years treatment of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Andersen, Palle Bent; Knudsen, Per Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Rorschach Inkblot Method is regarded as an important clinical instrument for detailed diagnostic description of the integrative capacities of individuals in psychotic states and as an instrument for measuring progression in the course of treatment. Aims: To describe relevant...... Rorschach variables at baseline in a group of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Furthermore, to describe the changes in these variables from baseline to year 2 for the group of patients given psychiatric standard treatment, and to compare these changes with changes in other...... outcome measures [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Strauss-Carpenter and socio-demographic variables]. Methods: In a prospective study, 34 patients consecutively admitted to treatment for a first episode of schizophrenia were tested using Exner...

  6. Generation of iPS cell lines from schizophrenia patients using a non-integrative method

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    Jaroslaw Sochacki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin biopsies were collected from three male patients (age 45, 44 and 44 with clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. The patients were diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria by a trained psychiatrist. Dermal fibroblast cell lines were established and expanded for subsequent reprogramming procedures. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells were derived using the integration-free CytoTune®-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit, containing Sendai virus particles of the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc.

  7. Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents

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    Omori Ataru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

  8. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

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    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  9. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Alzuhairi, Karam

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...... MI in patients with schizophrenia have only been sparsely investigated. METHOD: Electrocardiograms (ECG) from three psychiatric hospitals in Denmark were manually interpreted for signs of previous MI. Subsequently, ECGs were linked to the National Patient Registry in order to determine whether...... with unrecognised MI in a stepwise multiple logistic regression model compared with patients with no history of MI, OR: 1.03 per year of age, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06, p=0.021. CONCLUSION: Unrecognised MI is common among patients with schizophrenia and may contribute to the increased mortality found in this patient group....

  10. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

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    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  11. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

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    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  13. An intervention study to prevent relapse in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meijel, B.; Kruitwagen, C.; van der Gaag, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Grypdonck, M.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the use of relapse prevention plans (RPPs) in nursing practice is an effective intervention in reducing relapse rates among patients with schizophrenia. Design and Methods: Experimental design. Patients with schizophrenia (or a related psychotic disorder) and nurses

  14. Pleasure Experience and Emotion Expression in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    CHU, Min-yi; LI, Xu; LV, Qin-yu; Yl, Zheng-hui; CHEUNG, Eric F. C.; CHAN, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. Aims The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms. Methods One hundred and fifty patients completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and Emotional Expressivity Scale. Results Schizophrenia patients exhibited deficits in experiencing pleasure, but showed intact reported emotion expression. Patients with prominent negative symptoms showed reduced anticipatory pleasure, especially in abstract anticipatory pleasure. Conclusion The present findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in pleasure experience, while their abilities to express emotion appear intact. Such deficits are more severe in patients with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:29276350

  15. Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Aleš Urban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficit is considered to be a part of core dysfuncions in schizophrenia. It is associated with social impairment and influences the long-term course of the disorder. In addition to neuropsychological methods, event-related potentials can be used to study cognitive functions. In patients with schizophrenia an association was found between amplitude changes in slow negative component of evoked responses and infrequent deviations in a series of uniform stimuli. This amplitude change is known as „mismatch negativity“ (MMN. It is supposed to be independent of the focused attention and effort that otherwise interfere with neuropsychological testing. Recently accumulated knowledge on MMN as a possible preattentive measure of cognition supports its potential significance for neuropsychological assessment. It may be helpful in more precise diagnosis and functional evaluation of schizophrenia.

  16. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study

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    Gaite, L.; Vázquez-Barquero, J. L.; Borra, C.; Ballesteros, J.; Schene, A.; Welcher, B.; Thornicroft, G.; Becker, T.; Ruggeri, M.; Herrán, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare subjective quality of life (QOL) and objective, QOL indicators in patients with schizophrenia from five European sites: Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Santander and Verona. Method: A representative sample of 404 patients with schizophrenia, in contact with mental health

  17. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocognitive recovery of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

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    Olena Molchanova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. At present neurocognitive impairment is considered a core feature of schizophrenia. This statement is grounded on cognitive impairment stability, the persistence of cognitive impairment independently of the disease stage and other symptoms of schizophrenia. The relevance of the search for cognitive remediation methods is determined by the influence of cognitive functioning on the functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. In order to solve this problem, scientists are actively investigating such direction in the treatment of patients with this psychopathology as «neurocognitive therapy» or neurocognitive training. Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of neurocognitive training in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Methods and materials. The patients who matched inclusion criteria were assessed on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP, neuropsychological tests (Trail Making Test part A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Luria test at the baseline, 1st and 6th month. All patients who were included in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group (n=40 underwent a standard supportive treatment and neurocognitive training. The control group (n=31 received supportive medication treatment alone. Results. After 1st month, a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups was found both for the overall PANSS score improvement and improvement in several items, which represented the cognitive decline. Total PSP score increased significantly in the intervention group from 41-50 to 51-60 (р=0.0001. In Wisconsin Card Sorting Test the proportion of incorrect answers decreased by 31.4% (р=0.0001, perseverative errors by 20.1% (р=0.042, the number of completed categories increased by 33.5% (р=0.002. Conclusion. The proposed neurocognitive training program showed positive results, which was reflected in a statistically

  19. Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Waberg, J.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with

  20. Systematic Suicide Risk Assessment for Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Wallenstein Jensen, Signe Olrik; Gradus, Jaimie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge...... and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. Methods: A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009....... Results: The proportion of patients receiving suicide risk assessment at discharge from a psychiatric ward increased from 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]=71%-74%) in 2005, when the national monitoring began, to 89% (CI.89%-90%) in 2009. Within one year after discharge, 1% of all registered patients had...

  1. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

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    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  2. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

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    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  3. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Beby Febri

    2015-01-01

    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...

  4. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

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    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  5. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  6. Conflict adaptation in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger; Ruitenberg, Marit; Boddewyn, Sarah; Oreel, Edith; de Schryver, Maarten; Morrens, Manuel; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive control impairments may contribute strongly to the overall cognitive deficits observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the current study we explore a specific cognitive control function referred to as conflict adaptation. Previous studies on conflict adaptation in schizophrenia showed equivocal results, and, moreover, were plagued by confounded research designs. Here we assessed for the first time conflict adaptation in schizophrenia with a design that avoided the major confounds of feature integration and stimulus-response contingency learning. Sixteen patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy, matched controls performed a vocal Stroop task to determine the congruency sequence effect - a marker of conflict adaptation. A reliable congruency sequence effect was observed for both healthy controls and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. These findings indicate that schizophrenia is not necessarily accompanied by impaired conflict adaptation. As schizophrenia has been related to abnormal functioning in core conflict adaptation areas such as anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, further research is required to better understand the precise impact of such abnormal brain functioning at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Occupational Goal Intervention method for the improvement of executive functioning in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzotto, Adriana D B; Celestino, Diego L; Buchain, Patricia C; Oliveira, Alexandra M; Oliveira, Graça M R; Di Sarno, Elaine S; Napolitano, Isabel C; Elkis, Helio

    2016-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disabling mental disorder that involves impairments in several cognitive domains, especially in executive functions (EF), as well as impairments in functional performance. This is particularly true in patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS). The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Occupational Goal Intervention (OGI) method for the improvement of EF in patients with TRS. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind pilot study, 25 TRS patients were randomly assigned to attend 30 sessions of either OGI or craft activities (control) over a 15-week period and evaluated by the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) as the primary outcome and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-BR) as well as the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR) as secondary outcomes, all adapted for the Brazilian population. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used for monitoring symptom severity. Results showed significant statistical differences, favoring the OGI group in terms of improvement on the BADS, both in subtests (Action Program and Key Search) and the total score. Improvements in EFs were observed by families in various dimensions as measured by different subtests of the ILSS-BR inventory. The OGI group showed no significant results in secondary outcomes (DAFS-BR) except in terms of improvement of communication skills. Although preliminary, our results indicate that the OGI method is efficacious and effective for patients with TRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of dental caries in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia

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    Đorđević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is considered that over 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder. Previous studies in other countries have shown that schizophrenia is among the most frequent. Oral health is significant for general health and should not be separated from mental health. Studies in other countries have shown an increased incidence of carious and extracted teeth, and less incidence of filled teeth in this group of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish condition of the existing teeth, to determine the prevalence of caries and to consider possible risk factors that contribute to the current oral health status of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Methods. The study comprised 190 patients with schizophrenia, hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr. Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade, and 190 mentally healthy patients at the Clinic for Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine in Belgrade. The decayed, missing, filled (DMF index, sociodemographic and economic characteristics were registered in both groups, as well as characteristics of the primary disease of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Results. The value of DMF index (representing the sum of carious, extracted and filled teeth, in the hospitalized patients with schizophrenia was 18.57 ± 7.07 and 12.47 ± 5.64 in the healthy group (p = 0.000. The structure of the DMF index in the study group showed that caries and extracted teeth dominated with 88.1%; in the control group, filled teeth dominated with 55.6%, which was a statistically significant difference for all the three observed variables. Conclusion. Hospitalized patients with schizophrenia had twice as many caries and extracted teeth, and five time less filled teeth than healthy people. The patient’s age and taking antiparkinsonics were established as predictors of the increased DMF index in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

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    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  10. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

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    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  11. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Xuechan Lyu; Jiang Du; Guilai Zhan; Yujie Wu; Hang Su; Youwei Zhu; Fredrik Jarskog; Min Zhao; Min Zhao; Xiaoduo Fan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty...

  12. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

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    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  13. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  14. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  15. Relative risk of probabilistic category learning deficits in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Thomas W.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Egan, Michael F.; Apud, Jose A.; Meeter, Martijn; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Background While patients with schizophrenia display an overall probabilistic category learning performance deficit, the extent to which this deficit occurs in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia is unknown. There are also discrepant findings regarding probabilistic category learning acquisition rate and performance in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A probabilistic category learning test was administered to 108 patients with schizophrenia, 82 unaffected siblings, and 121 healthy participants. Results Patients with schizophrenia displayed significant differences from their unaffected siblings and healthy participants with respect to probabilistic category learning acquisition rates. Although siblings on the whole failed to differ from healthy participants on strategy and quantitative indices of overall performance and learning acquisition, application of a revised learning criterion enabling classification into good and poor learners based on individual learning curves revealed significant differences between percentages of sibling and healthy poor learners: healthy (13.2%), siblings (34.1%), patients (48.1%), yielding a moderate relative risk. Conclusions These results clarify previous discrepant findings pertaining to probabilistic category learning acquisition rate in schizophrenia and provide the first evidence for the relative risk of probabilistic category learning abnormalities in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia, supporting genetic underpinnings of probabilistic category learning deficits in schizophrenia. These findings also raise questions regarding the contribution of antipsychotic medication to the probabilistic category learning deficit in schizophrenia. The distinction between good and poor learning may be used to inform genetic studies designed to detect schizophrenia risk alleles. PMID:20172502

  16. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  17. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  18. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuler KM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an

  19. Emotion recognition and oxytocin in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, B. B.; Bobin, T.; Evans, S.; Shergill, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia are impaired at recognizing emotions. Recently, it has been shown that the neuropeptide oxytocin can have beneficial effects on social behaviors. Method To examine emotion recognition deficits in patients and see whether oxytocin could improve these deficits, we carried out two experiments. In the first experiment we recruited 30 patients with schizophrenia and 29 age- and IQ-matched control subjects, and gave them an emotion recognition task. Following this, we carried out a second experiment in which we recruited 21 patients with schizophrenia for a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of the effects of oxytocin on the same emotion recognition task. Results In the first experiment we found that patients with schizophrenia had a deficit relative to controls in recognizing emotions. In the second experiment we found that administration of oxytocin improved the ability of patients to recognize emotions. The improvement was consistent and occurred for most emotions, and was present whether patients were identifying morphed or non-morphed faces. Conclusions These data add to a growing literature showing beneficial effects of oxytocin on social–behavioral tasks, as well as clinical symptoms. PMID:21835090

  20. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative

  1. Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial.

  2. Word and nonword repetition in patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the verbal repetition is important in the study of acquired language disorders and neuropsychology. It is helpful in differential diagnosis of aphasia subtypes, auditory breakdowns, and working memory (WM performance. Though different linguistic disorders have been identified in patients with schizophrenia, very little is known about their verbal repetition ability. Methods: The present study was conducted in the inpatient ward of Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during the year 2013. Participants were: 30 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia during the maintenance phase of treatment and 30 healthy people as control group. They were asked to repeat 15 words and 15 nonwords immediately. The stimuli were 1, 2, and 3 syllabic in Turkish language. Any incorrect repetition scored 1 and correct repetitions scored 0. Lexicalization errors were compared between groups too. Results: Both groups repeated words better than nonwords. Patients showed lower ability to repeat nonwords than controls, especially in 3 syllabics. There was no significant difference in the repetition of words between groups though it was better in controls. Patients with schizophrenia made more errors in both words and nonwords and lexicalization errors were twice more. Conclusion: Lower ability to repeat nonwords (than words in patients with schizophrenia may show the involvement of phonological loop of WM. More lexicalization errors may take place because of dis-inhibition.

  3. Object versus spatial visual mental imagery in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, André; de Haan, Edward H.F.; Kahn, René S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Recent research has revealed a larger impairment of object perceptual discrimination than of spatial perceptual discrimination in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that mental imagery may share processing systems with perception. We investigated whether patients with schizophrenia would show greater impairment regarding object imagery than spatial imagery. Methods Forty-four patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy control subjects were tested on a task of object visual mental imagery and on a task of spatial visual mental imagery. Both tasks included a condition in which no imagery was needed for adequate performance, but which was in other respects identical to the imagery condition. This allowed us to adjust for nonspecific differences in individual performance. Results The results revealed a significant difference between patients and controls on the object imagery task (F1,63 = 11.8, p = 0.001) but not on the spatial imagery task (F1,63 = 0.14, p = 0.71). To test for a differential effect, we conducted a 2 (patients v. controls) х 2 (object task v. spatial task) analysis of variance. The interaction term was statistically significant (F1,62 = 5.2, p = 0.026). Conclusions Our findings suggest a differential dysfunction of systems mediating object and spatial visual mental imagery in schizophrenia. PMID:15644999

  4. Toxoplasma Infection in Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study with Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, A; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Tehranidoost, M; Abdi Masoleh, F; Keshavarz, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disor­der. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) fac­tors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that character­ize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection between schizo­phrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals as control group.Methods: A case-control study was designed i...

  5. Clozapine-resistant schizophrenia – non pharmacological augmentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaszkiewicz Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the drug of choice for drug-resistant schizophrenia, but despite its use, 30-40% patients fail to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. In such situations, augmentation attempts are made by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. To date, most of the work has been devoted to pharmacological strategies, much less to augemantation of clozapine with electroconvulsive therapy (C+ECT, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.

  6. Clozapine and obsessions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.; Gorsira, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase or emergence of obsessions was compared in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders taking clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 121 consecutively admitted patients

  7. An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Foldager, Leslie; Røge, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present in p...... investigated but might be partially explained by early exposures such as winter flu season and low vitamin D levels.......BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present...... in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. METHOD: Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history...

  8. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    .20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... and families, was greater among people with no family history of psychosis. In addition, the increased risk for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis did not differ by type of epilepsy but increased with increasing number of admissions to hospital and, particularly, was significantly greater for people...

  9. Comorbidities and risk factors among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are charged with maintaining a holistic approach to their patients' health. While most patients with schizophrenia attend public mental health services and/or non-government organisations supporting people with mental illness, 88.2% of people with a psychotic illness (the majority being schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) had visited a GP in the previous year. For at least 30-40% of people living with schizophrenia in Australia, ongoing management is provided by their GP alone. Moreover, there is evidence that patients with schizophrenia value the help provided by GPs. Patients with schizophrenia have reduced life expectancy. Overseas research (primarily from the UK and US) has found that the poor physical health of patients with schizophrenia can be attributed to a number of factors such as modifiable lifestyle risk factors and side effects of medication, compounded by causes intrinsic to the illness such as mental stress and loss of initiative.

  10. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  11. Normal cognitive conflict resolution in psychosis patients with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Henderikus G O M; Bruggeman, Richard; Martens, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled conflict control problems in other disorders. Differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in stimulus perception, selective attention, alertness, processing speed and reaction time variability may have been previously overlooked. By controlling for these potential confounders, the present experiments were aimed to be more rigorous tests of the hypothesis that psychosis and schizophrenia are associated with impairments of conflict control. To that end, 27 healthy controls and 53 recent-onset psychosis patients with (n = 27) and without schizophrenia (n = 26) with comparable age, intelligence, and education level, performed three iconic conflict control tasks: the Simon task, the Eriksen flanker task, and the Stroop task, all equipped with neutral trials, and analyzed for various potential confounders. They further performed a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Schizophrenia patients showed no increased conflict effects in any of the 3 tasks for any alternative measures used. Nonschizophrenia patients only showed abnormally increased response competition in the Simon task. All patients nevertheless demonstrated impaired control of attention and verbal memory. These findings indicate that the type of conflict control engaged by conflict tasks is intact in recent-onset schizophrenia, suggesting that a major component of executive function is spared in schizophrenia. We discuss these findings in terms of proactive and reactive control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  13. Treatment patterns for schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia among Medicaid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Wan, George J

    2009-02-01

    This study compared background characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and service use of adults treated for schizoaffective disorder and adults treated for schizophrenia. Medicaid claims data from two states were analyzed with a focus on adults treated for schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia. Patient groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and health service use during 180 days before and after a claim for either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A larger proportion of patients were treated for schizophrenia (N=38,760; 70.1%) than for schizoaffective disorder (N=16,570; 29.9%). During the 180 days before the index diagnosis claim, significantly more patients with schizoaffective disorder than those with schizophrenia were treated for depressive disorder (19.6% versus 11.4%, pschizoaffective disorder, 87.3%; schizophrenia, 87.0%), although patients with schizoaffective disorder were significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive antidepressants (61.7% versus 44.0%, pschizoaffective disorder were also significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive psychotherapy (23.4% versus 13.0%, pSchizoaffective disorder is commonly diagnosed among Medicaid beneficiaries. These patients often receive complex pharmacologic regimens, and many also receive treatment for mood disorders. Differences in service use patterns between schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia argue for separate consideration of their health care needs.

  14. Prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with psoriasis: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Tu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified, the finding that psoriatic patients with comorbid cerebrovascular disease or chronic pulmonary disease have higher odds for schizophrenia may imply psoriatic patients with those comorbidities are likely to have higher inflammatory burden, which would contribute to the development of schizophrenia if a disruption of the blood–brain barrier is present. Further investigations are indicated to validate the hypothesis explaining the association between known comorbidies of psoriasis and schizophrenia.

  15. Sleep disorders in patients with depression or schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial using acupuncture treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this preliminary clinical trial was to investigate whether acupuncture has a positive influence on sleep and symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used. One hundred participants were recruited: 40

  16. Serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yong Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome (MS and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology. Methods: A total of 90 chizophrenia patient with MS, including 41 cases with simple schizophrenia and 39 cases with simple metabolic syndrome were included for study. The values of nerve electrophysiology indexes and serum illness-related indexes were compared among included patients, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed. Results: Compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, P300 latency of schizophrenia with MS group was longer, and the amplitude was shorter; N2-P3 latency and amplitude were shorter (P<0.05; serum SOD, S100b, BDNF, ABAb, PAI-1, 毩-HBDH, AST, cystatin c, TG, FBG and 2hPG values of schizophrenia with MS group were higher, IGF1, HMW-APN and HDL-C levels were lower, and compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, differences were significant (P<0.05; P300 latency, P300 amplitude, N2-P3 latency and N2- P3 amplitude of schizophrenia with MS group were directly correlated with serum cytokine contents (P<0.05. Conclusions: There are significantly abnormal serum cytokines and nerve electrophysiology indexes in schizophrenia patient with MS, and nerve electrophysiology detection can be used as the means to judge disease and guide treatment.

  17. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  18. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Caring for patients with schizophrenia places an enormous burden on the caregivers. The magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the burden reported by caregiving relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Facilitating recruitment of patients with schizophrenia to a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....

  20. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  1. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  2. [Microcirculation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A V; Ozornin, A S; Golygina, S E; Vinogradova, A O; Shvets, M S

    2018-01-01

    To study microcirculation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia by laser Doppler flowmetry. Fifty-three patients at the age from 18 to 38 years with a diagnosis of 'paranoid schizophrenia' (F20.0) were examined in the acute psychotic state and after 3 weeks of therapy. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. To assess microcirculation, the noninvasive technique of laser Doppler flowmetry using a laser blood flow analyzer was used. Significant changes in the microcirculation persisting even over three weeks of therapy in patients were identified. The total microcirculation index was increased by 1.4 times which indicated the acceleration of blood flow. An increase in the average fluctuations of perfusion by 3.7 times and in the coefficient of variation by 1.9 times, which reflect the excessive strengthening of local mechanisms of regulation of microcirculation, were found. There were an increase in the myogenic tone and neurogenic tone of metarteriole and precapillary sphincters as well as bypass index.

  3. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  4. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients with schizophrenia

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    Ajak Manguak Agau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disease with inability to differentiate real from unreal. In many African cultures a traditional view on mental disease results in stigma, negative attitudes, and ignorance of the patient and their symptoms. Objective: To explore the different attitudes and beliefs amongst relatives of patients having schizophrenia. Method: Cross-sectional survey among relatives of patients with schizophrenia treated at Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Results: A total of 44 were included. 30% believed schizophrenia to be a brain disease, 32% thought the cause was supernatural. The majority (80% thought that schizophrenia can be treated and preferably in hospitals (91%; 66% felt the best way to reduce schizophrenia was to pray to God, and many stated that being with the patients (73% or letting them be part of the community (80% was good ways of helping the patients. Conclusion: Beliefs about supernatural causes of schizophrenia and stigmatizing are still present in Uganda. However among participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of community. Education of the communities could be a way of improving the awareness of mental disorders and the role that the community play in recovery from mental illness.

  5. Left globus pallidus abnormality in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.S.; Reiman, E.M.; Raichle, M.E.; Spitznagel, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by onset in young adulthood, the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, and the development of enduring psychosocial disability. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. Studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism designed to identify brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been limited by inadequate methods of anatomical localization and the possibility of persistent medication effects. The authors have now used positron emission tomography and a validated method of anatomical localization in an attempt to identify abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in newly diagnosed never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory study of 5 patients and 10 normal control subjects identified abnormally high blood flow in the left globus pallidus of patients with schizophrenia. A replication study of 5 additional patients and 10 additional control subjects confirmed this finding. No other abnormalities were found

  6. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash; Kumar, Pawan; Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) procedures. 1 H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system. Regional hippocampal volume was analyzed using VBM and Freesufer procedures. The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using linear combination model (LCModel). Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the hippocampus. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly reduced glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mI) ratios in the hippocampus. Additionally, significant positive correlation between gray matter volume and Glu/tCr was also observed in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our findings provide an evidence for a possible association between structural deficits and metabolic alterations in schizophrenia patients. (orig.)

  7. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash; Kumar, Pawan [DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), New Delhi (India)

    2018-02-15

    Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) procedures. {sup 1}H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system. Regional hippocampal volume was analyzed using VBM and Freesufer procedures. The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using linear combination model (LCModel). Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the hippocampus. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly reduced glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mI) ratios in the hippocampus. Additionally, significant positive correlation between gray matter volume and Glu/tCr was also observed in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our findings provide an evidence for a possible association between structural deficits and metabolic alterations in schizophrenia patients. (orig.)

  8. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  9. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Suicidal Ideation in Hospitalized Schizophrenia Patients in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Su-Jung; Mun, Ji-Woong; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Seon-Young; Yang, Su-Jin; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate psychosocial risk factors associated with suicidality in patients with schizophrenia in Korea. Methods The study sample consisted of 84 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Suicidal thoughts and a clear desire to be dead within 2 weeks were defined as a current suicidal ideation. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, including family history of completed suicides and psychiatric illnesses, were collected, and the Positive and Neg...

  10. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy...

  11. CANTAB Explicit Memory Is Less Impaired in Addicted Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stephane; Briand, Catherine; Prouteau, Antoinette; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Lesage, Alain; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that in order to sustain the lifestyle of substance abuse, addicted schizophrenia patients would have less negative symptoms, better social skills, and less cognitive impairments. Mounting evidence supports the first two assumptions, but data lack regarding cognition in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Seventy-six schizophrenia…

  12. Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia

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    Steffen Moritz

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate overconfidence in errors among individuals with psychosis using a visual perception task. Speaking to the specificity of this abnormality for schizophrenia and its pathogenetic relevance, overconfidence in errors and knowledge corruption were elevated in patients with schizophrenia relative to both control groups and were correlated with paranoia.

  13. Change in Prolactin Levels in Pediatric Patients Given Antipsychotics for Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Network Meta-Analysis

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    Chakrapani Balijepalli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs. Results. Five RCTs, including 989 patients combined, have evaluated the changes in prolactin for pediatric patients after 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and paliperidone. In the overall study population, treatment with risperidone was associated with the highest increase in mean prolactin levels compared to other SGAs. Patients treated with risperidone 4–6 mg/day were found to experience the greatest increases (55.06 ng/ml [95% CrI: 40.53–69.58] in prolactin levels, followed by risperidone 1–3 mg/day, paliperidone 3–6 mg/day, and paliperidone 6–12 mg/day. Conclusions. This study shows that there are differences in SGAs ability to cause hyperprolactinemia. Further, there is clear evidence of safety concerns with risperidone and paliperidone treatment in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Registration. PROSPERO CRD42014009506.

  14. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

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    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  15. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

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    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  16. Decreased resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiajing; Xiao, Changqing; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Liuyu; Liu, Jianrong; Liu, Guiying

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients can provide clues to the pathophysiology for the development of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in siblings, although the dysconnectivity hypothesis is prevailing in schizophrenia for years. In the present study, we used a newly validated voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to identify whether aberrant interhemispheric FC was present in unaffected siblings at increased risk of developing schizophrenia at rest. Forty-six unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Automated VMHC was used to analyze the data. The sibling group had lower VMHC than the control group in the angular gyrus (AG) and the lingual gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI. No region exhibited higher VMHC in the sibling group than in the control group. There was no significant sex difference of the VMHC values between male siblings and female siblings or between male controls and female controls, although evidence has been accumulated that size and shape of the corpus callosum, and functional homotopy differ between men and women. Our results first suggest that interhemispheric resting-state FC of VMHC is disrupted in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, and add a new clue of abnormal interhemispheric resting-state FC to the pathophysiology for the development of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum abnormalities in patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia

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    Ebru Unlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reductions in the size of the corpus callosum (CC have been described for schizophrenia patients, but little is known about the possible regional differences in schizophrenia subtypes (paranoid, disorganised, undifferentiated, residual.  Methods. We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions, CC length and total brain volume were compared between schizophrenia subtypes and controls. Five subregions were approximately matched to fibre pathways from cortical regions.  Results. Schizophrenia patients had reduced CC total area and length when compared with controls. Disorganised and undifferentiated schizophrenics had a smaller prefrontal area, while there was no significant difference for the paranoid and residual groups. The premotor/supplementary motor area was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes. The motor area was smaller only in the disorganised group. A smaller sensory area was found in all subtypes except the residual group. Parietal, temporal and occipital areas were smaller in the paranoid and undifferentiated groups. Total brain volume was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes compared with controls, but did not reach statistical significance.  Conclusion. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of symptoms may lead to the different CC morphological characteristics in schizophrenia subtypes.

  18. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Shuler, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective tea...

  19. Improving quality of care among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Svendsen, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of systematic quality improvement initiatives in psychiatric care remains unclear. AIMS: To examine whether quality of care has changed following implementation of a systematic monitoring programme of hospital performance measures. METHOD: In a nationwide population.......27-1.62), psychoeducation (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48), psychiatric aftercare (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and suicide risk assessment (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.21-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Quality of care improved from 2004 to 2011 among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia in Denmark. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None. COPYRIGHT...

  20. Association of gliadin antibodies, HLA alleles, and schizophrenia in Cuban population patients

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    José A. Galván

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse antibodies, as well as the presence of the HLA alleles, HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 (DQ2 and HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8, among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls were evaluated. Gliadin antibodies were determined by a visual semiquantitative assay and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were determined both by one-step immunochromatografic assay and ELISA. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification using sequence-specific primers for each allele. Results: We found a strong association between the presence of gliadin antibodies and schizophrenia (OR 3.488; 95% CI, 1.43-8.44. However, tissue transglutaminase antibodies were not detected in either group neither by immunochromatograpic or ELISA. No significant association was found for the DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimer and the disease, but a significant positive association between schizophrenia and HLA alleles DQA1*0301 and DQB1*02 was present (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.27-6.17, and OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.24-4.53, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that the presence of gliadin antibodies was not correlated with the presence of HLA DQA1*0301 or DQB1*02 alleles within the group of patients with schizophrenia. Our study replicates the findings that anti-gliadin antibodies are associated with schizophrenia but also suggests that the presence of these antibodies and the HLA alleles DQB1*02 and DQA1*0301 are independently associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  1. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

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    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  2. Relationship between Suicidality and Low Self-esteem in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low self-esteem is associated with suicide risk in the general psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to examine associations between suicidality and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Subjects meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including previous suicide attempt history, were assessed. Psychopathology, self-es...

  3. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care

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    Meyboom-de Jong Betty

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. Results The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Conclusion Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  4. Low serum vitamin D concentrations in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaky, Dganit; Amital, Daniela; Gorden, Katya; Bogomolni, Alisa; Arnson, Yoav; Amital, Howard

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly associated with the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Vitamin D receptors have been detected on neurons that regulate behavior. To assess vitamin D serum concentrations in patients with major depression and schizophrenia as compared to healthy controls and to determine if a correlation exists between serum levels of vitamin D and disease activity. We recruited 50 patients with schizophrenia and compared them to 33 patients with major depression and 50 controls with no major psychopathology. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia and the Hamilton Depression scale for depression were administered on the same day the blood samples were drawn. We used LIAISON 25-OH vitamin D (DiaSorin) immunoassay to measure serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D. Lower serum vitamin D concentrations were detected among patients with schizophrenia (15.0 +/- 7.3 ng/ml) compared to patients with depression (19.6 +/- 8.3 ng/ml) and to controls (20.2 +/- 7.8 ng/ml, P vitamin D levels. Serum vitamin D levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia as compared to patients with depression and to healthy controls. No correlation was found between serum concentration and disease activity. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in the autoimmune mechanism and in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  5. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  6. CAREGIVER BURDEN AMONG PEOPLE CARING FOR PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Shivani Bansal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caregivers of patients suffering from mental illness report burden in different areas including effects on family functioning, psychological problems, financial problems and health. The aim of the study is to determine the sociodemographic profile and caregiver burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia and to study the effect of patients’ psychopathology on caregiver burden scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Psychiatry Department, Government Medical College, Amritsar. A sample size of 34 was taken who were primary caregivers (preferably parents or spouse of schizophrenia patients diagnosed using ICD10. Measures included caregiver’s demographic variables and caregiver’s burden using the Zarit burden interview and PANSS scale in patients. Statistical Analysis- Data was analysed using SPSS software version 21. RESULTS The mean age of the caregiver was 42 SD (12.16 years. The majority of the caregivers were parents, married and employed. The mean average score of the responses to Zarit burden interview was (SD=59.52 ± 20.92. Majority of the caregivers experienced severe burden (52.9%, 9 (26.4% caregivers had reported moderate burden and 6 (17.6% had reported mild burden. The mean duration of illness was 6.89 (SD=5.03 years. The level of burden experienced was significantly associated with total PANSS score, negative symptoms, positive symptoms, general psychopathology score and duration of schizophrenia illness (p=0.00. CONCLUSION There is need for psychological assistance and social support for the vulnerable caregivers to help them reduce the burden levels and employ positive coping strategies.

  7. Suicidal behavior in the older patient with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, John; Montross, Lori; Prunty, Laurie; Fox, Lauren; Zisook, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treating elderly suicidal patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to review the literature dealing with this population and to discuss what is required to advance this field. Most available studies from middle-aged and older individuals suggest that risk factors include hopelessness, lower quality of life, past traumatic events, depressive symptoms, lifetime suicidal ideation and past attempts; it is not clear whether these findings are generalizable to geriatric populations. Although little treatment research has been performed in older suicidal patients with schizophrenia, an integrated psychosocial and pharmacologic approach is recommended. In addition, one recent study augmented antipsychotic treatment with an SSRI (i.e., citalopram) in a sample of middle-aged and older individuals with schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression; in that study, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor augmentation reduced depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. More research is required to better understand suicidal behavior in older patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22028735

  8. Pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia - A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...

  9. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an enhanced team-oriented approach to managing patients with schizophrenia improves adherence and supports corresponding reductions in relapse

  10. Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Jiang

    Full Text Available Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS. Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion. Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (β = -0.123, p = 0.051 for sample-A; β = -0.103, p = 0.035 for sample-B; β = -0.082, p = 0.017 for the combined sample. However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.

  11. Enhanced temporal variability of amygdala-frontal functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing-Li; Li, Peng; Shi, Le; Lin, Xiao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    The "dysconnectivity hypothesis" was proposed 20 years ago. It characterized schizophrenia as a disorder with dysfunctional connectivity across a large range of distributed brain areas. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data have supported this theory. Previous studies revealed that the amygdala might be responsible for the emotion regulation-related symptoms of schizophrenia. However, conventional methods oversimplified brain activities by assuming that it remained static throughout the entire scan duration, which may explain why inconsistent results have been reported for the same brain region. An emerging technique is sliding time window analysis, which is used to describe functional connectivity based on the temporal variability of regions of interest (e.g., amygdala) in patients with schizophrenia. Conventional analysis of the static functional connectivity between the amygdala and whole brain was also conducted. Static functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal region was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The variability of connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced (i.e., greater dynamics) in patients with schizophrenia. A negative relationship was found between the variability of connectivity and information processing efficiency. A positive correlation was found between the variability of connectivity and symptom severity. The findings suggest that schizophrenia was related to abnormal patterns of fluctuating communication among brain areas that are involved in emotion regulations. Unveiling the temporal properties of functional connectivity could disentangle the inconsistent results of previous functional connectivity studies.

  12. An Integrated Care Initiative to Improve Patient Outcome in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer-Amberg, Norbert; Woltmann, Rainer; Walther, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment of schizophrenia patients requires integration of medical and psychosocial inputs. In Germany, various healthcare service providers and institutions are involved in the treatment process. Early and continuous treatment is important but often not possible because of the fragmented medical care system in Germany. The current work is a quality monitoring report of a novel care setting, called Integrated Care Initiative Schizophrenia. It has implemented a networked care con...

  13. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry

    2015-01-01

    PAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish......BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su...... Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. RESULTS: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10...

  14. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. CONCLUSION: Based...

