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Sample records for schizophrenia mental disorders

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  2. Pharmaceutical Innovation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Mental Disorders Compared with Other Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Joanna P; Seabury, Seth; Aigbogun, Myrlene Sanon; Kamat, Siddhesh; van Eijndhoven, Emma; Francois, Clement; Henderson, Crystal; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed. Disease burden and prevalence for mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder); cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; and neurological disorders (dementia and epilepsy) were estimated from literature sources. Pharmaceutical treatment innovation was measured by the total number of drug launches and the number of drugs launched categorized by innovativeness. Research and development expenditures were estimated using published information on annual public and domestic private research and development expenditures by disease area. Lastly, investment relative to disease burden was measured among the set of disease classes for which all three measures were available: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurology (dementia and epilepsy combined). The level of investment and pharmaceutical innovation in mental disorders was comparatively low, especially relative to the burden of disease. For mental disorders, investment was $3.1 per $1,000 burden invested in research and development for schizophrenia, $1.8 for major depressive disorder, and $0.4 for bipolar disorder relative to cancer ($75.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($9.4), diabetes ($7.6), cardiovascular disease ($6.3), or rheumatoid arthritis ($5.3). Pharmaceutical innovation was also low

  3. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B

    2010-02-01

    A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.

  4. Family Burden and Social Support in Mental Illness: A Comparative Study in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    JOSY KADAVIL THOMAS

    2018-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to assess and compare the global functioning of individuals affected with two major mental illnesses i.e. schizophrenia and mood disorders , social support perceived by them, and family burden and social support perceived by their caregivers. The individuals affected with schizophrenia were found to be more severely ill with a longer duration of illness, and perceived less social support as compared to those with mood disorders. The caregivers’ perceived socia...

  5. Mental health literacy about schizophrenia and depression: a survey among Chinese caregivers of patients with mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shubao; Wu, Qiuxia; Qi, Chang; Deng, Huiqiong; Wang, Xuyi; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Xiong, Yifan; Liu, Tieqiao

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the knowledge of schizophrenia and depression among caregivers of patients with mental disorder in China. A convenience sample of 402 caregivers at the Department of Psychiatry of a general hospital in China was investigated (response rate 95.7%), using vignettes based investigation methodology. The number of caregivers using the term "depression" to describe the depression vignette was 43.6%, which was significantly higher than the number of caregivers using the term "schizophrenia" to describe the schizophrenia one (28.5%). A high percentage of caregivers believed that "psychiatrist", "psychologist" and "close family members" would be helpful, and the top three most helpful interventions were "becoming more physically active", "getting out and learning more" and "receiving psychotherapy". The number of caregivers endorsed "antipsychotics" and "antidepressants" as helpful for the schizophrenia and the depression vignettes were 82.0 and 80.7%, respectively. Regarding the causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial factors, including "daily problems" and "work or financial problems", and "weakness of character" were highly rated, with half considered genetic or chemical imbalance causes. Caregivers expressed a high knowledge about treatments and interventions of mental disorders. But there are still some areas, particularly regarding the recognition and causes of mental disorders, that are in need of improvement. This is particularly the case for schizophrenia.

  6. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  7. Spatial behavior reflects the mental disorder in OCD patients with and without comorbid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Anat; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A; Eilam, David

    2014-02-01

    Resolving the entangled nosological dilemma of whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without schizophrenia (schizo-OCD and OCD, respectively) are two independent entities or whether schizo-OCD is a combined product of its parent disorders. Studying motor activity in OCD and in schizo-OCD patients. Performance of the patients was compared with the performance of the same motor task by a matching control individual. Behavior in both schizo-OCD and OCD patients differed from controls in the excessive repetition and addition of acts, thus validating an identical OC facet. However, there was a significant difference in spatial behavior. Schizo-OCD patients traveled over a greater area with less focused activity as typical to schizophrenia patients and in contrast to OCD patients, who were more focused and traveled less in a confined area. While schizo-OCD and OCD patients share most of the OC ritualistic attributes, they differ in the greater spread of activity in schizo-OCD, which is related to schizophrenia disorder. It is suggested that the finding on difference in spatial behavior is a reflection of the mental differences between OCD and schizophrenia. In other words, this could be an overt and observable manifestation of the mental state, and therefore may facilitate the nosology of OC spectrum disorders and OCD. It seems as if both the OCD patients' focus on specific thoughts, and the contrasting wandering thoughts of schizophrenia patients, are reflected in the focused activity of the former and wandering from one place to the next of the latter.

  8. [Review of risks factors in childhood for schizophrenia and severe mental disorders in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Jordi; Tizón, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    To provide scientific evidence, using a literature review on psychosocial risk factors in mental health, that a high exposure to psychosocial stress situations in childhood increases the risk of mental disorders in adulthood,. A literature review up to December 2011 in the electronic databases from Medline, Universitat de Barcelona, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. The keywords used were: childhood, prenatal, vulnerability, risk, abuse, neglect, child mental disorder, schizophrenia, and prevention. Inclusion criteria for the studies reviewed: 1) designed to investigate childhood risk factors; 2) Comparative studies with persons without risk factors; 3) Studies with sufficient statistical significance; 4) Studies with "n" participants equal to o more than 30 persons. There are a group of easily identifiable mental health risk factors in childhood that can help in the prevention of mental disorders in the adulthood. They can be grouped into four categories: A) Pregnancy, birth and perinatal problems; B) Poor interpersonal relations with parents; C) Adverse life events in the first two years of life; D) Cognitive deficits in primary school, and social isolation during school years. There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. It is necessary to consider those events as Risk Factors for Mental Health. The accumulation of these Risk Factors increases vulnerability to Mental Disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family caregiver burden in mental illnesses: The case of affective disorders and schizophrenia - a qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kardorff, Ernst; Soltaninejad, Ali; Kamali, Mohammad; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of people with mental illnesses often experience a wide range of burdens. Although many studies have confirmed burdens among family caregivers of mentally ill relatives in general, specific knowledge regarding the concrete everyday hassle and existential sorrows from the caregiverś subjective reasoning perspective is lacking. Furthermore, there is little evidence on the possible different effects of affective disorders and schizophrenia on the quality of burden; this is also true with regard to the role of cultural traditions and lay beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore the specific burdens experienced by caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. A qualitative study was conducted by semi-structured interviews with 45 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Eleven encumbering themes resulted from the interviews including incertitude, unawareness, emotional burden, stigma and blame, financial burden, physical burden, restriction in routine, disruption in routine, dissatisfaction with family, relatives, and acquaintances, troubles with patients' adherence to medication, and problems with health services and governmental support. Caring for a person with mental illness affects caregivers emotionally, financially, physically, and it elicits some restrictions in their routine (daily hassles). Finally, it causes conflicts in family relationships. Despite some differences regarding perceived burden among caregivers of schizophrenia and affective disorders, a common pattern of burden could be identified. Thus, authorities should provide adequate financial, educational, and psychosocial supports for caregivers of mental illnesses.

  11. Where's the problem? Considering Laing and Esterson's account of schizophrenia, social models of disability, and extended mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson's account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964), social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders (schizophrenia, disability, certain mental disorders) should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems (to be located in the family, or in the material and social environment). In this article, I consider the grounds on which such claims might be supported. I argue that problems should not be located within an individual putative patient in cases where there is some acceptable test environment in which there is no problem. A number of cases where such an argument can show that there is no internal disorder are discussed. I argue, however, that Laing and Esterson's argument-that schizophrenia is not within diagnosed patients-does not work. The problem with their argument is that they fail to show that the diagnosed women in their study function adequately in any environment.

  12. Economic evaluation in mental healthcare : assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions for patients with major depressive disorder or schizophrenia in the context of the Dutch healthcare system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, Dennis.

    2007-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most disabling illnesses worldwide, and the associated burden is even expected to increase in coming decades. The studies in this thesis specifically focused on major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, both associated with wide ranging consequences for the lives of

  13. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of the Mental Health and Development model for schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menil, V; Knapp, M; McDaid, D; Raja, S; Kingori, J; Waruguru, M; Wood, S K; Mannarath, S; Lund, C

    2015-10-01

    The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries. In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature. Costs were analysed from societal and health system perspectives. From the societal perspective, MHD cost Int$ 594 per person in the first year and Int$ 876 over 2 years. The cost per healthy day gained was Int$ 7.96 in the first year and Int$ 1.03 over 2 years - less than the agricultural minimum wage. The cost per disability-adjusted life year averted over 2 years was Int$ 13.1 and Int$ 727 from the societal and health system perspectives, respectively, on par with antiretrovirals for HIV. MHD achieved increasing returns over time. The model appears cost-effective and equitable, especially over 2 years. Its affordability relies on multi-sectoral participation nationally and internationally.

  15. Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Schizophrenia Spectrum Traits: Gender, Season of Birth, and Mental Health Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with and without co-occurring schizophrenia spectrum traits (SST) were examined for differences in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, background characteristics, and mental health risk factors. Participating mothers and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale and a background questionnaire…

  16. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  18. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  19. The metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a chronic mental institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Tao Tseng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD has been found to be high in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Current evidence shows that CAD is underdiagnosed in this group. Our study evaluated the prevalence of MS and the risk of CAD in patients with chronic schizophrenia in a chronic care mental hospital in southern Taiwan. We included all patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We collected all laboratory, physical examination, psychiatric interview, and chart review data. We also evaluated the risk of CAD in these patients using the Framingham point system. There was no significant age difference in the MS prevalence rate in these patients. The young patients with schizophrenia in our study tended to have a higher prevalence of MS than the general population. In addition, female patients had a higher prevalence rate of MS than males. Based on the Framingham point system, we found the 10-year risk of CAD to be higher among the patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. Our study highlights the importance of the high risk of MS in both younger and older patients with schizophrenia, without a significant relationship to the use of antipsychotics. More complete cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. Psychiatrists may want to establish more specific and detailed clinical guidelines for patients with chronic schizophrenia with comorbid physical diseases, especially MS and CAD.

  20. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  1. FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as an auxiliary tool for diagnosis of mental disorders: Bipolar and schizophrenia cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogruc Ildiz, G.; Arslan, M.; Unsalan, O.; Araujo-Andrade, C.; Kurt, E.; Karatepe, H. T.; Yilmaz, A.; Yalcinkaya, O. B.; Herken, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a methodology based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis and partial least square methods is proposed for the analysis of blood plasma samples in order to identify spectral changes correlated with some biomarkers associated with schizophrenia and bipolarity. Our main goal was to use the spectral information for the calibration of statistical models to discriminate and classify blood plasma samples belonging to bipolar and schizophrenic patients. IR spectra of 30 samples of blood plasma obtained from each, bipolar and schizophrenic patients and healthy control group were collected. The results obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) show a clear discrimination between the bipolar (BP), schizophrenic (SZ) and control group' (CG) blood samples that also give possibility to identify three main regions that show the major differences correlated with both mental disorders (biomarkers). Furthermore, a model for the classification of the blood samples was calibrated using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), allowing the correct classification of BP, SZ and CG samples. The results obtained applying this methodology suggest that it can be used as a complimentary diagnostic tool for the detection and discrimination of these mental diseases.

  2. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  3. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  4. Chronic exposure of mutant DISC1 mice to lead produces sex-dependent abnormalities consistent with schizophrenia and related mental disorders: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazyan, Bagrat; Dziedzic, Jenifer; Hua, Kegang; Abazyan, Sofya; Yang, Chunxia; Mori, Susumu; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Guilarte, Tomas R

    2014-05-01

    The glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that hypoactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related mental disorders. The environmental neurotoxicant, lead (Pb(2+)), is a potent and selective antagonist of the NMDAR. Recent human studies have suggested an association between prenatal Pb(2+) exposure and the increased likelihood of schizophrenia later in life, possibly via interacting with genetic risk factors. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the neurobehavioral consequences of interaction between Pb(2+) exposure and mutant disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (mDISC1), a risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. Mutant DISC1 and control mice born by the same dams were raised and maintained on a regular diet or a diet containing moderate levels of Pb(2+). Chronic, lifelong exposure of mDISC1 mice to Pb(2+) was not associated with gross developmental abnormalities but produced sex-dependent hyperactivity, exaggerated responses to the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, mildly impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle, and enlarged lateral ventricles. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that environmental toxins could contribute to the pathogenesis of mental disease in susceptible individuals.

  5. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of cognitive remediation for a national cohort of forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ken; Donohoe, Gary; O'Sullivan, Danny; Coyle, Ciaran; Mullaney, Ronan; O'Connell, Paul; Maddock, Catherine; Nulty, Andrea; O'Flynn, Padraic; O'Connell, Carina; Kennedy, Harry G

    2016-01-13

    Evidence is accumulating that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is an effective intervention for patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. To date there has been no randomised controlled trial (RCT) cohort study of cognitive remediation within a forensic hospital. The goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a trial of cognitive remediation for forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. An estimated sixty patients will be enrolled in the study. Participants will be randomised to one of two conditions: CRT with treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU. CRT will consist of 42 individual sessions and 14 group sessions. The primary outcome measure for this study is change in cognitive functioning using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Secondary outcomes include change in social and occupational functioning, disorganised symptoms, negative symptoms, violence, participation in psychosocial treatment and recovery. In addition to these effectiveness measures, we will examine patient satisfaction. Cognitive difficulties experienced by schizophrenia spectrum patients are associated with general functioning, ability to benefit from psychosocial interventions and quality of life. Research into the treatment of cognitive difficulties within a forensic setting is therefore an important priority. The results of the proposed study will help answer the question whether cognitive remediation improves functional outcomes in forensic mental health patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forensic mental health patients are detained for the dual purpose of receiving treatment and for public protection. There can be conflict between these two roles perhaps causing forensic services to have an increased length of stay compared to general psychiatric admissions. Ultimately a focus on emphasising cognition and general functioning over symptoms may decrease tension between the core responsibilities of

  6. Practitioner review: schizophrenia spectrum disorders and the at-risk mental state for psychosis in children and adolescents--evidence-based management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffin, Paul A; Welsh, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are severe mental illnesses which often result in significant distress and disability. Attempts have been made to prospectively identify and treat young people viewed as at high risk of impending nonaffective psychosis. Once a schizophrenia spectrum disorder has developed, prompt identification and management is required. This article reviews the literature relating to the assessment and management of 'at-risk mental states' (ARMS) and the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in children and adolescents. A systematic search of the literature was undertaken using EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO databases for the period January 1970-December 2012. Evidence suggests that young people fulfilling the ARMS criteria are at high risk of adverse mental health outcomes but that the majority do not develop nonaffective psychosis over the medium term. Although clinical trial findings have been inconsistent, psychosocial approaches, such as cognitive behaviour therapy, may reduce the risk of transition to psychosis and improve some symptoms, at least over the short term. The effectiveness of psychotropic medication for the ARMS is uncertain although there is accumulating evidence for potential adverse effects of antipsychotic medication, even at low dose, in this population. For the schizophrenias, clinical trial findings suggest that, as in adults, antipsychotics should be selected on the basis of side-effect profile although clozapine may be helpful in treatment refractory illness. There are almost no studies of psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia in young people under 18, and some caution must be exercised when extrapolating the findings of adult studies to younger individuals. A stepped care approach to the ARMS in young people represents a plausible potential management approach for those at high risk of serious mental health problems. However, predictive models currently lack precision and should focus on accurately identifying

  7. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepika P; Kamath, Vandan D; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.

  9. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eAltweck; Tara C Marshall; Nelli eFerenczi; Katharina eLefringhausen

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference re...

  10. [Theory of mind in schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre

    2009-01-01

    To review studies that investigated theory of mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. After a thorough literature search, 71 studies were included in this review. Data regarding the relationship between ToM, and other cognitive skills, symptoms, and the impact of the state of illness were reviewed. ToM instruments used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders have some major psychometric limitations; however, previous research was still able to provide some important findings regarding mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia. While ToM deficits are more pronounced in the acute phase of illness, it seems to persist during periods of remission. There is also evidence of ToM deficits in the healthy relatives of schizophrenics, patients with delusional disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), and individuals with high schizotypy scores. ToM dysfunction might be secondary to other cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia that have a good prognosis, asymptomatic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and BD. Other cognitive deficits do not seem to explain ToM dysfunction in patients with psychosis and severe negative symptoms. These findings support the contribution of impairment in both domain-general and domain-specific mechanisms to ToM deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ToM deficits may be important for understanding poor social functioning and poor insight in psychotic disorders. While ToM is influenced by state variables, it might be an endophenotype of schizophrenia; however, ToM is likely to be an indicator of other frontal lobe-related endophenotypes. Longitudinal studies conducted with high-risk individuals are particularly important.

  11. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  12. Canadian Schizophrenia Guidelines: Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders with Coexisting Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, David; Addington, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders frequently have coexisting substance use disorders that require modifications to treatment approaches for best outcomes. The objectives of this review were to identify evidence-based practices best practices that improve outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia and substance used disorders. We reviewed guidelines that were published in the last 5 years and that included systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Most of our recommendations came from 2 publications from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE): the 2011 guidance titled Coexisting Severe Mental Illness (Psychosis) and Substance Misuse: Assessment and Management in Healthcare Settings and the 2014 guidance titled Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults: Prevention and Management. We placed these recommendations into the Canadian context to create this guideline. Evidence supports the inclusion of individuals with coexisting substance use disorders in first-episode psychosis programs. The programs should integrate psychosis and substance use treatments, emphasizing ongoing monitoring of both substance use and patterns and symptoms. The best outcomes are achieved with combined use of antipsychotic medications and addiction-based psychosocial interventions. However, limited evidence is available to recommend using one antipsychotic medication over another or one psychosocial intervention over another for persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders with coexisting substance use disorders. Treating persons who have schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders with coexisting substance use disorders can present clinical challenges, but modifications in practice can help engage and retain people in treatment, where significant improvements over time can be expected.

  13. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  14. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks...... the epistemological and phenomenological framework to address such questions. Using the resources of phenomenology and philosophy of mind, we articulate the structure of imagination and describe its distinctive modifications in the SSDs. Drawing on pilot data with patients' self-descriptions, we present the notion...

  15. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  16. A systematic review of evidence for fitness-to-drive among people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne M; So, Man H; Harries, Priscilla; O'Neill, Desmond

    2017-08-31

    Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as 'mental health conditions'). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving. A systematic search of three databases (CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE) was completed from inception to May 2016 to identify all articles on driving and mental health conditions. Papers meeting the eligibility criteria of including data relating to assessment of fitness-to-drive were critically appraised using the American Academy of Neurology and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine protocols. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria of driving among people with mental health conditions studied, and of these, 16 contained data and an explicit focus on assessment of fitness-to-drive. Assessment of fitness-to-drive was reported in three ways: 1) factors impacting on the ability to drive safely among people with mental health conditions, 2) capability and perception of health professionals assessing fitness-to-drive of people with mental health conditions, and 3) crash rates. The level of evidence of the published studies was low due to the absence of controls, and the inability to pool data from different diagnostic groups. Evidence supporting fitness-to-drive is conflicting. There is a relatively small literature in the area of driving with mental health conditions, and the overall quality of studies examining fitness-to-drive is low. Large-scale longitudinal studies with age-matched controls are urgently needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions on fitness-to-drive.

  17. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAltweck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL – the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders – tends to be higher in Asian and African cultures, compared to European and North American cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: a to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, b to examine the MHL model quantitatively, c to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and d to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  18. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  19. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, ...

  20. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  1. Theory of mind impairment: a distinct trait-marker for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Yücel, M; Pantelis, C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to critically review the literature in order to determine if Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment can be considered a trait-marker for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder (BD). After a thorough literature search, we reviewed the empirical studies investigating ToM impairments in remitted schizophrenia patients, first episode patients, subjects at high-risk (HR) for psychosis and first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. Studies investigating ToM impairment in other schizophrenia spectrum conditions, affective psychosis and BD were also reviewed. ToM abnormalities exist at onset and continue throughout the course of schizophrenia, persist into remission, and while less severe, are apparent in HR populations. Mentalizing impairments are also observed in other forms of psychotic illness and BD. Mentalizing impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and BD might reflect underlying general cognitive deficits and residual symptom expression, rather than representing a specific trait-marker.

  2. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...

  3. Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Marie L D; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. Denmark. People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35 625), bipolar disorder (n = 9279), depression (n = 72 530) or personality disorder (n = 63 958). Treated SUDs of alcohol and illicit substances identified in treatment registers; suicide attempt identified in treatment registers; and completed suicides identified in the Cause of Death register. Covariates were sex and age at diagnosis. Having any SUD was associated with at least a threefold increased risk of completed suicide when compared with those having no SUD. Alcohol misuse was associated with an increased risk of completed suicide in all populations with hazard ratios (HR) between 1.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44-2.74] and 2.70 (95% CI = 2.40-3.04). Other illicit substances were associated with a two- to threefold risk increase of completed suicide in all populations except bipolar disorder, and cannabis was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide only in people with bipolar disorder (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-2.99). Alcohol and other illicit substances each displayed strong associations with attempted suicide, HR ranging from 3.11 (95% CI = 2.95-3.27) to 3.38 (95% CI = 3.24-3.53) and 2.13 (95% CI = 2.03-2.24) to 2.27 (95% CI = 2.12-2.43), respectively. Cannabis was associated with suicide attempts only in people with schizophrenia (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19). Substance use disorders are associated strongly with risk of completed suicides and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  5. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina; Ekstrom, Morten; Sorensen, Holger; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2004-11-01

    This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred and forty-two of these children were evaluated in 1992 during follow-up examinations. Sixteen developed schizophrenia, 10 developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 70 had outcomes of other psychopathology, and 146 did not develop a mental illness. Children who later developed schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder had lower RTT scores, controlling for verbal IQ and age, compared to those who did not develop any mental illness. Although in the expected direction, RTT scores for those with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were not significantly different from those who developed a non-psychotic disorder. Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia are trait markers of the disorder.

  6. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  7. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  8. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  9. Mental disorders, brain disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...

  10. Physical health behaviours and health locus of control in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional comparative study with people with non-psychotic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagiar, Kurt; Parsonage, Liam; Osborn, David P J

    2011-06-24

    People with mental illness experience high levels of morbidity and mortality from physical disease compared to the general population. Our primary aim was to compare how people with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e. schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder) and non-psychotic mental illness perceive their: (i) global physical health, (ii) barriers to improving physical health, (iii) physical health with respect to important aspects of life and (iv) motivation to change modifiable high-risk behaviours associated with coronary heart disease. A secondary aim was to determine health locus of control in these two groups of participants. People with SMI and non-psychotic mental illness were recruited from an out-patient adult mental health service in London. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups was conducted by means of a self-completed questionnaire. A total of 146 people participated in the study, 52 with SMI and 94 with non-psychotic mental illness. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with respect to the perception of global physical health. However, physical health was considered to be a less important priority in life by people with SMI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.029). There was no difference between the two groups in their desire to change high risk behaviours. People with SMI are more likely to have a health locus of control determined by powerful others (p locus of control may provide a theoretical focus for clinical intervention in order to promote a much needed behavioural change in this marginalised group of people.