  15. Relationship between abstract thinking and eye gaze pattern in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective integration of visual information is necessary to utilize abstract thinking, but patients with schizophrenia have slow eye movement and usually explore limited visual information. This study examines the relationship between abstract thinking ability and the pattern of eye gaze in patients with schizophrenia using a novel theme identification task. Methods Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls completed the theme identification task, in which subjects selected which word, out of a set of provided words, best described the theme of a picture. Eye gaze while performing the task was recorded by the eye tracker. Results Patients exhibited a significantly lower correct rate for theme identification and lesser fixation and saccade counts than controls. The correct rate was significantly correlated with the fixation count in patients, but not in controls. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia showed impaired abstract thinking and decreased quality of gaze, which were positively associated with each other. Theme identification and eye gaze appear to be useful as tools for the objective measurement of abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24739356

  16. Possible drug-drug interaction between pregabalin and clozapine in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, O; Lykkegaard, S; Damkier, P

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug with anti-anxiety properties and is approved for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is common in patients with schizophrenia and pregabalin has been suggested as an off-label add-on treatment. METHODS: Pregabalin was added...... patient was less clear. DISCUSSION: This short report discusses the possible mechanism of a pregabalin-clozapine interaction....

  17. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of suicide in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Hurtado-Ruíz, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Suicide phenomenon's characterization is the best available approach for improved prediction and prevention of suicide. Patients at high risk for suicide need a more intensive monitoring and intervention. The aim of this review is to characterize, from a clinical-epidemiological point of view, the phenomenon of completed suicide in schizophrenia. We performed a systematic review to identify the most relevant studies published between 1994 and 2009, by searching on the international database Medline and among previous reviews references. Patients with schizophrenia experience higher mortality rates than the general population, especially due to the suicide. Most patients with schizophrenia who commit suicide are likely to be young and males, with a higher risk around illness onset and hospitalization periods. Previous suicide attempts are an important risk factor for completed suicide. Suicide risk is associated to psychotic positive symptoms, affective symptoms, depression and substance abuse. Treatment adherence is as protective factor. Patients with schizophrenia are likely to commit suicide by violent means. Suicide prevention should focus on treating affective symptoms and syndromes, improving treatment compliance and providing intensive monitoring to those patients at high risk of suicide, specially around hospitalization periods. Further studies are needed to clarify differential characteristics between suicide behaviour and completed suicide.

  18. Exploration of somatosensory P50 gating in schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-01-01

    , male, schizophrenia spectrum patients (seven schizophrenic and five schizotypal personality disorder patients) and 14 age-matched healthy men participated in recordings of pair-wise presented auditory and median nerve stimuli. The patients had smaller amplitudes of the SEP P50 at the first stimulus...

  19. [Inbreeding, endogamy and exogamy among relatives of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaskuliev, A A; Skoblo, G V

    1975-01-01

    An increased frequency of consanguineous marriages among the parents of schizophrenic patients in comparison with the control group of exogenous-somatic patients (infections, trauma) was found. Endogamy among the parents of schizophrenic patients and the control group was practically the same. The data obtained indicate a certain, but not the leading, role of inbreeding in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  20. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Ockelmann, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    ) for schizophrenia, but not explicitly for this complex forensic group. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using ECT as augmentation therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia who were failing to respond to antipsychotic medication. METHODS: In one university......-based psychiatric clinic, data were extracted from the medical records of all patients treated with ECT during a 6-year period. Fifty-nine of these patients were diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum and eight were in specialist forensic hospital services. RESULTS: The mean duration of illness...... for the forensic cohort was 16¿years (range 3-33¿years), with the index episode having lasted a mean of 34¿months (3¿weeks to 8¿years) in spite of treatment with at least two antipsychotic drugs. Psychotic symptoms were accompanied by seriously assaultive behaviour in all cases. All but one of these patients had...

  1. [Development and Effects of a Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Based Program in Reducing Internalized Stigma in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Jun, Seong Sook

    2016-06-01

    This study was done to develop a internalized stigma reducing program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and appropriate for patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study design was a mixed method research. Qualitative study, 13 patients with schizophrenia who had experience in overcoming stigma were purposively chosen for interviews and data were analyzed using Giorgi method. Quantitative study, 64 patients with schizophrenia (experimental group=32, control group=32) were recruited. The cognitive-behavioral therapy-based program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia was provided for 8 weeks (12 sessions). Data were collected from June. 20, 2013 to Feb. 14, 2014. Quantitative data were analyzed using χ²-test, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA with the SPSS program. Qualitative results, from the experience of coping with stigma in patients with schizophrenia seventeen themes and five themes-clusters were drawn up. Quantitative results showed that internalized stigma, self-esteem, mental health recovery and quality of life were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. Study findings indicate that this program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia is effective and can be recommended as a rehabilitation program intervention to help patients with schizophrenia to cope with internalized stigma.

  2. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  3. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  4. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in a catchment-area based cohort of older community-living schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Sonnenberg, C.M.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; de Haan, L.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms frequently accompany schizophrenia. Older patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. With regard to the risk factors associated with depression, it is uncertain to which extent older schizophrenia patients differ from their age

  5. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2015-01-01

    ratio are positively correlated to measures of oxidative stress. METHODS: We included 40 schizophrenia patients treated with AAP, but without somatic disease or drug abuse, and 40 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ADMA and L-arginine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...... in a range of cardiovascular disorders. Increased ADMA levels may also lead to increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ADMA and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio are increased in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAP), and that the ADMA and the L-arginine: ADMA....... Data were related to markers of systemic oxidative stress on DNA, RNA and lipids, as well as measures of medication load, duration of disease and current symptomatology. RESULTS: Plasma ADMA and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio did not differ between schizophrenia patients and controls. Furthermore, ADMA...

  6. Sensory and cross-network contributions to response inhibition in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hoptman

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show response inhibition deficits equal to or greater than those seen in impulse-control disorders, and these deficits contribute to poor outcome. However, little is known about the circuit abnormalities underlying this impairment. To address this, we examined stop signal task performance in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls using event related potential (ERP and resting state functional connectivity. Patients showed prolonged stop signal reaction time (SSRT and reduced N1, N2, and P3 amplitudes compared to controls. Across groups, P3 amplitudes were maximal after SSRT (i.e., after the time associated with the decision to stop occurred, suggesting that this component indexed response monitoring. Multiple regression analyses showed that longer SSRTs were independently related to 1 patient status, 2 reduced N1 amplitude on successful stop trials and 3 reduced anticorrelated resting state functional connectivity between visual and frontoparietal cortical networks. This study used a combined multimodal imaging approach to better understand the network abnormalities that underlie response inhibition in schizophrenia. It is the first of its kind to specifically assess the brain's resting state functional architecture in combination with behavioral and ERP methods to investigate response inhibition in schizophrenia. Keywords: EEG, Stop signal task, Impulsivity, Schizophrenia, Resting state functional connectivity

  7. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is...

  8. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Buchanan, Robert W; Dickerson, Faith B; Dixon, Lisa B

    2010-01-01

    The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) project has played a significant role in the development and dissemination of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia. In contrast to other clinical guidelines, the Schizophrenia PORT Treatment Recommendations, initially published in 1998 and first revised in 2003, are based primarily on empirical data. Over the last 5 years, research on psychopharmacologic and psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia has continued to evolve, warranting an update of the PORT recommendations. In consultation with expert advisors, 2 Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) identified 41 treatment areas for review and conducted electronic literature searches to identify all clinical studies published since the last PORT literature review. The ERGs also reviewed studies preceding 2002 in areas not covered by previous PORT reviews, including smoking cessation, substance abuse, and weight loss. The ERGs reviewed over 600 studies and synthesized the research evidence, producing recommendations for those treatments for which the evidence was sufficiently strong to merit recommendation status. For those treatments lacking empirical support, the ERGs produced parallel summary statements. An Expert Panel consisting of 39 schizophrenia researchers, clinicians, and consumers attended a conference in November 2008 in which consensus was reached on the state of the evidence for each of the treatment areas reviewed. The methods and outcomes of the update process are presented here and resulted in recommendations for 16 psychopharmacologic and 8 psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Another 13 psychopharmacologic and 4 psychosocial treatments had insufficient evidence to support a recommendation, representing significant unmet needs in important treatment domains.

  9. Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marangoni Sérgio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing. Methods We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area – BA22p identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease. Results Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

  10. Polymorphisms of XRCC4 are involved in reduced colorectal cancer risk in Chinese schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors related to the regulation of apoptosis in schizophrenia patients may be involved in a reduced vulnerability to cancer. XRCC4 is one of the potential candidate genes associated with schizophrenia which might induce colorectal cancer resistance. Methods To examine the genetic association between colorectal cancer and schizophrenia, we analyzed five SNPs (rs6452526, rs2662238, rs963248, rs35268, rs2386275 covering ~205.7 kb in the region of XRCC4. Results We observed that two of the five genetic polymorphisms showed statistically significant differences between 312 colorectal cancer subjects without schizophrenia and 270 schizophrenia subjects (rs6452536, p = 0.004, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.86; rs35268, p = 0.028, OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26. Moreover, the haplotype which combined all five markers was the most significant, giving a global p = 0.0005. Conclusions Our data firstly indicate that XRCC4 may be a potential protective gene towards schizophrenia, conferring reduced susceptibility to colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population.

  11. Lack of tolerable treatment options for patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citrome L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leslie Citrome,1 Anna Eramo,2 Clement Francois,2 Ruth Duffy,3 Susan N Legacy,3 Steve J Offord,3 Holly B Krasa,3 Stephen S Johnston,4 Alice Guiraud-Diawara,5 Siddhesh A Kamat,3 Patricia Rohman3 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 2Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL, 3Otsuka America Pharmaceuticals, Princeton, NJ, 4Truven Health Analytics, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France Purpose: Atypical antipsychotics (AAs, an effective treatment for schizophrenia, have a range of pharmacologic properties leading to differences in tolerability as well as heterogeneity in treatment response. Individual patient characteristics must be considered when making treatment choices, especially from an adverse event (AE or tolerability perspective. Despite the availability of numerous AAs, after appraising patient characteristics at the time of treatment selection, physicians may quickly run out of tolerable treatment options. Patients and methods: AE risk factors, defined as having either a prior history of an AE or a risk factor for that AE, were determined for Medicaid-insured and Commercially insured patients using database analysis. Patients receiving AA treatment between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 defined the index date of first observed AA prescription during this period. Nine AAs were evaluated for association with AE risk factors as informed by drug prescribing information from the different manufacturers and published meta-analyses. The proportion of patients with pre-index AE risk factors prescribed an AA associated with that risk factor was then determined. Results: A high proportion of patients (>80% were prescribed an AA associated with extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia despite experiencing extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia prior to AA treatment initiation. Similar trends were observed among patients with diabetes (>60% and obesity (>40%. From the nine treatment

  12. Neuroanatomical heterogeneity of schizophrenia revealed by semi-supervised machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Nicolas; Dong, Aoyan; Meisenzahl-Lechner, Eva; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-12-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with heterogeneous clinical symptoms and neuroanatomical alterations. In this work, we aim to disentangle the patterns of neuroanatomical alterations underlying a heterogeneous population of patients using a semi-supervised clustering method. We apply this strategy to a cohort of patients with schizophrenia of varying extends of disease duration, and we describe the neuroanatomical, demographic and clinical characteristics of the subtypes discovered. We analyze the neuroanatomical heterogeneity of 157 patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia, relative to a control population of 169 subjects, using a machine learning method called CHIMERA. CHIMERA clusters the differences between patients and a demographically-matched population of healthy subjects, rather than clustering patients themselves, thereby specifically assessing disease-related neuroanatomical alterations. Voxel-Based Morphometry was conducted to visualize the neuroanatomical patterns associated with each group. The clinical presentation and the demographics of the groups were then investigated. Three subgroups were identified. The first two differed substantially, in that one involved predominantly temporal-thalamic-peri-Sylvian regions, whereas the other involved predominantly frontal regions and the thalamus. Both subtypes included primarily male patients. The third pattern was a mix of these two and presented milder neuroanatomic alterations and comprised a comparable number of men and women. VBM and statistical analyses suggest that these groups could correspond to different neuroanatomical dimensions of schizophrenia. Our analysis suggests that schizophrenia presents distinct neuroanatomical variants. This variability points to the need for a dimensional neuroanatomical approach using data-driven, mathematically principled multivariate pattern analysis methods, and should be taken into account in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-08-10

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.

  14. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Remission and recovery in schizophrenia: practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Larry; Schmutte, Timothy; Dinzeo, Thomas; Andres-Hyman, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a complex, dynamic, multi-dimensional, and poorly understood condition. Although the concept of heterogeneity in outcome has conceptually overturned the post Kraepelinian legacy of progressive deterioration, a number of factors appear to contribute to perpetuating a pessimistic attitude toward outcome within the field. These include the limited access people with schizophrenia have to effective interventions and the phenomenon of the "clinician's illusion," which refers to the tendency of practitioners to assume that patients remain seriously ill when outside of the clinical care settings in which they are typically seen. Longitudinal studies, however, continue to point to a large number of people who experience improvements in their condition over time. Pressure from patients and their families, who experience periods of symptomatic relief and enhanced functioning first-hand, has led to the introduction of such concepts as "remission" and being "in" recovery with schizophrenia, in addition to the conventional notion of recovering "from" schizophrenia. These developments are consistent with recent policy initiatives by the U.S. and other governments around the world and aim to re-orient research and clinical practice from a traditional focus on effecting cure to exploring ways to encourage and assist people with schizophrenia to live meaningful lives in the face of an enduring illness.

  16. Sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors in patients with mood disorders, panic disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso Liliana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topic of sexual obsessions as a psychiatric symptom has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore the presence of sexual obsessions in patients with mood disorders (n=156, panic disorder (n=54 and schizophrenia (n=79, with respect to non-psychiatric subjects (n=100; 2 to investigate the relationship between sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors, taking into account socio-demographic variables ad mental disorders. Methods 289 psychiatric patients with mood disorders, panic disorder or schizophrenia, were recruited at the Italian University departments of psychiatry along with 100 non-psychiatric subjects, who presented for a routine eye exam at the ophthalmology department of the same Universities. The assessments included: the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report (OBS-SR, for sexual obsession, and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report lifetime version (MOODS-SR. Suicidality was assessed by means of 6 items of the MOODS-SR. Results Sexual obsessions were more frequent in schizophrenia (54.4%, followed by mood disorders (35.9%. Among schizophrenia patients, males reported more sexual obsessions than females (P Conclusions Special attention should be given to investigate and establish effective strategies of treatment for sexual obsessions, especially those with comorbid mood disorders or schizophrenia.

  17. Dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Beherec, Laurène; Hannequin, Didier; Opolczynski, Gaëlle; Rothärmel, Maud; Wallon, David; Véra, Pierre; Martinaud, Olivier; Guillin, Olivier; Campion, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have assessed cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, very few have focused on the diagnosis of dementia. Our objectives were to accurately diagnose dementia in a cohort of middle-aged patients with schizophrenia and to assess the type of dementia. 96 patients with schizophrenia (46 inpatients and 50 outpatients), aged 50 to 70 years, underwent a psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and after a 20-month follow-up. We established a 3-step procedure: 1) diagnose dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria, using the Mattis Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living scales; 2) characterize dementia using brain imaging, perfusion by 99mTc-ECD-SPECT and laboratory tests including Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; and 3) search for genetic determinants. Fourteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of dementia. Four were diagnosed with possible or probable behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), two with probable Alzheimer's disease, two with probable vascular dementia (including one due to CADASIL), one with CNS inflammatory disease, and six could not be fully characterized. The diagnosis of dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is challenging but possible, using a multistep procedure. The most frequent condition, bvFTD, could reflect the presence of an evolutive neurodegenerative process in some patients.

  18. Schizophrenia causes significant burden to patients' and caregivers' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Jakovljević, Miro; Jukić, Vlado; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Janno, Sven; Bitter, István; Tolna, Judit; Jarema, Marek; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pecenak, Jan; Vavrusova, Livia; Tavčar, Rok; Walczak, Jacek; Talbot, Darren; Augustyńska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious public health problem and is ranked among the most disabling diseases in the world. The sub-study presented here was part of a larger project to characterize the burden of schizophrenia on healthcare systems and on individuals living with the disease in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This sub-study aimed to assess and analyze the impact of schizophrenia on many aspects of the lives of patients and caregivers. Psychiatrists from selected centers in seven Central and Eastern European countries were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to collect information about the disease history, characteristics, treatment protocols and resources used for each randomly selected patient. All data were statistically analyzed and compared between countries. Data from 961 patients with schizophrenia (mean age 40.7 years, 45.1% female) were included in the analysis. The mean number of days spent in hospital per patient per year across all seven countries was 25.3 days. Hospitalization occurred on average once per year, with psychiatrist visits 9.4 times per year. Of the patients in the study, 61% were single, 12% divorced and 22% married or cohabiting. Almost 84% were living with relatives or a partner; only 17% lived alone and, on average, 25% of patients received support from social workers. Relatives provided care for approximately 60% of patients and 4% of them had to stop working in order to do so. Twenty-nine percent of the patients were unemployed, and 56% received a disability pension or were retired, with only 19% in full-time employment or education. Schizophrenia has a significant effect on the lives of patients and caregivers and impacts their social integration.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of the HIT programme in patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, AD; TenVergert, EM; Groen, H; Jenner, JA; Nienhuis, FJ; van de Willige, G; Wiersma, D

    Objective: To examine the cost-effectiveness of Hallucination focused Integrative Treatment (HIT) in patients with schizophrenia and a history of persistent auditory hallucinations. Method: Costs, in and outside the health care sector, and outcomes were registered prospectively during a period of 18

  20. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Damarnegara ..; A. A. Ngr. Andika

    2014-01-01

    Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and control...

  1. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  2. Using multivariate machine learning methods and structural MRI to classify childhood onset schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna eGreenstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multivariate machine learning methods can be used to classify groups of schizophrenia patients and controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, machine learning methods to date have not been extended beyond classification and contemporaneously applied in a meaningful way to clinical measures. We hypothesized that brain measures would classify groups, and that increased likelihood of being classified as a patient using regional brain measures would be positively related to illness severity, developmental delays and genetic risk. Methods: Using 74 anatomic brain MRI sub regions and Random Forest, we classified 98 COS patients and 99 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We also used Random Forest to determine the likelihood of being classified as a schizophrenia patient based on MRI measures. We then explored relationships between brain-based probability of illness and symptoms, premorbid development, and presence of copy number variation associated with schizophrenia. Results: Brain regions jointly classified COS and control groups with 73.7% accuracy. Greater brain-based probability of illness was associated with worse functioning (p= 0.0004 and fewer developmental delays (p=0.02. Presence of copy number variation (CNV was associated with lower probability of being classified as schizophrenia (p=0.001. The regions that were most important in classifying groups included left temporal lobes, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and left medial parietal lobes. Conclusions: Schizophrenia and control groups can be well classified using Random Forest and anatomic brain measures, and brain-based probability of illness has a positive relationship with illness severity and a negative relationship with developmental delays/problems and CNV-based risk.

  3. Comprehension of metaphors in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Aschauer, Harald N; Stoettner, Susanne; Schmoeger, Michaela; Pils, Nicole; Raab, Monika; Willinger, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Metaphors, mainly proverbs and idiomatic expressions of ordinary life are commonly used as a model for concretism. Previous studies have shown impaired metaphor comprehension in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to either psychiatric or non-psychiatric control subject. The aim of this study was to detect possible quantitative differences in figurative processing between patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and healthy controls. In order to analyse possible dissociations of different aspects of figurative speech, a range of metaphor tasks was used to distinguish between recognition of familiar metaphors, paraphrasing the meaning of the latter and generating novel metaphors: we used a standard proverb test for conventional metaphors consisting of a multiple-choice and a paraphrasing task, and the Metaphoric Triads Test for the assessment of novel metaphors. We included 40 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 43 healthy control subjects. Our results showed that patients had impaired figurative speech processing regarding novel and conventional metaphors. Associations with cognitive functions were detected. Performance on the paraphrasing task was associated with the severity of negative symptoms. We conclude that patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders do exhibit impairments in the recognition and paraphrasing of conventional and the generation of novel metaphors and that some cognitive domains as well the extent of negative symptoms might be associated with these deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Uno

    Full Text Available The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia.

  5. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsCognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge.Sampling and methodsWe reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017 that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.ResultsAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing

  6. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

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    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  7. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

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    Haluk Usta

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  8. Attenuation of beta and gamma oscillations in schizophrenia spectrum patients following hand posture perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Mørup, Morten; Thalbitzer, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Several electroencephalographic (EEG) studies in schizophrenia report that the patients have reduced evoked gamma activity following visual and auditory stimulation. Somatosensory gamma activity has not previously been examined. It has been suggested that a dysfunction basic to schizophrenia spec...

  9. Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: the Therapeutic Benefits of Risperidone Plus Add-On Dextromethorphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I-Hui; Chen, Po-See; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to the etiology and progression of schizophrenia. Molecules that initiate inflammation, such as virus- and toxin-induced cytokines, are implicated in neuronal degeneration and schizophrenia-like behavior. Using therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic effects may be beneficial for treating schizophrenia. Methods One hundred healthy controls and 95 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia were tested in this double-blind study. Their PANSS scores, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-α and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured before and after pharmacological treatment. Results Pretreatment, plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, but plasma BDNF levels were significantly lower. Patients were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (Risp) only or with Risp+add-on dextromethorphan (DM). PANSS scores and plasma IL-1β levels significantly decreased, but plasma TNF-α and BDNF levels significantly increased after 11 weeks of Risp treatment. Patients in the Risp+DM group showed a greater and earlier reduction of symptoms than did those in the Risp-only group. Moreover, Risp+DM treatment attenuated Risp-induced plasma increases in TNF-α. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia had a high level of peripheral inflammation and a low level of peripheral BDNF. Long-term Risp treatment attenuated inflammation and potentiated the neurotrophic function but also produced a certain degree of toxicity. Risp+DM was more beneficial and less toxic than Risp-only treatment. PMID:22730040

  10. Oscillatory underpinnings of mismatch negativity and their relationship with cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in mismatch negativity (MMN generation have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, underlying oscillatory activity of MMN deficits in schizophrenia and the relationship with cognitive impairments have not been investigated in detail. Time-frequency power and phase analyses can provide more detailed measures of brain dynamics of MMN deficits in schizophrenia. METHOD: 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls were tested with a roving frequency paradigm to generate MMN. Time-frequency domain power and phase-locking (PL analysis was performed on all trials using short-time Fourier transforms with Hanning window tapering. A comprehensive battery (CANTAB was used to assess neurocognitive functioning. RESULTS: Mean MMN amplitude was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia (95% CI 0.18 - 0.77. Patients showed significantly lower EEG power (95% CI -1.02 - -0.014 in the ~4-7 Hz frequency range (theta band between 170 and 210 ms. Patients with schizophrenia showed cognitive impairment in multiple domains of CANTAB. However, MMN impairments in amplitude and power were not correlated with clinical measures, medication dose, social functioning or neurocognitive performance. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggested that while MMN may be a useful marker to probe NMDA receptor mediated mechanisms and associated impairments in gain control and perceptual changes, it may not be a useful marker in association with clinical or cognitive changes. Trial-by-trial EEG power analysis can be used as a measure of brain dynamics underlying MMN deficits which also can have implications for the use of MMN as a biomarker for drug discovery.

  11. The mere exposure effect in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, A; Gabrieli, J D; Vaidya, C; Brown, B; Pratto, F; Zajonc, R B; Shaw, R J

    2001-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the development of an emotional preference for previously unfamiliar material because of frequent exposure to that material. This study compared schizophrenia subjects (n = 20) to normal controls (n = 21) to determine whether implicit memory, as demonstrated by the mere exposure effect, was intact. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated a normal preference for both verbal and visual materials seen earlier relative to novel materials, despite impaired performance on a recognition task for explicit memory using similar materials. Previous studies of schizophrenia subjects have shown a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory on verbal tasks. We found a similar dissociation demonstrated by normal functioning on an implicit memory task and impaired functioning on an explicit memory task. Potential implications of these findings are discussed with regard to treatment and rehabilitation.

  12. Behavioral therapy for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.

  13. Anaesthesia for a morbidly obese patient with schizophrenia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a morbidly obese woman with schizophrenia and intellectual disability who underwent dental treatment using general anaesthesia. The 38-year-old patient was 156 cm tall and weighed 140 kg, with a body mass index of 57.5 kg.m-2. Her developmental age was less than five or six years. She had ...

  14. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria | Makanjuola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the degree of satisfaction with various aspects of life (or lack of it) in patients with schizophrenia, to compare QOL at onset ... take cognizance of the importance of cognitive constructs such as inner feelings, self-efficacy, self-esteem, task coping behaviors and perceived social support.

  15. Relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia : A nursing intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijel, Berno van

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If

  16. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia

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    Xuechan Lyu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day and bupropion (300 mg/day combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group. Body weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24.Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures (p's > 0.05Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474.

  17. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xuechan; Du, Jiang; Zhan, Guilai; Wu, Yujie; Su, Hang; Zhu, Youwei; Jarskog, Fredrik; Zhao, Min; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO) level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures ( p 's > 0.05) Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474.

  18. Improving quality of life and physical health in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...... associations between QoL and physical health. METHODS: This was a naturalistic longitudinal 30-month follow-up study including individual guidance, group sessions and treatment as usual. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. QoL was low among newly diagnosed patients. Higher body mass index was significantly...... associated with lower QoL. Newly diagnosed male patients showed lower QoL compared with females. Newly diagnosed patients experienced worsened health during the study period. In contrast, long-term schizophrenic patients started with worse physical health but improved with regard to weight, waist...

  19. Risk factors for medication non-adherence in patients with first episode schizophrenia and related disorders; a prospective five year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; van Amelsvoort, T.; Dingemans, P.; Linszen, D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study is to assess, prospectively, the relative contribution of baseline variables to long-term medication adherence in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. METHODS: Consecutively admitted patients suffering from a first episode of schizophrenia or related

  20. Stigma and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia attending a general hospital psychiatric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aakanksha; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very few studies from India have studied stigma experienced by patients with schizophrenia. Aim of the Study: To study stigma in patients with schizophrenia (in the form of internalized stigma, perceived stigma and social-participation-restriction stigma) and its relationship with specified demographic and clinical variables (demographic variables, clinical profile, level of psychopathology, knowledge about illness, and insight). Materials and Methods: Selected by purposive random sampling, 100 patients with schizophrenia in remission were evaluated on internalized stigma of mental illness scale (ISMIS), explanatory model interview catalog stigma scale, participation scale (P-scale), positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia, global assessment of functioning scale, scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, and knowledge of mental illness scale. Results: On ISMIS scale, 81% patients experienced alienation and 45% exhibited stigma resistance. Stereotype endorsement was seen in 26% patients, discrimination experience was faced by 21% patients, and only 16% patients had social withdrawal. Overall, 29% participants had internalized stigma when total ISMIS score was taken into consideration. On P-scale, 67% patients experienced significant restriction, with a majority reporting moderate to mild restriction. In terms of associations between stigma and sociodemographic variables, no consistent correlations emerged, except for those who were not on paid job, had higher participation restriction. Of the clinical variables, level of functioning was the only consistent predictor of stigma. While better knowledge about the disorder was associated with lower level of stigma, there was no association between stigma and insight. Conclusion: Significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia experience stigma and stigma is associated with lower level of functioning and better knowledge about illness is associated with lower level of stigma. PMID

  1. Impulsivity, aggression and suicide risk among male schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Roitman, Suzana; Piccone Sapir, Anna; Poreh, Amir; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity has been shown to be a major variable in the etiology of suicide and aggression, but has not been researched as much in the schizophrenic population, which is characterized by serious suicide and aggression risks. 68 male schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale (IS), the Suicide Risk Scale (SRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale. We divided our subjects into those who received scores above and below the median on the IS. The high-impulsivity group had higher present and past rates of suicidal ideation and showed a trend for more lifetime suicidal attempts than the low-impulsivity group. The impulsivity score correlated positively with the SRS score and with some of the scores of the PANSS (the positive symptoms score, the general psychopathology score and the total score). A multiple regression analysis revealed that an older age, higher levels of aggression, high impulsivity and an elevated score on the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS contributed positively and significantly to the explained variance of the SRS. Our study supports the contention that high impulsivity in schizophrenia patients is significant in the etiology of suicide in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia patients, and also the amelioration of impulsivity by pharmacological interventions, require further study. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Vitamin D receptor variants in 192 patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Feng, Jinong; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian R; Cook, Edwin H; Goldman, David; Heston, Leonard L; Chen, Jiesheng; Burkhart, Patricia; Li, Wenyan; Shibayama, Akane; Sommer, Steve S

    Intriguing parallels have been noted previously between the biology of Vitamin D and the epidemiology of schizophrenia. We have scanned the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene by DOVAM-S (Detection of Virtually All Mutations-SSCP), a robotically enhanced multiplexed scanning method. In total, 100 patients with schizophrenia (86 Caucasians and 14 African-Americans) were scanned. In addition, pilot experiments were performed in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) (24), autism (24), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (24), and alcoholism (20). A total of 762 kb of the VDR genomic sequence was scanned. R208N and V339I were each found in one African-American patient, while absent in 35 African-American controls without schizophrenia (2/14 versus 0/35, P=0.08). Within the power of the study (> or =1.6-fold relative risk), the common M1T variant is not associated with schizophrenia. In the 92 scanned patients with other psychiatric diseases, R173S was found in a single patient with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, we describe three novel structural variants of the Vitamin D receptor. Further study is required to clarify their role, if any, in psychiatric disease.

  3. Use of clozapine in older Asian patients with schizophrenia between 2001 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tao Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date there has been no large-scale international study that examined the use of clozapine in older patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the use of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in older patients with schizophrenia in East Asia during the period between 2001 and 2009. METHOD: Information on 1,157 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 50 or older in five East Asian countries and territories (China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP project. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and prescription of psychotropic medications were recorded. RESULTS: Clozapine was prescribed for 20.6% of the pooled sample; 19.0% in 2001, 19.4% in 2004 and 22.9% in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients taking clozapine had a longer duration of illness, more negative symptoms and were less likely to receive first generation antipsychotic and anticholinergic drugs, but more likely to report weight gain compared to those not receiving clozapine. Compared to those in other sites, older patients in China were more likely to receive clozapine. CONCLUSIONS: The prescription of clozapine for older Asian schizophrenia inpatients has remained at a stable level during the past decade. The appropriateness of use of clozapine in China needs to be further explored.

  4. Influence of patient characteristics on care time in patients hospitalized with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugibayashi Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Sugibayashi,1 Kimio Yoshimura,1 Keita Yamauchi,1,2 Ataru Inagaki,3 Naoki Ikegami1 1Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Keio University Graduate School of Health Management, Kanagawa, 3Aoyama Gakuin University, School of International Politics, Economics and Communication, Tokyo, Japan Background: In the current Japanese payment system for the treatment of psychiatric inpatients, the length of hospital stay and nurse staffing levels are key determinants of the amount of payment. These factors do not fully reflect the costs of care for each patient. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between patient characteristics and their care costs as measured by “care time” for patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Patient characteristics and care time were investigated in 14,557 inpatients in 102 psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Of these 14,557 inpatients, data for 8,379 with schizophrenia were analyzed using a tree-based model.Results: The factor exerting the greatest influence on care time was ”length of stay”, so subjects were divided into 2 groups, a “short stay group” with length of stay ≦104 days, and “long stay group” ≧105 days. Each group was further subdivided according to dependence with regard to “activities of daily living”, “psychomotor agitation”, “verbal abuse”, and “frequent demands/repetitive complaints”, which were critical variables affecting care time. The mean care time was shorter in the long-stay group; however, in some long-stay patients, the mean care time was considerably longer than that in patients in the short-stay group.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to construct a new payment system reflecting not only length of stay and nurse staffing levels, but also individual patient characteristics. Keywords: psychiatric hospital, schizophrenia, care time, case mix, tree-based model

  5. Using patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia: the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert; Cameron, Rosie; Norrie, John

    2009-02-01

    The primary aim of the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study (SSOS) was to assess the feasibility and utility of routinely collecting outcome data in everyday clinical settings. Data were collected over three years in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS). There were two secondary aims of SSOS: first, to compare data from patient-rated, objective, and clinician-rated outcomes, and second, to describe trends in outcome data and service use across Scotland over the three years of the study (2002-2005). This study used a naturalistic, longitudinal, observational cohort design. A representative sample of 1,015 persons with ICD-10 F20-F29 diagnoses (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorders, or delusional disorders) was assessed annually using the clinician-rated measure, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS), and the patient-reported assessment, the Avon Mental Health Measure (Avon). Objective outcomes data and information on services and interventions were collected. Data were analyzed with regression modeling. Of the 1,015 persons recruited, 78% of the cohort (N=789) completed the study. Over the study period, significant decreases were seen in the number of hospitalizations, incidence of attempted suicide and self-harm, and civil detentions. Avon scores indicated significant improvement on all subscales (behavior, social, access, and mental health) and on the total score. However, HoNOS scores on the behavior and symptom subscales did not change, scores on the impairment subscale increased significantly (indicating increased levels of impairment), and scores on the social subscale decreased significantly (indicating improved social functioning). This study has demonstrated that it is feasible within the Scottish NHS to routinely collect meaningful outcomes data in schizophrenia. Patient-reported assessments were also successfully collected and used in care plans. This model shows that it is possible to incorporate patient-reported assessments into routine

  6. Memory profiles in parents of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Appels, Melanie; Nuyen, Jasper; Kahn, René S

    2004-08-30

    Recent research shows that categorizing patients with schizophrenia based on frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal memory profiles may yield neurobiologically meaningful disease subtypes. We hypothesize that parents of patients exhibit similar memory profiles. Both parents of 36 patients with schizophrenia (N = 72) and 26 healthy married control couples (N = 52) participated in this study. All subjects were physically healthy and had no history of neurological illness or alcohol/drug abuse. The presence of a psychiatric and/or personality disorder was assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-lifetime (SADS-L) interview and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), respectively. Cluster analysis of selected measures from the Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) delineated parents into two subgroups with distinct memory deficits and a third subgroup without impairments. Specific frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal subgroups, however, were not found. In addition, our results indicated that mothers seem to be more protected against the negative effects of genetic liability to schizophrenia than fathers. Furthermore, relatives with a higher level of intelligence may have more cognitive reserve to compensate for the negative impact of implied brain dysfunction on verbal memory than relatives with a low level of intelligence. Although the parents of patients with schizophrenia could be delineated into subgroups with primary memory deficits, frontal-striatal and frontal-temporal subgroups could not be unambiguously identified. The association that emerged between level of intelligence, gender and severity of memory impairment deserves further exploration.