  11. The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study--VIA 7--a cohort study of 520 7-year-old children born of parents diagnosed with either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or neither of these two mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Anne A E; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Ellersgaard, Ditte Vestbjerg; Burton, Birgitte Klee; Christiani, Camilla Jerlang; Hemager, Nicoline; Skjærbæk, Mette; Ranning, Anne; Spang, Katrine Søborg; Gantriis, Ditte Lou; Greve, Aja Neergaard; Zahle, Kate Kold; Mors, Ole; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-10-02

    Severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are known to be diseases that to some extent, but not entirely can be understood genetically. The dominating hypothesis is that these disorders should be understood in a neurodevelopmental perspective where genes and environment as well as gene-environment-interactions contribute to the risk of developing the disease. We aim to analyse the influences of genetic risk and environmental factors in a population of 520 7-year-old children with either 0, 1 or 2 parents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or bipolar disorder on mental health and level of functioning. We hypothesize that a larger proportion of children growing up with an ill parent will display abnormal or delayed development, behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms compared to the healthy controls. We are establishing a cohort of 5207 year old children and both their parents for a comprehensive investigation with main outcome measures being neurocognition, behaviour, psychopathology and neuromotor development of the child. Parents and children are examined with a comprehensive battery of instruments and are asked for genetic material (saliva or blood) for genetic analyses. The participants are recruited via Danish registers to ensure representativity. Data from registers concerning social status, birth complications, somatic illnesses and hospitalization are included in the database. Psychological and relational factors like emotional climate in the family, degree of stimulation and support in the home and attachment style are also investigated. Data collection started January 1, 2013, and is successfully ongoing. By Aug 2015 424 families are included. About 20% of the invited families decline to participate, equal for all groups.

  12. Non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives The primary treatment for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is antipsychotic medication. One of the many public health challenges in mental illness, is to identify contributing factors to non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The objective...... of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of risk factors for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia in a European and American context. Methods The study was a systematic literature review of studies that included at least two measurements of pharmacological adherence...... of illness, alcohol or drug abuse and unspecified younger age. Conclusions The findings in this systematic literature review are consistent with previous reviews on non-adherence and schizophrenia. It stresses the methodological challenges in psychiatric adherence research and establishes the need for more...

  13. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Conversion From Schizotypal Disorder to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Albert, Nikolai; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-04-25

    Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia. Follow-up was completed on August 10, 2014, and data were analyzed from March 10, 2017, through February 15, 2018. Information on substance use disorders combined from 5 different registers. Cox proportional hazards regression using time-varying information on substance use disorders and receipt of antipsychotics and adjusted for parental history of mental disorders, sex, birth year, and calendar year were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for conversion to schizophrenia. A total of 2539 participants with incident schizotypal disorder were identified (1448 men [57.0%] and 1091 women [43.0%]; mean [SD] age, 20.9 [4.4] years). After 2 years, 16.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-17.8%) experienced conversion to schizophrenia. After 20 years, the conversion rate was 33.1% (95% CI, 29.3%-37.3%) overall and 58.2% (95% CI, 44.8%-72.2%) among those with cannabis use disorders. In fully adjusted models, any substance use disorder was associated with conversion to schizophrenia (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63). When data were stratified by substance, cannabis use disorders (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68), amphetamine use disorders (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.17), and opioid use disorders (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.38-5.45) were associated with conversion to schizophrenia. These associations were not explained by concurrent use of antipsychotics, functional

  14. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Damarnegara ..; A. A. Ngr. Andika

    2014-01-01

    Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and control...

  15. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Looking at the Schizophrenia Spectrum Through the Prism of Self-disorders: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Sæbye, Ditte; Parnas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ), schizotypal personality disorder (n = 61), other mental illness not belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum (n = 112), and no mental illness (n = 103). The effect of diagnostic grouping on the level of SDs was explored via general linear model and logistic regression. The diagnosis of schizophrenia...... spectrum has been explicitly acknowledged, mainly as a consequence of the increasing focus on early detection and prevention of psychosis. The current study tested the hypothesis of a specific aggregation of self-disorders (SDs, various anomalies of self-awareness) in schizophrenia-spectrum conditions......, comparing different diagnostic groups; 305 subjects, previously assessed in the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study, were grouped into 4 experimental samples, according to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) main diagnosis: schizophrenia, (n = 29...

  17. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajak Manguak Agau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disease with inability to differentiate real from unreal. In many African cultures a traditional view on mental disease results in stigma, negative attitudes, and ignorance of the patient and their symptoms. Objective: To explore the different attitudes and beliefs amongst relatives of patients having schizophrenia. Method: Cross-sectional survey among relatives of patients with schizophrenia treated at Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Results: A total of 44 were included. 30% believed schizophrenia to be a brain disease, 32% thought the cause was supernatural. The majority (80% thought that schizophrenia can be treated and preferably in hospitals (91%; 66% felt the best way to reduce schizophrenia was to pray to God, and many stated that being with the patients (73% or letting them be part of the community (80% was good ways of helping the patients. Conclusion: Beliefs about supernatural causes of schizophrenia and stigmatizing are still present in Uganda. However among participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of community. Education of the communities could be a way of improving the awareness of mental disorders and the role that the community play in recovery from mental illness.

  20. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... personality disorder, or other disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum....

  1. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  2. Informing DSM-5: biological boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Victoria E; Suppes, Trisha

    2013-05-14

    The fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) opted to retain existing diagnostic boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. The debate preceding this decision focused on understanding the biologic basis of these major mental illnesses. Evidence from genetics, neuroscience, and pharmacotherapeutics informed the DSM-5 development process. The following discussion will emphasize some of the key factors at the forefront of the debate. Family studies suggest a clear genetic link between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. However, large-scale genome-wide association studies have not been successful in identifying susceptibility genes that make substantial etiological contributions. Boundaries between psychotic disorders are not further clarified by looking at brain morphology. The fact that symptoms of bipolar I disorder, but not schizophrenia, are often responsive to medications such as lithium and other anticonvulsants must be interpreted within a larger framework of biological research. For DSM-5, existing nosological boundaries between bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia were retained and schizoaffective disorder preserved as an independent diagnosis since the biological data are not yet compelling enough to justify a move to a more neurodevelopmentally continuous model of psychosis.

  3. Informing DSM-5: biological boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) opted to retain existing diagnostic boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. The debate preceding this decision focused on understanding the biologic basis of these major mental illnesses. Evidence from genetics, neuroscience, and pharmacotherapeutics informed the DSM-5 development process. The following discussion will emphasize some of the key factors at the forefront of the debate. Discussion Family studies suggest a clear genetic link between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. However, large-scale genome-wide association studies have not been successful in identifying susceptibility genes that make substantial etiological contributions. Boundaries between psychotic disorders are not further clarified by looking at brain morphology. The fact that symptoms of bipolar I disorder, but not schizophrenia, are often responsive to medications such as lithium and other anticonvulsants must be interpreted within a larger framework of biological research. Summary For DSM-5, existing nosological boundaries between bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia were retained and schizoaffective disorder preserved as an independent diagnosis since the biological data are not yet compelling enough to justify a move to a more neurodevelopmentally continuous model of psychosis. PMID:23672587

  4. The role of neurexins in schizophrenia and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, A C; Rodgers, R J; Clapcote, S J

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are common, chronic mental conditions with both genetic and environmental components to their aetiology. The identification of genes influencing susceptibility to these disorders offers a rational route towards a clearer understanding of the neurobiology, and with this the prospect of treatment and prevention strategies tailored towards the remediation of the altered pathways. Copy number variants (CNVs) underlie many serious illnesses, including neurological and neurodevelopmental syndromes. Recent studies assessing copy number variation in ASD and schizophrenia have repeatedly observed heterozygous deletions eliminating exons of the neurexin-1α gene (but not the neurexin-1β gene) in patients with ASD and schizophrenia. The neurexins are synaptic adhesion proteins that are known to play a key role in synaptic formation and maintenance. The functional significance of the recurrent deletion is poorly understood, but the availability of mice with deletion of the promoter and first exon of neurexin-1α provides direct access to the biological effects of neurexin-1α disruption on phenotypes relevant to ASD and schizophrenia. We review the evidence for the role of neurexin-1α in schizophrenia and ASD, and consider how genetic disruption of neurexin-1α may underpin the neuropathology contributing to these distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molindone for schizophrenia and severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, A; Fenton, M; Kleijnen, J; Lewis, R

    2007-01-24

    Antipsychotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for people with schizophrenia. In recent years new or atypical antipsychotics have been introduced. These are less likely to produce movement disorders and raise serum prolactin. Researchers have suggested that molindone should be classified as an atypical antipsychotic. To determine the effects of molindone compared with placebo, typical and other atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia and related psychoses. For the original search we searched the following databases: Biological Abstracts (1980-1999), The Cochrane Library CENTRAL (Issue 1, 1999), The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (January 1999), CINAHL (1982-1999), EMBASE (1980-1999), MEDLINE (1966-1999), LILACS (1982-1999), PSYNDEX (1977-1999), and PsycLIT (1974-1999). We also searched pharmaceutical databases on the Dialog Corporation Datastar and Dialog and the references of all identified studies for further trials. Finally, we contacted the manufacturer of molindone and the authors of any relevant trials. For the update of this review, we searched The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (August 2005). We included all randomised controlled trials that compared molindone to other treatments for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We extracted data independently and analysed on an intention to treat basis calculating, for binary data, the fixed effect relative risk (RR), their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the number needed to treat or harm (NNT or NNH). We excluded data if loss to follow up was greater than 50%. We included fourteen studies. Duration ranged from very short (10 days) studies of the intramuscular preparation, to trials lasting over three months. For measures of global assessment, available data do not justify any conclusions on the comparative efficacy of molindone and placebo. When compared to other typical antipsychotics we found no evidence of a difference in effectiveness (doctors' 4 RCTs n=150

  6. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  7. Decision support system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Razzouk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical decision support systems are useful tools for assisting physicians to diagnose complex illnesses. Schizophrenia is a complex, heterogeneous and incapacitating mental disorder that should be detected as early as possible to avoid a most serious outcome. These artificial intelligence systems might be useful in the early detection of schizophrenia disorder. The objective of the present study was to describe the development of such a clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SADDESQ. The development of this system is described in four stages: knowledge acquisition, knowledge organization, the development of a computer-assisted model, and the evaluation of the system's performance. The knowledge was extracted from an expert through open interviews. These interviews aimed to explore the expert's diagnostic decision-making process for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. A graph methodology was employed to identify the elements involved in the reasoning process. Knowledge was first organized and modeled by means of algorithms and then transferred to a computational model created by the covering approach. The performance assessment involved the comparison of the diagnoses of 38 clinical vignettes between an expert and the SADDESQ. The results showed a relatively low rate of misclassification (18-34% and a good performance by SADDESQ in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, with an accuracy of 66-82%. The accuracy was higher when schizophreniform disorder was considered as the presence of schizophrenia disorder. Although these results are preliminary, the SADDESQ has exhibited a satisfactory performance, which needs to be further evaluated within a clinical setting.

  8. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Tobias; Baldessarini, Ross J; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Information on basic demographic and clinical characteristics of schizoaffective disorder is sparse and subject to sampling bias and low diagnostic reliability. In the present study we aimed to: (i) estimate the demographic and clinical descriptors in schizoaffective disorder patients and (ii) compare the findings with those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To minimize sampling bias and low reliability, we systematically reviewed studies that simultaneously compared schizoaffective, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder patients. We estimated demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics based on weighted pooling, and compared disorders by meta-analysis. We also estimated whether schizoaffective disorder is closer to schizophrenia or to bipolar disorder. We identified 50 studies that included 18312 patients. Most characteristics of the 2684 schizoaffective disorder patients fell between those of 4814 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 10814 with schizophrenia. However, the schizoaffective group had the highest proportion of women (52%), had the youngest age at illness onset (23.3 ± 3.8 years), and had the highest standardized ratings of psychosis and depression. Differences in pooled parameters between schizoaffective versus schizophrenia and versus bipolar disorder subjects were similar. Values for patients with schizoaffective disorders mostly were intermediate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the majority of studies showed schizoaffective patients to be more like schizophrenia than bipolar disorder patients in seven out of nine demographic and clinical categories as well as in five out of eight psychometric measures. These results remained similar when we restricted the analyses to studies with psychotic bipolar disorder patients only or to studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IIIR and DSM-IV only. The present study provided estimates of important characteristics of schizoaffective

  9. Cognitive functioning and insight in schizophrenia and in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, Nadia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Crivelli, Barbara; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Rocca, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.

  10. Sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors in patients with mood disorders, panic disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso Liliana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topic of sexual obsessions as a psychiatric symptom has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore the presence of sexual obsessions in patients with mood disorders (n=156, panic disorder (n=54 and schizophrenia (n=79, with respect to non-psychiatric subjects (n=100; 2 to investigate the relationship between sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors, taking into account socio-demographic variables ad mental disorders. Methods 289 psychiatric patients with mood disorders, panic disorder or schizophrenia, were recruited at the Italian University departments of psychiatry along with 100 non-psychiatric subjects, who presented for a routine eye exam at the ophthalmology department of the same Universities. The assessments included: the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report (OBS-SR, for sexual obsession, and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report lifetime version (MOODS-SR. Suicidality was assessed by means of 6 items of the MOODS-SR. Results Sexual obsessions were more frequent in schizophrenia (54.4%, followed by mood disorders (35.9%. Among schizophrenia patients, males reported more sexual obsessions than females (P Conclusions Special attention should be given to investigate and establish effective strategies of treatment for sexual obsessions, especially those with comorbid mood disorders or schizophrenia.

  11. Self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.

  12. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...... of schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences....... Empirical research on the disorders of self-experience in schizophrenia can be traced back to the US-Denmark psychopathological collaboration in the well-known adoption and high-risk studies, which aimed at identifying trait or phenotypic vulnerability features. This research was later followed by clinical...

  13. Schizophrenia masquerading as Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jegan Yogaratnam; Rajesh Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms can dominate the clinical picture in many psychiatric conditions and possess a huge challenge to the clinicians in management. We present a case report of a female with a strong family history of schizophrenia who initially presented with features suggestive of dissociative identity disorder, which is itself a rare clinical entity, was later diagnosed to have schizophrenia. Authors would like to emphasise that clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for schizoph...

  14. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Exploring the link between inflammation and mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mental disorders constitute 13% of the global disease burden. Schizophrenia, major depressive disorders (MDD) and bipolar disorders are among the most disabling disorders. Some of the inflammatory markers such as homocysteine, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 have a contribution to influence mental disorder. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) wasusedas a nonspecific index of systemic inflammation. Elevated levels of CRP as evidence for an inflammatory etiology of schizophrenia, and as indicators of more severe clinical symptoms and psychopathology of schizophrenia. The inflammatory marker also increases in the depressed patient. Proinflammatory cytokines might inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis which could lead to a reduced hippocampal volume, which is in depression. Anxiety symptoms were correlated to increase cytokine levels. Elevated inflammation in particular found in both men and women with the onset of anxiety disorder later in life.

  16. Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, L.; Sno, H. N.; Goedhart, S.; van der Stel, J.; Heering, H. D.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the potential relationship between multisensory disintegration and self-disorders in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sensory processing impairments affecting multisensory integration have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. From a developmental perspective

  17. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rethinking Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Insel, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current uns...

  19. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  20. Treatment of substance use disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Catalano, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials. There are few psychopharmacology outcomes studies. Most have examined use of antipsychotic medications to treat SUDs in schizophrenia. Several trials have yielded positive findings for naltrexone in reducing drinking compared to placebo in this population. Motivational and cognitive-behavioral interventions are associated with decreased substance use in several trials. Treatment for SUDs is feasible within a range of settings and acceptable to many individuals with schizophrenia. All individuals with schizophrenia should be offered brief or more extended psychosocial interventions that incorporate discussion of personal reasons to change and training in cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce use, cope with cravings and stress, and avoid relapse. Future research must include larger samples, longitudinal designs, and similar outcome measures across studies.

  1. Annual incidence rate of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a longitudinal population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterland, Arjen L.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Voordouw, Bettie A. C.; Kroon, Jojanneke; Veldhuis, Joris; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal incidence studies of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) performed in mental health service organizations are prone to confounding factors not found in research performed in the general population. To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) over a 10-year period of SSD (broadly defined)

  2. Effects of Severe Mental Illness Education on MSW Student Attitudes about Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.; Watson, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Social work students (N=60) in a master's-level course on severe mental illness participated in a quasi-experimental study examining the degree to which increased knowledge about and contact with individuals with schizophrenia during the course would impact their attitudes toward people with the disorder. Results revealed significant improvement…

  3. [Homicide and major mental disorder: what are the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers with a major mental disorder and murderers without any mental disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B

    2009-09-01

    To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94

  4. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  5. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sorensen, Holger J; Maeda, Justin

    2009-01-01

    in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide further......-13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization...... for a nonpsychotic disorder (N=84); and children with no parental records of psychiatric hospitalization (N=66). Psychiatric outcomes of the offspring were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992 when participants were 31-33 years of age, as well as through a scan of national psychiatric registers completed...

  6. Mental correlates of neuromotoric deviation in 6-year-olds at heightened risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Thomas F; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Blennow, Gösta

    2003-04-01

    The meaning and relevance of the increased rates of neuromotoric deviation (ND) observed in patients with schizophrenia and their biological relatives remain unclear. ND could represent free-floating, independent characteristics of individuals in these families vs. signs of an increased risk for current or future mental disorder. The co-temporaneous relationship between ND and mental disorder at 6 years of age was investigated among 31 children with an increased risk for schizophrenia and similar psychoses, defined as having a mother with a history of schizophrenia or unspecified functional psychosis. As compared with high-risk cases with a low level of ND, the subgroup of 10 high-risk offspring showing notably increased rates of ND had significantly more frequent psychiatric diagnoses (typically language disorders and enuresis), poor functioning on global assessment, poor interpersonal competency and high anxiety proneness. Neuromotoric items representing "overflow" (e.g., choreatic movements, tremor) were significantly positively related to each of these mental characteristics. Among high-risk offspring, an increased rate of ND is very clearly associated with increased rates of current mental disorder, and might potentially identify a subgroup with an especially high risk for serious mental disorder in the future.

  7. Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-07-01

    Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.

  8. Self-disorders in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...

  9. Social support and religion: mental health service use and treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, A; Gearing, R E; Alonzo, D; Baldwin, S; Harmon, S; McHugh, K

    2013-08-01

    The perceptions and religious beliefs held by family members, mental health and health care professionals, and the community may affect the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. To better identify and understand the influence of families, professionals and community members on individual's treatment for schizophrenia, this review paper examines: (1) the religious perceptions of families, professionals, and the public towards schizophrenia; (2) religious perceptions of the etiology of schizophrenia; (3) how others perceive religion as a coping mechanism; and (4) how religion influences treatment engagement and help-seeking behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched from 1980 to 2010 using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and religion, religiosity, spirituality, and faith. Forty-three (n = 43) original research studies met the inclusion criteria. This study found that religious beliefs influence the treatment of schizophrenia in the following ways: Religious themes were positively associated with coping, treatment engagement and help-seeking behavior. Evidence of religious underpinnings was found in perceptions of etiology. The findings also indicate that there is often both a preference among family members and caregivers to utilize religious-based professionals and caution toward mental health professionals. Researchers and professionals may find avenues for improving treatment through examining the interaction of religious and schizophrenia at the social support level.

  10. [Schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorder or degenerative brain process?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    In the last two decades schizophrenia is viewed increasingly as a neurodevelopmental (ND) disorder; as indicators are discussed f.e. premorbid personality, behaviour anomalies, premorbid somatic signs, deviations shown by brain imaging methods, neuropathological findings or neuropsychological deficits. Premorbid personality and behaviour anomalies have to be distinguished from precursor syndromes (prodromes and outpost syndromes), preceding the first psychotic episode many years. Moreover, only a minority of patients, later developing schizophrenia, reveal abnormal premorbid personality traits. Explanations why clinical expression of the disorder is delayed until adult life or at least adolescence, remain speculative. Findings of neocortical and limbic maldevelopment, e.g. in parahippocampal cortex, are hitherto not yet conclusive. As an argument for the ND hypothesis is claimed that ventricular enlargement already is present at the onset of positive symptoms and does not progress on follow-ups. But, if a ND disorder would have caused the ventricular enlargement, cranial volume and head size must be decreased, what is not the case in schizophrenia. Furtheron, there are findings of progressive increase in ventricular size and also of gliosis, especially in subcortical and periventricular areas. Anomalies of cerebral asymmetry; also distinct ND brain anomalies such as cavum septi pellucidi or dysgenesis of corpus callosum do not occur more frequently than expected in schizophrenia. As to the rate of obstetric complications (OCs) and viral infections sufficiently reliable data are missing; the great majority of schizophrenics have no OCs. Altogether, attempts to correlate brain findings, regarded as expression of an aberrant brain development with clinical subgroups of schizophrenia, were not very successful. This is also valid for ND concepts confined to male, early onset or sporadic schizophrenias. Only a distinct psychopathological remission type with the component

  11. Theory of mind in women with borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia: differences in overall ability and error patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anja eVaskinn; Anja eVaskinn; Bjørnar T. eAntonsen; Bjørnar T. eAntonsen; Ragnhild A. eFretland; Isabel eDziobek; Kjetil eSundet; Kjetil eSundet; Theresa eWilberg

    2015-01-01

    Although borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia are notably different mental disorders, they share problems in social cognition – or understanding the feelings, intentions and thoughts of other people. To date no studies have directly compared the social cognitive abilities of individuals with these two disorders. In this study, the social cognitive subdomain theory of mind was investigated in females with borderline personality disorder (n = 25), females with schizophrenia (n = 25...

  12. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  13. Dissociative Disorders Among Chinese Inpatients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Li, Ying; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study consisted of 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3). All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Ninety-six randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or on the self-report measure dissociation. A total of 28 (15.3%, after weighting of the data) patients received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% versus 22.1%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China. PMID:20603768

  14. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both...... offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology....... All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children...

  16. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-03-27

    Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  17. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammeyer Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder. Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  18. Treatment patterns for schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia among Medicaid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Wan, George J

    2009-02-01

    This study compared background characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and service use of adults treated for schizoaffective disorder and adults treated for schizophrenia. Medicaid claims data from two states were analyzed with a focus on adults treated for schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia. Patient groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and health service use during 180 days before and after a claim for either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A larger proportion of patients were treated for schizophrenia (N=38,760; 70.1%) than for schizoaffective disorder (N=16,570; 29.9%). During the 180 days before the index diagnosis claim, significantly more patients with schizoaffective disorder than those with schizophrenia were treated for depressive disorder (19.6% versus 11.4%, pschizoaffective disorder, 87.3%; schizophrenia, 87.0%), although patients with schizoaffective disorder were significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive antidepressants (61.7% versus 44.0%, pschizoaffective disorder were also significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive psychotherapy (23.4% versus 13.0%, pSchizoaffective disorder is commonly diagnosed among Medicaid beneficiaries. These patients often receive complex pharmacologic regimens, and many also receive treatment for mood disorders. Differences in service use patterns between schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia argue for separate consideration of their health care needs.

  19. Facial emotion recognition, socio-occupational functioning and expressed emotions in schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sharma, Podila Sathya Venkata Narasimha

    2018-06-01

    Facial emotion recognition deficits have been consistently demonstrated in patients with severe mental disorders. Expressed emotion is found to be an important predictor of relapse. However, the relationship between facial emotion recognition abilities and expressed emotions and its influence on socio-occupational functioning in schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder has not been studied. In this study we examined 91 patients with schizophrenia and 71 with bipolar disorder for psychopathology, socio occupational functioning and emotion recognition abilities. Primary caregivers of 62 patients with schizophrenia and 49 with bipolar disorder were assessed on Family Attitude Questionnaire to assess their expressed emotions. Patients of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder performed similarly on the emotion recognition task. Patients with schizophrenia group experienced higher critical comments and had a poorer socio-occupational functioning as compared to patients with bipolar disorder. Poorer socio-occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction in their caregivers. In patients with bipolar disorder, poorer emotion recognition scores significantly correlated with poorer adaptive living skills and greater hostility and dissatisfaction in their caregivers. The findings of our study suggest that emotion recognition abilities in patients with bipolar disorder are associated with negative expressed emotions leading to problems in adaptive living skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood adversity and conduct disorder: A developmental pathway to violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clare; Harris, Stephanie; Fahy, Thomas; Murphy, Declan; Picchioni, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Both childhood adversity and conduct disorder are over-represented among adult patients with schizophrenia and have been proposed as significant factors that may increase the risk of violence. It is not known how childhood adversity and conduct disorder might interact to contribute towards an increased risk of violence in schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and violence among men with schizophrenia. 54 male patients with schizophrenia from a range of inpatient and outpatient mental health services were assessed for exposure to a variety of childhood adversities, conduct disorder before the age of 15 and later violent behaviour in adulthood. Exposure to domestic violence during childhood was associated with an increased propensity to violence in adulthood. Symptoms of conduct disorder were associated both with cumulative exposure to childhood adversities and with later propensity to violence. The cumulative number of childhood adversities was associated with adult propensity to violence. This association was significantly attenuated by inclusion of conduct disorder in the model. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia. Conduct disorder may mediate the association between cumulative childhood adversities and adult propensity to violence, indicating an indirect pathway. These results indicate a complex interplay between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and suggest that there may be shared aetiological risk factors on a common developmental pathway to violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic disadvantage and schizophrenia in migrants under mental health detention orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Jan; Hoffmann, Klaus; Querengässer, Jan; Ross, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Migrants with mental hospital orders according to section 63 of the German criminal code are overrepresented in relation to their numbers in the general population. Subgroups originating from certain world regions are diagnosed with schizophrenia at a much higher rate than others. In the present literature, there is a strong evidence for a substantial correlation between migration, social disadvantage and the prevalence of schizophrenia. This study investigates the relationship between countries of origin, the risk of becoming a forensic patient and the proportion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data from a comprehensive evaluation tool of forensic inpatients in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg (FoDoBa) were compared with population statistics and correlated with the Human Development Index (HDI) and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). For residents with migration background, the risk ratio to receive a mental hospital order is 1.3 in comparison to non-migrants. There was a highly significant correlation between the HDI of the country of origin and the risk ratio for detention in a forensic psychiatric hospital. The proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses also correlated significantly with the HDI. In contrast, the MPI country rankings were not associated with schizophrenia diagnoses. Two lines of explanations are discussed: first, higher prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants originating from low-income countries, and second, a specific bias in court rulings with regard to involuntary forensic treatment orders for these migrant groups.

  2. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  3. M42. Metacognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia; Comparisons With Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Kelly; Leonhardt, Bethany; George, Sunita; James, Alison; Vohs, Jenifer; Lysaker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metacognition is a psychological function that includes a spectrum of mental activities. These activities involve thinking about thinking and range from more discrete acts, in which people recognize specific thoughts and feelings, to more synthetic acts in which an array of intentions, thoughts, feelings, and connections between events are integrated into larger complex representations. Recently, interest has arisen in the important role that metacognitive deficits may play in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Research has found that many with schizophrenia experience compromised metacognitive capacity and the degree of impairment in metacognition has been linked to negative and disorganized symptoms, decrement in social functioning, and lower levels of subjective indicators of recovery. While metacognitive deficits have been broadly explored in schizophrenia, less is known about whether these deficits are similar or different than those found in other forms of serious mental illness. Methods: To explore this issue, we administered assessments of metacognition using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, Alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Social Cognition using the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Scale to 65 adults with Schizophrenia, 34 adults with Borderline Personality Disorder (PD) and 32 adults with a Substance Use Disorder. We chose Borderline PD as our primary comparison because this group has also been found to have profound alterations in the ability to recognize and think about one’s own and others’ mental activities. We chose substance use disorder as a third psychiatric condition given that this is a common comorbidity of Borderline PD and Schizophrenia and because it has also been linked with deficits in the ability to reflect about mental states. Results: ANCOVA controlling for age revealed the Schizophrenia group had significant poorer overall metacognition compared to the other 2 groups while the

  4. Characteristics and Service Use of Older Adults with Schizoaffective Disorder Versus Older Adults with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Stephanie A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Whiteman, Karen L; Scherer, Emily; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if schizoaffective disorder in older adults is differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with respect to community functioning, cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and service use. Secondary analysis of baseline data collected from the Helping Older People Experience Success psychosocial skills training and health management study. Three community mental health centers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Adults over the age of 50 (N = 139, mean age: 59.7 years, SD: 7.4 years) with persistent functional impairment and a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (N = 52), schizophrenia (N = 51), or bipolar disorder (N = 36). Health status (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), performance-based community living skills (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment), neuropsychological functioning (Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning subtests), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), medical severity (Charlson comorbidity index), and acute service use. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had depressive symptoms of similar severity to bipolar disorder, and thought disorder symptoms of similar severity to schizophrenia. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia was associated with better community functioning, but poorer subjective physical and mental health functioning as measured by the SF-36. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had greater acute hospitalization compared with adults with schizophrenia, though their use of acute care services was comparable to individuals with bipolar disorder. Findings from this study suggest that schizoaffective disorder in older adults occupies a distinct profile from either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with respect to community functional status, symptom profile, and acute services utilization. Copyright © 2017

  5. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Beby Febri

    2015-01-01

    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...

  6. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles Raymond

    2008-11-01

    Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are

  7. Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A high-risk prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants...... who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker...

  8. Pharmacological treatment for schizoaffective disorder : A comparison with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assion, H-J; Schweppe, A; Reinbold, H; Frommberger, U

    2018-03-21

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are severe mental illnesses, each with a prevalence of approximately 1-2% in the general population. There is considerable controversy about differentiating schizophrenia from schizoaffective or bipolar disorder owing to many similarities in psychopathology, progression, and biological factors. The aim of this study was to identify similarities and differences in the pharmacological treatment of these disorders by comparing the prescription patterns. In this retrospective, explorative study we analyzed the prescribed medication of 300 patients with bipolar, schizophrenic, or schizoaffective disorders from data obtained from ten German adult psychiatric clinics of the LWL ("Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe") psychiatric network. Only 21.8% of patients analyzed were consistently compliant in taking their medication before hospitalization. Polypharmacy was applied in 75.6% of cases, whereby 2.27 psychopharmacological agents were prescribed at discharge. Briefly, we observed greater similarity between prescription patterns associated with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders than with schizophrenia prescription patterns. Polypharmacy tends to be more the rule than the exception, especially when patients present with affective psychotic features. Bipolar and schizoaffective disorders cannot be differentiated according to their prescription patterns.

  9. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  10. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  11. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other...... offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology...... in adulthood. Strabismus may serve as a premorbid marker for spectrum disorders and may have implications for the understanding of early aberrant neurological development related to later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders....

  12. [METABOLIC SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Calero Franco, Paloma; Sánchez Sánchez, Blanca; Rodríguez Criado, Natalia; Pinilla Santos, Berta; Bravo Herrero, Sandra; Cruz Fourcade, José Fernando; Martín Aragón, Rubén

    2015-12-01

    patients with severe mental ilness such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder die at least 20 years earlier than general population. Despite preventive strategies, cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death. analyse the percentage of patients with a high body mass index, metabolic syndrome and their cardiovascular risk at 10 years in patients with a diagnosis, based in DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder. These patients were hospitalized because and acute condition of their mental ilness in the Brief Hospitalization Unit of Hospital Universitario de Móstoles between November of 2014 and June of 2015. in 53 patients, 34 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 16 with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 3 with a schizoaffective disorder, weight, size abdominal perimeter measures and blood pressure were collected. The body mass index was assesed. Blood tests were taken and we use sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels as paramethers for the ATP III and Framingham criteria. We also review the clinical history of the patients and lifestyle and use of toxic substances were registered. 51% of the patients were men and 49% were women. The average age was 40. 38% of the patients were overweighed, 22% obese and 4% had morbid obesity. 26% of the patients had metabolic syndrome, the clinical evolution of the majority of these patients was of more tan 10 years and they also have been treated with different antypsychotics and antidepressants. Using the Framingham criteria, 11% of the patients had a cardiovascular risk higher than 10 % in the next 10 years. overweight and its consequences in patients with a severe mental ilness are intimately related with their lifestyle, disparities in the access to health resources, the clinical evolution of the disease and pharmacotherapy. Strategies to promote physical health in these patients in the spanish health sistme are insufficient

  13. Hippocampal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Weyn, Annelies; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is involved in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. Consequently, changes in α7 nAChR function have been implicated in a variety of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia. However, there is little knowledge regarding the levels of the α7 n...

  14. Delusional disorders--are they simply paranoid schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marneros, Andreas; Pillmann, Frank; Wustmann, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    This article tries to give an answer to the question of whether International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) persistent delusional disorder (PDD) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) delusional disorder (DD) is simply paranoid schizophrenia (PS). Because ICD-10 PDD and DSM-IV DD are identical, we use DD as a synonym. A prospective and longitudinal study compared all inpatients with DD treated at the Halle-Wittenberg university hospital during a 14-year period with a previously investigated selected cohort of patients with PS. Sociodemographic data, symptomatology, course, and outcome parameters were examined using standardized instruments. The duration of the follow-up period in patients with DD was 10.8 years and for the PS patients 12.9 years. Significant differences between DD and PS were found: DD patients are, in comparison to patients with PS, significantly older at onset. Less of their first-degree relatives have mental disorders. They less frequently come from a broken home situation. First-rank symptoms, relevant negative symptoms, and primary hallucinations did not occur in patients with DD. Patients with DD were less frequently hospitalized, and the duration of their hospitalization was shorter. Their outcome is much better regarding employment, early retirement due to the disorder, and psychopharmacological medication. They more often had stable heterosexual partnerships and were autarkic. They had lower scores in the Disability Assessment Scale and in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The diagnosis of DD is very stable over time. The findings of this study support the assumption that DDs are a separate entity and only exceptionally can be a prodrome of schizophrenia.

  15. Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Puyuelo, Miguel; Antoñanzas, José L; Teruel, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject's language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.

  16. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  17. Object versus spatial visual mental imagery in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, André; de Haan, Edward H.F.; Kahn, René S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Recent research has revealed a larger impairment of object perceptual discrimination than of spatial perceptual discrimination in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that mental imagery may share processing systems with perception. We investigated whether patients with schizophrenia would show greater impairment regarding object imagery than spatial imagery. Methods Forty-four patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy control subjects were tested on a task of object visual mental imagery and on a task of spatial visual mental imagery. Both tasks included a condition in which no imagery was needed for adequate performance, but which was in other respects identical to the imagery condition. This allowed us to adjust for nonspecific differences in individual performance. Results The results revealed a significant difference between patients and controls on the object imagery task (F1,63 = 11.8, p = 0.001) but not on the spatial imagery task (F1,63 = 0.14, p = 0.71). To test for a differential effect, we conducted a 2 (patients v. controls) х 2 (object task v. spatial task) analysis of variance. The interaction term was statistically significant (F1,62 = 5.2, p = 0.026). Conclusions Our findings suggest a differential dysfunction of systems mediating object and spatial visual mental imagery in schizophrenia. PMID:15644999

  18. Unique and Overlapping Symptoms in Schizophrenia Spectrum and Dissociative Disorders in Relation to Models of Psychopathology : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Selwyn B.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Moskowitz, Andrew; Aleman, André; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and dissociative disorders (DDs) are described in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) as 2

  19. Rates and Predictors of Conversion to Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Following Substance-Induced Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzer, Marie Stefanie Kejser; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2018-04-01

    The authors investigated the rates of conversion to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder after a substance-induced psychosis, as well as risk factors for conversion. All patient information was extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. The study population included all persons who received a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis between 1994 and 2014 (N=6,788); patients were followed until first occurrence of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or until death, emigration, or August 2014. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain cumulative probabilities for the conversion from a substance-induced psychosis to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for all covariates. Overall, 32.2% (95% CI=29.7-34.9) of patients with a substance-induced psychosis converted to either bipolar or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The highest conversion rate was found for cannabis-induced psychosis, with 47.4% (95% CI=42.7-52.3) converting to either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Young age was associated with a higher risk of converting to schizophrenia. Self-harm after a substance-induced psychosis was significantly linked to a higher risk of converting to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Half the cases of conversion to schizophrenia occurred within 3.1 years after a substance-induced psychosis, and half the cases of conversion to bipolar disorder occurred within 4.4 years. Substance-induced psychosis is strongly associated with the development of severe mental illness, and a long follow-up period is needed to identify the majority of cases.

  20. Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium (central nervous system) in diagnosis of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinska-Mika, M.

    1991-01-01

    Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs

  1. Sleep disorders in mental diseases and their correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the data available in the literature on sleep disorders and their correction in the population and in patients with mental disorders and give their experience in using zolpidem (sanval to treat insomnia in different mental diseases. The clinical features of sleep disorders are characterized in neurotic and affective disorders, schizophrenia, and organic brain injuries. Indications for the use of sanval both alone and in combination with other psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and antipsychotics with a sedative effect for the therapy of sleep disorders within the framework of mental disorders are discussed. Sanval is shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in 100psychiatric in- and outpatients. No dependence on this drug and withdrawal syndrome permit sanval to be used as long-term courses in patients with chronic permanent insomnia and at an old age.

  2. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  3. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have both increased mortality and are more likely to have a substance use disorder. We assessed the association between mortality and lifetime substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression. METHODS: In...

  4. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia....

  5. Clinical Manifestations of Self-disorders in Schizophrenia Spectrum Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Mads Gram

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the phenomenologically informed, theoretical and empirical research direction on self-disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum conditions. First, we describe the concept of ‘self’ that is operative in the concept of ‘self-disorders’ and we discuss how this self may be disordered or fragile in the schizophrenia spectrum. Second, we offer a detailed psychopathological presentation and discussion of 3 patients with schizophrenia. The vignettes provide paradigmatic examples of self-disorders in schizophrenia. Third, we summarize the main findings in the current empirical research on self-disorders. These findings consistently indicate that self-disorders constitute a crucial, trait phenotype of the schizophrenia spectrum.

  6. [Severe mental disorders: cure? What an idea!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignat, Jean-Pierre

    The evolution of mental disorders, notably the most severe forms such as schizophrenia, is a constant concern in terms of the necessary assessment of treatments and their efficiency, and to the human and economic cost of the 'chronicity' of the disorders. Many patients experience a positive evolution, evaluated in terms of subjective quality of life. However, the concept of recovery does not seem appropriate. The field of representations which the patient and the caregiver form with regard to the disease and its curability is an important element. The co-construction of the patient's future, in an approach centred on the patient, on their freedom and their autonomy, opens up the way towards recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  8. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Radovan Hruby,3 Klara Latalova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Milos Slepecky,4 Terezia Gubova2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Private Psychiatric Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Subjects and methods: A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma.Results: Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping

  9. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  10. Mental disorders induced by carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, K; Naito, Y; Yoshida, M; Nakanishi, T; Koizumi, J

    1990-03-01

    We present here a case with various physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by the administration of carbamazepine. The patient suffering from right ophthalmic neuralgia showed fever, eczema, erythema, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, and various mental disorders which consisted of emotional instability, personality change, delusions of reference and persecution, depressive state, and hyperventilation syndrome during the administration of carbamazepine. The physical symptoms in the present case were conformable to the side effect of carbamazepine. The mental disorders appeared in a few days from the start of carbamazepine administration and disappeared after the discontinuation of the administration of this drug without antipsychotic therapy and have never relapsed until now. The mental disorders and the physical symptoms were in parallel with their clinical course. This kind of mental disorders induced by carbamazepine has not yet been reported.

  11. Studies of Speech Disorders in Schizophrenia. History and State-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shedovskiy E. F.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews studies of speech disorders in schizophrenia. The authors paid attention to a historical course and characterization of studies of areas: the actual psychopathological (speech disorders as a psychopathological symptoms, their description and taxonomy, psychological (isolated neurons and pathopsychological perspective analysis separately analyzed some modern foreign works, covering a variety of approaches to the study of speech disorders in the endogenous mental disorders. Disorders and features of speech are among the most striking manifestations of schizophrenia along with impaired thinking (Savitskaya A. V., Mikirtumov B. E.. With all the variety of symptoms, speech disorders in schizophrenia could be classified and organized. The few clinical psychological studies of speech activity in schizophrenia presented work on the study of generation and standard speech utterance; features verbal associative process, speed parameters of speech utterances. Special attention is given to integrated research in the mainstream of biological psychiatry and genetic trends. It is shown that the topic for more than a half-century history of originality of speech pathology in schizophrenia has received some coverage in the psychiatric and psychological literature and continues to generate interest in the modern integrated multidisciplinary approach

  12. Rethinking schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-11-11

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.

  13. CNS changes in Usher's syndrome with mental disorder: CT, MRI and PET findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, J; Ofuku, K; Sakuma, K; Shiraishi, H; Iio, M; Nawano, S

    1988-01-01

    CNS changes in a case of Usher's syndrome associated with schizophrenia-like mental disorder were observed by CT, MRI and PET. The neuro-radiological findings of the case demonstrate the degenerative and metabolic alterations in various regions of cortex, white matter and subcortical areas in the brain. Mental disorder of the case is almost indistinguishable from that of schizophrenia, but the psychotic feature is regarded as an atypical or mixed organic brain syndrome according to the classification in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Images PMID:3264568

  14. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  15. Brief Report: Cases for an Association between Tourette Syndrome, Autistic Disorder, and Schizophrenia-Like Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverd, Jeffrey; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on two children diagnosed as having co-occurring autistic disorder, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and Tourette syndrome, and two autistic adults who had tics and episodes of schizophrenia-like psychosis. (JDD)

  16. Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p schizophrenia-associated variant (rs75059851) may modulate negative symptoms. Multi-locus models may provide interesting insights about the biological mechanisms that mediate psychopathological dimensions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coping strategies in schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia: Differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, Cinzia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Sandei, Luisa; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Cardillo, Simona; Rocca, Paola

    2016-10-30

    Aims of the current study were to explore differences in coping between 58 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 89 with schizophrenia (SZ) and to identify factors associated with coping in both disorders. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with SAD and with SZ were compared using ANOVA and χ(2). Pearson's correlations were calculated between coping styles and socio-demographic and clinical variables in each group. The significant ones were subsequently analyzed using multiple regressions. Patients with SAD used emotion oriented coping more frequently than patients 2016with SZ. In patients with SAD, self-esteem contributed to task-oriented; avolition-anhedonia (AA) to emotion-oriented; duration of illness and years of education to distraction; AA to social diversion. In patients with SZ, AA, the mental component summary score of the Short Form - 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and self-esteem contributed to emotion oriented coping; the mental component summary score of SF-36 to distraction; AA to social diversion. Our results suggest that patients with SAD and SZ use diverse coping strategies. A greater attention must be given to the presence of self-esteem and AA in individuals with both disorders. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce effects on coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  19. Contrasting metacognitive, social cognitive and alexithymia profiles in adults with borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; George, Sunita; Chaudoin-Patzoldt, Kelly A; Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Vohs, Jenifer L; James, Alison V; Wickett, Amanda; Buck, Kelly D; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2017-11-01

    Deficits in the ability to recognize and think about mental states are broadly understood to be a root cause of dysfunction in Borderline Personality Disorder (PD). This study compared the magnitude of those deficits relative to other forms of serious mental illness or psychiatric conditions. Assessments were performed using the metacognition assessment scale-abbreviated (MAS-A), emotion recognition using the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test and alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale among adults with schizophrenia (n = 65), Borderline PD (n = 34) and Substance Use disorder without psychosis or significant Borderline traits (n = 32). ANCOVA controlling for age revealed the Borderline PD group had significantly greater levels of metacognitive capacity on the MAS-A than the schizophrenia group and significantly lower levels of metacognitive capacity than the Substance Use group. Multiple comparisons revealed the Borderline PD group had significantly higher self-reflectivity and awareness of the other's mind than the schizophrenia group but lesser mastery and decentration on the MAS-A than substance use group, after controlling for self-report of psychopathology and overall number of PD traits. The Borderline PD and Schizophrenia group had significantly higher levels of alexithymia than the substance use group. No differences were found for emotion recognition. Results suggest metacognitive functioning is differentially affected in different mental disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A collaborative approach to improve the assessment of physical health in adult consumers with schizophrenia in Queensland mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plever, Sally; McCarthy, Irene; Anzolin, Melissa; Emmerson, Brett; Khatun, Mohsina

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a quality improvement collaborative to increase the number of physical health assessments conducted with consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia in adult community mental health services across Queensland. Sixteen adult mental health service organisations voluntarily took part in the statewide collaborative initiative to increase the number of physical health assessments completed on persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders managed through the community mental health service. Improvement in the physical health assessment clinical indicator was demonstrated across the state over a 3-year period with an increase in the number of physical health assessments recorded from 12% to 58%. Significant improvements were made over a 3-year period by all mental health services involved in the collaborative, supporting the application of a quality improvement methodology to drive change across mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Oral and dental health issues in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torales, Julio; Barrios, Iván; González, Israel

    2017-09-21

    Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients’ lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. In disorders such as anxiety and depression, the main issue is the loss of interest in self-care, which results in a poor hygiene. The most frequent oral and dental diseases in these patients are dental cavities and periodontal disease. The purpose of this brief review is to provide up-to-date information about the management of oral and dental diseases of patients with mental disorders.