  7. Glucoregulation in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated by first generation antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schizophrenia patients are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. The metabolic complications in patients are associated with several risk factors: family history of DM, lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, physical inactivity, but also with antipsychotic medication. In literature, most publications have been focused on the effects of the second generation antipsychotics (SGA on glucose metabolism. However, less attention has been paid to abnormality in glucoregulation, patients with schizophrenia treated with the first generation antipsychotics (FGA. Objective The present study evaluated glucose metabolism in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated with FGA. METHOD The cross-sectional study included 18 patients (FGA treated and 20 healthy controls with neither group differences in sex distribution, age, nor in BMI. Inclusion criteria were normal BMI (20-25 kg/m2. The glucose levels, insulin levels and growth hormone levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between groups. Groups differed in OGTT glucose and insulin peak and area under curve (AUC, level of significance p<0.05 (patients vs. controls: glucose peak 8.3±0.4 vs.6.9±0.5 mmol/l, glucose AUC 758±28 vs. 640±36 mU/l/120 min; insulin peak in patients 92.7±15.6 mU/l; insulin AUC 6060±1016 mU/l/120 min, insulin peak in controls 47.9±6.5 mU/l; insulin AUC 2597±256 mU/l/120 min. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia, although with normal body mass index, are at high risk of abnormal glucose regulation. Not only SGA increase the risk of impaired glucoregulation and metabolic syndrome, but this may also be due to FGA or schizophrenia per se. .

  8. Self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

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    Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.

  9. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

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    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Prisk of SCD. Regarding the latest admission, electrocardiographic abnormalities (aRR=5.46, Prisk for SCD. Consistently, aggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Prisk as well. Apart from cardiovascular profiles and antipsychotics, physical aggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resveratrol supplementation did not improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia: results from a randomized clinical trial

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    KARINE ZORTEA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related with neuroprotective action but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind controlled trial (NCT 02062190, in which 19 men with diagnosis of schizophrenia, aged 18 to 65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplement group (200mg or placebo group (200mg, with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. Results: There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility and psychopathology severity after 1-month of resveratrol supplementation (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have shown that 1-month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

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    Hasan Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  12. Semantic Memory Organization in Japanese Patients With Schizophrenia Examined With Category Fluency

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    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDisorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.MethodCategory fluency data were collected from 181 patients with schizophrenia and 335 healthy controls at the Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University. The 20 most frequently reported animals were chosen for SVD analysis. In the two-dimensional (2D solution, item vectors (i.e., animal names were plotted in the 2D space of each group. In the six-dimensional (6D solution, inter-item similarities (i.e., cosines were calculated among items. Cosine charts were also created for the six most frequent items to show the similarities to other animal items.ResultsIn the 2D spatial representation, the six most frequent items were grouped in the same clusters (i.e., dog, cat as pet cluster, lion, tiger as wild/carnivorous cluster, and elephant, giraffe as wild/herbivorous cluster for patients and healthy adults. As for 6D spatial cosines, the correlations (Pearson’s r between 17 items commonly generated in the two groups were moderately high. However, cosine charts created for the three pairs from the six most frequent animals (dog–cat, lion–tiger, elephant–giraffe showed that pair-wise similarities between other animals were less salient in patients with schizophrenia.DiscussionSemantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia, revealed by SVD analysis, did not appear to be seriously impaired in the 2D space representation, maintaining a clustering structure similar to that in healthy controls for common animals. However, the coherence of those

  13. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

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    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  14. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  15. P50 suppression deficits and psychopathology in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Lin; Tan, Shu Ping; Wang, Zhi Ren; Zhang, Jin Guo; Li, Dong; Fan, Feng Mei; Zhao, Yan Li; Zou, Yi Zhuang; Tan, Yun Long; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-07-13

    Numerous studies have reported P50 gating deficits in schizophrenia, though with mixed results. Moreover, few studies have explored the association between P50 gating deficits and psychopathology in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the P50 auditory sensory gating patterns and their correlations with clinical symptoms in a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed P50 sensory gating with a 64-channel electroencephalography system in 133 patients with schizophrenia and 148 healthy controls. The schizophrenia symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly higher P50 gating ratio (pschizophrenia. These findings suggest that the P50 sensory gating deficits identified in Chinese patients with schizophrenia may not be involved in the psychopathology of the illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

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    Holubova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Radovan Hruby,3 Klara Latalova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Milos Slepecky,4 Terezia Gubova2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Private Psychiatric Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Subjects and methods: A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma.Results: Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping

  17. ["Schizophrenia versus cannabis", a novel psychoeducational workshop designed with patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillet, Christelle; Simon, Morgane; Kular, Sonia

    A therapeutic workshop involving patients with schizophrenia and consumers of cannabis was created within the Lavallois adult psychiatry department. The collaboration between two nurses and a psychologist enabled new working tools to be designed and implemented with a pilot group of four patients, informed and aware of their condition, and admitting their use of cannabis. This article provides an initial assessment of this rewarding scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with depression in patients with schizophrenia

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    Suttajit S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To identify the point prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on an updated definition derived from the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 was used to measure depressive symptoms in 80 patients with schizophrenia. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression for the association between each depressive symptom and metabolic syndrome.Results: The point prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria were 37% and 35%, respectively. The risk of having metabolic syndrome significantly increased in those who were widowed or separated, or had longer duration of illness. Central obesity was the metabolic feature with the highest odds ratios for metabolic syndrome at 19.3. Three out of 17 items of HDRS subscales were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, including depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation with the odds ratios of 3.0, 3.4, and 3.6, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia was higher than the overall rate but was slightly lower than in the general population in the USA. Central obesity, measured by waist circumference, was found to be highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Waist circumference and screening

  19. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in Katsina, Nigeria

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    Abdulkareem Jika Yusuf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Caring for patients’ with schizophrenia leads to an enormous burden on the caregivers. However, the magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of care giving among relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Materials and method: A total of 129 primary care-givers of patients with schizophrenia attending out-patient clinic of Katsina state Psychiatric Hospital were interviewed using a socio-demographic data collection sheet and Zarith Burden Interview (ZBI. Data obtained was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 45.07±8.91. Majority of the caregivers are females. High level of burden was found in 47.3% of the respondents. The level of burden experienced was significantly associated with place of residence and family size. Conclusion: Schizophrenia is associated with high level of caregiver burden and effort should be made at alleviating this burden for better out come in both the patients and caregivers.

  20. [Augmented antipsychotic therapy with pantogam active in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, V E; Frolova, V I; Gushanskaya, E V; Ter-Israelyan, A U

    2015-01-01

    to study the efficacy of the GABA-ergic drug pantogam active (D-, L-gopantenic acid) in patients with schizophrenia treated with typical neuroleptics and to assess the rate of treatment response and tolerability of the drug. A sample consisted of 70 patients with schizophrenia stratified into main (n=35) and control (n=35) groups. All patients received one of typical antipsychotics (haloperidol, zuclopenthixol, promazine or perphenazine). Patients of the main group received in addition pantogam active in dose of 1200-1800 mg daily. The maximum allowed dose of 1800 mg daily was used in 62.9% of the patients. The long-term combined therapy with the addition of D-, L-gopantenic acid (pantogam activ) allowed to achieve clinical improvement earlier (on 8th week in the main group versus 16th week in the control group). The frequency and severity of secondary negative symptoms associated with antipsychotic therapy were decreased as well. The high efficacy and tolerability of the combined therapy allow to improve quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and their compliance to treatment as well as to reduce costs of medical care.

  1. Patient preferences for medicine administration for acute agitation: results from an internet-based survey of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in two Nordic countries.

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    Jørgensen, Tine Rikke; Emborg, Charlotte; Dahlen, Karianne; Bøgelund, Mette; Carlborg, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to elicit patient preferences for medicine administration method in the management of acute agitation episodes among patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The patients' experiences of acute agitation episodes and their management of episodes were also explored. Data were collected via an anonymous, internet-based survey of residents in Denmark or Sweden with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (October 2014 to December 2014). Inclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and being above 18 years of age. The questionnaire included questions about preferences for medication attributes, experiences with pharmacological treatment for agitation and involvement in treatment plans. A total of 237 diagnosed patients (61 with schizophrenia; 176 with bipolar disorder) completed the questionnaire. Agitation episodes were experienced by 90% of the respondents. In total, 83% of the respondents reported having received treatment with tablets. When patients were presented with the attributes of an inhalation method, respondents stated that the fast onset of action, low risk of adverse reactions and least invasive form of drug delivery were positive attributes of treatment with inhalation. Inhalation is a new delivery route for treatment of acute agitation in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Inhalation is the preferred treatment method for acute agitation among Danish and Swedish patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.

  2. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

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    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

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    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparision of neurocognitive function among patients with bipolar depression,recurrent unipolar depression and schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurocognitive function in patients with bipolar depression type I(BD),recurrent unipolar depression(UD)and schizophrenia(SZ).And try to explore the relationship between neuropsychological function and clinical features in bipolar.Methods 29 patients with BD,25 with UD,30 with SZ were consecutively recruited from clinics and wards of Peking University Sixth Hospital between September 2010 and April2011,also including 30 controls

  5. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

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    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  6. The prevalence and risk factors of stroke in patients with chronic schizophrenia

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    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying Liang,1 Jian Huang,1 Jingbin Tian,2 Yuanyuan Cao,2 Guoling Zhang,2 Chungang Wang,2 Ying Cao,2 Jianrong Li2 1National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 2Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the stroke risk and risk factors in patients with chronic schizophrenia.Patients and methods: This study was a large-sample, cross-sectional survey. A total of 363 patients with chronic schizophrenia were selected from the Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, in August 2014. The patients were divided into either stroke group or control group based on the presence of stroke. Clinical evaluation included positive and negative syndrome scale assessment and a detailed questionnaire to collect the general information and disease-related conditions.Results: The prevalence of stroke was 16.5% (60 cases. Stroke and control groups showed a significant difference in age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, negative factor score in positive and negative syndrome scale, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis showed that a number of factors are significantly related to stroke, including age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure.Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke is relatively higher in Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia. Chronic schizophrenia patients are more likely to suffer from stroke; meanwhile, a number of risk factors were identified, including old age, female sex, smoking history, combined medication with a variety of drugs, high doses, obesity, and high blood pressure. Keywords: schizophrenia, stroke, risk, risk factors

  7. Intellectual factors in false memories of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Li, Jun

    2018-07-01

    The current study explored the intellectual factors in false memories of 139 patients with schizophrenia, using a recognition task and an IQ test. The full-scale IQ score of the participants ranged from 57 to 144 (M = 100, SD = 14). The full IQ score had a negative correlation with false recognition in patients with schizophrenia, and positive correlations with high-confidence true recognition and discrimination rates. Further analyses with the subtests' scores revealed that false recognition was negatively correlated with scores of performance IQ (and one of its subtests: picture arrangement), whereas true recognition was positively correlated with scores of verbal IQ (and two of its subtests: information and digit span). High-IQ patients had less false recognition (overall or high-confidence false recognition), more high-confidence true recognition, and higher discrimination abilities than those with low IQ. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive mechanism in false memory of patients with schizophrenia, and are of practical relevance to the evaluation of memory reliability in patients with different intellectual levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

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    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia

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    Ünsal C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Mustafa Oran,2 Hande Oktay Tureli,3 Seref Alpsoy,4 Sema Yesilyurt,5 Mehtap Arslan,6 Birol Topcu,7 Osman Karakaya,8 Erhan Kurt6 1Department of Psychiatry, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Biostatistics, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 8Department of Social Service, Yalova University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova, Turkey Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with early mortality compared with the nonschizophrenic population. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in asymptomatic periods in patients with schizophrenia would enhance their quality of life and reduce mortality. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and ankle brachial index (ABI measurement are known to be beneficial methods of detecting subclinical cardiovascular diseases and of risk stratification. The present study investigated carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ABI and echocardiographic parameters measured via conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with a control group. Methods: The present case-control study included 116 patients with schizophrenia and 88 healthy patients. Participants with any current comorbid psychiatric disorder, current or lifetime neurological and medical problems, current coronary artery disease, diabetes

  10. Effect of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment on Body weight in Obese Antipsychotic-treated Patients with Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Schizophrenia is associated with cardiovascular co-morbidity and a reduced life-expectancy of up to 20 years. Antipsychotics are dopamine D2 receptor antagonists and the standard of medical care in schizophrenia, but the drugs are associated with severe metabolic side effects like obesity...... and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are registered for treatment of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated metabolic effects of the GLP-1RA, exenatide once-weekly, in non-diabetic, antipsychotic-treated, obese patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: Antipsychotic-treated, obese, non-diabetic, schizophrenia spectrum patients were randomized to double-blinded adjunctive treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous exenatide (n = 23) or placebo (n = 22) injections for three months. The primary outcome was body weight loss after treatment and repeated measures...

  11. The role of co-morbid personality pathology in predicting self-reported aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality pathology affects behavioral patterns in patients with schizophrenia notwithstanding psychotic symptomatology. An investigation of the role of co-morbid personality pathology in the occurrence of aggression in schizophrenia is explored using both categorical and dimensional...... approaches to personality pathology. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we evaluate, in 97 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the effect of personality pathology on the occurrence of aggression in schizophrenia using both a categorical approach, as described in DSM-IV-TR Axis II, and a dimensional...... approach, as operationalized in the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). We also employ mediation analyses to explore the extent to which dimensions within the DAPP mediate the relationship between co-morbid personality disorders and aggression. RESULTS...

  12. The effects of antipsychotic drugs on depression level in patients with schizophrenia: clozapine vs. other atypical antipsychotics

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    Hülya Ertekin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depressive symptoms may occur in all stages of schizophrenia disorder. Clozapine is the only antipsychotic that has been demonstrated superior efficacy in schizophrenia and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study is to evaluate depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and to compare with treated with other atypical antipsychotics.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV-TR between December 2012 and May 2013. All participants were evaluated for demographic characteristics and points of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive, Negative Syndrome Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia.Results: A total 23.6% (n = 13 patients treated with clozapine, while 76.4% (n = 42 patients were treated with other antipsychotic drugs. 23.1% (n = 3 of patients taking clozapine were women, 76.9% (n = 10 were male. The mean age of patients treated with clozapine was 43.0 ± 11.2. The level of depression of patients treated with clozapine was 15.4% (n = 2. No statistically significant difference was found between patients between treated with clozapine and other antipsychotics regarding age, sex, marital status, education years, work history, age at onset of disease, depression and history of suicide attemptConclusion: As a result of this study it is found that clozapine did not effect on the level of depression in patients with schizophrenia, and depression level of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine had no difference from  patients treated  with other antipsychotics.

  13. Effectiveness of a structured diet program in antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Direk, Nese; Ucok, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured diet program in weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. Methods. A total of 38 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and who had complaints of weight gain during treatment with various antipsychotic drugs were invited to participate in a 3-month structured diet program. Thirty-two patients and another 40 patients were included as the control group. At the beginning of the diet program, the patients were given a form in order to evaluate their eating habits, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Patients' baseline weight, body mass index (BMI), and basal metabolism rate (BMR) were recorded. Results. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia, who attended a 3-month structured diet program had mean weight loss of 6.19 kg, whereas patients in the control group gained 1.6 kg. Conclusion. Our findings show that a diet program is effective in managing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The degree of weight loss seems to be correlated with the duration in which the patient is on the diet program. However; younger patients had less benefit from the diet program.

  14. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

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    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  15. Differences in Clinical Features of Methamphetamine Users with Persistent Psychosis and Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Yi-Chih; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Ree, Shao-Chun; Chen, Chih-Ken

    Methamphetamine exerts neurotoxic effects and elicits psychotic symptoms. This study attempted to compare clinical differences between methamphetamine users with persistent psychosis (MAP) and patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we examined the discrimination validity by using symptom clusters to differentiate between MAP and schizophrenia. We enrolled 53 MAP patients and 53 patients with schizophrenia. The psychopathology of participants was assessed using the Chinese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to examine the predicted probability scores of different symptom combinations on discriminating between MAP and schizophrenia. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and area under the curve (AUC) were further applied to examine the discrimination validity of the predicted probability scores on differentiating between MAP and schizophrenia. We found that MAP and schizophrenia demonstrated similar patterns of delusions. Compared to patients with schizophrenia, MAP experienced significantly higher proportions of visual hallucinations and of somatic or tactile hallucinations. However, MAP exhibited significantly lower severity in conceptual disorganization, mannerism/posturing, blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, and motor retardation compared to patients with schizophrenia. The ROC analysis showed that a predicted probability score combining the aforementioned 7 items of symptoms could significantly differentiate between MAP and schizophrenia (AUC = 0.77). Findings in the current study suggest that nuanced differences might exist in the clinical presentation of secondary psychosis (MAP) and primary psychosis (schizophrenia). Combining the symptoms as a whole may help with differential diagnosis for MAP and schizophrenia. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Patient compliance with drug therapy in schizophrenia. Economic and clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, E; Bingefors, K

    2000-08-01

    The effectiveness of drug treatment in clinical practice is considerably lower than the efficacy shown in controlled studies. The lower effectiveness in practice presumably leads to lower cost effectiveness of drug treatment in real-life situations compared with that demonstrated by studies based on results from controlled trials. Improved cost effectiveness in routine clinical practice would be a significant advantage in the treatment of schizophrenia, one of the most costly diseases in society. The aetiology of schizophrenia is unknown, and there is no cure. The main aims of therapy with antipsychotic medication include the effective relief of symptoms without the introduction of adverse effects or serious adverse events, improved quality of life, cost effectiveness and a positive long term outcome. The older classical antipsychotic drugs do not always meet these requirements because of their well-known limitations, such as a lack of response in a subgroup of individuals with schizophrenia and intolerable adverse effects. There has long been a need for new antipsychotics that can ameliorate more symptoms and have no or few adverse effects. Some of the recently introduced antipsychotics have been shown to be more effective in certain clinical situations and to have a more favourable adverse effect profile than the classical antipsychotics. A major factor contributing to the lower effectiveness of drug treatment is noncompliance, which may be very high in schizophrenia. There are several factors influencing compliance, including drug type and formulation, patient, disease status, physician, health care system, community care and family. There have been very few studies of compliance improvement strategies in schizophrenia or, indeed, in medicine in general. Current methods are relatively complex and there are differing opinions on their effectiveness. There are several ways to increase compliance in schizophrenia--the evidence is strongest for psychoeducative

  17. Risk factors for readmission in schizophrenia patients following involuntary admission.

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    Yu-Yuan Hung

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who are involuntarily admitted may have poorer prognosis, including higher readmission rates, than those voluntarily admitted. However, little is known about the risk factors for readmission in those schizophrenia patients who are involuntarily admitted.We aim to explore the risk factors for readmission in this population.We enrolled 138 schizophrenia patients with involuntary admission from July 2008 to June 2013 and followed those patients for readmission outcomes at 3 months and at 1 year.The one-year and 3-months readmission rates were 33.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Unmarried status (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 6.28, 95% CI: 1.48-26.62, previous history of involuntary admission (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 1.19-14.02, longer involuntary admission days (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07 and shorter total admission days (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Younger age (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18 was associated with increased risk for 3-months readmission.Unmarried status, prior history of involuntary admission, longer involuntary admission days and shorter total admission days were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Healthcare providers may need to focus on patients with these risk factors to reduce subsequent readmissions.

  18. Risk factors for readmission in schizophrenia patients following involuntary admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Yuan; Chan, Hung-Yu; Pan, Yi-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who are involuntarily admitted may have poorer prognosis, including higher readmission rates, than those voluntarily admitted. However, little is known about the risk factors for readmission in those schizophrenia patients who are involuntarily admitted. We aim to explore the risk factors for readmission in this population. We enrolled 138 schizophrenia patients with involuntary admission from July 2008 to June 2013 and followed those patients for readmission outcomes at 3 months and at 1 year. The one-year and 3-months readmission rates were 33.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Unmarried status (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.28, 95% CI: 1.48-26.62), previous history of involuntary admission (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 1.19-14.02), longer involuntary admission days (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) and shorter total admission days (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Younger age (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18) was associated with increased risk for 3-months readmission. Unmarried status, prior history of involuntary admission, longer involuntary admission days and shorter total admission days were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Healthcare providers may need to focus on patients with these risk factors to reduce subsequent readmissions.

  19. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics and Cognitive Function in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kristen M; Kraal, A Zarina; Flowers, Stephanie A; Ellingrod, Vicki L

    2017-09-01

    The authors sought to examine the impact of multiple risk alleles for cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk on cognitive function and to determine if these relationships varied by cognitive reserve (CR) or concomitant medication use in patients with schizophrenia. They conducted a cross-sectional study in ambulatory mental health centers. A total of 122 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis who were maintained on a stable antipsychotic regimen for at least 6 months before study enrollment were included. Patients were divided into three CR groups based on years of formal education: no high school completion or equivalent (low-education group [18 patients]), completion of high school or equivalent (moderate-education group [36 patients], or any degree of post-high school education (high-education group [68 patients]). The following pharmacogenomic variants were genotyped for each patient: AGT M268T (rs699), ACE insertion/deletion (or ACE I/D, rs1799752), and APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 (rs429358 and rs7412). Risk allele carrier status (identified per gene as AGT M268 T carriers, ACE D carriers, and APOE ε4 carriers) was not significantly different among CR groups. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) scale was used to assess cognitive function. The mean ± SD patient age was 43.9 ± 11.6 years. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia diagnoses, and use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents, did not significantly differ among CR groups. Mixed modeling revealed that risk allele carrier status was significantly associated with lower verbal memory scores for ACE D and APOE ε4 carriers, but AGT T carrier status was significantly associated with higher verbal memory scores (p=0.0188, p=0.0055, and p=0.0058, respectively). These results were only significant in the low-education group. In addition, medication-gene interactions were not significant predictors of BACS scores. ACE D and APOE ε4

  20. Motor Synchronization in Patients With Schizophrenia: Preserved Time Representation With Abnormalities in Predictive Timing

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    Hélène Wilquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basic temporal dysfunctions have been described in patients with schizophrenia, which may impact their ability to connect and synchronize with the outer world. The present study was conducted with the aim to distinguish between interval timing and synchronization difficulties and more generally the spatial-temporal organization disturbances for voluntary actions. A new sensorimotor synchronization task was developed to test these abilities.Method: Twenty-four chronic schizophrenia patients matched with 27 controls performed a spatial-tapping task in which finger taps were to be produced in synchrony with a regular metronome to six visual targets presented around a virtual circle on a tactile screen. Isochronous (time intervals of 500 ms and non-isochronous auditory sequences (alternated time intervals of 300/600 ms were presented. The capacity to produce time intervals accurately versus the ability to synchronize own actions (tap with external events (tone were measured.Results: Patients with schizophrenia were able to produce the tapping patterns of both isochronous and non-isochronous auditory sequences as accurately as controls producing inter-response intervals close to the expected interval of 500 and 900 ms, respectively. However, the synchronization performances revealed significantly more positive asynchrony means (but similar variances in the patient group than in the control group for both types of auditory sequences.Conclusion: The patterns of results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are able to perceive and produce both simple and complex sequences of time intervals but are impaired in the ability to synchronize their actions with external events. These findings suggest a specific deficit in predictive timing, which may be at the core of early symptoms previously described in schizophrenia.

  1. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  2. Suicidal behavior in the older patient with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kasckow, John; Montross, Lori; Prunty, Laurie; Fox, Lauren; Zisook, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treating elderly suicidal patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to review the literature dealing with this population and to discuss what is required to advance this field. Most available studies from middle-aged and older individuals suggest that risk factors include hopelessness, lower quality of life, past traumatic events, depressive symptoms, lifetime suicidal ideation and past attempts; it is not clear whether these findings are generalizable ...

  3. Expression of schizophrenia biomarkers in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus: an explanation for the link between exotropia and schizophrenia?

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    Andrea B. Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated exotropia as a risk factor for schizophrenia. We determined whether schizophrenia biomarkers have abnormal levels of expression in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus and explored whether differences in gene expression between medial and lateral rectus muscles may explain the specific association of schizophrenia with exotropia but not esotropia. Samples from horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with age- and muscle type-matched normal muscles from organ donors. We used PCR arrays to identify differences in gene expression among 417 signaling molecules. We then focused on established schizophrenia-related growth factors, cytokines, and regulators of the extracellular matrix. Among 36 genes with significantly altered gene expression in dysfunctional horizontal rectus muscles, over one third were schizophrenia-related: CTGF, CXCR4, IL1B, IL10RA, MIF, MMP2, NPY1R, NRG1, NTRK2, SERPINA3, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TNF (adjusted p value ≤ 0.016667. By PCR array, expression of three of these genes was significantly different in medial rectus muscles, while eleven were significantly altered in lateral rectus muscles. Comparing baseline levels between muscle types, three schizophrenia-related genes (NPY1R, NTRK2, TIMP2 had lower levels of expression in medial rectus muscles. Despite the surprisingly large number of schizophrenia-related genes with altered gene expression levels in dysfunctional muscles, the lack of specificity for medial rectus muscles undermines a model of shared, region-specific gene expression abnormalities between exotropia and schizophrenia, but rather suggests consideration of the alternative model: that exotropia-induced aberrant early visual experiences may enable and/or contribute as a causative factor to the development of schizophrenia.

  4. Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in Semnan, Iran

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    Jamali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and one of the ten leading causes of mental disability. Level of education, family factors and individual culture affect the patients’ quality of life. Objectives Due to the greater prevalence of this disease and the impact of its symptoms on the one’s quality of life, this study was conducted on the people with chronic schizophrenia to determine in which aspects of their quality of life is more likely affected in Semnan, Iran. Patients and Methods This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia. To evaluate their quality of life, the short-form of the questionnaire of world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-26 was used. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results The participants in this study gained the highest quality of life in the domain of physical, environmental and psychological health and social relationships. There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of the quality of life in this study. Conclusions It can be concluded that schizophrenia can have an effect on the quality of life. Some items such as family care, early and on time treatment play an important role in increasing the quality of life.

  5. Courtesy stigma--a focus group study of relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra

    2003-10-01

    Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which relatives encounter stigmatization: structural discrimination and public images of mental illness. Furthermore, psychiatry has been identified as one important source of stigma. Relatives also suggested numerous anti-stigma interventions. These can be grouped into five main categories: communication measures, support for the ill and their relatives, changes in mental health care, education and training, and control and supervision. Based on our findings,ways of how relatives of schizophrenia patients and mental health professionals can fight against stigma are discussed.

  6. Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive, Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

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    N Fouladi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is a highly effective treatment for affective and schizophrenic disorders. The main objective of this study was to examine the cognitive effects of ECT in patients with major depressive, bipolar and schizophrenia disorders. Methods: In this study we administered a battery of cognitive tasks on 90 patients with major depressive, bipolar and schizophrenia disorders, one day before and after the termination of ECT. The effects were measured by a set of computerized cognitive tests including: auditory reaction time, visual reaction time, verbal memory, Benton visual memory, Wisconsin card sort and motor function. The collected data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and dependent t-test. Results: The results showed that depressive patients had poorer verbal memory and motor function after the termination of ECT compared to pretest, but their executive function was improved (p<0.05. After the termination of ECT the verbal and visual memory and executive function was significantly improved in patients with bipolar and schizophrenia disorders but their motor function was significantly reduced (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed improvement for most cognitive functions in patients after electroconvulsive therapy. Findings of this study may help patients and their families to overcome their fear of electroconvulsive therapy. The results also can aware patients regarding the cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy.

  7. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

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    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  8. Intracranial Foreign Body in a Patient With Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andereggen, Lukas; Biétry, Damien; Kottke, Raimund; Andres, Robert H

    2017-10-01

    Self-inflicted penetrating head injuries in patients with paranoid schizophrenia are an infrequent phenomenon. The authors report on a psychiatric patient who presented with epistaxis. Computed tomography showed a nail passing from the nasal cavity into the frontal lobe. Given the proximity to large intracranial vessels, a craniotomy was performed and the nail was retracted. The patient later reported having hammered the nail into the nasal cavity with the intention to "kill the voice in my head." Despite use of the latest imaging modalities, metal artifacts may have limited the assessment of vascular involvement. Surgical decision-making preventing secondary damage is crucial in them.

  9. A Selective Review of Multimodal Fusion Methods in Schizophrenia

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    Jing eSui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is one of the most cryptic and costly mental disorders in terms of human suffering and societal expenditure (van Os and Kapur, 2009. Though strong evidences for functional, structural and genetic abnormalities associated with this disease exist, there is yet no replicable finding which has proven accurate enough to be useful in clinical decision making (Fornito et al., 2009, and its diagnosis relies primarily upon symptom assessment (Williams et al., 2010a. It is likely in part that the lack of consistent neuroimaging findings is because most models favor only one data type or do not combine data from different imaging modalities effectively, thus missing potentially important differences which are only partially detected by each modality (Calhoun et al., 2006a. It is becoming increasingly clear that multi-modal fusion, a technique which takes advantage of the fact that each modality provides a limited view of the brain/gene and may uncover hidden relationships, is an important tool to help unravel the black box of schizophrenia. In this review paper, we survey a number of multimodal fusion applications which enable us to study the schizophrenia macro-connectome, including brain functional, structural and genetic aspects and may help us understand the disorder in a more comprehensive and integrated manner. We also provide a table that characterizes these applications by the methods used and compare these methods in detail, especially for multivariate models, which may serve as a valuable reference that helps readers select an appropriate method based on a given research.

  10. Complexity analysis of EEG in patients with schizophrenia using fractal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, B S; Dutt, D Narayana; Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P

    2009-01-01

    We computed Higuchi's fractal dimension (FD) of resting, eyes closed EEG recorded from 30 scalp locations in 18 male neuroleptic-naïve, recent-onset schizophrenia (NRS) subjects and 15 male healthy control (HC) subjects, who were group-matched for age. Schizophrenia patients showed a diffuse reduction of FD except in the bilateral temporal and occipital regions, with the reduction being most prominent bifrontally. The positive symptom (PS) schizophrenia subjects showed FD values similar to or even higher than HC in the bilateral temporo-occipital regions, along with a co-existent bifrontal FD reduction as noted in the overall sample of NRS. In contrast, this increase in FD values in the bilateral temporo-occipital region was absent in the negative symptom (NS) subgroup. The regional differences in complexity suggested by these findings may reflect the aberrant brain dynamics underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its symptom dimensions. Higuchi's method of measuring FD directly in the time domain provides an alternative for the more computationally intensive nonlinear methods of estimating EEG complexity

  11. Quality of Care and Outcomes of Heart Failure Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    care among patients with schizophrenia included patient-specific factors (age, gender, Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF] score, alcohol or drug abuse, duration of schizophrenia); provider-specific factors (quality of schizophrenia care); and system-specific factors (patient-volume defined......Research on the association between schizophrenia and the quality of care and clinical outcomes of heart failure (HF) remains sparse. This nationwide study compared the quality of care and clinical outcomes of HF among Danish patients with and without schizophrenia. In a population-based cohort...... study, we identified 36,718 patients with incident HF with hospital contacts, including 108 with schizophrenia, using Danish registries between 2004 and 2013. High quality of HF care was defined as receiving ≥ 80% guideline-recommended process-performance measures of care. Potential predictors of HF...

  12. Persistent suicide risk in clinically improved schizophrenia patients: challenge of the suicidal dimension

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    Amresh Shrivastava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amresh Shrivastava1, Megan E Johnston2, Nilesh Shah3, Marco Innamorati4, Larry Stitt5, Meghana Thakar3, David Lester6, Maurizio Pompili4,71Silver Mind Hospital and Mental Health Foundation of India, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, University of Mumbai, India; 4Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Biostatistics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 6The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ, USA; 7McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: Suicide is a major problem in schizophrenia, estimated to affect 9%–13% of patients. About 25% of schizophrenic patients make at least one suicide attempt in their lifetime. Current outcome measures do not address this problem, even though it affects quality of life and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess suicidality in long-term clinically improved schizophrenia patients who were treated in a nongovernmental psychiatric treatment centre in Mumbai, India.Method: Participants were 61 patients out of 200 consecutive hospitalized first-episode patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who were much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement (CGI-I scale at the endpoint of a 10-year follow-up. Clinical assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, CGI-I, Global Assessment of Functioning, and suicidality.Results: Many of the patients, although clinically improved, experienced emerging suicidality during the 10-year follow-up period. All of the patients reported significant suicidality (ie, suicide attempts, suicidal crises, or suicidal ideation at the end of the study, whereas only 83% had

  13. Obesity in multiracial schizophrenia patients receiving outpatient treatment in a regional tertiary hospital in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A T; Kartini, A; Ramli, M; Norsidah, K; Wan Azizi, W S; Tariq, A R

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. Obesity is an issue of concern among patients with schizophrenia as it is a co-morbid condition that is closely related to metabolic syndrome. The present study assessed the correlation of body mass index with antipsychotic use among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients. The study also compared the patients' body mass index with Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) data. METHODS. A total of 216 participants were recruited into a cross-sectional study conducted over 5 months, from December 2010 to April 2011. Body weight and height were measured using the standard methods. Demographic data and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. RESULTS. There were differences in mean body mass index between men and women (p = 0.02) and between Malay, Chinese and Indian races (p = 0.04). Stratified by sex, age, and race, the body mass index distributions of the patients were significantly different to those of the reference MANS population. The prevalence of obesity among patients was more than 2-fold greater than among the reference population in all variables. Although body mass index distribution was related to antipsychotic drugs (χ(2) = 33.42; p = 0.04), obesity could not be attributed to any specific drug. CONCLUSION. The prevalence of obesity among patients with schizophrenia was significantly greater than that in the healthy Malaysian population, and affects the 3 main races in Malaysia.

  14. Alterations of the Brain Reward System in Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various schizophrenic symptoms are suggested to be linked to a dysfunction of the brain reward system. Several studies have found alterations in the reward processing in patients with schizophrenia; however, most previous findings might be confounded by medication effects. METHODS...... as arousing events) into behavioral salience (events where a predicted reward requires performance) and valence anticipation (the anticipation of a monetarily significant outcome). Furthermore, the evaluation of monetary gain and loss was assessed. RESULTS: During reward anticipation, patients had...... and nonsignificant for value anticipation. Furthermore, patients showed a changed activation pattern during outcome evaluation in right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that changes during reward anticipation in schizophrenia are present from the beginning of the disease. This supports a possible...