  3. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Kouidrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.

  4. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  5. Cognitive Discernible Factors between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Prouteau, Antoniette; Briand, Catherine; Nicole, Luc; Lalonde, Pierre; Lesage, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorders (SA) are associated with cognitive deficits. Generally, a schizoaffective diagnosis is associated with better prognosis on the level of social integration. It is also well established that cognition is an important factor for good social outcome in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that,…

  6. Mental-health-related stigma among Japanese children and their parents and impact of renaming of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ohta, Kazusa; Ojio, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Kei-Ichiro; Ando, Shuntaro

    2017-03-01

    Mental-health-related stigma affects help-seeking behavior and service utilization among young people. Whether mental-health-related stigma is different or correlated between parents and their children is unknown. It is also unknown whether the name change of schizophrenia in 2002 has had long-term effects on reducing stigma for adults in the general population. We recruited 143 parent-child pairs (mean ages [SD]: 51.5 [3.6] and 21.2 [1.2] years, respectively) to complete self-report questionnaires regarding mental-health-related stigma and experience. We also assessed negative stereotypes for three psychiatric disease names (old and new names of schizophrenia, and depression), and for diabetes mellitus as a physical illness comparison. The questionnaires also asked respondents to identify the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia, respectively, among 10 names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. Parents showed lower stigma levels toward mental illness and diabetes mellitus, but similar or greater stigma levels toward schizophrenia, compared with their children. Stigma levels toward mental illness in parents and their children were significantly correlated. The rate of correct identification of the old and new names for schizophrenia was higher in parents than in their children (64.7% vs 41.4%, P stigma toward mental illness is shared between family members, and the name change of schizophrenia has effectively reduced stigma levels toward this disorder in adults of various ages. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  8. Quality indicators in the treatment of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miquel; de Dios, Consuelo; Pérez, Víctor; Ignacio, Emilio; Serrano, Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Mira, José Joaquín; Guilabert, Mercedes; Roca, Miquel

    To define a set of indicators for mental health care, monitoring quality assurance in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders in Spain. Qualitative research. Consensus-based study involving 6 psychiatrists on the steering committee and a panel of 43 psychiatrists working in several health services in Spain. An initial proposal of 44 indicators for depression, 42 for schizophrenia and 58 for bipolar disorder was elaborated after reviewing the literature. This proposal was analysed by experts using the Delphi technique. The valuation of these indicators in successive rounds allowed those with less degree of consensus to be discarded. Feasibility, sensitivity and clinical relevance were considered. The study was carried out between July 2015 and March 2016. Seventy indicators were defined by consensus: 17 for major depression, 16 for schizophrenia, 17 for bipolar disorder and 20 common to all three pathologies. These indicators included measures related to adequacy, patient safety, exacerbation, mechanical restraint, suicidal behaviour, psychoeducation, adherence, mortality and physical health. This set of indicators allows quality monitoring in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder. Mental health care authorities and professionals can use this proposal for developing a balanced scorecard adjusted to their priorities and welfare objectives. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Murray, Robin M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Donovan, Michael; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; van Os, Jim; Insel, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background that influences early brain development, and is expressed as a combination of psychotic symptoms - such as hallucinations, delusions and disorganization - and motivational and cognitive dysfunctions. The mean lifetime prevalence of the disorder is just below 1%, but large regional differences in prevalence rates are evident owing to disparities in urbanicity and patterns of immigration. Although gross brain pathology is not a characteristic of schizophrenia, the disorder involves subtle pathological changes in specific neural cell populations and in cell-cell communication. Schizophrenia, as a cognitive and behavioural disorder, is ultimately about how the brain processes information. Indeed, neuroimaging studies have shown that information processing is functionally abnormal in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Although pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia can relieve psychotic symptoms, such drugs generally do not lead to substantial improvements in social, cognitive and occupational functioning. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, cognitive remediation and supported education and employment have added treatment value, but are inconsistently applied. Given that schizophrenia starts many years before a diagnosis is typically made, the identification of individuals at risk and those in the early phases of the disorder, and the exploration of preventive approaches are crucial.

  10. [Cortical Release Signs in Patients with Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorders, and Bipolar Affective Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella, Ricardo Andrés; Hernández, José Fernando; Espejo, Lina María

    2013-12-01

    Determining the presence of cortical release signs associated with white matter damage, is a clinically easy method to perform. The objective of this study is to determine the presence of cortical release signs in patients with mental illnesses and cerebrovascular disease, as well as its clinical usefulness, given that it indicates cortical damage. A review was made of cortical release signs in patients hospitalized in clinical psychiatry and general hospitals with bipolar affective disorder (40), depression (37), schizophrenia (33), cardiovascular disease (33) and dementia (37). The signs of cortical release do not have the same importance as cortical damage. For example, the glabellar reflex was found in all the groups, that of paratonia, particularly in the group with schizophrenia, and others signs in the group of patients with dementia. It is suggested that these signs imply subcortical white matter damage. The appearance of these signs shows the need for a follow up of patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  12. Neurological Soft Signs In Psychoses A Comparison Between Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand. E. Noroozian. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most important and disabling mental disorders in the world. Males and females are equally affected. Diagnosis is a very difficult problem in this disorder. Because the diagnostic systems such as ICD-10 and DSM-IV are mainly subjective, they are not valid and reliable. Essentially, in the future, we will need to more objective criteria in psychiatry especially in diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are an example of these objective criteria. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and compared it with the prevalence of these signs in other psychotic patients (except mood disorders with psychotic features and normal subjects."nMethods: We compared the neurological soft signs (sensory motor integration, motor. Coordination, consequent complex motor acts, primary reflexes, and eye movements in 30 schizophrenic patients, 30 other psychotic patients (other than mood disorders with psychotic features and 30 normal subjects. Diagnosis of schizophrenia and also other psychoses were based on DSM-IN criteria. Normal subjects have been selected form the staff of Roozbeh hospital randomly."nResults: The difference between the means of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (other than mood disorders with psychotic features were significant (P value < 0.04. There were no significant differences between the means of other subscales of neurological soft signs in two groups of patients."nConclusion: There are some disturbances of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in patients with schizophrenia. It seems that, these disturbances are evidence of involvements of basal ganglia, motor cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. So it may be suggested that motor coordination as a marker can be used in differentiation between the schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  13. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  14. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi...

  15. Relative Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in People with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-I Wu

    Full Text Available Despite high mortality associated with serious mental illness, risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI remains unclear, especially for patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective was to investigate the relative risk of AMI associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in a national sample.Using nationwide administrative data, an 11-year historic cohort study was assembled, comprised of cases aged 18 and above who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, compared to a random sample of all other adults excluding those with diagnoses of serious mental illness. Incident AMI as a primary diagnosis was ascertained. Hazard ratios stratified by age and gender were calculated and Cox regression models were used to adjust for other covariates.A total of 70,225 people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 207,592 people without serious mental illness were compared. Hazard ratios in men adjusted for age, income and urbanization were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01~1.32 for schizophrenia and 1.37 (1.08~1.73for bipolar disorder, and in women, 1.85 (1.58~2.18 and 1.88(1.47~2.41 respectively. Further adjustment for treated hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia attenuated the hazard ratio for men with schizophrenia but not the other comparison groups. Hazard ratios were significantly stronger in women than men and were stronger in younger compared to older age groups for both disorders; however, gender modification was only significant in people with schizophrenia, and age modification only significant in people with bipolar disorder.In this large national sample, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were associated with raised risk of AMI in women and in the younger age groups although showed differences in potential confounding and modifying factors.

  16. Relative Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in People with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-I; Chen, Su-Chiu; Liu, Shen-Ing; Sun, Fang-Ju; Juang, Jimmy J M; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Kao, Kai-Liang; Dewey, Michael E; Prince, Martin; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Despite high mortality associated with serious mental illness, risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear, especially for patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective was to investigate the relative risk of AMI associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in a national sample. Using nationwide administrative data, an 11-year historic cohort study was assembled, comprised of cases aged 18 and above who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, compared to a random sample of all other adults excluding those with diagnoses of serious mental illness. Incident AMI as a primary diagnosis was ascertained. Hazard ratios stratified by age and gender were calculated and Cox regression models were used to adjust for other covariates. A total of 70,225 people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 207,592 people without serious mental illness were compared. Hazard ratios in men adjusted for age, income and urbanization were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01~1.32) for schizophrenia and 1.37 (1.08~1.73)for bipolar disorder, and in women, 1.85 (1.58~2.18) and 1.88(1.47~2.41) respectively. Further adjustment for treated hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia attenuated the hazard ratio for men with schizophrenia but not the other comparison groups. Hazard ratios were significantly stronger in women than men and were stronger in younger compared to older age groups for both disorders; however, gender modification was only significant in people with schizophrenia, and age modification only significant in people with bipolar disorder. In this large national sample, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were associated with raised risk of AMI in women and in the younger age groups although showed differences in potential confounding and modifying factors.

  17. Canadian Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive Community Treatment for Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Donald; Anderson, Elizabeth; Kelly, Martina; Lesage, Alain; Summerville, Chris

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the features and components of a comprehensive system of services for people living with schizophrenia. A comprehensive system was conceived as one that served the full range of people with schizophrenia and was designed with consideration of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. The system should provide access to the full range of evidence-based services, should be recovery oriented, and should provide patient-centred care. A systematic search was conducted for published guidelines for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The guidelines were rated by at least 2 raters, and recommendations adopted were primarily drawn from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2014) Guideline on Psychosis and Schizophrenia in adults and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines on management of schizophrenia. The recommendations adapted for Canada cover the range of services required to provide comprehensive services. Comprehensive services for people with schizophrenia can be organized and delivered to improve the quality of life of people with schizophrenia and their carers. The services need to be organized in a system that provides access to those who need them.

  18. [Mental disorders in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas

    2010-05-19

    Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

  19. STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH AKOOCHEKIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.

  20. S1-3: Perception of Biological Motion in Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Major mental disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are characterized by impaired social functioning regardless of wide range of clinical symptoms. Past studies also revealed that people with these mental illness exhibit perceptual problems with altered neural activation. For example, schizophrenia patients are deficient in processing rapid and dynamic visual stimuli. As well documented, people are very sensitive to motion signals generated by others (i.e., biological motion even when those motions are portrayed by point-light display. Therefore, ability to perceive biological motion is important for both visual perception and social functioning. Nevertheless, there have been no systematic attempts to investigate biological motion perception in people with mental illness associated with impaired social functioning until a decade ago. Recently, a series of studies newly revealed abnormal patterns of biological motion perception and associated neural activations in schizophrenia and OCD. These new achievements will be reviewed focusing on perceptual and neural difference between patients with schizophrenia/OCD and healthy individuals. Then implications and possible future research will be discussed in this talk.

  1. Next-generation sequencing in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Matthew; Dorschner, Michael; Tsuang, Debby

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating lifelong illness that lacks a cure and poses a worldwide public health burden. The disease is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical and genetic presentation that complicates research efforts to identify causative genetic variations. This review examines the potential of current findings in schizophrenia and in other related neuropsychiatric disorders for application in next-generation technologies, particularly whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These approaches may lead to the discovery of underlying genetic factors for schizophrenia and may thereby identify and target novel therapeutic targets for this devastating disorder. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Elucidating the Role of Neurotensin in the Pathophysiology and Management of Major Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M Boules

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT is a neuropeptide that is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various mental disorders. This review outlines data implicating NT in the pathophysiology and management of major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. The data suggest that NT receptor analogs have the potential to be used as novel therapeutic agents acting through modulation of neurotransmitter systems dys-regulated in these disorders.

  3. A Cross Sectional Study of Problem and Pathological Gambling in Patients with Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. Methods A sample of outpatient subjects (n=337) diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or schizoaffective disorder and treated in either a VA hospital or a local state mental health center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to non-gamblers. Results Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (p=0.007), higher depression scores (p=0.04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (p=0.03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:19538900

  4. Preliminary study of visual perspective in mental time travel in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Qing; Cui, Ji-Fang; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Chan, Raymond Ck

    2017-10-01

    This study explored specificity and visual perspective of mental time travel in schizophrenia. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 18 controls were recruited. Participants were asked to recall or imagine specific events according to cue words. Results showed that schizophrenia patients generated fewer specific events than controls, the recalled events were more specific than imagined events. Schizophrenia adopted less field perspective and more observer perspective than controls. These results suggested that patients with schizophrenia were impaired in mental time travel both in specificity and visual perspective. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Very Early-onset Schizophrenia with Secondary Onset Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgote, Shilpa A; Pendharkar, Shreyas Shrikant; Kelkar, Amol D; Bhojane, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported tic disorder.

  6. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Affective Theory of Mind in Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Brüne, Martin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2017-10-21

    Among violent offenders with schizophrenia, there are 2 sub-groups, one with and one without, conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), who differ as to treatment response and alterations of brain structure. The present study aimed to determine whether the 2 groups also differ in Theory of Mind and neural activations subsuming this task. Five groups of men were compared: 3 groups of violent offenders-schizophrenia plus CD/ASPD, schizophrenia with no history of antisocial behavior prior to illness onset, and CD/ASPD with no severe mental illness-and 2 groups of non-offenders, one with schizophrenia and one without (H). Participants completed diagnostic interviews, the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version Interview, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, authorized access to clinical and criminal files, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an adapted version of the Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Task (RMET). Relative to H, nonviolent and violent men with schizophrenia and not CD/ASPD performed more poorly on the RMET, while violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, performed similarly. The 2 groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, relative to the other groups, displayed higher levels of activation in a network of prefrontal and temporal-parietal regions and reduced activation in the amygdala. Relative to men without CD/ASPD, both groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD displayed a distinct pattern of neural responses during emotional/mental state attribution pointing to distinct and comparatively successful processing of social information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Abnormal infant neurodevelopment predicts schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect infants who carry a schizophrenic genotype and study the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZSD) from birth. In the 1940s, Bender described uneven maturation in childhood schizophrenics and in 1952 found this in the infant histories of 6 schizophrenic children. We tested a possible index for defective neural integration in infants termed "pandysmaturation" (PDM). This required retarded cranial growth plus retarded and erratic gross motor development on a single exam. Twelve offspring of hospitalized schizophrenic mothers and 12 infants in a "Well Baby Clinic," were examined 10 times between birth and 2 years of age. Psychiatric interviews and psychological testing were done at 10, 15, and 22 years of age, plus follow-up at 27-35 years of age. Six infants had PDM at 2, 6, or 13 months of age. Five individuals have been blindly diagnosed (by KSK) as having lifetime SZSD; all 5 had PDM before 8 months. Chi-square one-tailed tests confirmed the predictions: (1) PDM was related to subsequent SZSD (chi(2) = 11.43; p < 0.0005); (2) schizophrenic mothers had more infants with PDM than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 3.28; p < 0.05); and (3) schizophrenic mothers had more SZSD offspring than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 6.39; p < 0.0125). These first behavioral observations of aberrant neurodevelopment in pre- SZSD infants support the evidence of early neurodevelopmental disorder seen in studies of brain pathology in SZSD adults.

  8. The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study--VIA 7--a cohort study of 520 7-year-old children born of parents diagnosed with either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or neither of these two mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne A E; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Ellersgaard, Ditte Vestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    disorder on mental health and level of functioning. We hypothesize that a larger proportion of children growing up with an ill parent will display abnormal or delayed development, behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms compared to the healthy controls. METHODS/DESIGN: We are establishing a cohort...... material (saliva or blood) for genetic analyses. The participants are recruited via Danish registers to ensure representativity. Data from registers concerning social status, birth complications, somatic illnesses and hospitalization are included in the database. Psychological and relational factors like...

  9. Misophonia: A new mental disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders. Other researchers have disputed this claim. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the proposition that misophonia should be classified as a new mental disorder. The clinical and research literature on misophonia was examined and considered in the context of the broader literature on what constitutes a mental disorder. There have been growing concerns that diagnostic systems such as DSM-5 tend to over-pathologize ordinary quirks and eccentricities. Accordingly, solid evidence is required for proposing a new psychiatric disorder. The available evidence suggests that (a) misophonia meets many of the general criteria for a mental disorder and has some evidence of clinical utility as a diagnostic construct, but (b) the nature and boundaries of the syndrome are unclear; for example, in some cases misophonia might be simply one feature of a broader pattern of sensory intolerance, and (c) considerably more research is required, particularly work concerning diagnostic validity, before misophonia, defined as either as a disorder or as a key feature of some broader syndrome of sensory intolerance, should be considered as a diagnostic construct in the psychiatric nomenclature. A research roadmap is proposed for the systematic evaluation as to whether misophonia should be considered for future editions of DSM or ICD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The incidence of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark in the period 2000-2012. A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Johanne Olivia Grønne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 2000 and 2012. Their history of contacts was traced back to 1969. Broad schizophrenia included schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, persistent delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other...

  11. Assessment of functioning in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with the Mini-ICF-APP: a validation study in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Federica; Fiorillo, Andrea; Tusconi, Massimo; Guiso, Beatrice; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate validity of the Italian Mini-ICF-APP (Mini-ICF Rating for Limitations of Activities and Participation in Psychological Disorders) in schizophrenia and related disorders. Methods 74 outpatients affected by schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders attending a University-based community mental health centre were recruited to the study. All participants underwent comprehensive evaluation using standardized instruments to assess clinical, neurocogn...

  12. Dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: differential diagnosis and theoretical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Park, Jane

    2008-06-01

    Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) are typically thought of as unrelated syndromes--a genetically based psychotic disorder versus a trauma-based dissociative disorder--and are categorized as such by the DSM-IV. However, substantial data exist to document the elevated occurrence of psychotic symptoms in DID; awareness of these features is necessary to prevent diagnostic confusion. Recent research has also pointed out that schizophrenia and DID overlap not only in psychotic symptoms but also in terms of traumatic antecedents, leading to a number of suggestions for revision of our clinical, theoretical, and nosologic understanding of the relationship between these two disorders.

  13. Co-aggregation of major psychiatric disorders in individuals with first-degree relatives with schizophrenia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-M; Chang, W-H; Chen, M-H; Tsai, C-F; Su, T-P; Li, C-T; Tsai, S-J; Hsu, J-W; Huang, K-L; Lin, W-C; Chen, T-J; Bai, Y-M

    2017-11-07

    A previous genetic study has suggested that schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common disease-associated genes. However, whether individuals with first-degree relatives (FDRs) with schizophrenia have a higher risk of these major psychiatric disorders requires further investigation. This study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and identified 151 650 patients with schizophrenia and 227 967 individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia. The relative risks (RRs) of schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders were assessed in individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia. The individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia exhibited higher RRs (95% confidence interval) of major psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia (4.76, 4.65-4.88), bipolar disorder (3.23, 3.12-3.35), major depressive disorder (2.05, 2.00-2.10), ASD (2.55, 2.35-2.77) and ADHD (1.31, 1.25-1.37) than were found in the total population. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm these results. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between the risks of major psychiatric disorders and the numbers of FDRs with schizophrenia. The increased risks of major psychiatric disorders were consistent in different family relationships, namely among parents, offspring, siblings and twins. Our study supports the familial dose-dependent co-aggregation of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, ASD and ADHD, and our results may prompt governmental public health departments and psychiatrists to focus on the mental health of individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 November 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.217.

  14. Association Between Substance Use Disorder and Polygenic Liability to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M; Horton, Amy C; Oehlert, Mary; Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bogdan, Ryan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hancock, Dana B; Johnson, Eric O; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Rice, John P; Bierut, Laura J

    2017-11-15

    There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity. We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder; n = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder; n = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder; n = 210 cases; 317 control subjects). Phenotypes were harmonized across the three datasets and standardized analyses were performed. Genome-wide genotypes were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. In each individual dataset and in the mega-analysis, strong associations were observed between any substance use disorder diagnosis and the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (mega-analysis pseudo-R 2 range 0.8-3.7%; minimum p = 4 × 10 -23 ). These results suggest that comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder is partially attributable to shared polygenic liability. This shared liability is most consistent with a general risk for substance use disorder rather than specific risks for individual substance use disorders and adds to increasing evidence of a blurred boundary between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  16. EEG synchronization to modulated auditory tones in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Colleen A; Sporns, Olaf; Lysaker, Paul H; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2003-12-01

    The authors tested whether neural synchronization deficits were present in subjects with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Amplitude-modulated tones were used to evaluate auditory steady-state evoked potential entrainment in a combined group of 21 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 11 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, and 22 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. The schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder group exhibited decreased power compared to the schizotypal personality disorder and nonpsychiatric comparison groups. There were no differences between groups in N100 amplitude. Subjects with schizophrenia but not subjects with schizotypal personality disorder have deficits in steady-state responses to periodic stimuli, despite an intact response to sensory-evoked potentials (N100). These deficits reflect aberrant neural synchronization or resolution and may contribute to disturbed perceptual and cognitive integration in schizophrenia.

  17. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

  18. Infections and exposure to anti-infective agents and the risk of severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Mors, O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe infections are associated with increased risks of mental disorders; however, this is the first large-scale study investigating whether infections treated with anti-infective agents in the primary care setting increase the risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHOD: We...