  15. Reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a patient with schizophrenia by switching to asenapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Okazaki, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aims: Antipsychotics are effective for treating schizophrenia, but atypical antipsychotics can cause several adverse side effects including weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, weight gain increases the risk of metabolic diseases.Methods: We treated a case of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a 41-year-old man with schizophrenia by switching his medication from olanzapine to asenapine.Results: The weight gain improved after switching the medication, from 80.3 to 75.0 kg, a weight loss of 6.6%, and there was no significant worsening of psychological symptoms or other adverse effects.Conclusions: Asenapine might be effective for treating patients with schizophrenia who experience olanzapine-induced weight gain. Keywords: olanzapine, weight gain, schizophrenia, asenapine

  16. An Integrated Care Initiative to Improve Patient Outcome in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Amberg, Norbert; Woltmann, Rainer; Walther, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The optimal treatment of schizophrenia patients requires integration of medical and psychosocial inputs. In Germany, various health-care service providers and institutions are involved in the treatment process. Early and continuous treatment is important but often not possible because of the fragmented medical care system in Germany. The Integrated Care Initiative Schizophrenia has implemented a networked care concept in the German federal state of Lower Saxony that integrates various stakeholders of the health care system. In this initiative, office-based psychiatrists, specialized nursing staff, psychologists, social workers, hospitals, psychiatric institutional outpatient's departments, and other community-based mental health services work together in an interdisciplinary approach. Much emphasis is placed on psychoeducation. Additional efforts cover socio-therapy, visiting care, and family support. During the period from October 2010 (start of the initiative) to December 2012, first experiences and results of quality indicators were collected of 713 registered patients and summarized in a quality monitoring report. In addition, standardized patient interviews were conducted, and duration of hospital days was recorded in 2013. By the end of 2012, patients had been enrolled for an average of 18.7 months. The overall patient satisfaction measured in a patient survey in June 2013 was high and the duration of hospital days measured in a pre-post analysis in July 2013 was reduced by 44%. Two years earlier than planned, the insurance fund will continue the successfully implemented Integrated Care Initiative and adopt it in the regular care setting. This initiative can serve as a learning case for how to set up and measure integrated care systems that may improve outcomes for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  17. An Integrated Care Initiative to Improve Patient Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMayer-Amberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal treatment of schizophrenia patients requires integration of medical and psychosocial inputs. In Germany, various healthcare service providers and institutions are involved in the treatment process. Early and continuous treatment is important but often not possible because of the fragmented medical care system in Germany. The current work is a quality monitoring report of a novel care setting, called Integrated Care Initiative Schizophrenia. It has implemented a networked care concept in the German federal state of Lower Saxony that integrates various stakeholders of the health care system. In this initiative, office-based psychiatrists, specialised nursing staff, psychologists, social workers, hospitals, psychiatric institutional outpatient’s departments and other community-based mental health services work together in an interdisciplinary approach. Much emphasis is placed on psychoeducation. Additional efforts cover socio-therapy, visiting care, and family support. During the period from October 2010 (start of the initiative to December 2012, first experiences and results of quality indicators were collected of 713 registered patients and summarised in a quality monitoring report. In addition, standardised patient interviews were conducted, and duration of hospital days was recorded in 2013. By the end of 2012, patients had been enrolled for an average of 18.7 months. The overall patient satisfaction measured in a patient survey in June 2013 was high and the duration of hospital days measured in a pre-post analysis in July 2013 was reduced by 44%. Two years earlier than planned, the insurance fund will continue the successfully implemented integrated care initiative and adopt it in the regular care setting. This initiative can serve as a learning case for how to set up and measure integrated care systems that may improve outcomes for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  18. Emotional intelligence as an indicator of cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia

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    Samoylova D.D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze the variability of emotional intelligence as an indicator of cognitive functioning in groups of patients with schizophrenia, depending on the duration of the disease, the duration of treatment and the treatment regimen used. Material and Methods. A total of 420 patients with a clinical diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia were examined. All patients were divided into groups according to the duration of the disease and the therapy. The research included the medical documentation analyses and the application of «Ekman's Faces» psychodiagnostic scale. Results. There was an improvement of the indicator in the group of primary patients receiving treatment with atypical antipsychotics in combination with rehabilitation. Conclusion. The obtained data allows to make a conclusion about the effect of the duration of the disease, the observation, and also the nature of the conducted therapy on the variability of the emotional intelligence indicator in patients with a paranoid form of schizophrenia and may be used to select a psychotherapeutic algorithm for this category of patients. The obtained results prove the necessity of using questionnaire for emotional intelligence «Ekman's faces» and specific therapy in the early stages of the disease.

  19. Effect of systemic family therapy on rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of systemic family therapy on the rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 86 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2011 to February, 2014 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. A total of 43 healthy individuals for physical examinations were served as the healthy group. The patients in the control group were given risperidone in a single dose, and telephone follow-up. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given systemic family therapy. The morning fasting venous blood before treatment and 3 months after treatment in the healthy group and patients with schizophrenia was collected. BDNF, NGF, GFAP, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected. After 6-month treatment, SCL-90 was used to evaluate the psychological state. Results: The serum BDNF and NGF levels before and after treatment in the observation group and the control group were significantly lower than those in the healthy group, while GFAP level was significantly higher than that in the healthy group (P0.05. The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels before and after treatment in the observation group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the healthy group (P0.05. After 6-month treatment, the scores of somatization, interpersonal relationship, fear, anxiety, hostility, paranoid, depression, obsession, and mental disorder in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. Conclusions: The systemic family therapy is an effective adjuvant method for the rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia, and can effectively improve the mental health status; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  20. Effect of systemic family therapy on rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Na Li; Ying-Ting Li; Shu-Qing Dong; Li-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of systemic family therapy on the rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: A total of 86 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2011 to February, 2014 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. A total of 43 healthy individuals for physical examinations were served as the healthy group. The patients in the control group were given risperidone in a single dose, and telephone follow-up. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given systemic family therapy. The morning fasting venous blood before treatment and 3 months after treatment in the healthy group and patients with schizophrenia was collected. BDNF, NGF, GFAP, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected. After 6-month treatment, SCL-90 was used to evaluate the psychological state.Results: The serum BDNF and NGF levels before and after treatment in the observation group and the control group were significantly lower than those in the healthy group, while GFAP level was significantly higher than that in the healthy group (P0.05). The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels before and after treatment in the observation group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the healthy group (P0.05). After 6-month treatment, the scores of somatization, interpersonal relationship, fear, anxiety, hostility, paranoid, depression, obsession, and mental disorder in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05).Conclusions:The systemic family therapy is an effective adjuvant method for the rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia, and can effectively improve the mental health status; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  1. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  2. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

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    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  3. Occipital Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Male Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Quantitative MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; McCarley, Robert W.; Kuroki, Noriomi; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kubicki, Marek; Demeo, Susan S.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in cognition as well as visual perception. There have, however, been few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the occipital lobe as an anatomically defined region of interest in schizophrenia. To examine whether or not patients with chronic schizophrenia show occipital lobe volume abnormalities, we measured gray matter volumes for both the primary visual area (PVA) and the visual association areas (VAA) using MRI based neuroanatomical landmarks and three-dimensional information. PVA and VAA gray matter volumes were measured using high-spatial resolution MRI in 25 male patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 male normal controls. Chronic schizophrenia patients showed reduced bilateral VAA gray matter volume (11%), compared with normal controls, whereas patients showed no group difference in PVA gray matter volume. These results suggest that reduced bilateral VAA may be a neurobiological substrate of some of the deficits observed in early visual processing in schizophrenia. PMID:17350226

  4. Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan

    2005-06-15

    Many patients with schizophrenia are exposed to serious health risks associated with their excess body weight. Evidence exists that even a moderate amount of weight loss may have significant health benefits. Thus, weight control in schizophrenia patients has become an important treatment goal. Although studies in the general population show that satisfaction with body weight is an important predictor for engagement in various weight loss measures, the perspective of schizophrenia patients has not been assessed. Information on self-reported weight perception, desire to lose weight as well as weight loss attempts was obtained according to methods employed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycle III (NHANES III). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perception of body weight and desire to lose weight were correlated to BMI. Both obese female and male subjects (BMI30) were aware of their weight status. However, whereas overweight females (BMI>25weight loss, caloric restriction (diet) was most frequently employed (by more than 80% of study subjects); yet only a third of study subjects (34.4%) engaged in the recommended combination of diet and exercise to lose weight. Questionable weight loss practices were also frequently employed, especially among women. Obese patients (BMI> or =30) were generally aware of their excess body weight and wanted to lose weight. Only non-obese, yet overweight males (BMI>25Weight loss practices did not always follow established recommendations. Especially women were likely to approach weight loss with questionably appropriate and unsafe methods.

  5. Schizophrenia, culture and neuropsychology: sensory deficits, language impairments and social functioning in Chinese-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Chen, S; Chen, C-M; Khan, F; Forchelli, G; Javitt, D C

    2012-07-01

    While 20% of schizophrenia patients worldwide speak tonal languages (e.g. Mandarin), studies are limited to Western-language patients. Western-language patients show tonal deficits that are related to impaired emotional processing of speech. However, language processing is minimally affected. In contrast, in Mandarin, syllables are voiced in one of four tones, with word meaning varying accordingly. We hypothesized that Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients would show impairments in underlying basic auditory processing that, unlike in Western groups, would relate to deficits in word recognition and social outcomes. Altogether, 22 Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients and 44 matched healthy participants were recruited from New York City. The auditory tasks were: (1) tone matching; (2) distorted tunes; (3) Chinese word discrimination; (4) Chinese word identification. Social outcomes were measured by marital status, employment and most recent employment status. Patients showed deficits in tone-matching, distorted tunes, word discrimination and word identification versus controls (all pneuropsychology and language among Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients. As predicted, patients were highly impaired in both tone and auditory word processing, with these two measures significantly correlated. Tonally impaired patients showed significantly worse employment-status function than tonally intact patients, suggesting a link between sensory impairment and employment status outcome. While neuropsychological deficits appear similar cross-culturally, their consequences may be language- and culture-dependent.

  6. Status of plasma nitric oxide and non-enzymatic antioxidants before and after antipsychotic treatment in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Olatubosun Arinola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Recently, it is proposed that oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may have a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was performed to assess differences in plasma levels of nitric oxide (as oxidant, caeruloplasmin (secondary antioxidant, and antioxidant trace metals (Zn, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Our secondary aim was to further evaluate the impact of psychopharmacologic treatment on these parameters.
    • METHODS: Plasma levels of nitric oxides (NO, caeruloplasmin, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and iron (Fe in patients with schizophrenia before (n = 15 and after antipsychotic drug treatment (n = 20 were compared with those of healthy controls (n = 20. Convenient sampling method was used for the selection of subjects. NO was estimated by the use of Griess method, caeruloplasmin was estimated by the use of immunodiffusion method and antioxidant trace metals was estimated by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
    • RESULTS: The levels of Cu and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different while Fe and Se were significantly reduced in both groups of schizophrenic patients compared with the controls. Zn was significantly elevated in medicated
    • schizophrenics compared with drug-free patients or controls. NO was significantly elevated in drug free patients with schizophrenia compared with controls or treated patients.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the application of management strategies that will reduce NO but will increase antioxidant trace metals in patients with schizophrenia.
    • KEYWORDS: Schizophrenia, antioxidant defense system, antioxidant status, oxidative Stress.

  7. Concomitant NSAID use during antipsychotic treatment and risk of 2-year relapse - a population-based study of 16,253 incident patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials have indicated antipsychotic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among incident patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to study, in a population-based setting, whether concomitant use of NSAIDs or paracetamol, changed 2-year relapse risk...... for schizophrenia. METHODS: We identified all incident patients with schizophrenia in Denmark diagnosed 1996-2012 initiating antipsychotic treatment within the year after diagnosis. We calculated concomitant treatment intervals for antipsychotic and NSAID or paracetamol use. Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were estimated...... using Cox regression adjusted for important covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 2-year relapse, i.e. (re)-hospitalizations with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Among 16,235 incident patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotics, 1480 (9.1%) used NSAIDs and 767 (4.7%) paracetamol. Concomitant use of NSAIDs...

  8. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Rösler, Lara; Wijnen, Jannie P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate...... concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus...... glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. METHODS: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia...

  9. The Basis of Feeling-of-Knowing Judgments in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Elisabeth; Pillot, Mathieu; Izaute, Marie; Schwartz, Bennett L.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the basis of feeling-of-knowing judgments (FOK) in patients with schizophrenia. Such patients typically have impaired memory and awareness, but not metamemory-accuracy deficits. The magnitude of FOKs are lower for patients with schizophrenia than for healthy participants, but judgments equally predict memory performance. In healthy…

  10. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  11. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

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    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  12. Changing the name of schizophrenia: patient perspectives and implications for DSM-V.

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    Constantin Tranulis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of schizophrenia is increasingly contested by researchers, clinicians, patients and family members. Preeminent researchers proposed its replacement with the salience syndrome concept, arguing for increased validity and less stigmatizing potential. This is the first study exploring the effects on stigma of this nosological proposal. METHODS: TWO STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED: one with 161 undergraduate students regarding their stigmatizing attitudes linked to the label of schizophrenia or salience syndrome, the other involved in-depth qualitative interviews with 19 participants treated in a first episode psychosis program. The interviews explored the subjective validity, acceptability and effects on stigma of a diagnosis of schizophrenia or salience syndrome. RESULTS: Overall, no significant differences were found between labels in study 1. For study 2, the majority of participants preferred a diagnosis of salience syndrome, considering it less stigmatizing mostly because of its novelty and the concealing potential of the new diagnostic entity, though many found it hard to relate to and somewhat difficult to understand. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the label change does not impact the stigmatizing potential for individuals who are not familiar with mental illness - they appear to base their attitudes on descriptions rather than the label alone. For those suffering from mental illness, a name change for schizophrenia to "salience syndrome" might offer only a temporary relief from stigma. Claims of de-stigmatizing effects should be grounded in sound scientific models of stigma and ideally in empirical data.

  13. Psychological assessment of acute schizophrenia patients who experienced seclusion either alone or in combination with restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-05-01

    Objective Numerous studies on the effects of seclusion and/or restraint in acute psychiatric treatment have reported both positive and negative effects. However, no studies to date have evaluated the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients using a rating scale. Thus, to examine the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients, we used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and assessed the psychological condition of patients. Methods Factor analysis was conducted to create subscales of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and psychiatric changes were assessed with respect to each subscale using multiple logistic regression analyses. Analyses were performed on three groups (i.e. entire, higher functioning, and lower functioning groups) involving a total of 1559 schizophrenia patients aged 18 to 65 years. Results In the entire and lower functioning groups, seclusion was a significant predictor of improvements related to the "hostility/suspiciousness" subscale. Seclusion combined with restraint was associated with improvements related to the "psychosis/thinking disorder" subscale. In the higher functioning group, there were no significant predictors. Conclusions It is implied that seclusion and/or restraint is related to improved psychiatric symptoms only among patients whose functioning is impaired. To verify the present findings, further studies involving multiple sites and additional psychiatric measures are necessary.

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Deqi; Du Liang; Yang Sixue; Qin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with R/A) and NO/NOS (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 41 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results:Before treatment the serum NOS, TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01 ). After six weeks treatment, the levels in patients, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  15. Improving treatment of patients with schizophrenia - glutamatergic and GABAergic disturbances as possible markers of choice-of-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Kirsten Borup; Jessen, Kasper; Rostrup, Egill

    the progressive loss of brain tissue and functions seen in many patients. The neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric-acid, (GABA), regulates levels of glutamate, and hypofunctional GABAergic interneurons may cause the high levels of glutamate in patients with schizophrenia. Objectives: To test the hypothesis...... of glutamate and GABA and psychopathology as well as level of function. Methods: The study is a prospective follow-up study of 60 antipsychotic naïve patients with schizophrenia and 60 matched healthy controls. Levels of glutamate and GABA are measured with proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRS) before......Background: Insufficient treatment response to dopaminergic antipsychotics constitutes a major challenge in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and seems to be related to persistently high levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Excess glutamate is neurotoxic and highly likely causes...

  16. Attitudes of Medical and Pharmacy Students Towards Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

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    Ignjatovic-Ristic Dragana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past twenty years has shown that the attitudes of health care workers and students towards people who are suffering from schizophrenia have become more negative. The aim of our study was to investigate the attitudes of medical and pharmacy students towards patients with schizophrenia and explore the differences in attitudes between study groups and students in different years. Materials and methods: Second- and fifth-year medical and pharmacy students from the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of Kragujevac were included in an observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 113 students from the pharmacy and medical schools who were chosen via random sampling. The students completed a two-part questionnaire. Th e first part contained questions about sociodemographic characteristics, whereas the second part was a translated version of the Mental Illness: Clinician’s Attitudes (MICA v4 scale. Results: There is a statistically significant difference (р<0.05 in the attitudes towards people with schizophrenia between second- and fifth-year medical and pharmacy students (with lower scores in both groups in fifth-year students. Of the total number of students who had lower summed scores on the Likert scale, 51.3% had previously finished medical high school, whereas 28.3% had previously finished regular high school. Conclusion: Our results showed a statistically significant difference in attitudes towards people with schizophrenia between second- and fifth-year students as well as a difference related to previous high school education. This stresses the importance of levels of knowledge about schizophrenia to reducing the stigmatization of patients who suffer from this disorder.

  17. Generating personalized advice for schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerencia, A.; van der Krieke, Lian; Sytema, S.; Petkov, N.; Aiello, M.

    The results of routine patient assessments in psychiatric healthcare in the Northern Netherlands are primarily used to support clinicians. We developed Wegweis, a web-based advice platform, to make this data accessible and understandable for patients. Objective: We show that a fully automated

  18. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

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    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  19. Comparison of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

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    Sugawara N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Tetsu Tomita,1,2 Hanako Furukori,3 Kazutoshi Kubo,1,4 Taku Nakagami,1,4 Sunao Kaneko1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan Background: Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. The prediction of resting energy expenditure (REE is important to determine the energy expenditure of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of research concerning the most accurate REE predictive equations among Asian patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of the study reported here was to compare the validity of four REE equations for patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients (n=110 who had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia and were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals. The mean (± standard deviation age of these patients was 45.9±13.2 years. Anthropometric measurements (of height, weight, body mass index were taken at the beginning of the study. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry. Comparisons between the measured and estimated REEs from the four equations (Harris–Benedict, Mifflin–St Jeor, Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University, and Schofield were performed using simple linear regression analysis and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Significant trends were found between the measured and predicted REEs for all four equations (P<0.001, with the Harris–Benedict equation demonstrating the strongest correlation in both men and women (r=0.617, P<0.001. In all participants, Bland–Altman analysis revealed that the Harris–Benedict and

  20. Fluvoxamine for blonanserin-associated akathisia in patients with schizophrenia: report of five cases

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    Hashimoto Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been reported to cause fewer incidences of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS than typical antipsychotic drugs, but adverse events such as akathisia have been observed even with atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although understanding of the pathophysiology of akathisia remains limited, it seems that a complex interaction of several neurotransmitter systems plays a role in its pathophysiology. The endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors have been shown to regulate a number of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Methods We report on five cases in which monotherapy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine was effective in ameliorating the akathisia of patients with schizophrenia treated with the new atypical antipsychotic drug blonanserin. Results The global score on the Barnes Akathisia Scale in five patients with schizophrenia treated with blonanserin rapidly decreased after fluvoxamine treatment. Conclusion Doctors should consider that fluvoxamine may be an alternative approach in treating akathisia associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  1. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were...... selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. Results: We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA....... Limitations: Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA....

  2. Association study of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) +874T/A gene polymorphism in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Owczarek, Aleksander; Suchanek, Renata; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Fila-Danilow, Anna; Borkowska, Paulina; Kucia, Krzysztof; Kowalski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with changes affecting the immune system. Dysregulation of the cytokine network in schizophrenia has been well documented. Such changes may occur due to disturbances in cytokine levels that are linked to polymorphisms of cytokine genes. However, research in the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia has been surprisingly scanty. The aim of this study was to identify, in a case control study, whether polymorphism of IFN-γ gene is a risk factor for the development of paranoid schizophrenia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the association between the IFN-γ gene polymorphism and psychopathological symptoms in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Polymorphism of IFN-γ (+874T/A, rs 62559044) in schizophrenic patients (n=179), as well as healthy individuals (n=196), both Polish residents, was genotyped using AS-PCR method. Of note, when analyzing the results, we took into consideration the gender of studied individuals. Surprisingly, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the first intron of the IFN-γ gene was found to be associated with paranoid schizophrenia in males, but not in females. The presence of allele A at position +874 in the IFN-γ gene correlates with 1.66-fold higher risk of paranoid schizophrenia development in males. Differences in the genotypes may have an important role in determining the level of I gene transcription. Because other polymorphisms have been demonstrated to influence IFN-γ transcription, further analysis is necessary to clarify the role of this gene in the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia.

  3. [Maintenance Treatment With Antipsychotics for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and security of the antipsychotics available for the management of adult patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. To develop recommendations of treatment for the maintenance phase of the disease. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. 18 studies were included to evaluate the effectiveness and / or safety of different antipsychotic drugs first and second generation. Overall, antipsychotics (AP) showed superiority over placebo in relapse rate over 12 months (RR 0.59 95% CI 0.42, 0.82) and hospitalization rate over 24 months of follow-up (RR 0.38 95% 0.27, 0.55); its use is associated with increased risk of treatment dropout (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.46, 0.61) and adverse events such as weight gain, dystonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation. There was no difference in the outcome of re hospitalizations, comparisons on quality of life, negative symptoms or weight gain between AP first and second generation. Continuous or standard dose regimens appear to be superior to intermittent or low doses in reducing the risk of abandonment of treatment regimes. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia should receive maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. The medication of choice will depend on the management of the acute phase, the patient's tolerance to it and the presentation of adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-05-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia.

  5. Dual-modality impairment of implicit learning of letter-strings versus color-patterns in patients with schizophrenia

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    Hwu Hai-Gwo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Methods Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63 schizophrenic patients and 27 comparison subjects. Four symptom dimensions derived from a Chinese Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings were correlated with patients' artificial grammar implicit learning performances along the two stimulus dimensions. Patients' explicit memory performances were assessed by verbal paired associates and visual reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scales Revised Version to provide a contrast to their implicit memory function. Results Schizophrenia severely hindered color pattern artificial grammar learning while the disease affected lexical string artificial grammar learning to a lesser degree after correcting the influences from age, education and the performance of explicit memory function of both verbal and visual modalities. Both learning performances correlated significantly with the severity of patients' schizophrenic clinical symptom dimensions that reflect poor abstract thinking, disorganized thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that schizophrenia affects various mechanisms of artificial grammar learning differently. Implicit learning, knowledge acquisition in the absence of conscious awareness, is not entirely intact in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects implicit learning through an impairment of the ability of making abstractions from rules and at least in part decreasing the capacity for perceptual learning.

  6. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

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    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey  of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environment factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental factors influence in high risk individuals would postpone early manifestation, reduce disability in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as evidenced by the statement of leading health experts.

  7. Social cognition and interaction training for patients with stable schizophrenia in Chinese community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Roberts, David L; Xu, Baihua; Cao, Rifang; Yan, Min; Jiang, Qiongping

    2013-12-30

    Accumulated evidence suggests that Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is associated with improved performance in social cognition and social skills in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders. The current study examined the clinical utility of SCIT in patients with schizophrenia in Chinese community settings. Adults with stable schizophrenia were recruited from local community health institutions, and were randomly assigned to SCIT group (n = 22) or a waiting-list control group (n = 17). The SCIT group received the SCIT intervention plus treatment-as-usual, whereas the waiting-list group received only treatment-as-usual during the period of the study. All patients were administered the Chinese versions of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Eyes task, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) at baseline of the SCIT treatment period and at follow-up, 6 months after completion of the 20-week treatment period. Patients in SCIT group showed a significant improvement in the domains of emotion perception, theory of mind, attributional style, and social functioning compared to those in waiting-list group. Findings indicate that SCIT is a feasible and promising method for improving social cognition and social functioning among Chinese outpatients with stable schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hoarding behaviour in Xhosa patients with schizophrenia - prevalence and clinical presentation

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    T Ameer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hoarding is commonly defined as the acquisition ofand failure to discard possessions of little use or value, and isincluded as a symptom in the diagnostic criteria for obsessivecompulsive personality disorder (OCPD and obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD. However, it has also beenobserved in other clinical syndromes including schizophrenia.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence andclinical presentation of hoarding behaviour in schizophreniaamong Xhosa patients.Method:The sample consisted of 102 patients, recruited aspart of a larger genetic study in the Cape Town metropolebetween November 2004 and January 2005, diagnosed withschizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders according to theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-IVcriteria. They were screened for clinically significant hoardingsymptoms. If these were present, additional information onthe phenomenology was obtained by means of a structuredquestionnaire. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview(MINI (screen and full version, the Yale Brown ObsessiveCompulsive Scale (Y-BOCS Checklist, Y-BOCS, Clutter ImageRating Scale (CIRS and a structured questionnaire on hoardingwere administered.Results:Only four patients with schizophrenia were classifiedas hoarders. Although their clinical presentation resembled thatof hoarders described elsewhere in the literature, they had lowY-BOCS scores and did not report other obsessive-compulsivesymptoms.Conclusion:Our results suggest that hoarding behaviour isnot common in Xhosa patients with schizophrenia. Furtherinvestigation of protective factors for hoarding behaviour in theXhosa population is warranted.

  9. [Cortical Release Signs in Patients with Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorders, and Bipolar Affective Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella, Ricardo Andrés; Hernández, José Fernando; Espejo, Lina María

    2013-12-01

    Determining the presence of cortical release signs associated with white matter damage, is a clinically easy method to perform. The objective of this study is to determine the presence of cortical release signs in patients with mental illnesses and cerebrovascular disease, as well as its clinical usefulness, given that it indicates cortical damage. A review was made of cortical release signs in patients hospitalized in clinical psychiatry and general hospitals with bipolar affective disorder (40), depression (37), schizophrenia (33), cardiovascular disease (33) and dementia (37). The signs of cortical release do not have the same importance as cortical damage. For example, the glabellar reflex was found in all the groups, that of paratonia, particularly in the group with schizophrenia, and others signs in the group of patients with dementia. It is suggested that these signs imply subcortical white matter damage. The appearance of these signs shows the need for a follow up of patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

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    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  11. Unawareness of the disease in patients with schizophrenia: diagnosis and insight-oriented psychotherapy

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    O. I. Osokina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Phenomenon of patients' unawareness of their illness (insight is a pathognomonic diagnostic criterion that distinguishes schizophrenia from many other psychiatric disorders. More than half of patients with schizophrenia do not realize their illness that makes their treatment more difficult. Diagnosis of insight in patients with schizophrenia is an important issue. The volume and content of rehabilitation programs depends on it. The purpose of research is to study the structure of insight in patients with schizophrenia, its relationship with certain clinical, social and psychological indicators, and to assess the influence of insight-oriented psychotherapy on the outcomes of schizophrenia. Material and methods. 237 patients with schizophrenia were studied: 139 (58.6 % men and 98 (41.4 % women aged 18-35 years. Patients of the main group (122 people received pharmacotherapy and were included in the program of insight-oriented psychotherapy. Patients of the comparison group (115 people received standard treatment. Measurement of the insight level was carried out using the scale of unawareness of mental disorder (SUMD. To study social indicators the scale of social functioning in various spheres was used (Zaitsev, 1999. The quality of life level and social stigma were measured by WHOQOL-BREF and adapted version of the self-stigmatization scale (SSMIS. Evaluation of outcomes in schizophrenia was carried out using the IMR and RMQ scales. The level of cognitive functioning was assessed by the GACF-CogFu scale. The severity of depression was measured by the scale developed by Beck (BDI. The mechanisms of psychological defense were assessed using the scale of R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman (1979. Mathematical processing of the results was also carried out. Results. Correlations were found between a higher level of patient awareness of the disease and its better prognosis (r= -0.507; p<0.05, a higher level of social functioning (r= 0.478; p<0

  12. Functional remission and employment among patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Rahima; Midin, Marhani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Abdul Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Baharudin, Azlin; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the rates of functional remission and employment as well as the factors associated with functional remission among patients with Schizophrenia, receiving community psychiatric service in an urban setting in Malaysia. From a total of 250 patients randomly selected, 155 fulfilled the study requirement and were assessed on their functional remission status using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. The relationships between functional remission and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, social support, symptom remission and rates of hospitalization were examined. The results revealed that 74% (n=115) of the respondents had functional remission with only 20% (n=31) currently employed. Functional remission was found to be significantly associated with good social support (84.4% versus 36.4% psocial support, lower hospitalization rate and symptom remission, as significant predictors of functional remission. A majority of patients with Schizophrenia in this study achieved functional remission, however, only a small percentage of them were employed. Functional remission was influenced by severity of illness and levels of social support in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of resocialization of patients with schizophrenia: medico-sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova О.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes of urbanization, stressful events and other social trends of the modern world are considered as the social predictors determining the growth of frequency of mental illness. They are directly associated with manifestations of mental disorders, including schizophrenia. The majority of people is subjected to mental disorders living in unfavorable conditions. According to severe social consequences schizophrenia takes the leading position in psychiatry. Course of schizophrenia is one of the main clinical predictors of clinical and social prognosis. The research has established that the clinical predictors determining the severity of non-cancerous condition of patients with schizophrenia are not obligate in the socialization of the patients.

  14. Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Paranoid Schizophrenia and Comorbid Epilepsy

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    Beppe Micallef-Trigona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of choice for acute schizophrenia is antipsychotic drug treatment and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and should only be considered as an option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, where treatment with clozapine has already proven ineffective or intolerable. The use of ECT as a maintenance treatment for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy is uncommon as scant evidence exists to support this. We describe a patient with a serious case of paranoid schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy who had not responded to typical and atypical antipsychotic medication, but responded remarkably to acute ECT and required maintenance ECT to sustain a positive therapeutic response.

  15. A Hybrid Machine Learning Method for Fusing fMRI and Genetic Data: Combining both Improves Classification of Schizophrenia

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    Honghui Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a hybrid machine learning method to classify schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data. The method consists of four stages: (1 SNPs with the most discriminating information between the healthy controls and schizophrenia patients are selected to construct a support vector machine ensemble (SNP-SVME. (2 Voxels in the fMRI map contributing to classification are selected to build another SVME (Voxel-SVME. (3 Components of fMRI activation obtained with independent component analysis (ICA are used to construct a single SVM classifier (ICA-SVMC. (4 The above three models are combined into a single module using a majority voting approach to make a final decision (Combined SNP-fMRI. The method was evaluated by a fully-validated leave-one-out method using 40 subjects (20 patients and 20 controls. The classification accuracy was: 0.74 for SNP-SVME, 0.82 for Voxel-SVME, 0.83 for ICA-SVMC, and 0.87 for Combined SNP-fMRI. Experimental results show that better classification accuracy was achieved by combining genetic and fMRI data than using either alone, indicating that genetic and brain function representing different, but partially complementary aspects, of schizophrenia etiopathology. This study suggests an effective way to reassess biological classification of individuals with schizophrenia, which is also potentially useful for identifying diagnostically important markers for the disorder.

  16. Prevalence of 22q11.2 deletions in 311 Dutch patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Jalali, Gholam R; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sinke, Richard J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S

    UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the

  17. Running in the family? : structural brain abnormalities in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Pedersen, Ida Hageman

    2011-01-01

    To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003...

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-α and -β genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor in Saudi patients with schizophrenia

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    Kadasah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Kadasah,1 Misbahul Arfin,2 Sadaf Rizvi,2 Mohammed Al-Asmari,2 Abdulrahman Al-Asmari2 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Scientific Research Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the most common devastating psychiatric disorders that negatively affects the quality of life and psychosocial functions. Its etiology involves the interplay of complex polygenic influences and environmental risk factors. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of proinflammatory cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms with schizophrenia susceptibility. Subjects and methods: TNF-α and TNF-β genes were amplified using amplification refractory mutation system primers in 180 schizophrenia patients and 200 healthy matched controls recruited from the Psychiatry Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms in patients were compared with those in controls. Results: The frequencies of TNF-α (-308 allele A and genotype GA were significantly higher, while those of allele G and genotype GG were lower in schizophrenia patients as compared to controls, indicating that genotype GA and allele A of TNF-α (-308G/A may increase susceptibility to schizophrenia, while genotype GG and allele G may reduce it. On the other hand, the distribution of alleles and genotypes of TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphism does not differ significantly in patients from controls; however, the frequency of genotype GG of TNF-β (+252A/G was significantly higher in male patients than in female patients. The distribution of TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms was almost similar in schizophrenia patients with

  20. Variants of cognitive deficiency depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients with paranoid schizophrenia

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    G. G. Lebedeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pecific aspects of cognitive impairments in patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease have been studied. One hundred and thirty patients were examined. A clinico-psychological, experimental psychological and statistical methods were used. Three main types of cognitive deficiency with paranoid schizophrenia, associated with the onset, disease duration, and severity of psychiatric symptomology : 1 long-term course of the disease accompanied by the average level of clinical symptomology associated with abnormal attention and visuospatial functions; 2 late onset of the disease and unexpressed clinical symptomology combined with memory impairments; 3 acute onset and early age combined with the absence of cognitive impairments.

  1. Emotions, Ideas and Experiences of Caregivers of Patients With Schizophrenia About "Family to Family Support Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya

    2016-06-01

    "Family to Family Support Program" is a significant intervention program to assist families by informing them about treatment procedures and coping strategies, increasing their functionality, helping them to overcome the challenges of the disease. This study was particularly designed to investigate the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of schizophrenia patients who participated in "Family to Family Support Program." The study was conducted with one of the qualitative research methods, phenomenological method. The study sample included caregivers who care for schizophrenia patients and participated in the "Family to Family Support Program". Twenty caregivers were included in the sample. The study was carried out in İzmir Schizophrenia Support Association. The study data were collected with four open ended questions. The average age of the participants was 56,77 ± 72,89, 10 male caregivers and 10 female caregivers, 9 caregivers were fathers, 6 caregivers were mothers, and 5 of them were siblings. The thematic analysis indicated that the emotions, thoughts and experiences of caregivers can be categorized in four groups: "I learned to deal with my problems", "I am conscious in my interaction with the patient and I know and I am not alone", "I feel much better", and "Schizophrenia is not the end of the road, knowledge sorts things out." Caregivers who participated in "Family to Family Support Program" expressed their satisfaction that they were benefited from the program, their coping skills were improved, they experienced less challenges when providing care, they understood the disease better, and it felt comfortable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

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    Krumova, Sashka [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Rukova, Blaga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Todinova, Svetla [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Gartcheva, Lidia [National Specialized Hospital for Active Treating of Haematological Diseases, 6 Plovdivsko pole Str., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Milanova, Vihra [Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Sofia, 1 Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Toncheva, Draga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Taneva, Stefka G., E-mail: stefka.germanova@ehu.es [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment.

  3. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumova, Sashka; Rukova, Blaga; Todinova, Svetla; Gartcheva, Lidia; Milanova, Vihra; Toncheva, Draga; Taneva, Stefka G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment

  4. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N = 100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum.