  19. A dimensional comparison between delusional disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Negro, José E; Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada; de Portugal, Enrique; Ochoa, Susana; Dolz, Montserrat; Haro, Josep M; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; de Dios Luna Del Castillo, Juan; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2015-12-01

    Since the early description of paranoia, the nosology of delusional disorder has always been controversial. The old idea of unitary psychosis has now gained some renewed value from the dimensional continuum model of psychotic symptoms. 1. To study the psychopathological dimensions of the psychosis spectrum; 2. to explore the association between psychotic dimensions and categorical diagnoses; 3. to compare the different psychotic disorders from a psychopathological and functional point of view. This is an observational study utilizing a sample of some 550 patients with a psychotic disorder. 373 participants had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 137 had delusional disorder and 40 with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. The PANSS was used to elicit psychopathology and global functioning was ascertained using the GAF measure. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the PANSS items were performed to extract psychopathological dimensions. Associations between diagnostic categories and dimensions were subsequently studied using ANOVA tests. 5 dimensions - manic, negative symptoms, depression, positive symptoms and cognitive - emerged. The model explained 57.27% of the total variance. The dimensional model was useful to explained differences and similarities between all three psychosis spectrum categories. The potential clinical usefulness of this dimensional model within and between clinical psychosis spectrum categories is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thought disorder in schizophrenia: impairment in contextual processing via integrative failures in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patniyot, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    Formal thought disorder is a critical dysfunction in schizophrenia whose cause remains uncertain, but whose explanation may greatly further our understanding of the disease. Thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia has been hypothesized to involve a disturbance in the internal representation of context. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia attributable to thought disorder display a lack of organization that may be accounted for by an absence of normal contextual processing occurring within the operations of the executive system. But the precise nature and pervasiveness of the deficient cognitive operation remain undistinguished. It is proposed here that the assimilatory functions of the brain appear to lack the ability to perform a particular type of integrative operation when presented with heterogeneous information. This deficit involves committing cognitive misattributions through a confusion of mental terms via a process in thought analogous to a linguistic failure to correctly interpret deictic referents. Both proposed deficits in mental deixis and analogous "metarepresentational" deficits in schizophrenia potentially involve a failure to draw information for a conclusion from a separate framework of relations in integrative fashion. These deficits appear to involve a failure to take an interpreted piece of information as an output from a particular mental task and incorporate it into a new operational scheme, and a central attribute to the deficit is that there is a loss of an effective or adequate integration of separate strata of information. Potential neurobiological correlates to such a system based on current knowledge about schizophrenia neurocircuitry, as well as implications for testing, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Plass, T; Mühlbacher, M; Welte, A-S; Fleischhacker, W W; Hofer, A

    2017-01-01

    The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.

  2. Bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia overlap: a new comorbidity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Agerbo, Esben; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2009-10-01

    Growing evidence of an etiologic overlap between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder has become increasingly difficult to disregard. We investigated the magnitude of the overlap between the clinical diagnoses of bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia over a 35-year period based on the entire Danish population. We established a register-based prospective cohort study of more than 2.5 million persons born in Denmark after 1954. Risks for the 3 psychiatric disorders were estimated by survival analysis using the Aalen-Johansen method. Cohort members were followed from 1970 to 2006. We introduced a new comorbidity index measuring the magnitude of the overlap between the 3 disorders. Overall, 12,734 patients were admitted with schizophrenia, 4,205 with bipolar disorder, and 1,881 with schizoaffective disorder. A female bipolar patient's risk of also being admitted with a schizoaffective disorder by the age of 45 years was approximately 103 times higher than that of a woman at the same age in the general population. Thus, we defined the comorbidity index between schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder at age 45 years to be 103. At age 45 years, the index between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder was 80 and between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was 20. Similar large comorbidity indexes were found for men. A large comorbidity index between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder was found, as well as a large index between bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. But, more surprisingly, it was clear that a substantial comorbidity index between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia was present. This study supports the existence of an overlap between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and thus challenges the strict categorical approach used in both DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  4. Procrastination and Aggression for Mental Disorders in Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvereva M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology

  5. Stereotypes of mental disorders differ in competence and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Melody S; Meagor, Elizabeth L; Kaye, Kimberly E

    2012-03-01

    Theoretical models of public stigma toward mental illness have focused on factors that perpetuate stigma toward the general label of "mental illness" or toward a handful of specific illnesses, used more or less interchangeably. The current work used the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) to examine how one facet of public stigma--stereotype content--differs as a function of specific mental illnesses. Participants were recruited online from across the U.S. Study 1 demonstrated that the overarching category of people with mental illness was perceived as relatively incompetent, but not very hostile (i.e., relatively warm). Study 2 found that when the general label of mental illness was separated into thirteen individual disorders, distinct stereotype content toward four clusters of illnesses emerged. One cluster, typified by illnesses with psychotic features (e.g., schizophrenia), was perceived to be hostile and incompetent. A second cluster, comprised of mood and anxiety disorders, was perceived as average on both competence and warmth. A third cluster of illnesses with neuro-cognitive deficits was thought to be warm but incompetent. The fourth cluster included groups with sociopathic tendencies and was viewed as hostile but relatively competent. The results clearly demonstrate that the stereotype content that underlies public stigma toward individual mental illnesses is not the same for all disorders. Harnessing knowledge of differing stereotype content toward clusters of mental illnesses may improve the efficacy of interventions to counteract public stigma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic profile and suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutfors, Johan; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Jönsson, Erik G; Ekbom, Anders; Nordström, Peter; Brandt, Lena; Ösby, Urban

    2010-11-01

    Earlier studies of patients with schizophrenia have investigated suicide risk in relation to specific psychiatric symptoms, but it remains to be better understood how suicide risk relates to the diagnostic profile in these patients. We identified all patients with a first clinical ICD-diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder in Stockholm County between 1984 and 2000. Patients who died by suicide within five years from diagnosis were defined as cases (n=84) and were individually matched with a similar number of living controls from the same population. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were retrieved from hospital records through a blind process. DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses for cases and controls were derived using the OPCRIT algorithm. A schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (i.e. schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder) was assigned by OPCRIT to 50% of the suicide cases and 62% of the controls. Criteria for schizophrenia were met by 41% of the cases and 51% of the controls; for schizoaffective disorder by 8% of the cases and 10% of the controls; for other psychosis by 23% of the cases and 25% of the controls; and for mood disorder by 26% of the cases and 12% of the controls. Using the schizophrenia diagnosis as a reference, suicide risk was significantly higher in patients meeting criteria for a mood disorder diagnosis with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-9.0). In patients with a clinical schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, a DSM-IV mood disorder diagnosis increases the suicide risk more than three-fold. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory of mind in women with borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia: differences in overall ability and error patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia are notably different mental disorders, they share problems in social cognition – or understanding the feelings, intentions and thoughts of other people. To date no studies have directly compared the social cognitive abilities of individuals with these two disorders. In this study, the social cognitive subdomain theory of mind was investigated in females with borderline personality disorder (n = 25, females with schizophrenia (n = 25 and healthy females (n = 25. An ecologically valid video-based measure (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition was used. For the overall score, females with schizophrenia performed markedly below both healthy females and females with borderline personality disorder, whereas females with borderline personality disorder did not perform significantly different compared to the healthy control group. A statistically significant error type x group interaction effect indicated that the groups differed with respect to kind of errors. Whereas females with borderline personality disorder made mostly overmentalizing errors, females with schizophrenia in addition committed undermentalizing errors. Our study suggests different magnitude and pattern of social cognitive problems in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  8. The appreciation of visual jokes in people with schizophrenia: a study of 'mentalizing' ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, R; Cahill, C; Frith, C D

    1997-04-11

    It has been suggested that certain characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia reflect a specific deficit in the ability to attribute mental states to others ('mentalizing'). Patients with negative features, particularly social withdrawal and blunted affect, those with thought disorder and patients with paranoid symptoms have difficulties when they try to infer what is going on in the minds of other people. This study examines this notion using two sets of cartoon jokes. While the first set can be understood purely using physical and semantic analysis, the second set requires that the viewer appreciates the mental state of the main character in order to 'get' the joke. For control subjects there was no difference in the ability to understand the two types of joke, while the schizophrenic patients found the mental state jokes significantly more difficult to understand. This effect was most marked in patients with behavioural disorders and those reporting passivity experiences. Those with paranoid delusions also showed a selective comprehension deficit with the mental state stimuli. Patients who were symptom free at the time of testing showed normal performance.

  9. Very early-onset schizophrenia with secondary onset tic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa A Telgote; Shreyas Shrikant Pendharkar; Amol D Kelkar; Sachin Bhojane

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported

  10. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component

  11. Genetic liability for schizophrenia predicts risk of immune disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Sven; Kahn, René S.; de Witte, Lot D.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Derks, Eske M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients and their parents have an increased risk of immune disorders compared to population controls and their parents. This may be explained by genetic overlap in the pathogenesis of both types of disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic overlap between

  12. Genetic liability for schizophrenia predicts risk of immune disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Sven; Kahn, René S; de Witte, Lot D; Ophoff, Roel A; Derks, Eske M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia patients and their parents have an increased risk of immune disorders compared to population controls and their parents. This may be explained by genetic overlap in the pathogenesis of both types of disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic overlap

  13. Executive dysfunction in schizophrenia and its association with mentalizing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, José M; García-Albea, José E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been found impaired in important aspects of their basic and social cognition. Our aim in this study is to explore the relationship between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) deficiencies in patients that suffer the illness. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking inpatients and 22 healthy controls matched in age, sex, education, language dominance, and premorbid IQ were assessed in EF and ToM abilities. The former were assessed using 10 tasks that covered 5 cognitive dimensions and the latter using 3 different tasks. Correlation analyses were used to explore the level of association between executive and mentalizing abilities. A series of discriminant function analyses were carried out to examine the relative contribution of each executive and mentalizing task to discriminate between patients and controls. Patients showed impairments in both, executive and ToM abilities. The correlation analyses showed a virtual absence of association between EF and ToM abilities within the group of patients, and an almost opposite pattern within the healthy group. ToM performance was more accurate than executive performance to discriminate patients from controls. Although EFs and ToM deficits come into view together in schizophrenia, they appear to belong to different and relatively independent cognitive domains. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Perisylvian GABA levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagün, Murat İlhan; Şıkoğlu, Elif Muazzez; Soykan, Çağlar; Serdar Süleyman, Can; Ulusoy-Kaymak, Semra; Çayköylü, Ali; Algın, Oktay; Phillips, Mary Louise; Öngür, Dost; Moore, Constance Mary

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study is to measure GABA levels of perisylvian cortices in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Patients with schizophrenia (n=25), bipolar I disorder (BD-I; n=28) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II; n=20) were compared with healthy controls (n=30). 1 H-MRS data was acquired using a Siemens 3T whole body scanner to quantify right and left perisylvian structures' (including superior temporal lobes) GABA levels. Right perisylvian GABA values differed significantly between groups [χ 2 =9.62, df: 3, p=0.022]. GABA levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (p=0.002). Furthermore, Chlorpromazine equivalent doses of antipsychotics correlated with right hemisphere GABA levels (r 2 =0.68, p=0.006, n=33). GABA levels are elevated in the right hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder and healthy controls. The balance between excitatory and inhibitory controls over the cortical circuits may have direct relationship with GABAergic functions in auditory cortices. In addition, GABA levels may be altered by brain regions of interest, psychotropic medications, and clinical stage in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalincetin, Berna; Bora, Emre; Binbay, Tolga; Ulas, Halis; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Koksal

    2017-07-01

    Historically, formal thought disorder has been considered as one of the distinctive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, research in last few decades suggested that there is a considerable clinical and neurobiological overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing positive (PTD) and negative formal thought disorder (NTD) in schizophrenia and BP. We included 19 studies comparing 715 schizophrenia and 474 BP patients. In the acute inpatient samples, there was no significant difference in the severity of PTD (d=-0.07, CI=-0.22-0.09) between schizophrenia and BP. In stable patients, schizophrenia was associated with increased PTD compared to BP (d=1.02, CI=0.35-1.70). NTD was significantly more severe (d=0.80, CI=0.52-0.1.08) in schizophrenia compared to BP. Our findings suggest that PTD is a shared feature of both schizophrenia and BP but persistent PTD or NTD can distinguish subgroups of schizophrenia from BP and schizophrenia patients with better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aripiprazole in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Tourjman, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been some progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Current evidence supports the use of various second-generation, or atypical, antipsychotic medications, although few of these agents have been associated with long-term efficacy and tolerability. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has been found to improve positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with a favorable adverse-effect profile. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole in the context of recommended management strategies for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and in comparison with first-generation and other second-generation antipsychotics. A search of MEDLINE (1999-May 2009) was conducted for reports of short- and long-term clinical studies of atypical antipsychotics (including aripiprazole) and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials comparing first- and second-generation antipsychotics (including aripiprazole) in the treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The search terms were schizophrenia; schizoaffective disorder; pharmacogenetics; adverse effects; tardive dyskinesia AND atypical antipsychotics; aripiprazole; aripiprazole, schizophrenia, AND double-blind studies; and atypical antipsychotics AND adverse effects. The reference lists of identified articles were reviewed for additional relevant publications. Only full study publications were included. Based on the clinical evidence, including data from short-term (4-8 weeks) and long-term (26-52 weeks) randomized, double-blind clinical trials, aripiprazole has been associated with improvements in positive, negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. It has been associated with long-term (up to 52 weeks) symptom control in schizophrenia, as well as with efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Common adverse effects associated with aripiprazole were nausea

  17. Mitochondrial variants in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Rollins

    Full Text Available Mitochondria provide most of the energy for brain cells by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD, and major depressive disorder (MDD in transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. Several mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence have been reported in SZ and BD patients.Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC from a cohort of 77 SZ, BD, and MDD subjects and age-matched controls (C was studied for mtDNA sequence variations and heteroplasmy levels using Affymetrix mtDNA resequencing arrays. Heteroplasmy levels by microarray were compared to levels obtained with SNaPshot and allele specific real-time PCR. This study examined the association between brain pH and mtDNA alleles. The microarray resequencing of mtDNA was 100% concordant with conventional sequencing results for 103 mtDNA variants. The rate of synonymous base pair substitutions in the coding regions of the mtDNA genome was 22% higher (p = 0.0017 in DLPFC of individuals with SZ compared to controls. The association of brain pH and super haplogroup (U, K, UK was significant (p = 0.004 and independent of postmortem interval time.Focusing on haplogroup and individual susceptibility factors in psychiatric disorders by considering mtDNA variants may lead to innovative treatments to improve mitochondrial health and brain function.

  18. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structure - there are also persons with mental illness. This gives number of diagnostic difficulties. In this regard, the aim of the study was to trace the modern ideas of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to the drug use. Materials and methods of research. In this work the content analysis of the modern representations of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders as a result of the use of psychoactive substances was made. The problem of determination of primary and secondary nature of drug addiction in patients with psychotic disorders was indicated. Etiology and psychopathogenesis hypotheses of the addiction from psychoactive substances in the context of their correlation with endogenous mental pathology were defined. In the literature there is no clear diagnostic criteria that would allow distinguishing psychosis due to the use of drugs and endogenous psychosis, which is combined with the admission medicines. However, the attention of clinicians should be concentrated on the premorbid condition: the presence of hereditary family history, pathological behavior in childhood and adolescence. It was found that the majority of substances may cause one or more syndromes - delirium, dementia, and amnestic syndrome, delusional syndrome, hallucinatory syndrome, depressive syndrome, anxiety, and personality disorder, such disorders as schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders are not rare. Special attention was paid to the

  19. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  20. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2011-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients’ cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingli; Liang, Wei; Yang, Shichang; Dai, Ping; Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Changhong

    2013-10-05

    This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hallucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "TMS", "repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation", and "hallucination". Selected studies were randomized controlled trials assessing therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hallucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hallucination item, and Hallucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. All data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overall mean weighted effect size for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistically significant (MD = -0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found between active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sham stimulation for

  2. Childhood residential mobility, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder: a population-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksarian, Diana; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2015-03-01

    Childhood adversity is gaining increasing attention as a plausible etiological factor in the development of psychotic disorders. Childhood residential mobility is a potential risk factor that has received little attention in this context. We used registry data to estimate associations of residential mobility with narrow and broad schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across the course of childhood among 1.1 million individuals born in Denmark 1971-1991 and followed from age 15 through 2010. We assessed effect modification by sex, family history of mental disorder, the presence of siblings close in age, and distance moved. In individual-year models adjusted for family history, urbanicity at birth, and parental age, mobility at all ages except the year of birth was associated with heightened risk of narrow and broad schizophrenia, and risk increased with age at moving and with the number of moves. Further adjustment for mobility at all ages 0-15 revealed associations mainly during the latter half of childhood, which were strongest during adolescence. Associations between mobility and bipolar disorder were fewer and weaker compared to schizophrenia. There was modest evidence of interaction with family history of psychiatric diagnosis, but little evidence for interaction by sex, the presence of closely-aged siblings, or distance moved. Schizophrenia associations did not appear attributable to increased mobility among adolescents with earlier onset. Mobility may increase risk for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Children may be especially vulnerable during adolescence. Future research should investigate the importance of school changes and the potential for interaction with genetic risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  4. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological res...

  5. Effects of Social Cognitive Impairment on Speech Disorder in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Docherty, Nancy M.; McCleery, Amanda; Divilbiss, Marielle; Schumann, Emily B.; Moe, Aubrey; Shakeel, Mohammed K.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered speech in schizophrenia impairs social functioning because it impedes communication with others. Treatment approaches targeting this symptom have been limited by an incomplete understanding of its causes. This study examined the process underpinnings of speech disorder, assessed in terms of communication failure. Contributions of impairments in 2 social cognitive abilities, emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), to speech disorder were assessed in 63 patients with schizophren...

  6. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouidrat, Youssef; Amad, Ali; Lalau, Jean-Daniel; Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “b...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BURDEN OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jayakrishnaveni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mental and behavioural disorders have a large impact on individuals, family and communities. There is a paucity of studies on burden and cost of illness of Bipolar Affective Disorder both internationally and in India. Such studies are important for clinical management and policy decisions. Aim of the study - The aim of the present study is to assess the magnitude of the cost of illness and family burden of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia and to find out the difference in the burden of the caregivers for both the groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Institute of Mental Health, Chennai. Sixty patients in each group were included by stratified sampling. Caregivers living with patients for atleast one year are included in the study, and those with any comorbid illness, were excluded from the study. ICD -10 diagnostic and research criteria were used for diagnosis of BPAD and Schizophrenia, Questionnaire for Assessment of Cost of Illness was used to assess cost of illness and Family Burden Interview Schedule was used to assess burden of caregivers. RESULTS Schizophrenia patients are mostly from urban, nuclear family. The illness characters & sociodemographic profile of caregivers are comparable. Lifetime costs and loss of income over lifetime was more in schizophrenia. Loss of income in the past year was similar. The burden was comparable for caregivers of both groups in disruption of family routine, interaction with family members, effect on mental health. CONCLUSION Burden of both diseases were comparable except schizophrenics experience more financial burden.

  8. Neuropsychology and emotion processing in violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia: The same or different? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Baumeister, David; Greer, Ben; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets. Relevant databases (OVID, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched to identify suitable literature. Meta-analyses comparing cognitive function in violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder to healthy controls were conducted. Neuropsychological studies not comparing these groups to healthy controls, and emotion processing studies, were evaluated qualitatively. Meta-analyses indicated lower IQ, memory and executive function in both violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder groups compared to healthy controls. The degree of deficit was consistently larger in violent schizophrenia. Both antisocial personality disorder and violent schizophrenia groups had difficulties in aspects of facial affect recognition, although theory of mind results were less conclusive. Psychopathic traits related positively to experiential emotion deficits across the two disorders. Very few studies explored comorbid violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder despite this being common in clinical practice. There are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, neuropsychological and emotion processing deficits in violent individuals with schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder which could be developed into transdiagnostic treatment targets for violent behaviour. Future research should aim to characterise specific subgroups of violent offenders, including those with comorbid diagnoses.

  9. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Mössler, Karin A; Bieleninik, Łucja; Chen, Xi-Jing; Heldal, Tor Olav; Gold, Christian

    2017-05-29

    Music therapy is a therapeutic approach that uses musical interaction as a means of communication and expression. Within the area of serious mental disorders, the aim of the therapy is to help people improve their emotional and relational competencies, and address issues they may not be able to using words alone. To review the effects of music therapy, or music therapy added to standard care, compared with placebo therapy, standard care or no treatment for people with serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (December 2010 and 15 January, 2015) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, handsearching of music therapy journals and manual searches of reference lists. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared music therapy with standard care, placebo therapy, or no treatment. Review authors independently selected, quality assessed and data extracted studies. We excluded data where more than 30% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. We synthesised non-skewed continuous endpoint data from valid scales using a standardised mean difference (SMD). We employed a fixed-effect model for all analyses. If statistical heterogeneity was found, we examined treatment dosage (i.e. number of therapy sessions) and treatment approach as possible sources of heterogeneity. Ten new studies have been added to this update; 18 studies with a total 1215 participants are now included. These examined effects of music therapy over the short, medium, and long-term, with treatment dosage varying from seven to 240 sessions. Overall, most information is from studies at low or unclear risk of biasA positive effect on global state was found for music therapy compared to standard care (medium term, 2 RCTs, n = 133, RR 0.38 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.59, low-quality evidence, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome NNTB 2, 95% CI 2 to 4). No binary

  10. Quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The impact of symptomatic remission and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, A; Mizuno, Y; Wartelsteiner, F; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Mimura, M; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Suzuki, T; Welte, A; Uchida, H

    2017-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant. These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. DSM-5 and Mental Disorders in Older Individuals: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Perminder S; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the changes in DSM-5 relative to earlier versions.• Evaluate the implications of the DSM-5 for practicing geriatric psychiatrists. About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, prompting considerable commentary, debate, and criticism. This article briefly describes the process leading up to DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. The changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders have been many, but the majority of them are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders, however, has seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison to DSM-IV; of special note is the introduction of "mild and major neurocognitive disorders," the latter equated with dementia. A common language has also been introduced for the criteria for the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field.

  12. DSM-5 and mental disorders in older individuals: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2015-01-01

    About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215

  13. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey  of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environment factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental factors influence in high risk individuals would postpone early manifestation, reduce disability in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as evidenced by the statement of leading health experts.

  14. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  15. Disease network of mental disorders in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoungje; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Jee Eun; Gim, Minsook

    2015-12-01

    Network medicine considers networks among genes, diseases, and individuals. Networks of mental disorders remain poorly understood, despite their high comorbidity. In this study, a network of mental disorders in Korea was constructed to offer a complementary approach to treatment. Data on the prevalence and morbidity of mental disorders were obtained from the 2006 and 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, including 22 psychiatric disorders. Nodes in the network were disease phenotypes identified by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and the links connected phenotypes showing significant comorbidity. Odds ratios were used to quantify the distance between disease pairs. Network centrality was analyzed with and without weighting of the links between disorders. Degree centrality was correlated with suicidal behaviors and use of mental health services. In 2011 and 2006, degree centrality was highest for major depressive disorder, followed by nicotine dependence and generalized anxiety disorder (2011) or alcohol dependence (2006). Weighted degree centrality was highest in conversion disorder in both years. Therefore, major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence are highly connected to other mental disorders in Korea, indicating their comorbidity and possibility of shared biological mechanisms. The use of networks could enhance the understanding of mental disorders to provide effective mental health services.

  16. A whole-of-population study of the prevalence and patterns of criminal offending in people with schizophrenia and other mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, V A; Morgan, F; Valuri, G; Ferrante, A; Castle, D; Jablensky, A

    2013-09-01

    Large epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the prevalence and profile of offending by people with mental illness. This study used a whole-of-population design to examine the prevalence, type and pattern of offending across all psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, compared to the general population. Method We used whole-of-population longitudinal record-linked data for a cohort of all Western Australians born 1955-1969 to determine arrest history over the period 1985-1996 and to ascertain recorded history of psychiatric illness. Of the cohort, 116 656 had been arrested and 40 478 were on the psychiatric case register. The period prevalence of arrest for people with any psychiatric illness was 32.1%. The highest arrest prevalence, by diagnostic category, was for substance use disorders (59.4%); the prevalence for schizophrenia was 38.7%. Co-morbid substance use disorders significantly increased risk of arrest in people with schizophrenia. The prevalence of mental illness among offenders was 11.1%: 6.5% of offenders had substance use disorders and 1.7% had schizophrenia. For the majority of offenders with a psychiatric illness, first arrest preceded first contact with mental health services; for schizophrenia only, this proportion was increasing over time. The mean percentage annual change in the number of arrests during 1985-1996 rose significantly for offenders with a psychiatric illness other than schizophrenia and dropped significantly for those with no mental illness. Compared to non-psychiatric offenders, offenders with schizophrenia were more likely to offend alone, to offend in open places and to target strangers. Our findings open the way to an informed approach to the management of offenders with mental illness.

  17. Stigma experienced by patients with severe mental disorders: A nationwide multicentric study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Singh, Aakanksha; Dan, Amitava; Neogi, Rajarshi; Kaur, Darpan; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Rozatkar, Abhijit R; Nebhinani, Naresh; Patra, Suravi; Sivashankar, Priya; Subramanyam, Alka A; Tripathi, Adarsh; Gania, Ab Majid; Singh, Gurvinder Pal; Behere, Prakash

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the stigma and its correlates among patients with severe mental disorders. Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 707), bipolar disorder (N = 344) and recurrent depressive disorder (N = 352) currently in clinical remission from 14 participating centres were assessed on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS). Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia experienced higher level of alienation, sterotype endorsement, discrimination experience and total stigma when compared to patients with bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder experienced higher stigma than those with recurrent depressive disorder in the domain of stigma resistance only. Overall compared to affective disorder groups, higher proportion of patients with schizophrenia reported stigma in all the domains of ISMIS. In general in all the 3 diagnostic groups' stigma was associated with shorter duration of illness, shorter duration of treatment and younger age of onset. To conclude, this study suggests that compared to affective disorder, patients with schizophrenia experience higher self stigma. Higher level of stigma is experienced during the early phase of illness. Stigma intervention programs must focus on patients during the initial phase of illness in order to reduce the negative consequences of stigma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Parnas, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We studied 25 schizophrenia patients using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience phenomenological interview framework. In a previous study, this sample was qualitatively interviewed concerning subjective reasons for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 2 main identified reasons for suic...... on suicidality in schizophrenia: it appears to be partly motivated by a disordered sense of self. These findings, if replicated, may have considerable therapeutic and preventive implications.......We studied 25 schizophrenia patients using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience phenomenological interview framework. In a previous study, this sample was qualitatively interviewed concerning subjective reasons for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 2 main identified reasons...... for suicidality, that is, sense of solitude and inferiority feelings, would be associated with disturbances measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience scale, that is, disorders of self-awareness and self-presence. The hypothesis was empirically supported. The results shed some additional light...

  19. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We studied 25 schizophrenia patients using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience phenomenological interview framework. In a previous study, this sample was qualitatively interviewed concerning subjective reasons for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 2 main identified reasons for suic...... on suicidality in schizophrenia: it appears to be partly motivated by a disordered sense of self. These findings, if replicated, may have considerable therapeutic and preventive implications.......We studied 25 schizophrenia patients using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience phenomenological interview framework. In a previous study, this sample was qualitatively interviewed concerning subjective reasons for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 2 main identified reasons...... for suicidality, that is, sense of solitude and inferiority feelings, would be associated with disturbances measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience scale, that is, disorders of self-awareness and self-presence. The hypothesis was empirically supported. The results shed some additional light...

  20. Neurocognition and social skill in older persons with schizophrenia and major mood disorders: An analysis of gender and diagnosis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J; Forester, Brent; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Cather, Corinne

    2010-05-01

    Effective social interactions necessary for getting affiliative and instrumental needs met require the smooth integration of social skills, including verbal, non-verbal, and paralinguistic behaviors. Schizophrenia is characterized by prominent impairments in social and role functioning, and research on younger individuals with the illness has shown that social skills deficits are both common and distinguish the disease from other psychiatric disorders. However, less research has focused on diagnostic differences and correlates of social skills in older persons with schizophrenia. To address this question, we examined diagnostic and gender differences in social skills in a community-dwelling sample of 183 people older than age 50 with severe mental illness, and the relationships between social skills and neurocognitive functioning, symptoms, and social contact.Individuals with schizophrenia had worse social skills than those with bipolar disorder or major depression, with people with schizoaffective disorder in between. Social contact and cognitive functioning, especially executive functions and verbal fluency, were strongly predictive of social skills in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not those with mood disorder. Other than blunted affect, symptoms were not predictive of social skills in either the schizophrenia spectrum or the mood disorder group. Older age was associated with worse social skills in both groups, whereas female gender was related to better skills in the mood disorder group, but not the schizophrenia group. The findings suggest that poor social skills, which are related to the cognitive impairment associated with the illness, are a fundamental feature of schizophrenia that persists from the onset of the illness into older age.

  1. Mental health literacy and obsessive--compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoufa, Iakovina; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-30

    An opportunistic sample of 342 participants completed a vignette identification task that required them to name the possible psychological problem of an individual described in vignettes describing people with depression, schizophrenia, OCD and OCPD. Participants rated the degree to which they believed the individual experienced distress, they felt sympathetic towards the described individual, and the degree to which they believed the individual was well-adjusted in the community. There were very low recognition rates of OCPD, with participants more likely to identify depression, schizophrenia and OCD. Analysis of distress, sympathy and adjustment ratings also revealed significant differences between the disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of greater mental health awareness and the importance of psycho-education in order to increase successful treatment seeking of OCPD patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating habits and nutritional status of patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Lech, Magdalena; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2017-12-30

    The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional value of the food intake in the group of men and women suffering from recurrent affective disorders and schizophrenia, and also to determine the relation between selected nutritional parameters with anthropometric indices defining the nutritional status of the subjects. 219 persons participated in the study (61 patients with recurrent depressive disorders, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 98 healthy volunteers). A24-hour dietary recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. It was shown that women with depression and schizophrenia had a significantly higher content of both visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue as compared with the control group. A diet with a higher content of energy from protein, a higher supply of calcium promoted a lower fat content in the bodies of women suffering from depression (no such relationship was observed in the group of men). In the group of patients with schizophrenia, a diet with a lower supply of energy promoted a lower BMI value, waist circumference, lower waist-hip ratio and a lower fat content in the body. An improper energy structure and an improper content of nutrients can, in the future, contribute to the development of many somatic diseases, thus leading to deterioration of life quality of subjects and preventing the maintenance of mental health.

  3. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in First Episode Schizophrenia, Based on the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in a General Hospital in Malaysia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert Muh Haur; Ng, Chong Guan; Koh, Ong Hui; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Aziz, Salina Abdul

    2018-05-07

    Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004⁻2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05⁻5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13⁻1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity.

  5. Illness appraisals and self-esteem as correlates of anxiety and affective comorbid disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Gumley, Andrew; Power, Kevin; O'Grady, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is common. This study investigated the hypothesis that greater negative beliefs about illness and lower self-esteem will be significantly associated with the presence of anxiety or affective comorbidity in a sample of persons (n = 138) diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale; the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were all completed for each participant. Of the total sample, 62 (44.9%) had a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder. Logistic regression revealed that those with a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder had significantly lower levels of functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning), more negative appraisals of entrapment in psychosis (Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire), and lower levels of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Although further research is required, the strong association between personal beliefs about self and illness and comorbidity suggests that negative beliefs about psychotic experiences and self-esteem may be linked to the development and maintenance of anxiety and affective comorbid conditions among people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or the like.

  6. Sense of agency and mentalizing: dissociation of subdomains of social cognition in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimansky, Jenny; David, Nicole; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-30

    The sense of agency, i.e., the sense that "I am the one who is causing an action", and mentalizing, the ability to understand the mental states of other individuals, are key domains of social cognition. It has been hypothesized that an intact sense of agency is an important precondition for higher-level mentalizing abilities. A substantial body of evidence shows that both processes rely on similar brain areas and are severely impaired in schizophrenia, suggesting a close link between agency and mentalizing. Yet this relationship has not been explicitly tested. We investigated 40 individuals with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls on an agency and mentalizing task. On the agency task, participants carried out simple mouse movements and judged the partially manipulated visual feedback as either self- or other-generated. On the mentalizing task, participants inferred mental states from pictures that depicted others' eyes ("Reading the mind in the eyes test"). Neuropsychological, psychopathological and social functioning levels were also evaluated. Both sense of agency and mentalizing were impaired in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, testing for a relationship revealed no significant correlations between the two processes, either in the schizophrenia or the control group. The present findings demonstrate a dissociation of agency and mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia, suggesting that the multifaceted construct of social cognition consists of independent subdomains in healthy and psychiatrically ill individuals.

  7. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: Their traditional oriental medicine equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Rover, P. de; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an

  8. Comprehension of metaphors in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Aschauer, Harald N; Stoettner, Susanne; Schmoeger, Michaela; Pils, Nicole; Raab, Monika; Willinger, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Metaphors, mainly proverbs and idiomatic expressions of ordinary life are commonly used as a model for concretism. Previous studies have shown impaired metaphor comprehension in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to either psychiatric or non-psychiatric control subject. The aim of this study was to detect possible quantitative differences in figurative processing between patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and healthy controls. In order to analyse possible dissociations of different aspects of figurative speech, a range of metaphor tasks was used to distinguish between recognition of familiar metaphors, paraphrasing the meaning of the latter and generating novel metaphors: we used a standard proverb test for conventional metaphors consisting of a multiple-choice and a paraphrasing task, and the Metaphoric Triads Test for the assessment of novel metaphors. We included 40 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 43 healthy control subjects. Our results showed that patients had impaired figurative speech processing regarding novel and conventional metaphors. Associations with cognitive functions were detected. Performance on the paraphrasing task was associated with the severity of negative symptoms. We conclude that patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders do exhibit impairments in the recognition and paraphrasing of conventional and the generation of novel metaphors and that some cognitive domains as well the extent of negative symptoms might be associated with these deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Experiences of mental health services for 'black' men with schizophrenia and a history of disengagement: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Christopher; Graham, Hermine; Farrell, Derek; Larkin, Michael; Nettle, Mary

    2018-02-01

    Whilst mental disorders can be disabling they are also treatable, yet engagement with services is often poor and disengagement from treatment is a major concern for mental health nurses. Participants were service users typically perceived as the most disengaged from mental health services, yet they were willing to engage in the research interviews. The seven participants were all male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, a history of disengagement from mental health services and described their ethnicity as 'black'. Participants were under the care of Assertive Outreach Teams and were recruited after the researcher was introduced to them by clinicians who were working with them. After ethical approval, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to elicit the experiences of participants. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis, themes were developed. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis generated four themes: (i) "People just keep hounding me", (ii) Antipathy to Medication, (iii) Choice and the value of services, (iv) Stigmatisation and identity. By rigorously examining how service users with schizophrenia make sense of their experience of their relationship with mental health services, there is potential to give voice to the experiences of the recipients of mental health services. This study uncovered the complex nature of disengagement and in view of this there may never be a straightforward mechanism developed to engage all people with schizophrenia with mental health services. When the participants' experiences are considered in a broader social context it may be possible to reflect on how services can be adapted to facilitate better engagement. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  12. Testes sanguíneos de biomarcadores para diagnóstico e tratamento de desordens mentais: foco em esquizofrenia Biomarker blood tests for diagnosis and management of mental disorders: focus on schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Bahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta e a aplicação clínica de biomarcadores para desordens mentais são confrontadas com muitos desafios. Em geral, os atuais métodos de descoberta e validação de biomarcadores não produziram os resultados que foram inicialmente aguardados depois da finalização do Projeto Genoma Humano. Isso se deve principalmente à falta de processos padronizados conectando a descoberta de marcadores com tecnologias para a validação e a tradução para uma plataforma que ofereça precisão e fácil uso em clínica. Como consequência, a maior parte dos psiquiatras e praticantes em geral são relutantes em aceitar que testes de biomarcadores pode suplementar ou substituir os métodos de diagnóstico utilizados baseados em entrevista. Apesar disso, agências regulatórias concordam agora que melhoras nos correntes métodos são essenciais. Além disso, essas agências estipularam que biomarcadores são importantes para o desenvolvimento de futuras drogas e iniciaram esforços no sentido de modernizar métodos e técnicas para suportar esses esforços. Aqui revisamos os desafios encontrados por essa tentativa do ponto de vista de psiquiatras, praticantes em geral, agências reguladoras e cientistas de biomarcadores. Também descrevemos o desenvolvimento de um novo teste sanguíneo molecular para esquizofrenia como um primeiro passo a esse objetivo.The discovery and clinical application of biomarkers for mental disorders is faced with many challenges. In general, the current methods for discovery and validation of biomarkers have not produced the results which were first anticipated after completion of the human genome project. This is mostly due to the lack of a standardized pipeline connecting marker discovery with technologies for validation and translation to a platform that offers accuracy and ease of use in a clinical setting. As a consequence, most psychiatrists and general practitioners are still reluctant to accept that biomarker tests

  13. Testes sanguíneos de biomarcadores para diagnóstico e tratamento de desordens mentais: foco em esquizofrenia Biomarker blood tests for diagnosis and management of mental disorders: focus on schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Bahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta e a aplicação clínica de biomarcadores para desordens mentais são confrontadas com muitos desafios. Em geral, os atuais métodos de descoberta e validação de biomarcadores não produziram os resultados que foram inicialmente aguardados depois da finalização do Projeto Genoma Humano. Isso se deve principalmente à falta de processos padronizados conectando a descoberta de marcadores com tecnologias para a validação e a tradução para uma plataforma que ofereça precisão e fácil uso em clínica. Como consequência, a maior parte dos psiquiatras e praticantes em geral são relutantes em aceitar que testes de biomarcadores pode suplementar ou substituir os métodos de diagnóstico utilizados baseados em entrevista. Apesar disso, agências regulatórias concordam agora que melhoras nos correntes métodos são essenciais. Além disso, essas agências estipularam que biomarcadores são importantes para o desenvolvimento de futuras drogas e iniciaram esforços no sentido de modernizar métodos e técnicas para suportar esses esforços. Aqui revisamos os desafios encontrados por essa tentativa do ponto de vista de psiquiatras, praticantes em geral, agências reguladoras e cientistas de biomarcadores. Também descrevemos o desenvolvimento de um novo teste sanguíneo molecular para esquizofrenia como um primeiro passo a esse objetivo.The discovery and clinical application of biomarkers for mental disorders is faced with many challenges. In general, the current methods for discovery and validation of biomarkers have not produced the results which were first anticipated after completion of the human genome project. This is mostly due to the lack of a standardized pipeline connecting marker discovery with technologies for validation and translation to a platform that offers accuracy and ease of use in a clinical setting. As a consequence, most psychiatrists and general practitioners are still reluctant to accept that biomarker tests

  14. Are oxidative stress markers useful to distinguish schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Feridun; Virit, Osman; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk A

    2014-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a disease with both affective and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to compare oxidative metabolism markers of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we also aimed to investigate whether schizoaffective disorder could be differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in terms of oxidative metabolism. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in the blood samples that were collected from schizoaffective patients (n = 30), bipolar disorder patients (n = 30) and schizophrenic patients (n = 30). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by dividing TOS by TAS. TOS and OSI were found to be higher in patients with schizoaffective disorder compared with those in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. TAS was not significantly different between the groups. Schizoaffective disorder was found to be different from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of oxidative parameters. This result may indicate that schizoaffective disorder could differ from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of biochemical parameters. Increased TOS levels observed in schizoaffective disorder may suggest poor clinical course and may be an indicator of poor prognosis.

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  16. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  17. [Risk factors for tardive movement disorders in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenback, D E; Bakker, P R; van Harten, P N

    2015-01-01

    Tardive movement disorders are common among patients with schizophrenia. Risk factors for movement disorders are of the utmost importance in the context of preventive strategies. To achieve clearer classification of movement disorders in schizophrenia, to identify the risk factors involved and thereby develop strategies to prevent movement disorders. We searched PubMed for prospective studies which had been performed in homogeneous target populations with schizophrenia and which contained well-defined definitions of the movement disorders. From these we selected studies in which risk factors were repeatedly identified. Tardive dyskinesia is well documented. Risk factors for developing tardive dyskinesia are use of antipsychotics, particularly those belonging to the first generation, 'not belonging to the Caucasian race', early extrapyramidal symptoms and older age. So far, there is very little conclusive evidence regarding the genetics of tardive movement disorders. With regard to tardive dyskinesia, not belonging to the Caucasian race and old age are two risk factors that can be quickly determined for the purpose of prevention. In this case it leads to the choice of medication with a low D2 affinity. Furthermore, it is advisable, after commencing treatment with an antipsychotic drug, to evaluate on a regular basis if the patient is showing (early) signs of TD. If TD does occur, there is a choice between medication with a low D-2 affinity or clozapine.

  18. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  20. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alexithymia and personality disorder functioning styles in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Liu, Weibo; Zheng, Leilei; Ma, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Chen, Yiping; Yu, Hualiang; Lu, Yunrong; Pan, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorder functioning styles might contribute to the inconclusive findings about alexithymic features in schizophrenia. We therefore studied the relationship between alexithymia and personality styles in paranoid schizophrenia. We administered the Chinese versions of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as well as the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales to 60 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy control subjects. Patients scored significantly higher on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, TAS 'difficulty identifying feelings' and 'difficulty describing feelings', Hamilton Depression Scale and most PERM scales. In healthy subjects, difficulty identifying feelings predicted the PERM 'dependent' style, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale predicted difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings. In patients, difficulty identifying feelings nonspecifically predicted all the PERM scales; by contrast, the PERM 'antisocial' style predicted difficulty identifying feelings, the 'avoidant' style predicted difficulty describing feelings, and the 'histrionic' and 'paranoid (-)' styles predicted 'externally oriented thinking'. Personality disorder functioning styles - instead of anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms or disease duration - were specifically associated with alexithymia scales in our patients, which sheds light on a cognitive-personological substrate in paranoid schizophrenia on the one hand, and calls for a longitudinal design to discover how premorbid or postacute residual personality styles contribute to the sluggish disorder on the other. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Emotional awareness and delusions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Emily; Kahn, Jennifer; McKelvey, Jennifer; Berenbaum, Howard; Serper, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Emotion plays a significant role in schizophrenia. Emotional awareness (i.e., attention to and clarity of emotions) is associated with a wide range of outcomes. Given that individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder differ in the significance of their mood symptoms, the present research examined whether the association between emotional awareness and delusions differs for these two groups of patients. Emotional awareness (i.e., attention to and clarity of emotions) was measured with self-report in a sample of 44 individuals diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Clinical ratings of delusions were made using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. For the sample as a whole, individuals with higher levels of attention to emotion tended to have more severe delusions. In addition, diagnostic group significantly moderated the relation between emotional clarity and delusions. Conclusions regarding causality cannot be drawn due to the cross-sectional design. Replication is particularly important given the small sample sizes. The present research indicates that emotional awareness is associated with delusions. The results raise the possibility that the emotional factors that contribute to delusional beliefs among individuals with schizophrenia differ in at least some ways from the emotional factors that contribute to delusional beliefs among individuals with schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...

  4. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... This study is to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among patients diagnosed ... Key words: Alternative medicine, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, mental disorder ..... Engum A, Mykletun A, Midthjell K, Holen A, Dahl AA. ... or undiagnosed diabetes: A systematic review and meta‑analysis of the.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of clinical risk factors for depression in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuameze, Obiora E; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Paradiso, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    During initial assessment of individuals with schizophrenia and related disorders (schizophrenia spectrum disorders [SSDs]), clinicians tend to pay greater attention to psychotic symptoms than mood symptoms, including depression. Depression is reported to influence the course of SSDs, but not much is known about the risk factors for depression in SSDs. In the present study, we examined clinical predictors of depression in SSDs. The sample included 71 patients with SSDs followed in a modified Assertive Community Treatment program, the Community Support Network of Springfield, Illinois. The study design was naturalistic, prospective, and longitudinal (mean follow-up = 8.3 years; SD = 7.3). The GENMOD procedure appropriate for repeated measures analysis with dichotomous outcome variables followed longitudinally was computed. Rates of depression ranged from 18% to 41% over the differing assessment periods. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder did not vary by depression rate. Depression independent of SSD diagnosis was associated with greater hospitalization rates. Clinical variables predict- ing depression were auditory hallucinations, delusions, poor insight, and poor judgment. Psychotic symptoms in the course of SSDs are risk factors for depression. As a consequence, the mental status examination of patients with SSDs with active psychosis should include assessment of mood changes. Further research is warranted to determine if treatment of depression among patients with SSDs may reduce their rates of hospitalization.