  5. Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Castillo Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A couple of decades ago, hospitals or psychiatric institutions were in charge of caring for patients with schizophrenia; however, nowadays this role is performed by one or more patient's relatives. Evidence shows that informal caregivers experience negative changes in their quality of life (QOL. The aim of this study is to review the main factors associated with the QOL of caregivers of people with schizophrenia. Methods A search through databases from journals published last decade between 1998 and 2008 was performed. In accordance with the inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts of citations obtained from the search were examined independently by two authors and irrelevant articles discarded. The full text of those studies considered relevant by either reviewer were obtained and assessed independently. Where differences of opinion rose they were resolved by discussion. Out of the 258 references, 37 were included in the review. Studies which assessed factors associated with caregivers of people with schizophrenia's quality of life were included and the information summarized. Results Evidence suggest that physical, emotional and economic distress affect negatively caregiver's QOL as a result of a number of unfulfilled needs such as, restoration of patient functioning in family and social roles, economic burden, lack of spare time, among other factors. Conclusion Decreased QOL may be associated with caregivers' burden, lack of social support, course of the disease and family relationships problems. In addition, in developing countries, QOL is affected by caregivers' economic burden. High quality research is needed in order to identify factors associated with QOL over time and testing the efficacy of interventions aiming to improve QOL in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

  6. T210. PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF INTERPERSONAL PLEASURE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA-SPECTRUM PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Diane; Ratner, Yael; Mendyk, Nina; Farkash, Herman; Ermiyev, Michael; Ritsner, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders report high levels of social anhedonia, it is not clear what differentiates those patients who self-report social anhedonia from those who do not. Moreover, the extent to which the hedonic functioning of severely disordered patients is associated with their clinical symptoms or with personality-related factors remains unresolved. Methods We administered the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS; Gooding & Pflum, 2014), a self-report measure designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, to 125 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. The (81 schizophrenia, 44 schizoaffective disordered) patients were assessed in terms of their illness and symptom severity. They were also administered measures of self-efficacy (GSES; Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1992), quality of life (Q-LES-Q-18; Ritsner et al., 2005), and recovery level (RAS-20; Salzer, 2010). Based on total ACIPS scores, two cut-off points were defined in order to classify participants as ‘normally hedonic’, ‘hypohedonic’ or ‘anhedonic’. Results The ACIPS negatively correlated with 8 PANSS items: conceptual disorganization (P2, r=-0.24, pmannerism and posturing (G5, r=-0.22, p<0.05), and disturbance of volition (G13, r=-0.26, p<0.01).In addition, the ACIPS positively correlated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived social support, subjective quality of life, and recovery scale scores. Discussion The ACIPS is a reliable and valid means to measure social anhedonia in a clinical sample. The findings revealed that the self-reported hedonic functioning of schizophrenia-spectrum patients is associated with both clinical symptomatology as well as some personality-related variables. Suggestions for further clinical and research applications using the ACIPS will be provided.

  7. S175. AMOTIVATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALLER VENTRAL STRIATUM VOLUMES IN OLDER PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long‐term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) blockade by antipsychotics. Methods Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D2/3R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Results Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). Discussion We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D2/3R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit.

  8. [Computer-assisted therapy and video games in psychosocial rehabilitation for schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, G; Verdoux, H; Couhet, G; Quiles, C

    2018-02-28

    Video games and virtual reality have recently become used by clinicians for training or information media or as therapeutic tools. The purpose is to review the use of these technologies for therapy destined for schizophrenia patients. We conducted a review in October 2016 using Pubmed, Scopus and PsychInfo using the following Medical Subject Headings (MESH): "video games", "virtual reality" and "therapy, computer-assisted/methods", each associated with "schizophrenia". Papers were included in the review if: (a) they were published in an English, Spanish or French-language peer-reviewed journal, (b) the study enrolled patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, (c) the patients used a therapeutic video game or therapeutic virtual reality device. Eighteen publications were included. The devices studied are mainly therapeutic software developed specifically for therapeutic care. They can be classified according to their therapeutic objectives. These targets corresponded to objectives of psychosocial rehabilitation: improvement of residual symptomatology, cognitive remediation, remediation of cognition and social skills, improvement of everyday life activities, support for occupational integration. Very different devices were proposed. Some researchers analysed programs developed specifically for patients with schizophrenia, while others were interested in the impact of commercial games. Most of the studies were recent, preliminary and European. The impact of these devices was globally positive, particularly concerning cognitive functions. Computer-assisted therapy, video games and virtual reality cannot replace usual care but could be used as adjunctive therapy. However, recommending their use seems premature because of the recent and preliminary character of most studies. Moreover, a link is still lacking between this field of research in psychiatry and other fields of research, particularly game studies. Finally, it might be interesting to analyse more

  9. The Effect of Nicotine Dependence on Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nicotine dependence and investigate the effect of nicotine dependence on psychopathology among schizophrenia patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at a general hospital in Malaysia. 180 recruited subjects were administered the Malay version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, and the Malay version of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M questionnaires. Results. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the subjects was 38.1% (n=69 and they were mainly composed of male gender, Malay ethnicity, being treated with atypical antipsychotics, and taking other illicit drugs or alcohol. Subjects with severe nicotine dependence scored less in the negative subscale of PANSS compared with the nonsmokers (P=0.011. On performing the hierarchy multiple regressions, dependence status still significantly predicted negative scores after adjusting the confounders (t=-2.87, P=0.005. Conclusion. The rate of nicotine use disorder among schizophrenia patients in this study is higher than that of the general population in Malaysia. The significant association between nicotine dependence and negative psychopathology symptoms will help the healthcare practitioners in their management of nicotine dependence among schizophrenia patients.

  10. Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina

    2014-08-15

    Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969-1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mellemkjær, Lene; Thomassen, L.

    2005-01-01

    with national incidence rates, adjusted for sex, age and calendar time. The risk for cancer was increased for both men and women during the first year of follow-up. When the first year of follow-up was excluded, the risk for all tobacco-associated cancers and for prostate and rectal cancers was reduced for male...... patients with schizophrenia. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was marginally reduced (SIR, 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.02) for male patients with schizophrenia; this was due, however, to a reduction in risk for older patients. An increased risk for breast cancer found for female patients...... with schizophrenia (SIR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.38) should be interpreted with caution, given the high proportion of nulliparous women with schizophrenia in Denmark. The data might support reduced risks for prostate and rectal cancer among male patients with schizophrenia, whereas a changing smoking pattern might...

  12. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

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    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  13. Cure or curse? Ambivalent attitudes towards neuroleptic medication in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Peters, Maarten J V; Karow, Anne; Deljkovic, Azra; Tonn, Peter; Naber, Dieter

    2009-10-30

    Neuroleptic non-compliance remains a serious challenge for the treatment of psychosis. Non-compliance is predominantly attributed to side effects, lack of illness insight, reduced well-being or poor therapeutic alliance. However, other still neglected factors may also play a role. Further, little is known about whether psychiatric patients without psychosis who are increasingly prescribed neuroleptics differ in terms of medication compliance or about reasons for non-compliance by psychosis patients. As direct questioning is notoriously prone to social desirability biases, we conducted an anonymous survey. After a strict selection process blind to results, 95 psychiatric patients were retained for the final analyses (69 participants with a presumed diagnosis of schizophrenia psychosis, 26 without psychosis). Self-reported neuroleptic non-compliance was more prevalent in psychosis patients than non-psychosis patients. Apart from side effects and illness insight, main reasons for non-compliance in both groups were forgetfulness, distrust in therapist, and no subjective need for treatment. Other notable reasons were stigma and advice of relatives/acquaintances against neuroleptic medication. Gain from illness was a reason for non-compliance in 11-18% of the psychosis patients. Only 9% of all patients reported no side effects and full compliance and at the same time acknowledged that neuroleptics worked well for them. While pills were preferred over depot injections by the majority of patients, depot was judged as an alternative by a substantial subgroup. Although many patients acknowledge the need and benefits of neuroleptic medication, non-compliance was the norm rather than the exception in our samples.

  14. Cure or curse? Ambivalent attitudes towards neuroleptic medication in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Naber

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic non-compliance remains a serious challenge for the treatment of psychosis. Non-compliance is predominantly attributed to side effects, lack of illness insight, reduced well-being or poor therapeutic alliance. However, other still neglected factors may also play a role. Further, little is known about whether psychiatric patients without psychosis who are increasingly prescribed neuroleptics differ in terms of medication compliance or about reasons for non-compliance by psychosis patients. As direct questioning is notoriously prone to social desirability biases, we conducted an anonymous survey. After a strict selection process blind to results, 95 psychiatric patients were retained for the final analyses (69 participants with a presumed diagnosis of schizophrenia psychosis, 26 without psychosis. Self-reported neuroleptic non-compliance was more prevalent in psychosis patients than non-psychosis patients. Apart from side effects and illness insight, main reasons for non-compliance in both groups were forgetfulness, distrust in therapist, and no subjective need for treatment. Other notable reasons were stigma and advice of relatives/acquaintances against neuroleptic medication. Gain from illness was a reason for non-compliance in 11-18% of the psychosis patients. Only 9% of all patients reported no side effects and full compliance and at the same time acknowledged that neuroleptics worked well for them. While pills were preferred over depot injections by the majority of patients, depot was judged as an alternative by a substantial subgroup. Although many patients acknowledge the need and benefits of neuroleptic medication, non-compliance was the norm rather than the exception in our samples.

  15. Health care resource use and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wu,1 Xiaoning He,1 Li Liu,2 Wenyu Ye,2 William Montgomery,3 Haibo Xue,2 Jeffery S McCombs41School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAObjective: Information concerning the treatment costs of schizophrenia is scarce in People’s Republic of China. The aims of this study were to quantify health care resource utilization and to estimate the direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Data were obtained from the Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI database. Adult patients with ≥1 diagnosis of schizophrenia and 12-month continuous enrollment after the first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2008 and 2009 were included. Both schizophrenia-related, psychiatric-related, and all-cause related resource utilization and direct medical costs were estimated.Results: A total of 2,125 patients were included with a mean age of 52.3 years, and 50.7% of the patients were female. The annual mean all-cause costs were $2,863 per patient with psychiatric-related and schizophrenia-related costs accounting for 84.1% and 62.0% respectively. The schizophrenia-related costs for hospitalized patients were eleven times greater than that of patients who were not hospitalized. For schizophrenia-related health services, 60.8% of patients experienced at least one hospitalization with a mean (median length of stay of 112.1 (71 days and a mean cost of $1,904 per admission; 59.0% of patients experienced at least one outpatient visit with a mean (median number of visits of 6.2 (4 and a mean cost of $42 per visit during the 12-month follow-up period. Non

  16. Clinical implication of smoking among patients with schizophrenia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoking in schizophrenia is associated with increased disability ... Cite as: Aguocha C, Uwakwe R, Olose E, Amadi K, Onyeama G, Duru C. Clinical ..... addiction and schizophrenia.

  17. Association between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

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    Lindholm Carlström Eva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. In this study, we wanted to elucidate whether SLC6A4 variations is involved in attempted suicide among patients with schizophrenia in a Scandinavian case–control sample. Methods Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia from three Scandinavian samples were assessed for presence or absence of suicide attempts, based on record reviews and interview data. Seven SLC6A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 837 schizophrenia patients and 1,473 control individuals. Association analyses and statistical evaluations were performed with the program UNPHASED (version 3.0.9. Results We observed an allele association between the SNP rs16965628, located in intron one of SLC6A4, and attempted suicide (adjusted p-value 0.01, among patients with schizophrenia. No association was found to a diagnosis of schizophrenia, when patients were compared to healthy control individuals. Conclusion The gene SLC6A4 appears to be involved in suicidal ideation among patients with schizophrenia. Independent replication is needed before more firm conclusions can be drawn.

  18. Investigation of Fasciculation and Elongation Protein ζ-1 (FEZ1 in Peripheral Blood Reveals Differences in Gene Expression in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Vachev T.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by affective, neuromorphological and cognitive impairment, deteriorated social functioning and psychosis with underlying molecular abnormalities, including gene expression changes. Observations have suggested that fasciculation and elongation protein ζ-1 (FEZ1 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, our current knowledge of the expression of FEZ1 in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic gene expression patterns of FEZ1 in peripheral blood samples from schizophrenia patients. We performed quantitative reverse-transcriptase (qRT-PCR analysis using peripheral blood from drug-free schizophrenia patients (n = 29 and age and gender-matched general population controls (n = 24. For the identification of FEZ1 gene expression patterns, we applied a comparative threshold cycle (CT method. A statistically significant difference of FEZ1 mRNA level was revealed in schizophrenia subjects compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0034. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first describing a down-regulation of FEZ1 gene expression in peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Our results suggested a possible functional role of FEZ1 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and confirmed the utility of peripheral blood samples for molecular profiling of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The current study describes FEZ1 gene expression changes in peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia with significantly down-regulation of FEZ1 mRNA. Thus, our results provide support for a model of SZ pathogenesis that includes the effects of FEZ1 expression.

  19. Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

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    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  1. Attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

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    Sugawara N

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1–3 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,3 Manabu Yamazaki,4 Kazutaka Shimoda,3,5 Takao Mori,4 Takuro Sugai,3,6 Hiroshi Matsuda,4 Yutaro Suzuki,3,6 Yoshitake Minami,4 Yuji Ozeki,3,5 Kurefu Okamoto,4 Toyoaki Sagae,7 Toshiyuki Someya3,6 1Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Japanese Society of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, 4Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association, Tokyo, 5Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 7Department of Health and Nutrition, Yamagata Prefectural Yonezawa University of Nutrition Sciences, Yonezawa, Japan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a growing concern among patients with schizophrenia because metabolic abnormalities are widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The current study assessed attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A brief questionnaire was constructed to investigate patient recognition of the following broad areas: dietary habits, lifestyle, self-monitoring, knowledge, and medical practice. Between January 2012 and June 2013, questionnaires were sent to patients associated with 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association. All of the participants (n=22,072; inpatients =15,170, outpatients =6,902 were diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, or the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Results: Approximately 55.0% (8,069/14,669 of inpatients and 44.8% of outpatients (2,978/6,649 reported that they did not exercise at all. Although 60.9% (4,116/6,760 of outpatients reported that they felt obese, only 35.6% (5

  2. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  3. Validation of the Persian version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Parvaresh, Nooshin; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Sadeghi, Mohammad M; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is designed for assessment of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English and other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). A group of 50 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a group of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard neurocognitive battery. Cronbach's alpha for the Persian-BACS was 0.74. All the Persian-BACS subscales were significantly correlated with the corresponding standard neurocognitive subscales and the Pearson correlation of the composite scores from the two instruments was 0.71. Moreover, a one-factor solution was found that accounted for 67.9% of the variance. Finally, the Persian-BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Good psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia spectrum disorders among chronic patients with functional psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K D; Frederiksen, J N; Parnas, J

    2006-01-01

    of 100 individuals (35 women and 65 men) were randomly sampled and assessed using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness and Affective Illness (OPCRIT). Based on the OPCRIT diagnoses the subjects suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to seven...... function previous to the onset of illness. Similarly high pairwise CR were observed for schizophrenia spectrum disorders across all diagnostic systems. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that diagnostic agreement is higher among chronic patients than that observed in subjects with a recent onset...... serious epistemological consequences, thus underlining the conventional nature of the present schizophrenia diagnoses and the need for biologically founded diagnostic criteria....

  5. History of religious delusions and psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Rebeca; López-Luna, Sonia; Páez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raúl; Camarena, Beatriz; Fresán, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The association between global functionality and religiosity among patients from developing and predominantly Catholic countries warrants attention. To compare religiosity and psychosocial functioning in Mexican schizophrenia patients with and without a history of religious delusions, seventy-four patients with paranoid schizophrenia were recruited. Patients with a history of religious delusions had more psychiatric hospitalizations and poorer psychosocial functioning compared with those without a history of religious delusions. No differences emerged between groups in the total scores of religiosity scales. A history of religious delusions rather than religiosity itself may have an influence on psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L.; Vestergaard, C. H.; Moeller, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex- and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS. METHODS: Pa...

  7. Different effects of paliperidone and risperidone therapy on blood lipid and Hcy metabolism as well as endocrine hormones in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bei-Fang Fan; Ze-Hui Li; Shuo Yang; Cai-Hong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the different effects of paliperidone and risperidone therapy on blood lipid and Hcy metabolism as well as endocrine hormones in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 118 patients with schizophrenia who were treated in the hospital between December 2014 and February 2017 were collected as the research subjects and divided into control group and study group by random number table, each group with 59 cases. Control group received risperidone thera...

  8. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test......BACKGROUND: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored.......56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association...

  9. Attitudes and burden in relatives of patients with schizophrenia in a middle income country

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    Richards-Araya David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of family attitudes and burden have been conducted in developed countries. Thus it is important to test the generalizability of this research in other contexts where social conditions and extended family involvement may be different. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the attitudes of caregivers and the burden they experience in such a context, namely Arica, a town located in the northernmost region of Chile, close to the border with Peru and Bolivia. Methods We assessed attitudes towards schizophrenia (including affective, cognitive and behavioural components and burden (including subjective distress, rejection and competence in 41 main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, all of whom were users of Public Mental Health Services in Arica. Results Attitude measures differed significantly according to socio-demographic variables, with parents (mainly mothers exhibiting a more negative attitude towards the environment than the rest of the family (t = 4.04; p = 0.000.This was also the case for caregivers with a low educational level (t = 3.27; p 2 = .104, F = 4,55; p = .039. Conclusions Similar to finding developed countries, the current study revealed a positive and significant relationship between the attitudes of caregivers and their burden. These findings emphasize the need to support the families of patients with schizophrenia in this social context.

  10. A Cross Sectional Study of Problem and Pathological Gambling in Patients with Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. Methods A sample of outpatient subjects (n=337) diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or schizoaffective disorder and treated in either a VA hospital or a local state mental health center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to non-gamblers. Results Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (p=0.007), higher depression scores (p=0.04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (p=0.03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:19538900

  11. Effect of age and disease on bone mass in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

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    Sugawara Norio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been a limited number of studies comparing bone mass between patients with schizophrenia and the general population. The aim of this study was to compare the bone mass of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 362, aged 48.8 ± 15.4 (mean ± SD years who were diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV. Bone mass was measured using quantitative ultrasound densitometry of the calcaneus. The osteosono-assessment index (OSI was calculated as a function of the speed of sound and the transmission index. For comparative analysis, OSI data from 832 adults who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2009 was used as representative of the general community. Results Mean OSI values among male schizophrenic patients were lower than those in the general population in the case of individuals aged 40 and older. In females, mean OSI values among schizophrenic patients were lower than those in the general community in those aged 60 and older. In an analysis using the general linear model, a significant interaction was observed between subject groups and age in males. Conclusions Older schizophrenic patients exhibit lower bone mass than that observed in the general population. Our data also demonstrate gender and group differences among schizophrenic patients and controls with regard to changes in bone mass associated with aging. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to delay or prevent decreased bone mass in schizophrenic patients might be tailored according to gender.

  12. Validation of the Persian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Ghafaree-Nejad, Ali R; Soleymani-Zade, Somayeh; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-06-01

    The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) is an interview-based assessment of cognition that involves interviews with patients and informants. The SCoRS has shown good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the SCoRS. A group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and a group of 35 healthy controls received the Persian-SCoRS in the first session, and a standardized performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), in the second session.Our results indicated that the Persian version of the SCoRS was sensitive to cognitive impairment in the patients. The Persian SCoRS global rating was significantly associated with the composite score generated from the Persian version of the BACS and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO QOL). A Persian version of the SCoRS, an interview based measure of cognition that included informants, is related to cognitive performance and global functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF SYMPTOMS AND CLINICAL DYNAMICS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN DEPENDING ON CONSTITUTIONALLY-MORPHOLOGICAL TYPE OF THE PATIENTS

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    F. F. Mikilev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to research the psychometrical parameters and the clinical-dynamic features of patients with schizophrenia in depending on their constitutionally-morphological type.Material and methods. The examination of 86 patients with schizophrenia who are hospitalized at Department of endogenous mental disorders of Mental Health Research Institute was conducted. The study included patients of age from 18 to 65 years old with prescription of catamnesis at least 1 year and whose state at the time of examination corresponded to the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia from the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. The examination included filling in a modified version of Basic Card of Standardized Description of the Patient with Schizophrenia and his Relative, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. In addition to that patients were examined using anthropometrical method by V.V. Bunak. Statistical significance of differences in the data was evaluated using the Kruskal – Wallis test by ranks, the Mann – Whitney U-test, and Pearson’s chi-squared test. The correlation analysis was performed by the Spearman’s rank correlation test. The K-Means Cluster Analysis was used to determine of the qualitative interrelation and conjugation between the clinical characteristics of the examined.The results of the study revealed that many parameters of the functioning in these patient groups have statistically significant differences. Use of the K-Means Cluster Analysis was allowed to reveal the internal structure of the data, to group the individual observations according to their degree of similarity.Conclusions. The obtained data leads to the assumption that the constitutionally-morphological type of patients has an impact on the clinical course of schizophrenia, as well as their adaptation abilities. Asthenic constitutionally-morphological type is a factor of

  14. Classification of schizophrenia patients based on resting-state functional network connectivity

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    Mohammad Reza Arbabshirani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in automatic classification of mental disorders based on neuroimaging data. Small training data sets (subjects and very large amount of high dimensional data make it a challenging task to design robust and accurate classifiers for heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia. Most previous studies considered structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and task-based fMRI for this purpose. However, resting-state data has been rarely used in discrimination of schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Resting data are of great interest, since they are relatively easy to collect, and not confounded by behavioral performance on a task. Several linear and non-linear classification methods were trained using a training dataset and evaluate with a separate testing dataset. Results show that classification with high accuracy is achievable using simple non-linear discriminative methods such as k-nearest neighbors which is very promising. We compare and report detailed results of each classifier as well as statistical analysis and evaluation of each single feature. To our knowledge our effects represent the first use of resting-state functional network connectivity features to classify schizophrenia.

  15. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.; Derks, E.M.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of

  16. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family

  17. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in a catchment-area based cohort of older community-living schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Paul D.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Sonnenberg, Caroline M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Eikelenboom, Piet; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Stek, Max L.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms frequently accompany schizophrenia. Older patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. With regard to the risk factors associated with depression, it is uncertain to which extent older schizophrenia patients differ from their age peers in the

  18. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  19. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time.

  20. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The

  1. Neurocognitive functioning in parents of schizophrenia patients: Attentional and executive performance vary with genetic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Lennertz, Leonhard; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Pukrop, Ralf; Dreher, Jan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2015-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits are candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia which can assist to explain the neurocognitive impact of genetic risk variants. The identification of endophenotypes is often based on the familiality of these phenotypes. Several studies demonstrate neuropsychological deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients without differentiating between genetic and non-genetic factors underlying these deficits. We assessed N=129 unaffected biological parents of schizophrenia patients, N=28 schizophrenia patients (paranoid subtype), and N=143 controls without a family history of schizophrenia with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Direct comparison of N=22 parents with an ancestral history of schizophrenia (more likely carriers, MLC) and N=17 of their spouses without such a history (less likely carriers, LLC) allowed the separation of genetic and non-genetic aspects in cognition. Overall, parents showed significant deficits in neuropsychological tasks from all cognitive domains with medium effect sizes. Direct comparisons of MLC- and LLC-parents showed that attentional and executive tasks were most strongly affected by genetic loading. To conclude, unaffected parents of schizophrenia patients showed modest yet significant impairments in attention, memory, and executive functioning. In particular, attentional and executive impairments varied most strongly with genetic loading for schizophrenia, prioritising these dysfunctions for genotype-endophenotype analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A family affair: brain abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Converging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, with earlier onset cases resulting in more profound brain abnormalities. Siblings of patients with schizophrenia provide an invaluable resource for differentiating between trait and state markers, thus highlighting possible endophenotypes for ongoing research. However, findings from sibling studies have not been systematically put together in a coherent story across the broader age span. We review here the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia from childhood to adulthood, by reviewing sibling studies from both childhood-onset schizophrenia, and the more common adult-onset schizophrenia. When reviewed together, studies suggest that siblings of patients with schizophrenia display significant brain abnormalities that highlight both similarities and differences between the adult and childhood populations, with shared developmental risk patterns, and segregating trajectories. Based on current research it appears that the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings are likely to be an age-dependent endophenotype, which normalize by the typical age of onset of schizophrenia unless there has been more genetic or symptom burdening. With increased genetic burdening (e.g. discordant twins of patients) the grey matter abnormalities in (twin) siblings are progressive in adulthood. This synthesis of the literature clarifies the importance of brain plasticity in the pathophysiology of the illness, indicating that probands may lack protective factors critical for healthy development. PMID:23698280

  3. PREDICTORS FORMATION OF SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH CONCOMITANT SOMATIC-NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Semionovici PIDKORYTOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the level of stress in patients with paranoid schizophrenia with concomitant somatic-neurological disorders and quality of life as predictors of the formation of their social exclusion. The influence of somatic-neurological pathology for paranoid schizophrenia at different levels of stress.

  4. Cessation of cannabis use by patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nienke; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Berg, Sake; de Gier, Martin; Becker, Hiske; Linzen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis abuse has been found to be a component risk factor for the onset and poor outcome during the early course of schizophrenia and related disorders. Cannabis use has become a target for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia patients. Therefore, knowledge of factors that influence

  5. Symptom profiles and parental bonding in homicidal versus non-violent male schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmai, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Gonda, Xénia

    2017-01-30

    To compare the intensity and the profile of psychotic symptoms and the characteristics of parental bonding of male schizophrenia patients with a history of homicide and those without a history of violent behaviour. Clinical question - We hypothesized more intense psychotic symptoms, especially positive symptoms as signs of a more severe psychopathology in the background of homicidal behaviour. We also hypothesized a more negatively perceived pattern (less Care more Overprotection) of parental bonding in the case of homicidal schizophrenia patients than in non-violent patients and non-violent healthy controls. Symptom severity and symptom profiles were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a group of male schizophrenia patients (n=22) with the history of committed or attempted homicide, and another group (n=19) of male schizophrenia patients without a history of violent behaviour. Care- and Overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a third group of non-violent healthy controls (n=20), too. Positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in the homicidal schizophrenia group were significantly (pOverprotection than violent patients and healthy controls. Homicidal schizophrenia patients showed a pattern similar to the one in the healthy control group. It seems imperative to register intense positive psychotic symptoms as predictive markers for later violent behaviour. In the subgroup of male homicidal schizophrenia patients negatively experienced parental bonding does not appear to be major contributing factor to later homicidal behaviour.

  6. Management of physical health in patients with schizophrenia: practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, A; Montejo, A L; Millar, H; De Hert, M; McCrae, J; Correll, C U

    2010-06-01

    Improved physical health care is a pressing need for patients with schizophrenia. It can be achieved by means of a multidisciplinary team led by the psychiatrist. Key priorities should include: selection of antipsychotic therapy with a low risk of weight gain and metabolic adverse effects; routine assessment, recording and longitudinal tracking of key physical health parameters, ideally by electronic spreadsheets; and intervention to control CVD risk following the same principles as for the general population. A few simple tools to assess and record key physical parameters, combined with lifestyle intervention and pharmacological treatment as indicated, could significantly improve physical outcomes. Effective implementation of strategies to optimise physical health parameters in patients with severe enduring mental illness requires engagement and communication between psychiatrists and primary care in most health settings. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  8. Predictors of antipsychotic monotherapy with olanzapine during a 1-year naturalistic study of schizophrenia patients in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenyu Ye1, Haya Ascher-Svanum2, Jennifer A Flynn3, Yuka Tanji3, Michihiro Takahashi3,41Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, 4Terauchi-Takahashi Psychiatric Clinic, Ashiya, JapanPurpose: Although expert guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia recommend antipsychotic monotherapy, the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy is common. This study identified characteristics that differentiate patients with schizophrenia who are treated with olanzapine monotherapy versus polypharmacy in usual care in Japan.Patients and methods: In a large (N = 1850 prospective, observational study, Japanese patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with olanzapine were followed for 1 year. Consistent with past research, antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of olanzapine and another antipsychotic for at least 60 days. Switching was defined as discontinuing a prior antipsychotic therapy rather than augmenting the medication regimen. Predictors of antipsychotic monotherapy were based on information available at the time of olanzapine initiation. Baseline characteristics were compared using t-tests and Χ2 tests. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of monotherapy.Results: Patients treated with olanzapine monotherapy (43.2% differed from those treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (56.8% on demographics, treatment history, baseline symptom levels, functional levels, and treatment-emergent adverse events. Stepwise logistic regression identified multiple variables that significantly predicted monotherapy: older age, shorter duration of schizophrenia, outpatient status, comorbid medical conditions, lower body mass index, no prior anticholinergic use, no prior mood stabilizer use, and switching from a previous antipsychotic (typical or atypical

  9. Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89 between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs] and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge.

  10. The Associations between Visual Attention and Facial Expression Identification in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Mei; Fan, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Tiao-Lai; Wu, Wan-Ting; Li, Shi-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Visual search is an important attention process that precedes the information processing. Visual search also mediates the relationship between cognition function (attention) and social cognition (such as facial expression identification). However, the association between visual attention and social cognition in patients with schizophrenia remains unknown. The purposes of this study were to examine the differences in visual search performance and facial expression identification between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls, and to explore the relationship between visual search performance and facial expression identification in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen patients with schizophrenia (mean age=46.36±6.74) and 15 normal controls (mean age=40.87±9.33) participated this study. The visual search task, including feature search and conjunction search, and Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion were administered. Patients with schizophrenia had worse visual search performance both in feature search and conjunction search than normal controls, as well as had worse facial expression identification, especially in surprised and sadness. In addition, there were negative associations between visual search performance and facial expression identification in patients with schizophrenia, especially in surprised and sadness. However, this phenomenon was not showed in normal controls. Patients with schizophrenia who had visual search deficits had the impairment on facial expression identification. Increasing ability of visual search and facial expression identification may improve their social function and interpersonal relationship.

  11. Predicting Future High-Cost Schizophrenia Patients Using High-Dimensional Administrative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe burden of serious and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia is substantial and requires health-care organizations to have adequate risk adjustment models to effectively allocate their resources to managing patients who are at the greatest risk. Currently available models underestimate health-care costs for those with mental or behavioral health conditions.ObjectivesThe study aimed to develop and evaluate predictive models for identification of future high-cost schizophrenia patients using advanced supervised machine learning methods.MethodsThis was a retrospective study using a payer administrative database. The study cohort consisted of 97,862 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (ICD9 code 295.* from January 2009 to June 2014. Training (n = 34,510 and study evaluation (n = 30,077 cohorts were derived based on 12-month observation and prediction windows (PWs. The target was average total cost/patient/month in the PW. Three models (baseline, intermediate, final were developed to assess the value of different variable categories for cost prediction (demographics, coverage, cost, health-care utilization, antipsychotic medication usage, and clinical conditions. Scalable orthogonal regression, significant attribute selection in high dimensions method, and random forests regression were used to develop the models. The trained models were assessed in the evaluation cohort using the regression R2, patient classification accuracy (PCA, and cost accuracy (CA. The model performance was compared to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Categories (CMS-HCC model.ResultsAt top 10% cost cutoff, the final model achieved 0.23 R2, 43% PCA, and 63% CA; in contrast, the CMS-HCC model achieved 0.09 R2, 27% PCA with 45% CA. The final model and the CMS-HCC model identified 33 and 22%, respectively, of total cost at the top 10% cost cutoff.ConclusionUsing advanced feature selection leveraging detailed

  12. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic 3-D computer graphics for designing a diagnostic tool for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila; Papathomas, Thomas V; Silverstein, Steven M; Kourtev, Hristiyan; Papayanopoulos, John F

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a novel procedure that uses dynamic 3-D computer graphics as a diagnostic tool for assessing disease severity in schizophrenia patients, based on their reduced influence of top-down cognitive processes in interpreting bottom-up sensory input. Our procedure uses the hollow-mask illusion, in which the concave side of the mask is misperceived as convex, because familiarity with convex faces dominates sensory cues signaling a concave mask. It is known that schizophrenia patients resist this illusion and their resistance increases with illness severity. Our method uses virtual masks rendered with two competing textures: (a) realistic features that enhance the illusion; (b) random-dot visual noise that reduces the illusion. We control the relative weights of the two textures to obtain psychometric functions for controls and patients and assess illness severity. The primary novelty is the use of a rotating mask that is easy to implement on a wide variety of portable devices and avoids the use of elaborate stereoscopic devices that have been used in the past. Thus our method, which can also be used to assess the efficacy of treatments, provides clinicians the advantage to bring the test to the patient's own environment, instead of having to bring patients to the clinic.

  14. A Survey of the Tardive Dyskinesia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser tabibi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Tardive Dyskinesia (TD, is one of the important problems of the patients with schizophrenia. The emergence of these side effects depends on so many factors such as the patients' age and the duration of antipsychotic treatment. By discovering new drugs (Atypical, there has been an outstanding decrease in the emergence of these side effects. The present study investigates the symptoms of TD in the Patients with schizophrenia who were under  treatments for more than 6 months. "nMethod: The sample of this study was 200 Patients with schizophrenia of four wards in Razi hospital (two acute and two chronic wards who were hospitalized in the winter of 2006 and were qualified for this study. The subjects were 101 males and 99 females who were younger than 60 and had received antipsychotic drugs for at least 6 months. After psychiatric interview and filling the demographic questionnaire by the patients, the required information about the drugs and the intensity of the symptoms was acquired. Then clinical and physical examinations of tardive dyskinesia were done. Next, the tardive dyskinesia disorders' check list (AIMS was used. Findings of this cross-sectional, descriptive study were analyzed by SPSS. "nResults: There was a high ratio of 95% between TD and the age factor (P=0.05. There was no relationship between symptoms frequency and duration of treatment (P=0.68. Facial muscles and oral zones were mostly involved in T.D disorder (72%. "nConclusion: No significant difference was observed between nine fold symptoms of T.D in patients who were using traditional drugs and those who were using the new ones (typical and atypical. Findings showed that in the intensity of the symptoms, gender does not play a major role.

  15. Neural correlates of emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia and non-affected siblings.

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    Lisette van der Meer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia often experience problems regulating their emotions. Non-affected relatives show similar difficulties, although to a lesser extent, and the neural basis of such difficulties remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we investigated whether schizophrenia patients, non-affected siblings and healthy controls (HC exhibit differences in brain activation during emotion regulation. METHODS: All subjects (n = 20 per group performed an emotion regulation task while they were in an fMRI scanner. The task contained two experimental conditions for the down-regulation of emotions (reappraise and suppress, in which IAPS pictures were used to generate a negative affect. We also assessed whether the groups differed in emotion regulation strategies used in daily life by means of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ. RESULTS: Though the overall negative affect was higher for patients as well as for siblings compared to HC for all conditions, all groups reported decreased negative affect after both regulation conditions. Nonetheless, neuroimaging results showed hypoactivation relative to HC in VLPFC, insula, middle temporal gyrus, caudate and thalamus for patients when reappraising negative pictures. In siblings, the same pattern was evident as in patients, but only in cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: Given that all groups performed similarly on the emotion regulation task, but differed in overall negative affect ratings and brain activation, our findings suggest reduced levels of emotion regulation processing in neural circuits in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, this also holds for siblings, albeit to a lesser extent, indicating that it may be part and parcel of a vulnerability for psychosis.

  16. Suicide attempt, clinical correlates, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in chronic patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haisen; Zhang, Guangya; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Dai, Jing; He, Man-Xi; Soares, Jair C; Li, Xiaosi; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Because schizophrenia patients usually have high suicide rates and numerous studies have suggested that BDNF may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the functional polymorphism of BDNF (Val66Met) was associated with suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. This polymorphism was genotyped in 825 chronic schizophrenia patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 702) suicide attempts and 445 healthy controls without a history of suicide attempts using a case-control design. The schizophrenia symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. There were no significant differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype and allele distributions between the patients and healthy controls. However, we found the Val allele (p = .023) and the Val/Val genotypes (p = .058) to be associated with a history of suicide attempts. Moreover, some clinical characteristics, including age and cigarettes smoked each day, interacted with the BDNF gene variant and appeared to play an important role in suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism itself and its interaction with some clinical variables may influence suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Differential impairment on measures of attention in patients with paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle W C; Yip, James T H; Lee, Tatia M C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia are differentially impaired on measures of attention. Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia (19 paranoid and 29 nonparanoid) and 48 healthy controls (matched on chronological age, sex, and years of education) were administered five measures of attention including the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT; Stroop, 1935), the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT; Lewis, 1992), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT; Smith, 1982), the Backward Digit Span Test (BDST; Wechsler, 1987), and the Color Trails Test (CTT; D'Elia et al., 1996) to assess selective attention, sustained attention, switching attention, and attentional control processing by the latter two tests respectively. Results from the present study showed that patients with schizophrenia performed poorer on the SCWT, the DVT, and the SDMT, relative to their healthy counterparts. Furthermore, patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia also had different degrees of attentional impairment. While patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed worse on the SCWT, those with nonparanoid schizophrenia performed worse on the SDMT. Nevertheless, these findings may suggest that patients with paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia may have different profiles with respect to their performances on measures of attention.

  19. [The structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia and compensatory behavioral trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchuk, I V; Khudyakova, Yu Yu

    To study the structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on sex and illness duration. 102 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 101 healthy people, aged from 18 to 64 years, were examined. Quantitative indicators of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of aggression were measured using the Buss-Perry questionnaire. The projective Hand-test was administered to assess aggressive behavioral tendencies and inclinations to aggressive behavior. The authors identified the dissociated structure of aggressiveness in patients with paranoid schizophrenia that manifested with dissociated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. The specifics of the structure of aggression and compensatory behavioral trends are described.

  20. Acupuncture treatment of a male patient suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Staudte, H.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and co-morbid sleep disorders. Methods: A 42-year-old German male outpatient, suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders, entered the study. Acupuncture was used as a

  1. Normal Cognitive Conflict Resolution in Psychosis Patients With and Without Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Henderikus G. O. M.; Bruggeman, Richard; Martens, Sander

    Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled

  2. Effects of paliperidone extended release on hostility among Thai patients with schizophrenia

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    Jariyavilas A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apichat Jariyavilas,1 Nuntika Thavichachart,2 Ronnachai Kongsakon,3 Sunanta Chantakarn,4 Suwanna Arunpongpaisal,5 Vasu Chantarasak,6 Piyadit Jaroensook,7 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,8 Osot Nerapusee9 1Srithanya Hospital, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 6Somdetchaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, 7Prasrimahabhodhi Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, 8Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 9Medical Affairs, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This open-label prospective study investigated the effects of paliperidone extended release (ER on hostility in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Background: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be hostile or exhibit aggressive behavior, which can occasion their admission to psychiatric hospital. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat hostility and aggression in such patients. Paliperidone ER is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are no data available for paliperidone ER with regard to its efficacy on hostility and aggression among Thai patients. This study was a part of the PERFEcT study, a 6-month, open-label, multicenter, multicountry, prospective trial to explore the safety, efficacy, and functionality of paliperidone ER tablets. The current study included only the data obtained from Thai participants. Materials and methods: Flexible dosing of paliperidone ER in a range of 3–12 mg/day was used, allowing investigators to adjust the dosage of each subject individually. The 199 Thai patients had a stable Clinical Global Impression – severity score before enrollment. Demographic

  3. Cognitive rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hye; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation programs received mental health professional support in addition to traditional medication therapy. Many psychosocial programs were developed since the 1990s, including cognitive remediation therapy. In this review, we focus on cognitive remediation therapy in Korea since the 1990s. We review several cognitive rehabilitation programs developed in Korea and their outcome studies and suggest future research directions and prospects. We reviewed cognitive rehabilitation programs including social cognitive training as well as more recent forms of computerized cognitive rehabilitation. Although there are differences in cognitive domains by training targets, almost all neurocognitive remediation trainings in Korea have beneficial effects on early visual processing, various attention types, and executive function. Future studies need to investigate the mechanisms and various mediators underlying the relationships between cognitive functions and functional outcomes. With more comprehensive cognitive and social cognitive programs, we can enhance both cognition and functional outcomes of the patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PET findings in patients with chronic paranoid schizophrenia

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    Uesugi, Hideji [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders; Toyoda, Junzo; Iio, Masaaki

    1995-07-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of chronic schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions and normal controls was compared. The subjects were 5 male chronic inpatients (average age of 41.4 yrs, BPRS 29.3{+-}15.0). Normal controls (6 males) were matched for age and sex. rCBF was determined by PET, based on the consecutive inhalation of {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2}. rCBF in the paranoid schizophrenics was significantly higher than that in normal controls in the temporal lobe and cerebellum (p<0.05). rCBF in paranoid schizophrenia showed a tendency to be higher in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampus and putamen, but not in the thalamus. (author).

  5. PET findings in patients with chronic paranoid schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Hideji; Toyoda, Junzo; Iio, Masaaki.

    1995-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of chronic schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions and normal controls was compared. The subjects were 5 male chronic inpatients (average age of 41.4 yrs, BPRS 29.3±15.0). Normal controls (6 males) were matched for age and sex. rCBF was determined by PET, based on the consecutive inhalation of 15 O-CO 2 . rCBF in the paranoid schizophrenics was significantly higher than that in normal controls in the temporal lobe and cerebellum (p<0.05). rCBF in paranoid schizophrenia showed a tendency to be higher in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampus and putamen, but not in the thalamus. (author)

  6. Inflammation and elevation of interleukin-12p40 in patients with schizophrenia

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    Nora eBedrossian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized ELISA technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n=123. The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p=0.002. Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.009. Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p<0.001, healthy females (p=0.018 and healthy males (p<0.001, respectively. Male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.023. The study’s results suggest that IL-12p40

  7. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and risk of death from natural causes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Gasse, Christiane; Jensen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant prescription of more than 1 antipsychotic agent (antipsychotic polypharmacy) in the treatment of schizophrenia is prevalent, although monotherapy is generally recommended. Mortality from natural causes is markedly increased in schizophrenia, and the role of polypharmacy...... remains controversial. The objective was to investigate if antipsychotic polypharmacy is associated with the excess mortality from natural causes among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted using patient data from January 1, 1996, to December 31......, 2005, obtained from central Danish registers. From the study population of 27,633 patients with ICD-8- and ICD-10-diagnosed schizophrenia or other mainly nonaffective psychoses, aged 18-53 years, we identified 193 cases who died of natural causes within a 2-year period and 1,937 age- and sex...

  8. Smaller than expected cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients from the population-representative ABC catchment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennertz, Leonhard; An der Heiden, Wolfram; Kronacher, Regina; Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Maier, Wolfgang; Häfner, Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Most neuropsychological studies on schizophrenia suffer from sample selection bias, with male and chronic patients being overrepresented. This probably leads to an overestimation of cognitive impairments. The present study aimed to provide a less biased estimate of cognitive functions in schizophrenia using a population-representative catchment area sample. Schizophrenia patients (N = 89) from the prospective Mannheim ABC cohort were assessed 14 years after disease onset and first diagnosis, using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A healthy control group (N = 90) was carefully matched according to age, gender, and geographic region (city, rural surrounds). The present sample was representative for the initial ABC cohort. In the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, the schizophrenia patients were only moderately impaired as compared to the healthy control group (d = 0.56 for a general cognitive index, d = 0.42 for verbal memory, d = 0.61 for executive functions, d = 0.69 for attention). Only 33 % of the schizophrenia patients scored one standard deviation unit below the healthy control group in the general cognitive index. Neuropsychological performance did not correlate with measures of the clinical course including age at onset, number of hospital admissions, and time in paid work. Thus, in this population-representative sample of schizophrenia patients, neuropsychological deficits were less pronounced than expected from meta-analyses. In agreement with other epidemiological studies, this suggests a less devastating picture of cognition in schizophrenia.

  9. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in ?Younger? and ?Older? Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Christina Josefa; L?sser, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schr?der, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older ...

  10. Cognitive differences between men and women: a comparison of patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Longenecker, Julia; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2010-01-01

    Gender modulates cognition such that women display advantages in certain domains while men excel in others tasks. Similar patterns have been seen in patients with schizophrenia. We derived six cognitive factor domain scores from a cognitive battery and examined gender-based cognitive differences in patients with schizophrenia and controls. There were strikingly different effects of gender in patients as compared to controls. The large sample size and broad range of tests in our study add impo...

  11. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge. We reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017) that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N -methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing speed, and memory in female patients with schizophrenia. Clinical trials with

  12. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%), unemployed (70.3%) and male (65.1%). Nearly all participants (97.4%) expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p stigma score. Almost half of those who discontinued their treatment reported that they had done so because of perceived stigma. Those who had attempted suicide (45.3%) were more likely to have a high stigma score (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.11; p = 0.006). Over 60% of the variation in the experience of stigma was explained by four factors: social withdrawal (16.7%), perceived discrimination (14.1%), alienation (13.9%) and stereotype endorsement (12.7%). Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process. PMID:23272796

  13. Preserved learning during the Symbol Digit Substitution Test in patients with schizophrenia, age-matched controls and elderly

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    Claudia eCornelis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol-digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N=30 were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=30 and healthy elderly volunteers (N=30 during the Symbol Digit Subsstitution Test (SDST. The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time. The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7. Symbol-digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning.Results: The repetition of the same symbol-digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing.Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed were found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the interpretation of task

  14. Facial emotion perception in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Chan, Raymond C K; Zhao, Qing; Hong, Xiaohong; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2010-03-17

    Although there is a consensus that patients with schizophrenia have certain deficits in perceiving and expressing facial emotions, previous studies of facial emotion perception in schizophrenia do not present consistent results. The objective of this study was to explore facial emotion perception deficits in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic first-degree relatives. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia, 56 of their first-degree relatives (33 parents and 23 siblings), and 92 healthy controls (67 younger healthy controls matched to the patients and siblings, and 25 older healthy controls matched to the parents) completed a set of facial emotion perception tasks, including facial emotion discrimination, identification, intensity, valence, and corresponding face identification tasks. The results demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than their siblings and younger healthy controls in accuracy in a variety of facial emotion perception tasks, whereas the siblings of the patients performed as well as the corresponding younger healthy controls in all of the facial emotion perception tasks. Patients with schizophrenia also showed significantly reduced speed than younger healthy controls, while siblings of patients did not demonstrate significant differences with both patients and younger healthy controls in speed. Meanwhile, we also found that parents of the schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than the corresponding older healthy controls in accuracy in terms of facial emotion identification, valence, and the composite index of the facial discrimination, identification, intensity and valence tasks. Moreover, no significant differences were found between the parents of patients and older healthy controls in speed after controlling the years of education and IQ. Taken together, the results suggest that facial emotion perception deficits may serve as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia

  15. Quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care and in outpatient treatment

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    Mihanović M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mate Mihanović,1,2 Branka Restek-Petrović,1,2 Anamarija Bogović,1 Ena Ivezić,1 Davor Bodor,1 Ivan Požgain3 1Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan”, Zagreb, 2Faculty of Medicine Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Osijek, Osijek, Croatia Background: The Sveti Ivan Psychiatric Hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, offers foster home care treatment that includes pharmacotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, family therapy, and work and occupational therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with schizophrenia treated in foster home care with that of patients in standard outpatient treatment. Methods: The sample consisted of 44 patients with schizophrenia who, upon discharge from the hospital, were included in foster home care treatment and a comparative group of 50 patients who returned to their families and continued receiving outpatient treatment. All patients completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire on the day they completed hospital treatment, 6 months later, and 1 year after they participated in the study. The research also included data on the number of hospitalizations for both groups of patients. Results: Though directly upon discharge from the hospital, patients who entered foster home care treatment assessed their health-related quality of life as poorer than patients who returned to their families, their assessments significantly improved over time. After 6 months of treatment, these patients even achieved better results in several dimensions than did patients in the outpatient program, and they also had fewer hospitalizations. These effects remained the same at the follow-up 1 year after the inclusion in the study. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that treatment in foster home care is associated with an improvement in the quality of life of patients

  16. Obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised: Factor structure, reliability, validity, and suicide risk screening characteristics among nigerian patients with schizophrenia

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    Tolulope Opakunle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study attempted to explore the feasibility of use of the 18-item Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R as a subjective suicide risk assessment tool in a cross-sectional sample of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from the mental health clinic of a university teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. They completed the OCI-R in addition to the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and a sociodemographic and illness-related questionnaire. The patients were objectively interviewed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview suicidality module items to assess their suicide risk. Results: The 18-item OCI-R demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity (0.900 and specificity (0.662 at a total cutoff score of 10 in relation to the identification of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia with significant suicide risk. At this cutoff score, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.817 (95% confidence interval: 0.735–0.898, and positive predictive value (0.726 and negative predictive value (0.869 were also satisfactory. The OCI-R also demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion: The OCI-R has demonstrated to be useful as a subjective suicide risk assessment tool among Nigerian schizophrenia patients.

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure, Reliability, Validity, and Suicide Risk Screening Characteristics among Nigerian Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opakunle, Tolulope; Aloba, Olutayo; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Opakunle, Olubukola; Fatoye, Femi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study attempted to explore the feasibility of use of the 18-item Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) as a subjective suicide risk assessment tool in a cross-sectional sample of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from the mental health clinic of a university teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. They completed the OCI-R in addition to the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and a sociodemographic and illness-related questionnaire. The patients were objectively interviewed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview suicidality module items to assess their suicide risk. Results: The 18-item OCI-R demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity (0.900) and specificity (0.662) at a total cutoff score of 10 in relation to the identification of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia with significant suicide risk. At this cutoff score, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.817 (95% confidence interval: 0.735–0.898), and positive predictive value (0.726) and negative predictive value (0.869) were also satisfactory. The OCI-R also demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion: The OCI-R has demonstrated to be useful as a subjective suicide risk assessment tool among Nigerian schizophrenia patients.

  18. The Impact of Sex Differences on Odor Identification and Facial Affect Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

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    Nilufar Mossaheb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial interactive functions such as facial emotion recognition and smell identification have been shown to differ between women and men. However, little is known about how these differences are mirrored in patients with schizophrenia and how these abilities interact with each other and with other clinical variables in patients vs. healthy controls.MethodsStandardized instruments were used to assess facial emotion recognition [Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL] and smell identification [University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT] in 51 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 79 healthy controls; furthermore, working memory functions and clinical variables were assessed.ResultsIn both the univariate and the multivariate results, illness showed a significant influence on UPSIT and FEEL. The inclusion of age and working memory in the MANOVA resulted in a differential effect with sex and working memory as remaining significant factors. Duration of illness was correlated with both emotion recognition and smell identification in men only, whereas immediate general psychopathology and negative symptoms were associated with emotion recognition only in women.ConclusionBeing affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorder impacts one’s ability to correctly recognize facial affects and identify odors. Converging evidence suggests a link between the investigated basic and social cognitive abilities in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with a strong contribution of working memory and differential effects of modulators in women vs. men.

  19. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Hagar; Levin, Maya; Dadon, Tzameret; Meiman, Meital E; Ajameeh, Alaa; Mazzawi, Hosam; Rigbi, Amihai; Kremer, Ilana; Golani, Idit; Shamir, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ) and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR) to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (eyes) test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  20. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagar Tadmor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  1. Functional polymorphism in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genes in patients with paranoid schizophrenia--a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Suchanek, Renata; Owczarek, Aleksander; Fila-Danilow, Anna; Szczygiel, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with changes in immunological system. Such changes are the result of cytokine-level disturbances connected with cytokine gene polymorphisms. However, research about cytokine gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia has been surprisingly limited and ambiguous. The aim of the study was to identify whether polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 are risk factors for the development of paranoid schizophrenia in case-control study. IL-6 (-174G/C; rs 1800795) and IL-10 (-1082G/A; rs 1800896) promoter polymorphisms in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy individuals were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Differences in IL-6 and IL-10 promoter haplotypes may play an important role in determining the transcription level for IL-6 and IL-10 genes in schizophrenic patients. The presence of allele C at position -174 of IL-6 promoter sequence may correlate with increasing risk of paranoid schizophrenia in the Polish population, but research on a broadened group of people is needed. The presence of allele G at position -1082 of IL-10 promoter sequence correlates with increasing risk of paranoid schizophrenia in the Polish population. The coexistence of genotype GG at position -1082 of IL-10 promoter sequence and genotype GC at position -174 of IL-6 promoter sequence correlates with increasing risk of paranoid schizophrenia in the Polish population.

  2. Cardiovascular coupling analysis with high-resolution joint symbolic dynamics in patients suffering from acute schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Steffen; Tupaika, Nadine; Voss, Andreas; Berger, Sandy; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Haueisen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Besides the well-known cardiac risk factors for schizophrenia, increasing concerns have been raised regarding the cardiac side-effects of antipsychotic medications. A bivariate analysis of autonomic regulation, based on cardiovascular coupling, can provide additional information about heart rate (HR) and blood pressure regulatory patterns within the complex interactions of the cardiovascular system. We introduce a new high-resolution coupling analysis method (HRJSD) based on joint symbolic dynamics (JSD), which is characterized by three symbols, a threshold (individual dynamic variability, physiological) for time series transformation and eight coupling pattern families. This is based on a redundancy reduction strategy used to quantify and characterize cardiovascular couplings. In this study, short-term (30 min) HR and systolic blood pressure (SP) time series of 42 unmedicated (UNMED) and 42 medicated patients (MED) suffering from acute schizophrenia were analysed to establish the suitability of the new method for quantifying the effects of antipsychotics on cardiovascular couplings. We were able to demonstrate that HRJSD, applying the threshold based on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimation, revealed eight significant pattern families that were able to quantify the anti-cholinergic effects of antipsychotics and the related changes of cardiovascular regulation (coupling) in MED in comparison to UNMED. This was in contrast to the simple JSD, BRS (sequence method) and only partly to standard linear HR variability indices. HRJSD provides strong evidence that autonomic regulation in MED seems to be, to some extent, predominated by invariable HR responses in combination with alternating SP values in contrast to UNMED, indicating an impairment of the baroreflex control feedback loop in MED. Surrogate data analysis was applied to test for the significance and nonlinearity of cardiovascular couplings in the original data due to medical treatment with

  3. The Impact of Sex Differences on Odor Identification and Facial Affect Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Kaufmann, Rainer M.; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Aninilkumparambil, Thushara; Himmelbauer, Claudia; Gold, Anna; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Hoffmann, Holger; Traue, Harald C.; Aschauer, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Background Social interactive functions such as facial emotion recognition and smell identification have been shown to differ between women and men. However, little is known about how these differences are mirrored in patients with schizophrenia and how these abilities interact with each other and with other clinical variables in patients vs. healthy controls. Methods Standardized instruments were used to assess facial emotion recognition [Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL)] and smel...

  4. The Impact of Sex Differences on Odor Identification and Facial Affect Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nilufar Mossaheb; Rainer M. Kaufmann; Monika Schlögelhofer; Thushara Aninilkumparambil; Claudia Himmelbauer; Anna Gold; Sonja Zehetmayer; Holger Hoffmann; Harald C. Traue; Harald Aschauer

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundSocial interactive functions such as facial emotion recognition and smell identification have been shown to differ between women and men. However, little is known about how these differences are mirrored in patients with schizophrenia and how these abilities interact with each other and with other clinical variables in patients vs. healthy controls.MethodsStandardized instruments were used to assess facial emotion recognition [Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL)] and smell i...

  5. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a patient with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Kenta; Miyaji, Kotaro; Kodera, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Kanda, Junji; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message People with schizophrenia are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than the general population. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a recognized cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. This report discusses the necessity for close cardiac evaluation to reduce incidence of sudden death in people with schizophrenia.

  6. Costs of treating patients with schizophrenia who have illness-related crisis events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiaomei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the relationship between psychosocial crises and treatment costs for persons with schizophrenia. This naturalistic prospective study assessed the association of recent crises with mental health treatment costs among persons receiving treatment for schizophrenia. Methods Data were drawn from a large multi-site, non-interventional study of schizophrenia patients in the United States, conducted between 1997 and 2003. Participants were treated at mental health treatment systems, including the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals, community mental health centers, community and state hospitals, and university health care service systems. Total costs over a 1-year period for mental health services and component costs (psychiatric hospitalizations, antipsychotic medications, other psychotropic medications, day treatment, emergency psychiatric services, psychosocial/rehabilitation group therapy, individual therapy, medication management, and case management were calculated for 1557 patients with complete medical information. Direct mental health treatment costs for patients who had experienced 1 or more of 5 recent crisis events were compared to propensity-matched samples of persons who had not experienced a crisis event. The 5 non-mutually exclusive crisis event subgroups were: suicide attempt in the past 4 weeks (n = 18, psychiatric hospitalization in the past 6 months (n = 240, arrest in the past 6 months (n = 56, violent behaviors in the past 4 weeks (n = 62, and diagnosis of a co-occurring substance use disorder (n = 413. Results Across all 5 categories of crisis events, patients who had a recent crisis had higher average annual mental health treatment costs than patients in propensity-score matched comparison samples. Average annual mental health treatment costs were significantly higher for persons who attempted suicide ($46,024, followed by persons with psychiatric hospitalization in

  7. Mismatch Negativity in Han Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanbing; Ll, Xianbin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Chuanyue

    2017-10-25

    Previous meta-analysis revealed that mismatch negativity(MMN) amplitude decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Cohen's d, d about 1), leading to the possibility of mismatch negativity being used as a biomarker for schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reliably changed in Chinese patients. It is necessary to carry out a meta-analysis on MMN of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. To investigate whether MMN could be used as a biomarker for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials on MMN in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients published before May 8, 2017, by searching the Chinese language databases CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP Data and PubMed. The effects of MMN deficits were evaluated for MMN amplitude by calculating standard mean difference (SMDs) between schizophrenia patient groups and healthy control groups. A total of 11 studies were included in the analysis. The total quality of all the studies were more than 6 as evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis of data from these studies had a pooled sample of 432 patients with schizophrenia and 392 healthy controls. There exists significant MMN deficit in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls (Cohen's d =1.004). When studies were excluded due to heterogeneity, the pooled effect size of the MMN differences between the patient group and healthy controls dropped to 0.79 (Cohen's d =0.79). Subgroup analysis showed that MMN amplitude deficits of schizophrenia over three years had the pooled effect size of 0.95, and less than three years had the pooled effect size of 0.77. Publication bias conducted via Egger regression test ( t = 1.83; p = 0.101), suggested that there was no publication bias. The effect size of MMN amplitude between Chinese patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls is consistent with other meta-analyses published on this topic, suggesting that Han Chinese

  8. Paliperidone Palmitate Improves and Maintains Functioning in Asia-Pacific Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Zhuo, Jianmin; Mathews, Maju; Tan, Wilson; Feng, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Post hoc analyses (two single-arm studies) were conducted to determine the impact of once-monthly injection of paliperidone palmitate on functioning in adult patients with schizophrenia in the Asia-Pacific region. Study 1 enrolled hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, and study 2 enrolled patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia unsatisfactorily treated with oral antipsychotics. Patients received paliperidone palmitate, 150 mg eq. on day 1, 100 mg eq. on day 8, then once monthly (50-150 mg eq.) (study 1, days 36 and 64; study 2, 18 months). Functional status was evaluated by Personal and Social Performance score in both studies and employment only in study 2. In study 1, 54 of 184 patients (29.4%) with an unfavorable level of functioning at the baseline improved to a favorable level (Personal and Social Performance score greater than 70) at day 92. This improvement was significantly greater among patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia (5 years or less) compared with patients with chronic schizophrenia (more than 5 years): 40% versus 22% (p schizophrenia. Janssen-Cilag Asia-Pacific Medical Affairs.

  9. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  10. Intrinsic motivation and metacognition as predictors of learning potential in patients with remitted schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Cumhur; Brown, Elliot C; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Lysaker, Paul H; Brüne, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that neurocognitive functioning predicts best the potential of patients with schizophrenia to acquire newly learned material, which, in turn may impact patients' social functioning. Recent studies have also shown that intrinsic motivation and metacognitive abilities play a decisive role in social functioning in schizophrenia. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the relationship between intelligence, motivation, metacognition, and learning during a cognitive remediation experimental training. We hypothesized that metacognition and intrinsic motivation would have a strong relationship and independently predict learning potential. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia who fulfilled the criteria of functional remission were recruited. In a pre-training-post experimental design, patients' learning potential was assessed using previously defined cognitive remediation training for WCST. Intrinsic motivation was examined using Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for schizophrenia; mastery, a domain of metacognition, was measured using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale. Metacognition significantly correlated with subdomains of intrinsic motivation. Patients with higher intrinsic motivation and preserved metacognition improved more in the learning paradigm compared to poorly motivated patients and patients with reduced metacognitive abilities. In particular, "mastery" was determined as an independent predictor of learning potential. Motivation and metacognition are important predictors of learning in schizophrenia. Psychological interventions in schizophrenia may therefore consider incorporating techniques to stimulate metacognitive and motivational abilities as well as developing individualized training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rate of Family Violence Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nagata, Satoko; Kita, Sachiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Solomon, Phyllis

    2015-09-01

    Family violence is a serious concern in the era of deinstitutionalization in Japan. Consequently, we aimed to clarify the rate of family violence among patients with schizophrenia, and differences by sex and relationship to the patient. We asked households belonging to a family group association to complete a self-administered mail survey. Of 350 households that responded, data for 302 were analyzed. The rate of violence toward any family member was 60.9% over the lifetime and 27.2% in the past year. Order of lifetime rates for family members from highest to lowest was 51.0% for mothers, 47.0% for fathers, 30.7% for younger sisters, 23.8% for spouses, 19.5% for younger brothers, 18.2% for older sisters, 17.1% for older brothers, and none for children. Younger sisters were more likely to be victims compared to other siblings. Fathers and older brothers were likely to be victims when patients were male. © 2015 APJPH.

  12. Tai-Chi for Residential Patients with Schizophrenia on Movement Coordination, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainbow T. H. Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Patients with schizophrenia residing at institutions often suffer from negative symptoms, motor, and functional impairments more severe than their noninstitutionalized counterparts. Tai-chi emphasizes body relaxation, alertness, and movement coordination with benefits to balance, focus, and stress relief. This pilot study explored the efficacy of Tai-chi on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning disabilities towards schizophrenia. Methods. A randomized waitlist control design was adopted, where participants were randomized to receive either the 6-week Tai-chi program and standard residential care or only the latter. 30 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a rehabilitation residency. All were assessed on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functional disabilities at baseline, following intervention and 6 weeks after intervention. Results. Tai-chi buffered from deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning, the latter with sustained effectiveness 6 weeks after the class was ended. Controls showed marked deteriorations in those areas. The Tai-chi group also experienced fewer disruptions to life activities at the 6-week maintenance. There was no significant improvement in negative symptoms after Tai-chi. Conclusions. This study demonstrated encouraging benefits of Tai-chi in preventing deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning for residential patients with schizophrenia. The ease of implementation facilitates promotion at institutional psychiatric services.

  13. A Closer Look at Siblings of Patients with Schizophrenia: The Association of Depression History and Sex with Cognitive Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Krista M.; Elvevåg, Brita; Gold, James M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Dickinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    Background Siblings of patients with schizophrenia show impaired cognition and an increased prevalence of depression history. Although sex has been shown to moderate cognition in patients, this effect has not been examined in siblings. Here we elucidate how a history of depression and sex influences cognition in siblings unaffected by schizophrenia. Methods Unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and unrelated healthy controls were evaluated neuropsychologically and completed structured clinical interviews. Participants with a depression history or no psychiatric history were selected for the sample. Cognitive performance of siblings (n = 366) and controls (n = 680) was first examined. Second, cognition of participants with a depression history and those without a psychiatric history was compared while additionally investigating the role of schizophrenia risk and sex. Results Relative to controls, siblings, with and without a psychiatric history, demonstrated significant (p siblings, but not in controls; whereas sex affected cognition in both siblings and controls. In siblings alone, sex significantly interacted with depression history to influence cognition. This interaction revealed that in male - but not female - siblings a history of depression was associated with greater cognitive impairments. Conclusion A history of depression impairs cognition in siblings, but not in controls. Moreover, depression history interacts with sex and demonstrates that only cognition in male siblings is significantly and additionally compromised by a history of depression. This interaction may be an important consideration for future phenotype and genetic association studies. PMID:21030214

  14. Temporal lobe structures and facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients and nonpsychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Macdonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2011-11-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions.

  15. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-05-09

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  16. Disturbed prepulse inhibition in patients with schizophrenia is consequential to dysfunction of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Kirsty E; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T

    2010-03-01

    Controversy exists as to the cause of disturbed prepulse inhibition (PPI) in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to clarify the nature of PPI in schizophrenia using improved methodology. Startle and PPI were measured in 44 patients with schizophrenia and 32 controls across a range of startling stimulus intensities under two conditions, one while participants were attending to the auditory stimuli (ATTEND condition) and one while participants completed a visual task in order to ensure they were ignoring the auditory stimuli (IGNORE condition). Patients showed reduced PPI of R(MAX) (reflex capacity) and increased PPI of Hillslope (reflex efficacy) only under the INGORE condition, and failed to show the same pattern of attentional modulation of the reflex parameters as controls. In conclusion, disturbed PPI in schizophrenia appears to result from deficits in selective attention, rather than from preattentive dysfunction.

  17. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  18. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP

  19. At issue: siblings of patients with schizophrenia: sibling bond, coping patterns, and fear of possible schizophrenia heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, Gabriella; Ekerwald, Hedvig; Hultman, Christina M

    2004-01-01

    Siblings of schizophrenia patients are from the patient's perspective important support providers, but most studies on family burden have focused on the parental role. This study aims to develop a detailed analysis of the psychological aspects of having a sibling with schizophrenia. We did a qualitative study with audiotaped semistructured interviews of 16 siblings. The reliability of the inductive categorization of data was high. A unifying theme appeared to be an emotional sibling bond characterized by feelings of love, sorrow, anger, envy, guilt, and shame. The major categories linked to coping with the situation were avoidance, isolation, normalization, caregiving, and grieving. A third major theme consisted of a fear of possible schizophrenia heredity. The siblings described concerns about the impact of a family history of psychiatric illness, a fear of becoming mentally ill, and reflections about "bad genes." Our findings support earlier findings of coping patterns but complement them by providing a model that includes awareness of genetic vulnerability as an important part of siblings' subjective burden.

  20. [Hematological Evaluation and Monitoring in Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila, Mauricio J; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Arenas González, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    To guide the clinician in taking decisions on the best strategies for assessing and monitoring the risk of blood disorders in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia in pharmacological treatment. A clinical practice guideline was developed following the guidelines of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection to collect evidence and grade recommendations. De novoliterature researchwas performed. With the use of antipsychotics there isriskofreducción in the leukocyte count and the risk of agranulocytosis,the later associated with the use of clozapine, although it is a rare event(0.8%) can be fatal; this effect occurs most frequently in the first twelve weeks of treatment and the risk is maintained aroundthe first year of it. The recommendations were considered strongin all hematologic related monitoring.A blood count should be taken at the start of pharmacological treatment. If the patient is started on clozapine one shouldbe taken weekly during the first three months, monthly until completing one year and every six months thereafter. If there is a decrease in white blood cell count the patient should be monitored regularly, stopping if is a less than 3,500 cells/mm(3) and consider referral if is less than 2,000 cells/mm(3). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Perceived Social Support in Explanation of Positive and Negative Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akbar Atadokht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Chronic psychiatric patients not only become inactive members of community but also the heavy costs of their maintenance and rehabilitation burden on society and their family. According to importance of subject, this study aimed to investigate the role of percieved social support in predicting positive and negative syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 124 patients have been selected among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in Issar Psychiatric Hospital and Rehabilitation Centers in first 3 mounths of 2014 in Ardabil, Iran and completed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and a researcher made demographic checklist. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis on SPSS-16 software and P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.   Results: The mean age of participants was 36.34±9.09 and their education level was mostly (58% primary or illiterate. Results showed that there is a negative relationship between patients positive symptoms index and their family, some others and total social support (p<0.01 and also between negative symptoms index and patients friends, some others and total social support (p<0.05. Results of multivariate regression analysis showed that 11% of positive and negative symptom syndrome are explained by percieved social support in patients with schizophrenia (p<0.01.   Conclusion: Percieved social support has relationship with positive and negative syndrome of patients with schizophrenia and measures to increase resources of social support and promotion of patients percieved social support can be used as an effective intervention by clinicians, patients and their family.

  2. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

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    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  3. High-functioning autism patients share similar but more severe impairments in verbal theory of mind than schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, L N W; Lui, S S Y; Ho, K K Y; Hung, K S Y; Wang, Y; Yeung, H K H; Wong, T Y; Lam, S M; Chan, R C K; Cheung, E F C

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM. The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients. The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism-schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.

  4. Self-perceived cognitive deficits and their relationship with internalized stigma and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

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    Shin YJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeon-Jeong Shin,1,2 Yo-Han Joo,1 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Neuroscience Research Institute, 2Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Gachon Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology, 3Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: We investigated self-perceived cognitive deficits and their relationship with internalized stigma and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in order to shed light on the clinical correlates of subjective cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.Methods: Seventy outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated. Patients’ self-perceived cognitive deficits, internalized stigma, and subjective quality of life were assessed using the Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI, and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4, respectively. Correlation and regression analyses controlling for the severity of symptoms of schizophrenia were performed, and a mediation analysis was conducted to examine the hypothesis that internalized stigma mediates the relationship between self-perceived cognitive deficits and subjective quality of life.Results: Pearson’s partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations among the SSTICS, ISMI, and SQLS-R4 scores (P<0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SSTICS and ISMI scores significantly predicted the SQLS-R4 score (P<0.01. Mediation analysis revealed that the strength of the association between the SSTICS and SQLS-R4 scores decreased from β=0.74 (P<0.01 to β=0.56 (P<0.01, when the ISMI score was statistically controlled. The Sobel test revealed that this difference was significant (P<0.01, indicating that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between self-perceived cognitive deficits and quality of life.Conclusion: The present study indicates that self

  5. Hexanucleotide Repeat Expansion in C9ORF72 Is Not Detected in the Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia Patients of Chinese Han.