  6. Brain Age in Early Stages of Bipolar Disorders or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Tomas; Franke, Katja; Kolenic, Marian; Capkova, Jana; Matejka, Martin; Propper, Lukas; Uher, Rudolf; Stopkova, Pavla; Novak, Tomas; Paus, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Spaniel, Filip; Alda, Martin

    2017-12-20

    The greater presence of neurodevelopmental antecedants may differentiate schizophrenia from bipolar disorders (BD). Machine learning/pattern recognition allows us to estimate the biological age of the brain from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI). The discrepancy between brain and chronological age could contribute to early detection and differentiation of BD and schizophrenia. We estimated brain age in 2 studies focusing on early stages of schizophrenia or BD. In the first study, we recruited 43 participants with first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES) and 43 controls. In the second study, we included 96 offspring of bipolar parents (48 unaffected, 48 affected) and 60 controls. We used relevance vector regression trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the brain age of study participants from structural MRI. We calculated the brain-age gap estimate (BrainAGE) score by subtracting the chronological age from the brain age. Participants with FES had higher BrainAGE scores than controls (F(1, 83) = 8.79, corrected P = .008, Cohen's d = 0.64). Their brain age was on average 2.64 ± 4.15 years greater than their chronological age (matched t(42) = 4.36, P stages of BD showed comparable BrainAGE scores to controls (F(2,149) = 1.04, corrected P = .70, η2 = 0.01) and comparable brain and chronological age. Early stages of schizophrenia, but not early stages of BD, were associated with advanced BrainAGE scores. Participants with FES showed neurostructural alterations, which made their brains appear 2.64 years older than their chronological age. BrainAGE scores could aid in early differential diagnosis between BD and schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Differential DNA methylation at birth associated with mental disorder in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Hansen, C S; Sparsø, T

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of comorbid mental disorders including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, as well as intellectual disability. Although most 22q11.2 deletion carriers have the long 3-Mb form of the hemizygous...... with mental disorder later in life. DNA methylation was measured genome-wide from neonatal dried blood spots in a cohort of 164 individuals with 22q11.2DS, including 48 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Among several CpG sites with P-value...-98), in NOSIP (P-value=5.12 × 10-8) with disorders of psychological development (F80-89) and in SEMA4B (P-value=4.02 × 10-7) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-29). In conclusion, our study suggests an association of DNA methylation differences at birth with development of mental disorder later in life...

  8. Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156......,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant...... interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting...

  9. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time...... in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5...

  10. Thought and language disorders in very early onset schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Pantano

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thought and language disorders are main features of adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders however studies on such abnormalities are scant in young patients with very early onset psychosis (VEOS. The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between language and thought disorders in patients with very early onset schizophrenia (SCZ, schizoaffective disorders (SCA and bipolar disorders (BD. Method Forty-one patients (18 SCZ, 16 BD, and 7 SCA with mean age less than 15 years old were assessed through a series of neurocognitive and psycholinguistic tests, including the Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC. Results SCZ group performed worse in all tests as well as the TLC, followed by SCA and BD groups respectively. Thought disorders were related to deficits in executive functioning and semantic processing, and the metaphors’ test was the best predictor of TLC functioning. Discussion TD in SCZ, SCA and BD are one of the most important features in patients with VEOS and that the evaluation of metaphor comprehension can be an important instrument in the early detection of this disorder.

  11. Different communication strategies for disclosing a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Johal, Rupinder K; Ziff, Charlotte; Naeem, Farooq

    2017-10-24

    Delivering the diagnosis of a serious illness is an important skill in most fields of medicine, including mental health. Research has found that communication skills can impact on a person's recall and understanding of the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. People may feel confused and perplexed when information about their illness is not communicated properly. Sharing information about diagnosis of a serious mental illness is particularly challenging. The nature of mental illness is often difficult to explain since there may be no clear aetiology, and the treatment options and prognosis may vary enormously. In addition, newly diagnosed psychiatric patients, who are actively ill, often may not accept their diagnosis due to lack of insight or stigma attached to the condition. There are several interventions that aim to help clinicians to communicate life changing medical diagnoses to people; however, little is known specifically for delivering a diagnosis of schizophrenia. To evaluate evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy of different communication strategies used by clinicians to inform people about the diagnosis and outcome of schizophrenia compared with treatment as usual and to compare efficacy between different communication strategies. On 22 June 2015 and 29 June 2016, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials. We also searched sources of grey literature (e.g., dissertations, theses, clinical reports, evaluations published on websites, clinical guidelines and reports from regulatory agencies). We planned to include all relevant RCTs that included adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, including schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. The trials would have investigated the effects of communication strategy or strategies that helped clinicians deliver information specifically about a diagnosis of schizophrenia (which can also include

  12. Profiles of Cognitive Deficits in Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizotypal Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the search for more accurate psycho-diagnostic methods and assessment tools for determining the degree of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenic disorders. The concepts of "cognitive deficits" and "cognitive profile", understood as the ratio of intact and damaged components of cognitive processes and their schematic representation are discussed. The authors substantiate the need for a clear gradation of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, development of universal translation algorithms of traditional qualitative results (meaningful analysis of violations of cognitive activity in quantitative indicators. The article is based on the results of experimental psychological study. The investigation involved 128 patients: 76 people with Paranoid schizophrenia (F20 according to ICD-10 and 52 persons with Schizotypal disorder (F21 according to ICD-10. To assess the cognitive deficit, both traditional domestic methods and foreign tests, rarely used in the practice of a medical psychologist were conducted. The study analyzed the difference in cognitive tests performance between groups of patients with several types of schizophrenia and with different disease duration (up to 5 years and more. On the basis of quantitative data, a "cognitive profile" was lined for each disease. As a result, different variants of cognitive deficits, depending on the shape and course of the disease have been identified. The structure and dynamics of the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and various forms depending on the different duration of the disease is described in detail. Also cognitive profiles compiled on this basis.

  13. Compare of Executive Function in Bipolar I Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza khodaei-Ardakani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is evidence for differential executive function in Bipolar I Disorder (BID and schizophrenia that may tend different cognitive deficits and abnormalities. The objective of this sudsy was to compare the executive function of BID and schizophrenic patients. Materials & Methods: We studied 50 patients with BID, and 50 with schizophrenia participants in outpatients' clinic of Rouzbeh hospital. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST the Persian version. The participants were mach in three basic variables which had most contributions in cognitive conditions in patients. They were Age, educational status and period of illness. Results: The two patient groups had compared performance on the WCST in compared with general population (P<0/05. In the WCST, schizophrenic patients showed impairment executive function than BID patients (P<0/05. Conclusion: findings indicated that schizophrenic patients had more dysfunctions executive function than the Bipolar disorder I patients. Although, both disorders may show impairment in executive function, but the dysfunction in schizophrenia greater than Bipolar I Disorder patients.

  14. Supporting students with mental, psychological and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    , depression, brain damage or other mental, neurological or psychosocial problems by imitating the practice of craft’s apprenticeship. Older and more advanced students are being assigned to show these students how they should study medicine, law or arts and thereby give them a better chance of being included......The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...

  15. Screening for mental disorders in cardiology outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86...... were included and screened for mental disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) psychosis screening, the Clock Drawing Test, and the WHO-5 Well-being Index. The cardiologists were asked to rate the severity of somatic...... and mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...

  16. Effects of social cognitive impairment on speech disorder in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Nancy M; McCleery, Amanda; Divilbiss, Marielle; Schumann, Emily B; Moe, Aubrey; Shakeel, Mohammed K

    2013-05-01

    Disordered speech in schizophrenia impairs social functioning because it impedes communication with others. Treatment approaches targeting this symptom have been limited by an incomplete understanding of its causes. This study examined the process underpinnings of speech disorder, assessed in terms of communication failure. Contributions of impairments in 2 social cognitive abilities, emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), to speech disorder were assessed in 63 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 21 nonpsychiatric participants, after controlling for the effects of verbal intelligence and impairments in basic language-related neurocognitive abilities. After removal of the effects of the neurocognitive variables, impairments in emotion perception and ToM each explained additional variance in speech disorder in the patients but not the controls. The neurocognitive and social cognitive variables, taken together, explained 51% of the variance in speech disorder in the patients. Schizophrenic disordered speech may be less a concomitant of "positive" psychotic process than of illness-related limitations in neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning.

  17. Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium (central nervous system) in diagnosis of mental disorders; Przydatnosc badan radiologicznych czaszki (osrodkowego ukladu nerwowego) w rozpoznawaniu chorob psychicznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinska-Mika, M.

    1991-12-31

    Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs.

  18. Could schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder be distinguishable using cognitive profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lee, Chun-Yi; Lee, Yu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Huang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chen, Yi-Chih; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2018-05-24

    This study seeks to determine whether the cognition profiles of patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD), schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD) are distinguishable. A total of 227 participants, comprising 88 healthy control subjects, 50 patients with SAD, 48 patients with schizophrenia and 41 patients with BD, were recruited. The participants' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). A discriminant functions analysis (DFA) was conducted to determine whether using cognitive performance can be used to distinguish these participant groups. Relative to healthy control subjects, patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD exhibited significant deficits in all cognitive domains (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, executive function and a composite BACS score). Among the three patient groups, the schizophrenia group exhibited particularly impaired motor speed, and the BD group performed best in attention, processing speed, executive function and the composite BACS score. The classification accuracy rates of patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD in the DFA model were 38%, 47.9% and 46.3%, respectively. These findings suggest that the impairments of some cognitive domains were less severe in patients with BD than in patients with schizophrenia or SAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  20. Social functioning as a predictor of the use of mental health resources in patients with severe mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Large animals as potential models of human mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Michał; Danek, Janusz; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-30

    Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This data indicates many large animal disorders which can be models to examine the above human mental and behavioral disorders.

  2. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eKoyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this article, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.

  3. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  4. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  5. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  6. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  7. Neurocognition in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Giuliano, Anthony J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning. Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity. The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables. There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  8. Schizophrenia modifying the expression of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; De Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2009-04-01

    According to the Brazilian Federal Medical Association, transsexualism is recognized as a gender identity disorder if a long-term diagnostic therapeutic process has demonstrated that the transposition of gender roles is irreversible, and if only hormonal and surgical procedures are appropriate to relieve the stress associated with the gender identity. Although such treatment will only be initiated with caution and after a long phase of intense diagnostic screening, the differentiation between pure identity disorders and transsexual feelings secondary to an ongoing psychopathologic process, such as schizophrenia, can be arduous for many health professionals. To report a case of a female patient with schizophrenia and transsexualism and the risks of a potential diagnostic confusion. A 19-year-old black woman, with an 8-year history of undifferentiated schizophrenia and intense gender dysphoria, was referred for sex reassignment surgery evaluation in the Ambulatory for the Treatment of Sexual Disorders of the ABC Medical School. After a more adequate antipsychotic treatment, her masculine behavior has persisted, but her desire to change her own genital organs has decreased. A better acceptance of the multiplicity of possible genders should neither contribute to inadequate interpretations of the signs and symptoms of our patients nor facilitate dangerous clinical or surgical recommendations.

  9. The GSK3B gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Meng; Waheed Khan, Raja Amjad; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Jiang, Yiwen; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong; Ji, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    Glycogen synthease kinase-3B is a key gene encoding a protein kinase which is abundant in brain, and is involved in signal transduction cascades of neuronal cell development and energy metabolism. Previous researches proposed GSK3B as a potential region for schizophrenia. To validate the susceptibility of GSK3B to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by GSK3B for mental disorders, we performed a large-scale case-control study, analyzed 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan® technology in 1,045 major depressive disorder patients, 1,235 schizophrenia patients and 1,235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found rs334535 (Pallele=2.79E-03, Pgenotype=5.00E-03, OR=1.429) and rs2199503 (Pallele=0.020, Pgenotype= 0.040, OR=1.157) showed association with major depressive disorder before Bonferroni correction. rs6771023 (adjusted Pallele=1.64E-03, adjusted Pgenotype=6.00E-03, OR=0.701) and rs2199503 (adjusted Pallele=0.001, adjusted Pgenotype=0.002, OR=1.251) showed significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. rs2199503 (adjusted Pallele=1.70E-03, adjusted Pgenotype=0.006, OR=1.208) remained to be significant in the combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Further validations of our findings in samples with larger scale are suggested, and functional genomic study is needed to elucidate the role of GSK3B in signal pathway and psychiatric disorders. Our results provide evidence that the GSK3B gene could be a promising region which contains genetic risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The study on variants conferring overlapping risk for multiple psychiatric disorders could be tangible pathogenesis support and clinical or diagnostic references. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Brain structure and the relationship with neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder : MRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari

    2011-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities as well as neurocognitive dysfunction, are found in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder. Based on the fact that both brain structure and neurocognitive functioning are significantly heritable and affected in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, relationships between them are expected. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings. Also, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are classified as separate disease entities, but demonstrate overlap with reg...

  11. A Nation-Wide Study on the Percentage of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Patients Who Earn Minimum Wage or Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990-2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hemispheric dominance during the mental rotation task in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Yang, Laiqi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Guangxiong; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xingqu; Deng, Zihe; Tuo, Ran

    2012-04-01

    Mental rotation is a spatial representation conversion capability using an imagined object and either object or self-rotation. This capability is impaired in schizophrenia. To provide a more detailed assessment of impaired cognitive functioning in schizophrenia by comparing the electrophysiological profiles of patients with schizophrenia and controls while completing a mental rotation task using both normally-oriented images and mirror images. This electroencephalographic study compared error rates, reaction times and the topographic map of event-related potentials in 32 participants with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls during mental rotation tasks involving both normal images and mirror images. Among controls the mean error rate and the mean reaction time for normal images and mirror images were not significantly different but in the patient group the mean (sd) error rate was higher for mirror images than for normal images (42% [6%] vs. 32% [9%], t=2.64, p=0.031) and the mean reaction time was longer for mirror images than for normal images (587 [11] ms vs. 571 [18] ms, t=2.83, p=0.028). The amplitude of the P500 component at Pz (parietal area), Cz (central area), P3 (left parietal area) and P4 (right parietal area) were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group for both normal images and mirror images. In both groups the P500 for both the normal and mirror images was significantly higher in the right parietal area (P4) compared with left parietal area (P3). The mental rotation abilities of patients with schizophrenia for both normally-oriented images and mirror images are impaired. Patients with schizophrenia show a diminished left cerebral contribution to the mental rotation task, a more rapid response time, and a differential response to normal images versus mirror images not seen in healthy controls. Specific topographic characteristics of the EEG during mental rotation tasks are potential biomarkers for schizophrenia.

  13. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  14. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  15. Clinical and Serological Predictors of Suicide in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Faith; Origoni, Andrea; Schweinfurth, Lucy A B; Stallings, Cassie; Savage, Christina L G; Sweeney, Kevin; Katsafanas, Emily; Wilcox, Holly C; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Persons with serious mental illness are at high risk for suicide, but this outcome is difficult to predict. Serological markers may help to identify suicide risk. We prospectively assessed 733 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 483 with bipolar disorder, and 76 with major depressive disorder for an average of 8.15 years. The initial evaluation consisted of clinical and demographic data as well as a blood samples from which immunoglobulin G antibodies to herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were measured. Suicide was determined using data from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard regression models examined the role of baseline variables on suicide outcomes. Suicide was associated with male sex, divorced/separated status, Caucasian race, and elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Increasing levels of CMV antibodies were associated with increasing hazard ratios for suicide. The identification of serological variables associated with suicide might provide more personalized methods for suicide prevention.

  16. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  17. A predisposition for allergies predicts subsequent hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wei, Hang-Tin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that both severe mental disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) and atopic diseases were associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the role of atopy/the predisposition for allergies in the development of metabolic syndrome is still unknown among those with severe mental disorders. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5826 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (1908 with a predisposition for allergies and 3918 without) were enrolled between 1998 and 2008. Those who developed hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or diabetes mellitus were identified during the follow-up to the end of 2011. A predisposition for allergies increased the risk of developing hypertension (HR: 1.67), dyslipidemia (HR: 1.82), and diabetes mellitus (HR: 1.37) in later life among those with severe mental disorders. A dose-dependent relationship was noted between having more atopic comorbidities and a greater likelihood of hypertension (1 atopic disease: HR: 1.60; ≧ 2 atopic comorbidities: HR: 1.87), dyslipidemia (HR: 1.73; HR: 2.12), and diabetes mellitus (HR: 1.26; HR: 1.69). A predisposition for allergies was an independent risk factor for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Further studies would be required to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology among atopy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional study of problem and pathological gambling in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-09-01

    Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. A sample of outpatient subjects (N = 337) diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who were treated in either the VA Connecticut Healthcare System or the Connecticut Mental Health Center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to nongamblers. Data were collected between June 2002 and November 2003. Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (P = .007), higher depression scores (P = .04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (P = .03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Mental disorders across the adult life course and future coronary heart disease: evidence for general susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Batty, G David; Osborn, David P J; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-14

    Depression, anxiety, and psychotic disorders have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is unclear whether this association between mental health and CHD is present across a wider range of mental disorders. Participants were 1 107 524 Swedish men conscripted at a mean age of 18.3 years. Mental disorders were assessed by psychiatric interview on conscription, and data on hospital admissions for mental disorder and CHD were obtained from national registers during 22.6 years of follow-up. An increased risk of incident CHD was evident across a range of mental disorders whether diagnosed at conscription or on later hospital admission. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) according to diagnoses at conscription ranged from 1.30 (1.05, 1.62) (depressive disorders) to 1.90 (1.58, 2.38) (alcohol-related disorders). [corrected]. The equivalent figures according to diagnoses during hospital admission ranged from 1.49 (1.24-1.80) (schizophrenia) to 2.82 (2.53-3.13) (other substance use disorders). Associations were little changed by adjustment for parental socioeconomic status, or body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and blood pressure measured at conscription, but they were partially attenuated by the adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, and intelligence measured at conscription, and for education and own socioeconomic position. Increased risk of incident CHD is present across a range of mental disorders and is observable when the disorders are diagnosed at a young age.

  1. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    sentenced prisoners with mental disorders has steadily increased during the last decade. Although a majority of these individuals are substance abusers, the number of patients with schizophrenia who are unable to serve a sentence due to severe illness is not insignificant. Although patients are sometimes transferred to medical prisons, a substantial number of inmates with mental disorders remain in general prisons, most of which lack adequate medical staff. Accordingly, the growing number of mentally ill inmates is imposing a heavy burden on the penal administration system. Provisions of the Mental Health and Welfare Act pertaining to general psychiatry are not applicable to patients in penal institutions. The Psychiatric Review Board established in each prefecture does not intervene in the management of these facilities. As a result, legal safeguards against the violation of patients' rights are not sufficiently guaranteed in penal institutions. There are no legal provisions for transferring patients with severe mental disorders from prisons to psychiatric hospitals. Once sentenced to imprisonment, offenders with mental disorders are treated almost exclusively within the prison system. This situation is particularly serious in the case of patients with long-term sentences. In addition, the continued availability of psychiatric care after discharge from prison, which is crucial for preventing relapse of illness and recidivism, is not assured. When a mentally ill inmate is discharged, the head of the institution is required to report the discharge to the prefectural governor, in accordance with the Mental Health and Welfare Act. Recently, although the number of such reports has sharply increased, in actuality many of the persons reported are not admitted to hospitals because they do not meet the criteria for involuntary admission, and the provisions of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act do not apply to them. In conclusion, more attention should be paid to the reform

  2. Redox Dysregulation in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Anita; Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are classified as two distinct diseases. However, accumulating evidence shows that both disorders share genetic, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. Based on genetic and functional findings, redox dysregulation due...... abnormal prefrontal levels of glutathione (GSH), the major cellular redox regulator and antioxidant. Here we review experimental data from rodent models demonstrating that permanent as well as transient GSH deficit results in behavioral, morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical alterations...... hypofunction, elevated glutamate levels, impairment of parvalbumin GABA interneurons, abnormal neuronal synchronization, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and deficient myelination. Critical Issues: Treatment with the GSH precursor and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine normalizes some of those deficits in mice...

  3. Cortical morphology of adolescents with bipolar disorder and with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Schnack, Hugo; Balaban, Evan; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Alfaro-Almagro, Fidel; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Otero, Soraya; Baeza, Inmaculada; Moreno, Dolores; Bargalló, Nuria; Parellada, Mara; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence points to overlapping decreases in cortical thickness and gyrification in the frontal lobe of patients with adult-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms, but it is not clear if these findings generalize to patients with a disease onset during adolescence and what may be the mechanisms underlying a decrease in gyrification. This study analyzed cortical morphology using surface-based morphometry in 92 subjects (age range 11-18 years, 52 healthy controls and 40 adolescents with early-onset first-episode psychosis diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=20) or bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms (n=20) based on a two year clinical follow up). Average lobar cortical thickness, surface area, gyrification index (GI) and sulcal width were compared between groups, and the relationship between the GI and sulcal width was assessed in the patient group. Both patients groups showed decreased cortical thickness and increased sulcal width in the frontal cortex when compared to healthy controls. The schizophrenia subgroup also had increased sulcal width in all other lobes. In the frontal cortex of the combined patient group sulcal width was negatively correlated (r=-0.58, padolescents with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms there is cortical thinning, decreased GI and increased sulcal width of the frontal cortex present at the time of the first psychotic episode. Decreased frontal GI is associated with the widening of the frontal sulci which may reduce sulcal surface area. These results suggest that abnormal growth (or more pronounced shrinkage during adolescence) of the frontal cortex represents a shared endophenotype for psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra E H; Esteves, Francisco; Carvalho, Helena

    2015-09-30

    Some mental illnesses and certain mental health care environments can be severely stigmatizing, which seems to be related to decreased self-esteem and a deterioration of the quality of social relationships for people with mental illness. This study aims to identify clinical profiles characterized by clinical diagnoses more strongly associated with the treatment settings and related to internalized stigma, self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships. It also aimed to analyze associations between clinical profiles and socio-demographic indicators. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on a sample of 261 individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, from hospital-based and community-based facilities. MCA showed four distinct clinical profiles allowing a differentiation among levels of: internalized stigma, social relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. Overall, results revealed that internalized stigma remains a pervasive problem for some people with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Particularly, internalized stigma and social relationships dissatisfaction and associated socio-demographic indicators appear to be a risk factor for social isolation for individuals with schizophrenia, which may worsen the course of the disorder. Our findings highlight the importance to develop structured interventions aimed to reduce internalized stigma, and exclusion of those who suffer the loss of their social roles and networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  6. Identification of the BRD1 interaction network and its impact on mental disorder risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryland, Tue; Christensen, Jane H; Pallesen, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    and regulates expression of numerous genes, many of which are involved with brain development and susceptibility to mental disorders. Our findings indicate that BRD1 acts as a regulatory hub in a comprehensive schizophrenia risk network which plays a role in many brain regions throughout life, implicating e......Background: The bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene has been implicated with transcriptional regulation, brain development, and susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To advance the understanding of BRD1 and its role in mental disorders, we characterized the protein and chromatin...... functional molecular data were integrated with human genomic and transcriptomic data using available GWAS, exome-sequencing datasets as well as spatiotemporal transcriptomic datasets from the human brain. Results: We present several novel protein interactions of BRD1, including isoform-specific interactions...

  7. Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: a national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.