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    Xijia Xu

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide (GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9ORF72 (HRE causes frontotemporal lobar degeneration, frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. HRE was also seen in the genomes of patients suffering from several other degenerative diseases. However, whether it is present in the treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients remains unknown. Genotyping 386 patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia using the method of Repeat-Primed PCR, we reported here that no HRE was detected in the patients of Chinese Han.

  6. The social functional outcome of being naturalistically treated with paliperidone extended-release in patients with schizophrenia

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    Nakagawa R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Akihide Wakamatsu,2 Ai Tanimura,3 Kazuo Morita,3 Toshio Yamaoka,3 Hideo Usui,3 Yoshimasa Ogawa,3 Akiko Fujino,3 Kazutake Yoshizawa11Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Medical Affairs Strategy Department, Medical Affairs Division, 3Drug Safety Surveillance Department, Japan Safety and Surveillance Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, JapanBackground: Social functioning is an important outcome for patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the effects of paliperidone extended-release (PAL-ER on social function, symptomatology, and safety in the routine clinical practice, we conducted a 1-year post-marketing surveillance study of PAL-ER. We also explored relationships between symptomatic improvement and socially functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Patients with an established diagnosis of schizophrenia were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the surveillance. Patients were assessed on social functioning using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS and on symptomatology using the Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale. All adverse events (AEs were also collected.Results: A total of 1,429 patients were enrolled in the surveillance study, of whom 1,405 were evaluable for safety and 1,142 were evaluable for efficacy. The treatment discontinuation rate for any reason during the observation period was 34.66%. Significant improvements were observed on both Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale during the observation period. The percentage of patients with socially functional remission (SOFAS ≥61 also increased significantly. A significant association between early improvements in positive symptoms, sex, severity of negative symptoms at baseline, and socially functional remission was observed. A total of 33.52% of patients

  7. Effects of behavioral therapy on weight loss in overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan; Pandina, Gahan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Berry, Sally; Mahmoud, Ramy

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is common in persons with schizophrenia. Besides its adverse health effects, obesity reduces quality of life and contributes to the social stigma of schizophrenia. This 14-week, multicenter, open-label, rater-blinded, randomized study evaluated the effects of a group-based behavioral treatment (BT) for weight loss in overweight and obese stable patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been switched from olanzapine to risperidone. Participants were randomly assigned to receive BT or usual clinical care (UC). BT included 20 sessions during which patients were taught to reduce caloric intake. In UC, patients were encouraged to lose weight but received no special advice about weight reduction. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight. Seventy-two patients were enrolled. The mean +/- SD weight loss at endpoint was significant in both groups (p or = 5% of their body weight at endpoint (26.5% [9/34] and 10.8% [4/37], respectively; p = .082). A post hoc analysis of patients attending at least 1 BT session showed that significantly more patients in the BT than the UC group had lost > or = 5% of their body weight at endpoint (32.1% [9/28] vs. 10.8% [4/37], respectively, p = .038) and at week 14 (complete population; 40.9% [9/22] and 14.3% [4/28], respectively, p = .027). BT may be an effective method for weight reduction in patients with chronic psychotic illness.

  8. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Population-Based Cohort Study on Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Schizophrenia.

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    Wen-Yu Hsu

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is considered the leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. Several risk factors of PAD have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we hypothesize that the incidence of PAD is higher in the schizophrenia population than in the general population.The patients in this population-based cohort study were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of the claims data from 2000 to 2011. We compared the incidence of PAD between schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed for analyzing the risk of PAD after adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities.The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for PAD in the schizophrenia cohort was 1.26-fold higher than that in the nonschizophrenia cohort. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics exhibited a high adjusted HR for PAD.Compared with the general population, the risk of PAD is higher among patients with schizophrenia. Early diagnosis and intervention can mitigate complications resulting from cardiovascular diseases and lower mortality.

  10. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  11. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low physical activity is strongly correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and poor physical health. Although the prevalence of MetS is high in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), little is still known about the level of and possible barriers for physical activity in FES....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS......: Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication...

  12. Long acting risperidone in Australian patients with chronic schizophrenia: 24-month data from the e-STAR database

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    Lambert Tim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This observational study was designed to collect treatment outcomes data in patients using the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Australia who were prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI between 2003 and 2007 were assessed 12-months retrospectively, at baseline and 24-months prospectively at 3-monthly intervals. The intent-to-treat population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of RLAI at baseline, was used for the efficacy and safety analyses. Results At total of 784 patients (74% with schizophrenia, 69.8% male with a mean age of 37.1 ± 12.5 years and 10.6 ± 9.5 years since diagnosis were included in this Australian cohort. A significant improvement in mean Clinical Global Impression - severity score was observed at 24-months (4.52 ± 1.04 at baseline, 3.56 ± 1.10 at 24-months. Most of this improvement was seen by 3-months and was also reflected in mean Global Assessment of Functioning score, which improved significantly at 24-months (42.9 ± 14.5 at baseline, 59 ± 15.4 at 24-months. For patients still receiving RLAI at 24-months there was an increase from a mean baseline RLAI dose of 26.4 ± 5 mg to 43.4 ± 15.7 mg. Sixty-six percent of patients discontinued RLAI before the 24-month period--this decreased to 46% once patients lost to follow-up were excluded. Conclusion Over the 24-month period, initiation of RLAI was associated with improved patient functioning and illness severity in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Improved outcomes were observed early and sustained throughout the study. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number, NCT00283517.

  13. Broader visual orientation tuning in patients with schizophrenia

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    Ariel eRokem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA levels in cerebral cortex are thought to contribute to information processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SZ, and we have previously reported lower in vivo GABA levels in the visual cortex of patients with SZ. GABA-mediated inhibition plays a role in sharpening orientation tuning of visual cortical neurons. Therefore, we predicted that tuning for visual stimulus orientation would be wider in SZ. We measured orientation tuning with a psychophysical procedure in which subjects performed a target detection task of a low-contrast oriented grating, following adaptation to a high-contrast grating. Contrast detection thresholds were determined for a range of adapter-target orientation offsets. For both SZ and healthy controls, contrast thresholds decreased as orientation offset increased, suggesting that this tuning curve reflects the selectivity of visual cortical neurons for stimulus orientation. After accounting for generalized deficits in task performance in SZ, there was no difference between patients and controls for detection of target stimuli having either the same orientation as the adapter or orientations far from the adapter. However, patients’ thresholds were significantly higher for intermediate adapter-target offsets. In addition, the mean width parameter of a Gaussian fit to the psychophysical orientation tuning curves was significantly larger for the patient group. We also present preliminary data relating visual cortical GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and orientation tuning width. These results suggest that our finding of broader orientation tuning in SZ may be due to diminished visual cortical GABA levels.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Mercedeh Samiei

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: OCD was found among a considerable proportion of the study sample. OCD may be associated with exacerbating schizophrenic symptoms. Therefore, psychiatrists should consider the simultaneous treatment of OCD and schizophrenia. Further studies are suggested in this issue.

  15. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapra, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerated aging in schizophrenia patients: the potential role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

    2014-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that schizophrenia, a severe mental illness characterized by delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder is associated with accelerated aging. The free radical (oxidative stress) theory of aging assumes that aging occurs as a result of damage to cell constituents and connective tissues by free radicals arising from oxygen-associated reactions. Schizophrenia has been associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, both of which also appear to reciprocally induce each other in a positive feedback manner. The buildup of damaged macromolecules due to increased oxidative stress and failure of protein repair and maintenance systems is an indicator of aging both at the cellular and organismal level. When compared with age-matched healthy controls, schizophrenia patients have higher levels of markers of oxidative cellular damage such as protein carbonyls, products of lipid peroxidation and DNA hydroxylation. Potential confounders such as antipsychotic medication, smoking, socio-economic status and unhealthy lifestyle make it impossible to solely attribute the earlier onset of aging-related changes or oxidative stress to having a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Regardless of whether oxidative stress can be attributed solely to a diagnosis of schizophrenia or whether it is due to other factors associated with schizophrenia, the available evidence is in support of increased oxidative stress-induced cellular damage of macromolecules which may play a role in the phenomenon of accelerated aging presumed to be associated with schizophrenia.

  17. Remission and Recovery in Schizophrenia: Practitioner and Patient Perspectives

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    Davidson, Larry; Schmutte, Timothy; Dinzeo, Thomas; Andres-Hyman, Raquel

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a complex, dynamic, multi-dimensional, and poorly understood condition. Although the concept of heterogeneity in outcome has conceptually overturned the post Kraepelinian legacy of progressive deterioration, a number of factors appear to contribute to perpetuating a pessimistic attitude toward outcome within the field. These include the limited access people with schizophrenia have to effective interventions and the phenomenon of the “clinician's illusion,” which refers ...

  18. Gray matter volume reduction in rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinis, Z; Fallon, J H; Niznikiewicz, M; Nestor, P; Davidson, C; Bobrow, L; Pelavin, P E; Fischl, B; Yendiki, A; McCarley, R W; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Shenton, M E

    2010-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a brain region that has figured prominently in studies of schizophrenia and working memory, yet the exact neuroanatomical localization of this brain region remains to be defined. DLPFC primarily involves the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The latter, however is not a single neuroanatomical entity but instead is comprised of rostral (anterior, middle, and posterior) and caudal regions. In this study we used structural MRI to develop a method for parcellating MFG into its component parts. We focused on this region of DLPFC because it includes BA46, a region involved in working memory. We evaluated volume differences in MFG in 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Mid-rostral MFG (MR-MFG) was delineated within the rostral MFG using anterior and posterior neuroanatomical landmarks derived from cytoarchitectonic definitions of BA46. Gray matter volumes of MR-MFG were then compared between groups, and a significant reduction in gray matter volume was observed (p<0.008), but not in other areas of MFG (i.e., anterior or posterior rostral MFG, or caudal regions of MFG). Our results demonstrate that volumetric alterations in MFG gray matter are localized exclusively to MR-MFG. 3D reconstructions of the cortical surface made it possible to follow MFG into its anterior part, where other approaches have failed. This method of parcellation offers a more precise way of measuring MR-MFG that will likely be important in further documentation of DLPFC anomalies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxytocin administration selectively improves olfactory detection thresholds for lyral in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, J D; Lam, O; Chuang, B; Ford, J M; Mathalon, D H; Vinogradov, S

    2015-03-01

    Olfaction plays an important role in mammalian social behavior. Olfactory deficits are common in schizophrenia and correlate with negative symptoms and low social drive. Despite their prominence and possible clinical relevance, little is understood about the pathological mechanisms underlying olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and there are currently no effective treatments for these deficits. The prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin may affect the olfactory system when administered intranasally to humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. To examine this model, we administered 40IU of oxytocin and placebo intranasally to 31 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum illness and 34 age-matched healthy control participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. On each test day, participants completed an olfactory detection threshold test for two different odors: (1) lyral, a synthetic fragrance compound for which patients with schizophrenia have specific olfactory detection threshold deficits, possibly related to decreased cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling; and (2) anise, a compound for which olfactory detection thresholds change with menstrual cycle phase in women. On the placebo test day, patients with schizophrenia did not significantly differ from healthy controls in detection of either odor. We found that oxytocin administration significantly and selectively improved olfactory detection thresholds for lyral but not for anise in patients with schizophrenia. In contrast, oxytocin had no effect on detection of either odor in healthy controls. Our data indicate that oxytocin administration may ameliorate olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and suggest the effects of intranasal oxytocin may extend to influencing the olfactory system. Given that oxytocin has been found to increase cAMP signaling in vitro a possible mechanism for these effects is discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Grasping the mechanisms of narratives' incoherence in schizophrenia: an analysis of the temporal structure of patients' life story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, M C; Gandolphe, M-C; Doba, K; Köber, C; Potheegadoo, J; Coutelle, R; Habermas, T; Nandrino, J-L; Danion, J-M; Berna, F

    2016-08-01

    Life narratives of patients with schizophrenia are characterized by impaired coherence so that the listener has often difficulties to grasp the life trajectory of the patients. In order to better understand what causes this reduced temporal coherence, we investigated the temporal structure of patients' life narratives through different temporal narrative elements (elaboration of beginnings and endings, local temporal indicators and temporal deviations from a linear order), across two complementary studies. Life narratives were collected by means of two different methods; a free recall in study 1 and a more structured protocol, aiming at reducing the cognitive task demands in study 2. All narratives from the two studies were analyzed using the same validated method. Both studies showed that global temporal coherence is significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia (ps.02). This is mainly due to their stronger tendency to temporally deviate from a linear temporal order without marking the deviation as such. We also observed significant correlations in the patient groups between global temporal coherence and executive dysfunction (p=.008) or their higher tendency to temporally deviate from a linear temporal order in their life narratives (p<.001). These results shed light on narrative correlates of temporal narrative incoherence in schizophrenia and highlight the central role of executive dysfunction in this incoherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal

    2018-04-01

    Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.

  2. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    : To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...... of the patients was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed by a five-factor PANSS model. Measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (9 AM plasma cortisol and daytime salivary cortisol output) were recorded...... was found (P = 0.009). The high CATS score group showed higher levels of perceived stress (P = 0.02), but there was no difference between the high vs. low CATS group in HPA-axis activity. Conclusion: Although causal inferences cannot be made from this cross-sectional study, the study adds support...

  3. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients - a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Levander, S; Nielsen, Jimmi

    Nielsen RE, Levander S, Thode D, Nielsen J. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. Objective:  To assess the cognitive effects of sertindole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Cognition is secondary outcome of the trial....... Method:  A 12-week, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, augmentation study of patients treated with clozapine. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 16 mg of sertindole or placebo as adjunctive treatment to clozapine. Results:  Participants displayed substantial cognitive deficits......, ranging from 1.6 standard deviation below norms at baseline to more than three standard deviations on tests of response readiness and focused attention. There were no significant differences between sertindole augmentation and placebo groups at study end. Correlation analysis of Positive and Negative...

  4. Group psychotherapy for parents of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ema N; Kajević, Milka; Agius, Mark; Martić-Biocina, Sanja

    2006-11-01

    During a four-month period, the authors provided group psychotherapy combining psychodynamic, supportive and psycho-educational approaches. The aim was to investigate whether this approach would enable parents of patients with schizophrenia to re-establish their psychic balance and the balance of the whole family system by reducing high expressed emotion. The following tools were administered: a socio-cultural questionnaire, MMPI and PIE psychological tests and two questionnaires for group evaluation. The socio-cultural questionnaire showed that the group of parents is heterogeneous. MMPI profiles showed truthful answers and well organized thinking; there were no psychopathological symptoms. The PIE test showed increased dimensions of sociability and trust. The dimensions of fear, sorrow and anger were decreased. Combinations of primary emotions (marked sociability and high self-protection) show that the parents are cautious, responsible and tend to feel guilt. The parents evaluated the group work as interesting and helpful and the group as a place where the parents can overcome the stigma of the disease that affects them, get information, find help and friends and find a way out of their social isolation. This combined approach changes the emotional profile of parents, reduces high expressed emotions (fear, sorrow and anger) in parents and helps re-establish their psychic balance and the balance of the whole family system.

  5. Quality of care and clinical outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with schizophrenia. A Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Lange, Peter

    2018-01-01

    antagonists (LAMA) or long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) (Relative risk (RR) 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87–0.98). Female sex was associated with a higher chance of receiving LAMA/LABA treatment among COPD patients with schizophrenia. COPD patients with schizophrenia had a higher risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio...... (OR) 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01–1.59) but not a higher risk of readmission compared with COPD patients without schizophrenia.ConclusionsCOPD patients with schizophrenia had a slightly lower chance of receiving LAMA/LABA treatment, but a substantially increased risk of death following admission...

  6. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myung-Sun Kim,1 Bit-Na Kang,1 Jae Young Lim2 1Department of Psychology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Medical Foundation, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Republic of Korea Purpose: Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U-test.Results: The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. Conclusion: These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck

  7. The effectiveness and safety of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: An 8‐week, prospective, open‐label, multicenter, single‐arm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Cao, Changan; Zhu, Cheng; Wang, Chuanyue; Zhang, Congpei; Dong, Fang; Yang, Fude; Deng, Hong; Yu, Jingjie; Tang, Jisheng; Su, Lei; Xin, Limin; Hong, Ling; Gao, Minglong; Tang, Muni; Xie, Shiping; Lu, Shuiping; Liu, Tiebang; Xu, Xiaojin; Wang, Xijin; Li, Xuanzi; Wang, Xueyi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Zhiyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of amisulpride in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Methods A multicenter, single‐arm Phase IV study (NCT01795183). Chinese patients with schizophrenia received amisulpride for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was ≥50% decrease in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score from Baseline to Week 8. Results A total of 316 patients were enrolled; 295 were included in the effectiveness analysis; 66.8% (197/295) achieved ≥50% decrease in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score from Baseline to Week 8. Nine patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Discussion Amisulpride had clinical effectiveness and was relatively well tolerated in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27020720

  8. Aberrant interference of auditory negative words on attention in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norichika Iwashiro

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that deficits in attention-emotion interaction are implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Although disruption in auditory processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, deficits in interaction between emotional processing of auditorily presented language stimuli and auditory attention have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, the current study used a dichotic listening task to examine 22 patients with schizophrenia and 24 age-, sex-, parental socioeconomic background-, handedness-, dexterous ear-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a word recognition task on the attended side in which a word with emotionally valenced content (negative/positive/neutral was presented to one ear and a different neutral word was presented to the other ear. Participants selectively attended to either ear. In the control subjects, presentation of negative but not positive word stimuli provoked a significantly prolonged reaction time compared with presentation of neutral word stimuli. This interference effect for negative words existed whether or not subjects directed attention to the negative words. This interference effect was significantly smaller in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the smaller interference effect was significantly correlated with severe positive symptoms and delusional behavior in the patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest that aberrant interaction between semantic processing of negative emotional content and auditory attention plays a role in production of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. (224 words.

  9. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  10. Estimation of Symptom Severity Scores for Patients with Schizophrenia Using ERP Source Activations during a Facial Affect Discrimination Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Precise diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and a comprehensive assessment of a patient's symptom severity are important in order to establish a successful treatment strategy for each patient. Although great efforts have been devoted to searching for diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia over the past several decades, no study has yet investigated how accurately these biomarkers are able to estimate an individual patient's symptom severity. In this study, we applied electrophysiological biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) analyses to an estimation of symptom severity scores of patients with schizophrenia. EEG signals were recorded from 23 patients while they performed a facial affect discrimination task. Based on the source current density analysis results, we extracted voxels that showed a strong correlation between source activity and symptom scores. We then built a prediction model to estimate the symptom severity scores of each patient using the source activations of the selected voxels. The symptom scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were estimated using the linear prediction model. The results of leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) showed that the mean errors of the estimated symptom scores were 3.34 ± 2.40 and 3.90 ± 3.01 for the Positive and Negative PANSS scores, respectively. The current pilot study is the first attempt to estimate symptom severity scores in schizophrenia using quantitative EEG features. It is expected that the present method can be extended to other cognitive paradigms or other psychological illnesses.

  11. Estimation of Symptom Severity Scores for Patients with Schizophrenia Using ERP Source Activations during a Facial Affect Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and a comprehensive assessment of a patient's symptom severity are important in order to establish a successful treatment strategy for each patient. Although great efforts have been devoted to searching for diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia over the past several decades, no study has yet investigated how accurately these biomarkers are able to estimate an individual patient's symptom severity. In this study, we applied electrophysiological biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG analyses to an estimation of symptom severity scores of patients with schizophrenia. EEG signals were recorded from 23 patients while they performed a facial affect discrimination task. Based on the source current density analysis results, we extracted voxels that showed a strong correlation between source activity and symptom scores. We then built a prediction model to estimate the symptom severity scores of each patient using the source activations of the selected voxels. The symptom scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS were estimated using the linear prediction model. The results of leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV showed that the mean errors of the estimated symptom scores were 3.34 ± 2.40 and 3.90 ± 3.01 for the Positive and Negative PANSS scores, respectively. The current pilot study is the first attempt to estimate symptom severity scores in schizophrenia using quantitative EEG features. It is expected that the present method can be extended to other cognitive paradigms or other psychological illnesses.

  12. Vitamin D and plain type: a study of male patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, N. L.; Effendy, E.; Amin, MM

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder in which there is an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Evidence related to vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia is aresidence. Because influenced by geographical location this can affect sun exposure to individuals living in the area because the source of vitamin D for humans is exposure to sunlight. For determining differences in serum levels of vitamin D based on residence in the highland and lowland male schizophrenic patient. This study was an analytical study, by RS Jiwa Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Medan, approach to see the comparison 60 samples (30 patients live in the Highland and Lowland). Sample inspection for serum vitamin D using ELFA method. The results showed median levels of vitamin D subjects living in high land Tanah Karo was 22.20ng/mL with minimum-maximum levels of 19.3-34.5ng/mL and in the low land Pemko Medan vitamin D levels higher with median 27.95ng/mL with the minimum-maximum level of vitamin D 20.4-42.6ng/mL. Analysis using the Mann Whitney U test showed significant differences between the levels of vitamin D based on residence with a value of p = 0.001.

  13. Schizophrenia patients demonstrate a dissociation on declarative and non-declarative memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W; Light, G A; Davis, H; Braff, D L

    2000-12-15

    Declarative memory refers to the recall and recognition of factual information. In contrast, non-declarative memory entails a facilitation of memory based on prior exposure and is typically assessed with priming and perceptual-motor sequencing tasks. In this study, schizophrenia patients were compared to normal comparison subjects on two computerized memory tasks: the Word-stem Priming Test (n=30) and the Pattern Sequence Learning Test (n=20). Word-stem Priming includes recall, recognition (declarative) and priming (non-declarative) components of memory. The schizophrenia patients demonstrated an impaired performance on recall of words with relative improvement during the recognition portion of the test. Furthermore, they performed normally on the priming portion of the test. Thus, on tests of declarative memory, the patients had retrieval deficits with intact performance on the non-declarative memory component. The Pattern Sequence Learning Test utilizes a serial reaction time paradigm to assess non-declarative memory. The schizophrenia patients' serial reaction time was significantly slower than that of comparison subjects. However, the patients' rate of acquisition was not different from the normal comparison group. The data suggest that patients with schizophrenia process more slowly than normal, but have an intact non-declarative memory. The schizophrenia patients' dissociation on declarative vs. non-declarative memory tests is discussed in terms of possible underlying structural impairment.

  14. Evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to limit excessive antipsychotic co-prescribing in schizophrenia out-patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Allerup, Peter; Lublin, H

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on the frequency of antipsychotic co-prescribing in adult schizophrenia out-patients. METHOD: Controlled quasi-experimental study performed in two Danish municipalities matched for baseline prevalence of antipsychotic po...... for differences in case-mix (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: This multifaceted educational intervention failed to reduce the frequency of antipsychotic co-prescribing, but it suggested that future efforts to improve prescribing practice should address organizational barriers to implementation....

  15. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Yulia; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Solnik-Knirsh, Shimrit; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Eisenstein, Tamir; Madah, Waheed; Shamir, Alon; Hendler, Talma; Kremer, Ilana

    2018-01-01

    Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia ( N  = 15), their non-manifesting siblings ( N  = 14) and healthy controls ( N  = 15) listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings - high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale) revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  16. Characteristics of motivation and their impacts on the functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Miki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Fujii, Chiyo; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-02-01

    Deficits of motivation have been considered to be a core feature of schizophrenia, and recent studies have begun to reveal the biological and psychological characteristics and mechanisms underlying the deficits in motivation in schizophrenia patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate the characteristics of motivation in schizophrenia patients using the General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS), and the impacts of motivational orientations on the functional outcomes in schizophrenia patients. A total of 53 outpatients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls were recruited for this study. The GCOS was used to assess individual tendencies in respect of three different motivational orientations: the autonomy, controlled, and impersonal orientations, corresponding to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation, respectively. The cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, and quality of life of the subjects were also assessed. The score for autonomy orientation was significantly lower in the patient group than that in the control group, while no significant differences were found between the two groups in respect of the scores for the other two orientations. The autonomy orientation was associated with various clinical variables, and regression analysis identified as one of the variables with the highest predictive accuracy for social functioning. Intrinsic motivation measured by the GCOS in schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls. The deficits of intrinsic motivation were broadly associated with the clinical features and were a determinant of social functioning. Development of treatments for enhancing intrinsic motivation would be essential for functional recovery in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Lerner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia (N = 15, their non-manifesting siblings (N = 14 and healthy controls (N = 15 listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings – high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  18. The assessment of the nutritional value of meals consumed by patients with recognized schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Lech, Magdalena; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zapolska, Joanna; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2018-01-01

    As studies show, changes in diet - so important in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and related to changes in appetite and nutritional preferences, including avoiding of the consumption of specific groups of products and dishes - are much more frequent among patients affected by schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to assess the chosen nutritional habits, including the number and type of meals usually consumed during a day, snacking between meals and the energy value and content of the chosen nutrients in the diets of persons with recognized schizophrenia. The study was carried out in a group of 85 patients with recognized schizophrenia, and 70 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 18-65 years without mental or nutritional disorders. For the purpose of the study, we used a questionnaire containing questions on nutritional habits. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment with the use of the computer program Dieta 5.0. Female patients with recognized schizophrenia were having 3 meals a day significantly more frequently as compared to healthy women. They were also having an afternoon snack much more frequently as compared to the control group. The food rations of female patients were characterized by a significantly higher energy value and the content of most of the assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy women. The food rations of men with recognized schizophrenia were characterized by a much lower energy intake and the content of the majority of assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy men. In all compared groups, we observed an energetic structure of food rations with the breakdown by specific meals that was inconsistent with the applicable recommendations. Despite of differences between the nutritional value of the meals of patients with recognized schizophrenia and those of healthy subjects, it seems advisable to involve patients with recognized schizophrenia in the education of

  19. Suicidal ideation and quality of life in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Górna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia is 20- to 50-fold higher than in the general population. The impact of suicidal behaviour on quality of life rarely was a subject of in-depth analysis. The issue is particularly important in patients after first psychiatric hospitalisation, since the risk of suicide is very high during the first postdischarge months. The aim of this study was to analyse correlations between presence of suicidal ideations prior to first hospitalisation and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia during the first post-hospitalisation year. Material and method: Overall, 86 patients were enrolled in the study. Suicidal ideations and behaviours were assessed based on interviews with patients and their relatives, as well as on medical records. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated one month (1st exam and after one year (2nd exam after discharge. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL questionnaire and the SFS scale. Psychopathological symptoms were evaluated using the PANSS inventory. Results: Prior to first hospitalisation, suicidal ideations were present in 39.5% of our patients. Persons with suicidal thoughts presented more severe psychopathological symptoms (1st exam; p=0.05. Both examinations revealed differences in the patients’ quality of life. Lack of suicidal ideations was associated with a better quality of life as assessed by the WHOQOL questionnaire in the following domains: general well-being (1st and 2nd exam, state of health (1st exam, Mental (1st and 2nd exam, Physical (1st exam, Environmental domains (1st exam and Work/Employment (SFS scale, 1st and 2nd exam. A correlation was noticed between suicidal ideation and change in quality of life (WHOQOL in domains Social relationships and Environmental. An improvement of quality of life in this domain was noticed in persons with suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideations prior to first psychiatric hospitalisation

  20. Impact of the priority follow-up system on quality of life in Chinese schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Leung, Chi-Ming; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor Sandor

    2008-02-01

    Priority follow up (PFU) is a particular aspect of mental health care in Hong Kong whereby psychiatric patients with a history of violence or suspected proclivity to violence are identified and their management is closely monitored. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a PFU system on quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients. Two hundred and sixty-seven clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia were randomly selected and interviewed in Hong Kong using standardized assessment instruments that covered their clinical condition and QOL. Patients with PFU status constituted 8.2% of the sample. PFU patients were more likely to be men, have a history of violence, and were poorer in the physical, psychological, social and environmental QOL domains than their non-PFU counterparts even after controlling for the effects of potential confounding variables. More effective measures should be taken to improve QOL in PFU schizophrenia patients who are prone to violent behavior.

  1. Psychopathological and demographic characteristics of hallucinating patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an analysis based on AMDP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Christopher; Jänner, Michaela; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Malevani, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10). Hallucinating versus non-hallucinating patients and age- and gender-matched hallucinating schizophrenic versus schizoaffective patients were compared with regard to key psychopathological and demographic characteristics. Relative to patients with schizoaffective disorder, patients with schizophrenia more often hallucinated at admission (36.6 vs. 16.2 %, RR: 2.3, p  other auditory > visual > somatic/tactile > olfactory/gustatory. Hallucinating patients of either disorder were more often affected with respect to delusions (83 vs. 62 % and 81 vs. 48 % among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively [both p schizoaffective disorder did not differ from hallucinating patients with schizophrenia. This is one of the few studies providing data on hallucinations in a routine clinical care setting. Hallucinations are a sign and likely a cause of greater illness severity. Patients with schizoaffective disorder less often experience hallucinations than patients with schizophrenia, but if they do, they seem to resemble patients with schizophrenia with regard to illness severity.

  2. Me, myself and I: temporal dysfunctions during self-evaluation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Katharina D; Kircher, Tilo T J; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2014-11-01

    Self-concept is deeply affected in schizophrenia. Positive symptoms in particular are related to disturbed self/other distinctions. The neural networks underlying self-evaluation in schizophrenia have barely been investigated. The study reported here involved 13 patients with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls. During functional MRI, participants decided in three conditions whether the presented positive and negative personality traits characterized themselves, an intimate person, or included a certain letter. Based on the responses, each experimental condition was designed using a flexible factorial model. Controls and patients showed a similar behavioral pattern during self-evaluation, with group comparison revealing decreased activation in patients in the left inferior temporal gyrus and both temporal poles during self-ascription of traits, and in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of an intimate person. In patients, positive symptoms correlated positively with brain activation in the left parahippocampus during trait self-ascription. Hence, while evaluating themselves, schizophrenia patients revealed decreased activation in areas related to self-awareness overlapping with networks involved in theory of mind, empathy and social knowledge. Moreover, patients' brain activation during self-reflection was affected by the current positive symptomatology. The close interaction between self and other highlights the clinical and social relevance of self-processing deficits in schizophrenia. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Sumiyoshi, Chika; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Higuchi, Arisa; Hibi, Yumiko; Matsuura, Yukako; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Imura, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been reported to perform worse than non-schizophrenic populations on neuropsychological tests, which may be affected by cultural factors. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a sizable number of patients with schizophrenia on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) compared with healthy controls. Performance on the WAIS-III was evaluated in 157 Japanese patients with schizophrenia and in 264 healthy control subjects. All IQ scores and four indices from the WAIS-III were impaired for patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Processing Speed was markedly disturbed, approximately 2 SD below that of the healthy control group. Among the 13 subtests, Comprehension (z = -1.70, d = 1.55), Digit Symbol Coding (z = -1.84, d = 1.88), and Symbol Search (z = -1.85, d = 1.77) were profoundly impaired relative to the healthy controls. These results indicate that the pattern and degree of impairment, as evaluated by the WAIS-III, in Japanese patients are similar to those previously reported in English-speaking patients and that the deficits of some neuropsychological domains relevant to functional outcomes are universally characteristic of schizophrenia. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Illness Perceptions in Patients of Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Investigation from Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Sadia; Imran, Nazish; Hotiana, Usman Amin; Mazhar, Nauman; Asif, Aftab

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patient’s perception of their illness influences their healthcare decisions. The objectives of this study were to explore patient’s own beliefs about their illness (Schizophrenia) and perceived social support, and its impact on their attitudes toward pharmacological treatment in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted at Mayo Hospital Lahore from March to September 2016. Hundred individuals suffering from Schizophrenia completed four questionnaires; a soc...

  6. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI image...

  7. Prolonged-release melatonin versus placebo for benzodiazepine discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Lindschou, Jane; Winkel, Per

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed if prolonged-release melatonin can facilitate withdrawal of long-term benzodiazepine usage in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. METHODS: Randomised, placebo-controlled, blinded, parallel superiority trial of 24 weeks duration. Participants were randomised...... to prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg daily versus matching placebo and were continuously guided to gradually reduce their usual benzodiazepine dosage. The primary outcome was mean benzodiazepine daily dosage at 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included pattern of benzodiazepine dosage over time, benzodiazepine...... cessation proportion, and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 86 patients (21-74 years) were enrolled: 42 were randomised to melatonin versus 44 to placebo. We found no significant effect of melatonin on mean benzodiazepine dosage at 24 weeks (melatonin group 8.01 mg versus placebo group...

  8. Dopamine-Related Disruption of Functional Topography of Striatal Connections in Unmedicated Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Cassidy, Clifford M; Xu, Xiaoyan; Moore, Holly; Slifstein, Mark; Van Snellenberg, Jared X; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2016-08-01

    Despite the well-established role of striatal dopamine in psychosis, current views generally agree that cortical dysfunction is likely necessary for the emergence of psychotic symptoms. The topographic organization of striatal-cortical connections is central to gating and integration of higher-order information, so a disruption of such topography via dysregulated dopamine could lead to cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested using multivariate methods ascertaining the global pattern of striatal connectivity and without the confounding effects of antidopaminergic medication. To examine whether the pattern of brain connectivity across striatal subregions is abnormal in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and whether this abnormality relates to psychotic symptoms and extrastriatal dopaminergic transmission. In this multimodal, case-control study, we obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls from the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A subset of these (12 and 17, respectively) underwent positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 receptor radiotracer carbon 11-labeled FLB457 before and after amphetamine administration. Data were acquired between June 16, 2011, and February 25, 2014. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to January 11, 2016. Group differences in the striatal connectivity pattern (assessed via multivariable logistic regression) across striatal subregions, the association between the multivariate striatal connectivity pattern and extrastriatal baseline D2 receptor binding potential and its change after amphetamine administration, and the association between the multivariate connectivity pattern and the severity of positive symptoms evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Of the patients with schizophrenia (mean [SEM] age, 35.6 [11.8] years), 9 (50%) were male and 9

  9. [Metabolic Control, Evaluation and Follow-up Interventions in Patients With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Tamayo, Nathalie; Arenas, María Luisa; Vélez Fernández, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the laboratory tests, related to metabolic risk that should be practiced to adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. To assist the clinician decision-making process about complementary diagnostic evaluation strategies in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The risk of overall mortality in schizophrenia is higher than in the general population excluding suicide. Results related with mortality associated to antipsychotics showed contradictory results. Metabolic outcomes showed a higher incidence and association with schizophrenia and treatment with antipsychotics (AP). The diagnosis of dyslipidemia in men with schizophrenia appears to be lower in comparison with the general population. However, changes in weight, blood sugar levels, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by the use of antipsychotics in general there is a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in adults with schizophrenia. Based on the evidence found a plan was formulated for the evaluation of physiological and paraclinical variables during and before the management with AP in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. The overall quality of evidence is low considering that most of the reports come from observational studies that have risk of bias and some designs have methodological limitations. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Hemispheric dominance during the mental rotation task in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Yang, Laiqi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Guangxiong; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xingqu; Deng, Zihe; Tuo, Ran

    2012-04-01

    Mental rotation is a spatial representation conversion capability using an imagined object and either object or self-rotation. This capability is impaired in schizophrenia. To provide a more detailed assessment of impaired cognitive functioning in schizophrenia by comparing the electrophysiological profiles of patients with schizophrenia and controls while completing a mental rotation task using both normally-oriented images and mirror images. This electroencephalographic study compared error rates, reaction times and the topographic map of event-related potentials in 32 participants with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls during mental rotation tasks involving both normal images and mirror images. Among controls the mean error rate and the mean reaction time for normal images and mirror images were not significantly different but in the patient group the mean (sd) error rate was higher for mirror images than for normal images (42% [6%] vs. 32% [9%], t=2.64, p=0.031) and the mean reaction time was longer for mirror images than for normal images (587 [11] ms vs. 571 [18] ms, t=2.83, p=0.028). The amplitude of the P500 component at Pz (parietal area), Cz (central area), P3 (left parietal area) and P4 (right parietal area) were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group for both normal images and mirror images. In both groups the P500 for both the normal and mirror images was significantly higher in the right parietal area (P4) compared with left parietal area (P3). The mental rotation abilities of patients with schizophrenia for both normally-oriented images and mirror images are impaired. Patients with schizophrenia show a diminished left cerebral contribution to the mental rotation task, a more rapid response time, and a differential response to normal images versus mirror images not seen in healthy controls. Specific topographic characteristics of the EEG during mental rotation tasks are potential biomarkers for schizophrenia.

  11. SA30. Self-Assessment of Amotivation and Insight into Patients With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papsuev, Oleg; Movina, Larisa; Minyaycheva, Maria; Luther, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Schizophrenia is a disabling disorder characterized by negative and cognitive symptoms. The negative symptom domain of low motivation has recently been found to be an important determinant of functioning. Currently, motivation is frequently assessed with either self-rated or clinician-rated motivation measures. However, little is known about the overlap between self-rated and clinician-rated motivation and whether these two assessment types are differentially related to clinical variables. Therefore, this study investigated (1) the association between self-rated and clinician-rated motivation, (2) the clinical correlates of both motivation assessment types, and (3) the correlates of the discrepancy between the motivation assessments types. Methods: Fifty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed by trained clinicians using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS), and both the clinician-rated (C) and self-rated (S) versions of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). Neurocognition was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Social cognition was assessed with the Hinting Task, the Relationships Across Domains measure, and the Ekman-60 emotion recognition task. Results: The AES-C and AES-S were positively correlated (r = .43; P amotivation subscale items (N2 (r = .51), N4 (r = .45)). However, a significant correlation between the AES-C and the G16 item of the PANSS amotivation subscale was not observed. The AES-S was not significantly correlated with any of the PANSS amotivation items. The AES-C did not correlate with the PANSS depression item or the CDSS total score, while moderate correlations with the AES-S were observed with both (r = .38 and r = .45, respectively). The AES-C/AES-S discrepancy score was positively correlated with the PANSS insight item (r = 0.39) and the presence of a paranoid schizophrenia diagnosis (r = .32). No

  12. Impact of antipsychotic medication on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Chhabra, Harleen; Kalmady, Sunil V; Varambally, Shivarama; Nitsche, Michael A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has generated interest as a treatment modality for schizophrenia. Dopamine, a critical pathogenetic link in schizophrenia, is also known to influence tDCS effects. We evaluated the influence of antipsychotic drug type (as defined by dopamine D2 receptor affinity) on the impact of tDCS in schizophrenia. DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia patients [N=36] with persistent auditory hallucinations despite adequate antipsychotic treatment were administered add-on tDCS. Patients were divided into three groups based on the antipsychotic's affinity to D2 receptors. An auditory hallucinations score (AHS) was measured using the auditory hallucinations subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Add-on tDCS resulted in a significant reduction inAHS. Antipsychotic drug type had a significant effect on AHS reduction. Patients treated with high affinity antipsychotics showed significantly lesser improvement compared to patients on low affinity antipsychotics or a mixture of the two. Furthermore, a significant sex-by-group interaction occurred; type of medication had an impact on tDCS effects only in women. Improvement differences could be due to the larger availability of the dopamine receptor system in patients taking antipsychotics with low D2 affinity. Sex-specific differences suggest potential estrogen-mediated effects. This study reports a first-time observation on the clinical utility of antipsychotic drug type in predicting tDCS effects in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An fMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; McGrath, Claire; Chan, Robin M; Schroeder, Lee; Turner, Travis; Turetsky, Bruce I; Kohler, Christian; Alsop, David; Maldjian, Joseph; Ragland, J Daniel; Gur, Ruben C

    2002-12-01

    Emotion processing deficits are notable in schizophrenia. The authors evaluated cerebral blood flow response in schizophrenia patients during facial emotion processing to test the hypothesis of diminished limbic activation related to emotional relevance of facial stimuli. Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 matched comparison subjects viewed facial displays of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust as well as neutral faces. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as the subjects alternated between tasks of discriminating emotional valence (positive versus negative) and age (over 30 versus under 30) of the faces with an interleaved crosshair reference condition. The groups did not differ in performance on either task. For both tasks, healthy participants showed activation in the fusiform gyrus, occipital lobe, and inferior frontal cortex relative to the resting baseline condition. The increase was greater in the amygdala and hippocampus during the emotional valence discrimination task than during the age discrimination task. In the patients with schizophrenia, minimal focal response was observed for all tasks relative to the resting baseline condition. Contrasting patients and comparison subjects on the emotional valence discrimination task revealed voxels in the left amygdala and bilateral hippocampus in which the comparison subjects had significantly greater activation. Failure to activate limbic regions during emotional valence discrimination may explain emotion processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia. While the lack of limbic recruitment did not significantly impair simple valence discrimination performance in this clinically stable group, it may impact performance of more demanding tasks.

  14. Cognitive deficit in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: Its clinical and laboratory correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeikova, Mariia; Neznanov, Nikolay; Petrova, Nataliia

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to search for correlates of cognitive impairment in patients with paranoid schizophrenia among clinical, demographic, anamnestic and biochemical markers (NSE, S100B protein, BDNF, hs-CRP). Patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=125) were examined using the Brief Assessment of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task, and a number of clinical scales including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The majority of patients demonstrated cognitive impairment. The type of impairment was highly heterogeneous and individual. Relationships were found between the degree of executive functioning and family history of mental illness; working memory and age of onset of schizophrenia; and visual memory and psychopathological symptomatology. Negative and affective symptoms were not significantly associated with cognitive functioning. Treatment with first generation antipsychotics was associated with a more frequent impairment of motor skills, and concomitant anticholinergic drugs, with reduced accuracy. Use of second-generation antipsychotics only was associated with better accuracy, working memory and speech fluency. Among the patients, 21.4% had signs of a systemic inflammatory response, indicating a possible role of inflammatory response in the development of schizophrenia. CRP, S100B and NSE levels reflected features of the course of illness and therapeutic response. Patients with lower concentrations of BDNF were characterized by lower processing speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory brainstem response as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Viktor; Åhlander, Fredrik; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-02-12

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder, may sometimes be difficult to diagnose. There is a great need for a valid and reliable diagnostic tool to aid clinicians in arriving at the diagnoses in a timely and accurate manner. Prior studies have suggested that patients suffering from schizophrenia and ADHD may process certain sound stimuli in the brainstem in an unusual manner. When these patient groups have been examined with the electrophysiological method of brainstem audiometry, some studies have found illness-specific aberrations. Such aberrations may also exist for patients suffering from bipolar disorder. In this study, we will examine whether the method of brainstem audiometry can be used as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. The method includes three steps: (1) auditory stimulation with specific sound stimuli, (2) simultaneous measurement of brainstem activity, and (3) automated interpretation of the resulting brain stem audiograms with data-based signal analysis. We will compare three groups of 12 individuals with confirmed diagnoses of schizophrenia, ADHD, or bipolar disorder with 12 healthy subjects under blinded conditions for a total of 48 participants. The extent to which the method can be used to reach the correct diagnosis will be investigated. The project is now in a recruiting phase. When all patients and controls have been recruited and the measurements have been performed, the data will be analyzed according to a previously arranged algorithm. We expect the recruiting phase and measurements to be completed in early 2015, the analyses to be performed in mid-2015, and the results of the study to be published in early 2016. If the results support previous findings, this will lend strength to the idea that brainstem audiometry can offer objective diagnostic support for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and

  16. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Predictors of treatment resistance in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Støvring, Henrik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    ·13-1·37]), comorbid personality disorder (1·24 [1·11-1·39]), psychotropic drug use (antipsychotics 1·51 [1·35-1·69], antidepressants 1·15 [1·03-1·29], and benzodiazepines 1·22 [1·10-1·37]), and previous suicide attempt (1·21 [1·07-1·39]) were all significantly associated with treatment-resistant schizophrenia...... (provincial 1·38 [1·23-1·56], rural 1·44 [1·25-1·65]), primary education level (0·88 [0·79-0·98]), more than 30 bed-days in psychiatric hospital in the year before first schizophrenia diagnosis (1·54 [1·35-1·75]), inpatient at first schizophrenia diagnosis (2·07 [1·87-2·29]), paranoid subtype (1·24 [1...

  18. Conceptualizations of illness among relatives of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Cecília C; Redko, Cristina P; Mari, Jair J

    2017-06-01

    Family concepts of a relative's illness are an important part of the coping process and reveal the cultural construction of the experience of illness. As part of a qualitative study conducted in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, 14 relatives of eight outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were interviewed and invited to talk freely about their ideas and feelings concerning their relative's problem. Qualitative analysis was used to identify categories of illness representations. Three main categories were discussed, including Problema de Nervoso, Problema na Cabeça and Problema Espiritual (Problem of the Nerves, Problem in the Head and Spiritual Problem). The authors present evidence of these categories as cultural constructions, and discuss the relevance of popular notions of illness to the understanding of the course and outcome of schizophrenia, and the planning of culturally meaningful interventions.

  19. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  20. Neuropsychological characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Sugranyes, Gisela; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Baeza, Immaculada; Vila, Montserrat; Romero, Soledad; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Penzol, Mª José; Moreno, Dolores; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are considered neurobiological disorders which share some clinical, cognitive and neuroimaging characteristics. Studying child and adolescent offspring of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BDoff) or schizophrenia (SZoff) is regarded as a reliable method for investigating early alterations and vulnerability factors for these disorders. This study compares the neuropsychological characteristics of SZoff, BDoff and a community control offspring group (CC) with the aim of examining shared and differential cognitive characteristics among groups. 41 SZoff, 90 BDoff and 107 CC were recruited. They were all assessed with a complete neuropsychological battery which included intelligence quotient, working memory (WM), processing speed, verbal memory and learning, visual memory, executive functions and sustained attention. SZoff and BDoff showed worse performance in some cognitive areas compared with CC. Some of these difficulties (visual memory) were common to both offspring groups, whereas others, such as verbal learning and WM in SZoff or PSI in BDoff, were group-specific. The cognitive difficulties in visual memory shown by both the SZoff and BDoff groups might point to a common endophenotype in the two disorders. Difficulties in other cognitive functions would be specific depending on the family diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wanqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and NO (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 37 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL-8 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). While the serum NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After six weeks' treatment, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 in the patients, though dropped markedly still remained significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in controls. The serum NO levels, though markedly increased after treatment, were still remained significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  2. [PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AS A WAY OF CORRECTING MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENTS IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinayko, V; Korovina, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of motivational and targeted psychoeducational programs designed for patients with paranoid schizophrenia with abdominal obesity. We observed 34 women aged 18-42 with continuous-flow type paranoid schizophrenia. All patients had a concomitant abdominal obesity, which developed secondarily after long-term administration of second generation antipsychotic medications (at least 1 year). Based on clinical-psychopathological and psychometric methods of assessment and on the analysis of Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire we have developed modules for psychoeducational programs. Based on the results of the treatment we conclude that the application of psychoeducational programs is an effective component of complex treatment of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Abdominal obesity should be regarded as an important and the main side effect of long-term therapy with atypical antipsychotic medications. It has a marked negative effect on subjective assessment of patients and decreases the level of their mental and social adaptation. This factor should be the basis for the formation of re-socialization and compliance-oriented actions.

  3. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007, along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology.

  4. BDNF-Val66Met-Polymorphism Impact on Cortical Plasticity in Schizophrenia Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael A.; Wobrock, Thomas; Bunse, Tilmann; Rein, Bettina; Herrmann, Maximiliane; Schmitt, Andrea; Nieratschker, Vanessa; Witt, Stephanie H.; Rietschel, Marcella; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be a moderator of neuroplasticity. A frequent BDNF-polymorphism (Val66Met) is associated with impairments of cortical plasticity. In patients with schizophrenia, reduced neuroplastic responses following non-invasive brain stimulation have been reported consistently. Various studies have indicated a relationship between the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism and motor-cortical plasticity in healthy individuals, but schizophrenia patients have yet to be investigated. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to test the impact of the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism on inhibitory and facilitatory cortical plasticity in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Cortical plasticity was investigated in 22 schizophrenia patients and 35 healthy controls using anodal and cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left primary motor cortex. Animal and human research indicates that excitability shifts following anodal and cathodal tDCS are related to molecular long-term potentiation and long-term depression. To test motor-cortical excitability before and after tDCS, well-established single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols were applied. Results: Our analysis revealed increased glutamate-mediated intracortical facilitation in met-heterozygotes compared to val-homozygotes at baseline. Following cathodal tDCS, schizophrenia met-heterozygotes had reduced gamma-amino-butyric-acid-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition, whereas healthy met-heterozygotes displayed the opposite effect. The BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism did not influence single-pulse motor-evoked potential amplitudes after tDCS. Conclusions: These preliminary findings support the notion of an association of the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism with observable alterations in plasticity following cathodal tDCS in schizophrenia patients. This indicates a complex interaction between inhibitory

  5. The Correlates of Quality of Life Among Jordanian Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Obiedate, Khaldoon

    Addressing the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia is of special importance in the Arab world, where little knowledge is available about their well-being, and most of them experience stigma and living in poverty. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic characteristics, severity of depressive symptoms, and various aspects of public stigma against mental illness, with QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. In this descriptive correlational study, 160 Jordanian outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived public stigma against mental illness, severity of depression, and QOL. Participants had poor QOL. Age, marital status, relapse, education level, stigma against mental illness, and severity of depression were significantly associated with QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Data analysis revealed that the severity of depression accounted for an additional 27% of the variance above and beyond the 36.7% accounted for by age of the participants and perceived public stigma against mental illness. Health care professionals should develop culturally competent nursing practice considering the specific factors associated with QOL among Arab patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Selective, sustained, and shift in attention in patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh-Shenas, H; Toobai, S; Makaremi, A

    2002-12-01

    Attentional deficits are a prominent aspect of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate attention deficit in a group of patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia. According to the segmental set theory suggested by Hogarty and Flesher, three aspects of attention problems, selective, sustained, and shift in attention, were studied. The 30 patients hospitalized on three psychiatric wards at Shiraz and Isfahan and 30 normal healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and years of education were administered a computerized Continuous Performance Test, Stroop Color-word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting test. Analysis showed patients performed more poorly than control subjects on measured aspects of attention. The acute/chronic classification did not predict differences in attention scores between subtypes of schizophrenia, while the positive/negative classification did. Paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual groups by subtypes of schizophrenia showed similar performance on the Continuous Performance Test, but were significantly different on errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting test and on reaction time to Stroop stimuli in the incongruent color-word condition. Patients with paranoid diagnosis performed better than other subtypes on these tasks. Present results suggest that the Continuous Performance Test is valuable for differentiating of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, while scores on Stroop and Wisconsin card sorting may have better diagnostic value for differentiating subtypes of the disorder.

  7. Effect of organizational strategy on visual memory in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Namgoong, Yoon; Youn, Tak

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how copy organization mediated immediate recall among patients with schizophrenia using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). The Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) was applied for qualitative and quantitative analyses of ROCF performances. Subjects included 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. During the copy condition, the schizophrenia group and the control group differed in fragmentation; during the immediate recall condition, the two groups differed in configural presence and planning; and during the delayed recall condition, they differed in several qualitative measurements, including configural presence, cluster presence/placement, detail presence/placement, fragmentation, planning, and neatness. The two groups also differed in several quantitative measurements, including immediate presence and accuracy, immediate retention, delayed retention, and organization. Although organizational strategies used during the copy condition mediated the difference between the two groups during the immediate recall condition, group also had a significant direct effect on immediate recall. Schizophrenia patients are deficient in visual memory, and a piecemeal approach to the figure and organizational deficit seem to be related to the visual memory deficit. But schizophrenia patients also appeared to have some memory problems, including retention and/or retrieval deficits.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids related to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Satogami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.

  9. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Inhibition of return is not impaired but masked by increased facilitation in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulou, Fenia; Woodruff, Peter W R; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    When attention is attracted to an irrelevant location, performance on a subsequent target is hindered at that location in relation to novel, not previously attended, locations. This phenomenon is known as inhibition of return (IOR). Previous research has shown that IOR is not observed, or its onset is delayed, in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that IOR may be intact but masked by increased facilitation in schizophrenia patients. To test this hypothesis, they used a procedure that usually reduces or eliminates the early facilitation. In the first experiment, the authors used the typical single-cue IOR task in the group of healthy adults (N = 28) and in a group of schizophrenia patients (N = 32). In the second experiment, they manipulated cue-target discriminability by presenting spatially overlapping cues and targets where the cues were more intense than the targets. In Experiment 1, they did not find significant IOR effects in the group of schizophrenia patients, even with cue-target intervals as long as 3,200 ms. However, in Experiment 2, IOR effects were significant at the 350- and 450-ms cue-target intervals for healthy and patients, respectively. This is the first study that shows that schizophrenia patients can actually show inhibitory effects very similar to healthy controls, even when no help is provided to shift their attention away from the irrelevant location. The authors suggest that inhibition is intact in schizophrenia patients, but it is usually masked by increased facilitation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between obesity and neurocognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhanchou; Wei, Qinling; Lv, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-04-09

    Studies have reported that up to 60% of individuals with schizophrenia are overweight or obese. This study explored the relationship between obesity and cognitive performance in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Outpatients with schizophrenia aged 18-50 years were recruited from 10 study sites across China. Demographic and clinical information was collected. A neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, processing speed, learning/memory, and executive functioning was used to assess cognitive function, and these 4 individual domains were transformed into a neurocognitive composite z score. In addition, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Patients were categorized into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) based on BMI cutoff values for Asian populations recommended by the World Health Organization. A total number of 896 patients were enrolled into the study. Fifty-four percent of participants were overweight or obese. A higher BMI was significantly associated with lower scores on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Visual Reproduction subscale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p's ≤ 0.024). Obese patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores than normal weight patients on the Trail Making Test B, the WMS-R Visual Reproduction subscale, the WAIS Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p's ≤ 0.004). Our study suggests that, in addition to its well established risk for various cardiometabolic conditions, obesity is also associated with decreased cognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should explore if weight loss and management can improve cognitive function in obese patients who suffer from schizophrenia.

  13. Negative attitude towards medication is associated with working memory impairment in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Silver, Henry

    2005-03-01

    A lack of insight into illness and negative attitudes towards medication are common among individuals with schizophrenia and impact clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards medication and cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-five male forensic inpatients who were suffering from chronic schizophrenia participated in the study. A drug attitude inventory was used to evaluate the attitudes of the patients towards medication. Neuropsychological function was assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Patients with positive attitudes towards medication performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on tests of verbal working memory (digit span forwards and backwards), inhibition and set shifting (Penn Inhibition test), delayed object memory and overall mental status (Mini Mental State Examination). There were no differences in age, education, hospitalizations or clinical symptoms between the groups. Our findings support an association between negative attitudes towards medication and poor cognitive performance, particularly of working memory.

  14. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran; Schwieler, Lilly; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G; Schalling, Martin; Erhardt, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA). This compound is an end-metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, and its formation indirectly depends on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA. Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA.

  15. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    , early-onset schizophrenia patients (mean age = 20.7 years) (N = 18) and healthy controls (N = 38). Schizophrenia diagnoses were established at the time of the patients' first clinical presentation during childhood or adolescence and were confirmed five years later. In the chronic phase of early...

  16. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  17. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Janssen, M. M. J.; Meesters, P. D.; Comijs, H. C.; Eikelenboom, P.; Smit, J. H.; de Haan, L.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Stek, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older

  18. Theory of mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Janssen, M.M.J.; Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Eikelenboom, P.; Smit, J.H.; de Haan, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ

  19. EEG Phase Synchronization In Patients With Paranoid Schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bob, P.; Paluš, Milan; Šusta, M.; Glaslová, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 447, č. 1 (2008), s. 73-77 ISSN 0304-3940 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : EEG * phase synchronization * coherence * schizophrenia * feature binding Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2008

  20. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    /3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. METHODS: Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences...... with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right...

  1. Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Krabbendam, L; Jolles, J; van Os, Jim

    2003-08-01

    It has been proposed that alterations in theory of mind underlie specific symptoms of psychosis. The present study examined whether alterations in theory of mind reflect a trait that can be detected in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 43 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 41 first-degree non-psychotic relatives and 43 controls from the general population. Theory of mind was assessed using a hinting task and a false-belief task. There was a significant association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the hinting task (OR linear trend = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.31), with relatives having intermediate values between patients and controls. Adjustment for IQ and neuropsychological factors reduced the association by small amounts. The association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the false-belief tasks was not significant. Changes in theory of mind are associated with schizophrenia liability. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures seem to mediate only part of this association.

  2. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain Volume Changes After Withdrawal of Atypical Antipsychotics in Patients With First-Episode Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Geartsje; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Burger, Huibert; Boersma, Maria; de Kroon, Bart; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    The influence of antipsychotic medication on brain morphology in schizophrenia may confound interpretation of brain changes over time. We aimed to assess the effect of discontinuation of atypical antipsychotic medication on change in brain volume in patients. Sixteen remitted, stable patients with

  4. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Yeo, S.; Lim, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory

  5. FEATURES OF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND NEUROTROPHIC REGULATION IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kolesnichenko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidative systems and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Present study indicates associations between the studied parameters and type of progression, duration of disease and gender of patients.

  6. [Religiousness of patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia. Wide-ranging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    (1) The correlations between: (1.1) various aspects of religiousness and (1.2) age, anxiety-state, anxiety-trait, locus of control, and, in the group of patients with shizophrenia: span of treatment, rate of therapy, ego psychopathology, paranoid and depression dimensions, self-rating of state of self-feeling, state of feeling of illness, and quality of life and (2) the comparison of various aspects of religiousness of patients with schizophrenia and healthy people were studied. The Scale of Christian Religiousness, Individual Religiousness Scale, Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Quest Religious Orientation Scales, Scale of Fundamentalism, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rotter's questionnaire of locus of control, Scharfetter's questionnaire of ego psychopathology, Paranoid-Depresivity Scale-abridgment, Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale-abridgment, visual analogy of self-feeling, visual analogy of feeling of illness, and questionnaire of quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were used in the study. 91 adults both of sexes, 60 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 and DCR-10 in the diagnostic group and 31 healthy persons were studied. It was noticed that: (1) various correlations are manifested between religiousness and psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia; (2) patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia have a significantly higher level of extrinsic religiousness and fundamentalism than healthy individuals; (3) many results pointed out in the bibliography had no verification in these studies. Intrinsic, extrinsic, quest, and orthodox religiousness and fundamentalism realize significant functions in psychopathology of schizophrenia disorder. The knowledge about religiousness of schizophrenia patients can be important for diagnostic and therapeutic processes of the disorder.

  7. Video-based quantification of body movement during social interaction indicates the severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Kalbermatten, Samuel; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In schizophrenia, nonverbal behavior, including body movement, is of theoretical and clinical importance. Although reduced nonverbal expressiveness is a major component of the negative symptoms encountered in schizophrenia, few studies have objectively assessed body movement during social interaction. In the present study, 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia were analyzed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This method enables the objective measuring of body movement in conjunction with ordinary video recordings. Correlations between movement parameters (percentage of time in movement, movement speed) and symptom ratings from independent PANSS interviews were calculated. Movement parameters proved to be highly reliable. In keeping with predictions, reduced movement and movement speed correlated with negative symptoms. Accordingly, in patients who exhibited noticeable movement for less than 20% of the observation time, prominent negative symptoms were highly probable. As a control measure, the percentage of movement exhibited by the patients during role-play scenes was compared to that of their normal interactants. Patients with negative symptoms differed from normal interactants by showing significantly reduced head and body movement. Two specific positive symptoms were possibly related to movement parameters: suspiciousness tended to correlate with reduced head movement, and the expression of unusual thought content tended to relate to increased movement. Overall, a close and theoretically meaningful association between the objective movement parameters and the symptom profiles was found. MEA appears to be an objective, reliable and valid method for quantifying nonverbal behavior, an aspect which may furnish new insights into the processes related to reduced expressiveness in schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  9. Suicidality, self-stigma, social anxiety and personality traits in stabilized schizophrenia patients – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1–3 Marie Ociskova,1,2 Michaela Holubova,4 Krystof Kantor,1,2 Antonin Kolek,1,2 Aleš Grambal,1,2 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background and aim: Patients who have schizophrenia are more prone to suicidal behavior than the general population. This study aimed to find connections between suicidality and self-stigma, hope, and personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Forty-eight stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia attended this cross-sectional study. Patients were diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI using the ICD-10 research diagnostic criteria. The assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. Results: The individual rate of suicidality (suicidal index from MINI strongly positively correlated with self-stigma, level of depression, social anxiety, and harm-avoidance, and negatively correlated with hope, self-directedness, and stigma resistance. Conclusion: Individuals with additional symptoms of depression, social anxiety, trait-like anxiety, and self-stigma should be carefully monitored for suicidal ideation. On the opposite side, patients with sufficient hope, self-esteem, and goal-directed attitudes are less likely to have suicidal thoughts and may potentially be role models in group rehabilitation programs, motivating more

  10. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  11. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  12. Marked reduction of AKT1 expression and deregulation of AKT1-associated pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico J M van Beveren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that deregulated AKT1 signaling is associated with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that if this is indeed the case, we should observe both decreased AKT1 expression as well as deregulation of AKT1 regulated pathways in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of schizophrenia patients. OBJECTIVES: To examine PBMC expression levels of AKT1 in schizophrenia patients versus controls, and to examine whether functional biological processes in which AKT1 plays an important role are deregulated in schizophrenia patients. METHODS/RESULTS: A case-control study, investigating whole-genome PBMC gene expression in male, recent onset (<5 years schizophrenia patients (N = 41 as compared to controls (N = 29. Genes, differentially expressed between patients and controls were identified using ANOVA with Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate (FDR = 0.05. Functional aspects of the deregulated set of genes were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA Software Tool. We found significantly decreased PBMC expression of AKT1 (p<0.001, t = -4.25 in the patients. AKT1 expression was decreased in antipsychotic-free or -naive patients (N = 11, in florid psychotic (N = 20 and in remitted (N = 21 patients. A total of 1224 genes were differentially expressed between patients and controls (FDR = 0.05. Functional analysis of the entire deregulated gene set indicated deregulated canonical pathways involved in a large number of cellular processes: immune system, cell adhesion and neuronal guidance, neurotrophins and (neural growth factors, oxidative stress and glucose metabolism, and apoptosis and cell-cycle regulation. Many of these processes are associated with AKT1. CONCLUSIONS: We show significantly decreased PBMC gene expression of AKT1 in male, recent-onset schizophrenia patients. Our observations suggest that decreased PBMC AKT1 expression is a stable trait in recent onset

  13. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  14. One patient with Sjogren’s syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ching-En Lin1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, Buddhist Medical Foundation, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2School of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren’s syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. Keywords: mental illness, psychosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, schizophrenia

  15. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Tobias; Baldessarini, Ross J; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Information on basic demographic and clinical characteristics of schizoaffective disorder is sparse and subject to sampling bias and low diagnostic reliability. In the present study we aimed to: (i) estimate the demographic and clinical descriptors in schizoaffective disorder patients and (ii) compare the findings with those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To minimize sampling bias and low reliability, we systematically reviewed studies that simultaneously compared schizoaffective, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder patients. We estimated demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics based on weighted pooling, and compared disorders by meta-analysis. We also estimated whether schizoaffective disorder is closer to schizophrenia or to bipolar disorder. We identified 50 studies that included 18312 patients. Most characteristics of the 2684 schizoaffective disorder patients fell between those of 4814 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 10814 with schizophrenia. However, the schizoaffective group had the highest proportion of women (52%), had the youngest age at illness onset (23.3 ± 3.8 years), and had the highest standardized ratings of psychosis and depression. Differences in pooled parameters between schizoaffective versus schizophrenia and versus bipolar disorder subjects were similar. Values for patients with schizoaffective disorders mostly were intermediate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the majority of studies showed schizoaffective patients to be more like schizophrenia than bipolar disorder patients in seven out of nine demographic and clinical categories as well as in five out of eight psychometric measures. These results remained similar when we restricted the analyses to studies with psychotic bipolar disorder patients only or to studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IIIR and DSM-IV only. The present study provided estimates of important characteristics of schizoaffective

  16. Neuropsychology, autobiographical memory and hippocampal volume in younger and older patients with chronic schizophrenia

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    Christina Josefa Herold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21 with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume, executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.

  17. Neuropsychology, autobiographical memory, and hippocampal volume in "younger" and "older" patients with chronic schizophrenia.

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    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.

  18. Field visual perspective during autobiographical memory recall is less frequent among patients with schizophrenia.

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    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Berna, Fabrice; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2013-10-01

    There is growing interest in clinical research regarding the visual perspective adopted during memory retrieval, because it reflects individuals' self-attitude towards their memories of past personal events. Several autobiographical memory deficits, including low specificity of personal memories, have been identified in schizophrenia, but visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval has not yet been investigated in patients. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the visual perspective with which patients visualize themselves when recalling autobiographical memories and to assess the specificity of their memories which is a major determinant of visual perspective. Thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched controls recalled personal events from 4 life periods. After each recall, they were asked to report their visual perspective (Field or Observer) associated with the event. The specificity of their memories was assessed by independent raters. Our results showed that patients reported significantly fewer Field perspectives than comparison participants. Patients' memories, whether recalled with Field or Observer perspectives, were less specific and less detailed. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia adopt Field perspectives less frequently than comparison participants, and that this may contribute to a weakened sense of the individual of being an actor of his past events, and hence to a reduced sense of self. They suggest that this may be related to low specificity of memories and that all the important aspects involved in re-experiencing autobiographical events are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

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    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  20. Circulatory neurosteroid levels in smoking and non-smoking chronic schizophrenia patients.

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    Iancu, Iulian; Tchernihovsky, Eleonora; Maayan, Rachel; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2007-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients display an extremely high rate of smoking. Neurosteroids appear to play a possible role in the pathophysiology and management of schizophrenia and have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. Although many studies have evaluated blood levels of neurosteroids in schizophrenia patients, only a few studies have taken into consideration the effect of smoking on levels of neurosteroids in the illness. Forty-five DSM-IV-TR chronic schizophrenia patients were sampled for plasma levels of three steroids: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S). Patients were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and provided data on their smoking behavior. The mean level of plasma cortisol in our sample (N=45) was 197.9 nmol/L (S.D.=81.5), and the levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were 23 nmol/L (S.D.=5.5) and 4276.6 nmol/L (S.D.=2665.58), respectively. Despite a trend for lower levels of cortisol, DHEA and DHEA-S among the smokers, only DHEA, but not DHEA-S and cortisol, was significantly lower among the smokers (33% decrease, p=0.012). Smoking predicted the positive and negative scores of the PANSS, whereas cortisol was correlated with the PANSS-negative subscale. Smoking in chronic schizophrenia patients appears to be associated with lower DHEA levels. The role of this decrease in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction and schizophrenia merits further investigation.

  1. Translation and Psychometric Properties of Persian Version of Independent Living Scale in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Khalafbeigi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Independent living skills are major targets for rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia. So, assessment of their performance is required to obtain valuable information for planning intervention. The independent living scale (ILS is a useful assessment tool for this population. Objectives The aims of this study were to translate the three of five subscales of ILS (“memory/orientation”, “health and safety” and “social adjustment” into Persian language and evaluate their validity. The remaining two subscales of ILS (“money management”, “home management and transportation” have already been translated to Persian language by other researchers in Iran. In addition, the reliability of whole Persian version of ILS subscales was evaluated to be used for patients with Schizophrenia. Methods The three subscales of ILS were translated from English into Persian according to the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA approach. The translation of the three subscales: memory/orientation, health and safety and social adjustment, were analyzed by experts to develop the final version of each subscale. After translation, face and content validity of scale were performed. In face validity evaluation, the scale was investigated by 6 occupational therapists in terms of simplicity, mastery, relationship and clarity or transparency for each of the items. To assess the validity of content, scale was examined by 15 occupational therapists and content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI of each item were calculated. To assess the reliability of the subscales, test-retest reliability techniques (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measure (SEM were utilized. Results The simplicity, relevance, clarity and necessity of the translated items were acceptable, according to the CVI and CVR scores. Face validity was also acceptable with respect to agreement rate (> 80%. Test-retest reliability

  2. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia.

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    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Haijma, Sander V; Schnack, Hugo G; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2015-08-01

    Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and IQ scores were obtained at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Participants included 84 patients with schizophrenia (mean illness duration, 4.35 years) and 116 age-matched healthy control participants. Associations between changes in IQ and the total brain, cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, lateral ventricular, third ventricles, cortical, and subcortical volumes; cortical thickness; and cortical surface area. Cerebral gray matter volume (P = .006) and cortical volume (P = .03) and thickness (P = .02) decreased more in patients with schizophrenia across time compared with control participants. Patients showed additional loss in cortical volume and thickness of the right supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, left supramarginal, left postcentral, and occipital regions (P values were between IQ increased similarly in patients with schizophrenia and control participants, changes in IQ were negatively correlated with changes in lateral ventricular volume (P = .05) and positively correlated with changes in cortical volume (P = .007) and thickness (P = .004) only in patients with schizophrenia. Positive correlations between changes in IQ and cortical volume and thickness were found globally and in widespread regions across frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices (P values were between <.001 and .03 after clusterwise correction). These findings were independent of symptom

  3. Neurocognitive and Functional Correlates of Mobile Phone Use in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Depp, Colin A; Harmell, Alexandrea L; Vahia, Ipsit V; Mausbach, Brent