  8. PENGENALAN SEJAK DINI PENDERITA MENTAL DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubasyaroh Mubasyaroh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorder merupakan bentuk gangguan dan kekacauan fungsi mental yang disebabkan oleh kegagalan mereaksinya mekanisme adaptasi dari fungsi-fungsi kejiwaan/ terhadap stimuli eksternal dan ketegangan-ketegangan sehingga muncul gangguan pada struktur kejiwaan. Gangguan  mental Merupakan totalitas kesatuan dari ekspresi mental yang patologis terhadap stimuli sosial,   yang  dikombinasikan dengan  factor-faktor sekunder lainnya. Seperti halnya rasa pusing, sesak nafas, demam panas dan  nyeri-nyeri pada  lambung  sebagai pertanda  permulaan dari penyakit jasmani, maka mental disorder itu mempunyai pertanda awal antara lain: cemas, ketakutan, pahit hati, dengki, apatis, cemburu,  iri, marah secara eksplosif, asosial, ketegangan kronis, dan lain sebagainya. Maka kesehatan mental yang baik itu, berarti mempunyai perasaan positif tentang diri sendiri, mampu menyelesaikan masalah dan tekanan hidup sehari-hari, dan bisa membentuk dan menjaga hubungan baik dengan orang lain. Selama ini kita sudah memahami pentingnya menjaga kesehatan fisik. Tapi menjaga kesehatan mental juga sama pentingnya dengan kesehatan fisik. Kenyataannya, kesehatan mental yang buruk akan mengakibatkan kesehatan fisik yang buruk pula. kata  kunci:  Mental  Disorder,  Gangguan Jiwa,   Kekalutan Mental. THE    INTRODUCTION    OF     THE    EARLY PATIENTS WITH MENTAL  DISORDER.  Mental   disorder  is  a  form of disruption and chaos mental  function that is caused  by the failure of mereaksinya adaptation  mechanism  of psychological  functions/ against external stimuli and tensions so that appears on the structure of the disorders psychological disorders. Mental disturbances is the totality of the unity of mental expression pathological culture toward social stimuli, combined with the factor of other secondary factor. Like a sense of dizziness, breathing difficulties, hot Fever and pain in the pain in the stomach as a sign of the beginning of

  9. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders A meta-analysis***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingli Zhang; Wei Liang; Shichang Yang; Ping Dai; Lijuan Shen; Changhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hal ucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. DATA SOURCES: Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were “transcranial magnetic stimulation”, “TMS”, “repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation”, and “hal ucination”. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies were randomized control ed trials assessing therapeutic ef-ficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hal ucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hal ucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hal ucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hal ucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hal ucination item, and Hal ucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. RESULTS: Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. Al data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overal mean weighted effect size for repeti-tive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistical y significant (MD =-0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P =0.005). No significant differences were found

  10. Supported housing for people with severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, R; Macdonald, G M; Hayes, A A

    2006-10-18

    There has been a significant reduction in the number of people with severe mental illness who spend extended periods in long-stay hospitals. District health authorities, local authorities, housing associations and voluntary organisations are jointly expected to provide support for people with severe mental disorder/s. This 'support' may well involve some kind of special housing. To determine the effects of supported housing schemes compared with outreach support schemes or 'standard care' for people with severe mental disorder/s living in the community. For the 2006 update we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2006) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2006 Issue 2). We included all relevant randomised, or quasi-randomised, trials dealing with people with 'severe mental disorder/s' allocated to supported housing, compared with outreach support schemes or standard care. We focused on outcomes of service utilisation, mental state, satisfaction with care, social functioning, quality of life and economic data. We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and undertook data extraction. For dichotomous data, we would have estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we would have calculated the number needed to treat statistic (NNT). We would have carried out analysis by intention-to-treat and would have summated normal continuous data using the weighted mean difference (WMD). We would have presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality and undertaken tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. Although 139 citations were acquired from the searches, no study met the inclusion criteria. Dedicated schemes whereby people with severe mental illness are located within one site or building with assistance from professional workers have potential for great benefit as they provide a 'safe haven' for people in need of stability and

  11. T253. THE CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN RENAMING SCHIZOPHRENIA AND VISITING FREQUENCY OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES BY BIG DATA ANALYSIS (INTERNET SEARCHES AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES) IN SOUTH KOREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Kyung Sue; Joo, Yeon Ho; Koike, Shinsuke; Lee, Yu Sang; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Korean Neuropsychiatric Association changed the Korean term for schizophrenia from ‘split-mind disorder’ to ‘attunement disorder’ in 2012, to dispel the stigma associated with name, and to promote early detection and treatment. Information on the internet affects the public awareness and attitude toward schizophrenia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between renaming schizophrenia and the pattern of mental health services utilization by big data analysis of internet (newspaper articles and internet searches) in Korea. Methods From January 2016 to September 2017, newspaper articles on “attunement disorder” and “split-mind disorder” available on the internet were classified as related with negative images like crime and helpful or positive in dispelling the stigma. The relationship between the number of anti-stigma newspaper articles and newspaper articles of schizophrenia containing both positive and negative images was examined. In addition, using Naver, a major internet search engine in Korea, we investigated the total number of internet searches of both old and new name of schizophrenia by gender differences. Finally, the frequency of the visits of mental health services of patients with schizophrenia was measured using the Korean Healthcare Bigdata Hub (http://opendata.hira.or.kr/home.do#none) for 14 months and the correlation between the frequency of the visits and the above big data was examined. The data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 24.0. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to analyze correlations. Results The amounts of newspaper articles containing anti-stigma of schizophrenia were correlated with the amounts of newspaper articles containing negative images like crime of the new name (attunement disorder) of schizophrenia (r=0.528, p0.05) in next month was larger than the correlation of “split-mind disorder” searches with mental health services utilization (r = 0.082, p>0

  12. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Carter, John; Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard

    2016-01-01

    assessment, we hypothesized that a proxy scale drawn from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) could distinguish those who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (N = 68) from those who remained healthy (N = 64). The Self-Disorder Scale comprised 32 items whose content suggested......AIM: The notion of a disordered self as a core disturbance of schizophrenia was proposed in many foundational texts. Recent studies, spurred by the development of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), seem to indicate that self-disorders are a specific manifestation of schizophrenia......), the overlap did not account for the Self-Disorder Scale's predictive efficacy. CONCLUSION: The results support the notion of self-disorders as a core vulnerability feature in schizophrenia, detectable premorbidly in those developing later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders....

  13. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  14. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID, recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD, is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  15. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall...

  16. Mental Disorder or "Normal Life Variation"? Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…

  17. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...

  18. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  19. Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high homicide rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epigenetic Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Walter H; Maneta, Eleni; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Hoffman, Michelle E; Faller, Douglas V; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions that often share underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and biological pathways implicated in their pathogenesis, progression, and treatment. To date, these disorders have proven notoriously resistant to molecular-targeted therapies, and clinical options are relegated to interventional types, which do not address the core symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss emerging epigenetic-driven approaches using novel acylcarnitine esters (carnitinoids) that act on master regulators of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and mitophagic pathways. These carnitinoids are actively transported, mitochondria-localizing, biomimetic coenzyme A surrogates of short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit histone deacetylase and may reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuronal damage. We outline these neuroprotective effects in the context of treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2015-01-01

    deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients...... suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a subgroup of patients with BD may be related to a shared genetically determined influence on neurodevelopment....

  2. Impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing co-occur, yet dissociate, in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Flynn, Michaela; Connaughton, Emily; Brüne, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people. Accuracy of basic and social facts and frequencies of personification and different mental-state terms were recorded. Explicit TOM performance was impaired in patients. Patients also generated fewer social (but not basic) facts than controls to describe the H&S animation, and used less mental-state language, before, and even more so, after the 'people' instruction, despite that both groups had used more personification terms after the 'people' instruction. Measures of explicit and spontaneous mentalizing contributed independently to discriminating between groups. Patients respond less to the bottom-up signals of agency that ought normally to elicit spontaneous social attributions, even when cued to think of the stimuli as people, and the stimuli depict emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviour. That impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing dissociate in schizophrenia suggests that training deliberative mentalizing may not be enough; interventions to improve spontaneous mentalizing are also needed. Findings People with schizophrenia were less likely than controls to spontaneously attribute causal mental states when viewing dynamic signals of emotionally driven and

  3. Sleep and mental disorders: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis" and "R" software. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges' g). Sources of variability, that is, sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in 1 condition; however, no 2 conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in 1 single variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-08-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  5. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  6. The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-12-29

    Dec 29, 2004 ... mindlessness3, whereas the social dimension has been relatively neglected. This article ... ous forms of thought disorder, social withdrawal, emotional .... the self becomes differentiated from the world and develops the capacity .... ated with perceptual abnormalities, the hippocampus with memory formation ...

  7. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who......-psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia...... developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred...

  8. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease

  9. Impairment in delay discounting in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder but not primary mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Hart, Kamber L; Snapper, Leslie A; Roffman, Joshua L; Perlis, Roy H

    2018-05-28

    A measure of planning and impulse control, the delay-discounting (DD) task estimates the extent to which an individual decreases the perceived value of a reward as the reward is delayed. We examined cross-disorder performance between healthy controls (n = 88), individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 23), major depressive disorder (n = 43), and primary psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder; n = 51) on the DD task (using a $10 delayed larger reward), as well as the interaction of DD scores with other symptom domains (cognition, psychosis, and affect). We found that individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder display significantly greater rates of discounting compared to healthy controls, while individuals with a primary mood disorder do not differ from healthy controls after adjustment for IQ. Further, impairment in working memory is associated with higher discounting rates among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but cognitive dysfunction alone does not account for the extent of impairment in DD. Taken together, these results suggest an impaired ability to plan for the future and make adaptive decisions that are specific to individuals with psychotic disorders, and likely related to adverse functional outcomes. More generally, this work demonstrates the presence of variation in impulsivity across major psychiatric illnesses, supporting the use of a trans-diagnostic perspective.

  10. Assessing neural tuning for object perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Reavis

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results show for the first time MVPA can be used successfully to classify individual perceptual stimuli in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the results do not provide evidence of abnormal neural tuning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  11. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Marketa Marackova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Psychiatry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Department of Psychology Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Introduction: Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar affective disorder (BAD, and anxiety disorders (AD and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods: The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression, and clinical and demographic factors. Results: The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005. However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion: The BPD patients

  12. Mental disorders absenteeism in the years 2004 and 2009 in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Patkovič Colarič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absenteeism is a quality indicator of the negative health of the employed population. 6.7–8 % of total absenteeism in Slovenia is due to mental disorders.Methods: We have assembled and compared the lost working days because of mental disorders in Slovenia in the years 2004 and 2009. The absenteeism was calculated by using common denominator of 10,000 population. The full- and part-time (4 hours absenteeism from work were merged and calculated as calendar days.Results: The temporary absenteeism increased only in the cluster of reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders by 20 %. It decreased in schizophrenia (by 49 %, sequelae of alcohol abuse (by 46 %, psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia (by 40 %, anxiety disorders (by 35 %, first episodes of depression (by 24 % and recurrent depressive disorders (by 8 %.Conclusions: The absenteeism underwent the greatest decrease in the field of psychotic disorders that mostly affect personal functioning. But only a prospective study could give us a clear answer about the consequences of the reduced absenteeism due to mental disorders.

  13. Increased timing variability in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Bolbecker

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that impaired time perception and the neural circuitry underlying internal timing mechanisms may contribute to severe psychiatric disorders, including psychotic and mood disorders. The degree to which alterations in temporal perceptions reflect deficits that exist across psychosis-related phenotypes and the extent to which mood symptoms contribute to these deficits is currently unknown. In addition, compared to schizophrenia, where timing deficits have been more extensively investigated, sub-second timing has been studied relatively infrequently in bipolar disorder. The present study compared sub-second duration estimates of schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SA, non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP, bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BDP, and healthy non-psychiatric controls (HC on a well-established time perception task using sub-second durations. Participants included 66 SZ, 37 BDNP, 34 BDP, 31 SA, and 73 HC who participated in a temporal bisection task that required temporal judgements about auditory durations ranging from 300 to 600 milliseconds. Timing variability was significantly higher in SZ, BDP, and BDNP groups compared to healthy controls. The bisection point did not differ across groups. These findings suggest that both psychotic and mood symptoms may be associated with disruptions in internal timing mechanisms. Yet unexpected findings emerged. Specifically, the BDNP group had significantly increased variability compared to controls, but the SA group did not. In addition, these deficits appeared to exist independent of current symptom status. The absence of between group differences in bisection point suggests that increased variability in the SZ and bipolar disorder groups are due to alterations in perceptual timing in the sub-second range, possibly mediated by the cerebellum, rather than cognitive deficits.

  14. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  15. SLEEP AND MENTAL DISORDERS: A META-ANALYSIS OF POLYSOMNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F.; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, ADHD, and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the “Comprehensive Meta-Analysis” and “R” softwares. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges’g). Sources of variability, i.e., sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in one condition; however, no two conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in one single variable. PMID:27416139

  16. Object relations, reality testing, and social withdrawal in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Bell, Morris D; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders.

  17. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P D Fernandes

    Full Text Available Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals and in the dysfunction observed in psychiatric disorders.Sets of genes associated with a range of cognitive functions often impaired in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were generated from a genome-wide association study (GWAS on a sample comprising 670 healthy Norwegian adults who were phenotyped for a broad battery of cognitive tests. These gene sets were then tested for enrichment of association in GWASs of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The GWAS data was derived from three independent single-centre schizophrenia samples, three independent single-centre bipolar disorder samples, and the multi-centre schizophrenia and bipolar disorder samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.The strongest enrichments were observed for visuospatial attention and verbal abilities sets in bipolar disorder. Delayed verbal memory was also enriched in one sample of bipolar disorder. For schizophrenia, the strongest evidence of enrichment was observed for the sets of genes associated with performance in a colour-word interference test and for sets associated with memory learning slope.Our results are consistent with the increasing evidence that cognitive functions share genetic factors with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our data provides evidence that genetic studies using polygenic and pleiotropic models can be used to link specific cognitive functions with psychiatric disorders.

  18. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  19. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The

  20. Acupuncture treatment of a male patient suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Staudte, H.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and co-morbid sleep disorders. Methods: A 42-year-old German male outpatient, suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders, entered the study. Acupuncture was used as a

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Madsen, P L

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow distribution (rCBF) in 24 first admissions with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder and in 17 healthy volunteers was examined. Single photon emission computed tomography with a brain-retained tracer, technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime, was used...... interrelationship in schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder....

  2. Schizophrenia and comorbid cannabis use disorders: Brain structure, function and the effect of antipsychotic medications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the studies described in this thesis was to increase our understanding of schizophrenia, co-morbid cannabis use disorders and the effects of different antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia and a comorbid cannabis use disorder. Therefore we studied the clinical

  3. Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aja Neergaard Greve

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from twin, family, and adoption studies all suggest that general intelligence is highly heritable. Several studies have shown lower premorbid intelligence in individuals before the onset of both mood disorders and psychosis, as well as in children and adolescents at genetic high risk for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156,531 the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP, and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03. The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting the sample to conscripts whose parents are diagnosed after 30 years of age. In conclusion, findings from this study show a more positive effect of education on offspring intelligence in mothers with schizophrenia compared to mothers from the control group. This effect could have both environmental and genetic explanations.

  4. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    of any mental disorder (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.20-1.26) and for most of the 11 main discharge groups, including schizophrenia (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.27), mood (affective) disorders (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15-1.28) and disorders of psychological development (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09-1.21) as well as the subgroup...... not previously studied (e.g. neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders and disorders of adult personality and behaviour). These important findings should be investigated further in large epidemiological studies designed to differentiate between factors related to fertility treatment and to the underlying......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient...

  5. Study on discriminant analysis by military mental disorder prediction scale for mental disorder of new recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the predictive role of the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale on the mental disorder of new recruits.Methods The present study examined 115 new recruits diagnosed with mental disorder and 115 healthy new recruits.The recruits were tested using the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale.The discriminant function was built by discriminant analysis method.The current study analyzed the predictive value of 11 factors(family medical record and past medical record(X1,growth experience(X2,introversion(X3,stressor(X4,poor mental defense(X5,social support(X6,psychosis(X7,depression(X8,mania(X9,neurosis(X10,and personality disorder(X11 aside from lie factor on the mental disorder of new recruits.Results The mental disorder group has higher total score and factor score in family medical record and past medical record,introversion,stressor,poor mental defense,social support,psychosis,depression,mania,neurosis,personality disorder,and lie than those of the contrast group(P < 0.01.For the score of growth experience factor,that of the mental disorder group is higher than the score of the contrast group(P < 0.05.All 11 factors except the lie factor in the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale are taken as independent variables by enforced introduction to obtain the Fisher linear discriminant function as follows: The mental disorder group=-7.014-0.278X1+1.556X2+1.563X3+0.878X4+0.183X5-0.845X6-0.562X7-0.353X8+1.246X9-0.505X10+1.029X11.The contrast group=-2.971+0.056X1+2.194X2+0.707X3+0.592X4-0.086X5-0.888X6-0.133X7-0.360X8+0.654X9-0.467X10+0.308X11.The discriminant function has an accuracy rate of 76.5% on the new recruits with mental disorders and 100% on the healthy new recruits.The total accurate discrimination rate is 88.3% and the total inaccurate discrimination rate is 11.7%.Conclusion The Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale has a high accuracy rate on the prediction of mental disorder of new recruits and is worthy of

  6. Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Saitoh, O; Yotsutsuji, T; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Kurachi, M

    1999-04-01

    We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.

  7. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.D. Fernandes (Carla P.); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); K.M. Ersland (Kari); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); A.J. Lundervold (Astri); I. Reinvang (Ivar); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); M. Rietschel (Marcella); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.M. Werge (Thomas); S. Cichon (Sven); T. Espeseth (Thomas); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); V.M. Steen (Vidar); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function

  8. A Genetic Deconstruction of Neurocognitive Traits in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Carla P. D.; Christoforou, Andrea; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Ersland, Kari M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Lundervold, Astri J.; Reinvang, Ivar; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ophoff, Roel A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Werge, Thomas; Cichon, Sven; Espeseth, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A.; Steen, Vidar M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy

  9. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Carla P D; Christoforou, Andrea; Giddaluru, Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals...

  10. Cognitive and psychomotor effects of risperidone in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houthoofd, Sofie A M K; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G C

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the effects of oral and long-acting injectable risperidone on cognitive and psychomotor functioning in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PubMed/MEDLINE and the Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science database were searched for relevant English-language double-blind RCTs published between March 2000 and July 2008, using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, cognition, risperidone, psychomotor, processing speed, attention, vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning, problem solving, social cognition, MATRICS, and long-acting. Relevant studies included patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Cognitive domains were delineated at the Consensus Conferences of the National Institute of Mental Health-Measurement And Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (NIMH-MATRICS). The tests employed to assess each domain and psychomotor functioning, and the within-group and between-group comparisons of risperidone with haloperidol and other atypical antipsychotics, are presented. The results of individual tests were included when they were individually presented and interpretable for either drug; outcomes that were presented as cluster scores or factor structures were excluded. A total of 12 articles were included in this review. Results suggested that the use of oral risperidone appeared to be associated with within-group improvements on the cognitive domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal and visual learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Risperidone and haloperidol seemed to generate similar beneficial effects (on the domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, [verbal and nonverbal] working memory, and visual learning and memory, as well as psychomotor

  11. Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adults With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, T Scott; Gerhard, Tobias; Crystal, Stephen; Huang, Cecilia; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wall, Melanie M; Mathai, Chacku M; Olfson, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The authors examined the use of different classes of psychotropic medication in outpatient treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Data from the United States Medicaid program were used to examine psychotropic medication use in a cohort of patients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the calendar year 2010. The cohort of Medicaid recipients who filled one or more prescriptions for a psychotropic medication in 2010 included 116,249 patients classified as having schizophrenia and 84,537 classified as having schizoaffective disorder. During 2010, 86.1% of patients with schizoaffective disorder and 70.1% with schizophrenia were treated with two or more different classes of psychotropic. Psychotropic medications other than antipsychotics were commonly prescribed for individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Their widespread use and uncertainty about their net benefits signal a need for research on their efficacy, safety, and appropriate use in these conditions.

  12. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  13. Mood disorders are associated with a more severe hypovitaminosis D than schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzeaux, Raoul; Boyer, Laurent; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Féron, François; Leboyer, Marion; Fond, Guillaume

    2015-09-30

    Patients with psychiatric disorders display high levels of hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D status in psychiatric inpatients, 82 individuals with mood disorders or schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders were included. Hypovitaminosis D was significantly lower in patients with mood disorders than patients with schizophrenia (standardized β coefficient=0.385, p=0.007). Further studies are warranted to determine specific causes of hypovitaminosis D and the interest of supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GABA system in schizophrenia and mood disorders. A mini review on third generation imaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eChiapponi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD. We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis.In SZ unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients, mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signalling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ.Unimodal studies in BD revealed, again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls, nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology.Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy and functional-biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving

  15. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential Patterns of Dysconnectivity in Mirror Neuron and Mentalizing Networks in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilbach, Leonhard; Derntl, Birgit; Aleman, Andre; Caspers, Svenja; Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Gruber, Oliver; Kogler, Lydia; Liemburg, Edith J; Sommer, Iris E; Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Eickhoff, Simon B

    Impairments of social cognition are well documented in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), but the neural basis remains poorly understood. In light of evidence that suggests that the "mirror neuron system" (MNS) and the "mentalizing network" (MENT) are key substrates of intersubjectivity and joint

  17. Diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia spectrum disorders among chronic patients with functional psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K D; Frederiksen, J N; Parnas, J

    2006-01-01

    of 100 individuals (35 women and 65 men) were randomly sampled and assessed using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness and Affective Illness (OPCRIT). Based on the OPCRIT diagnoses the subjects suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to seven...... function previous to the onset of illness. Similarly high pairwise CR were observed for schizophrenia spectrum disorders across all diagnostic systems. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that diagnostic agreement is higher among chronic patients than that observed in subjects with a recent onset...... serious epistemological consequences, thus underlining the conventional nature of the present schizophrenia diagnoses and the need for biologically founded diagnostic criteria....

  18. Spouse with schizophrenia and risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2016-12-01

    Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walshe Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for their diagnoses. Methods 104 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while performing a phonological verbal fluency task. Subjects were 32 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 32 patients with bipolar disorder in an euthymic state, and 40 healthy volunteers. Neural responses to verbal fluency were examined in each group, and the diagnostic potential of the pattern of the neural responses was assessed with machine learning analysis. Results During the verbal fluency task, both patient groups showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right putamen as compared to healthy controls, as well as reduced deactivation of precuneus and posterior cingulate. The magnitude of activation was greatest in patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with bipolar disorder and then healthy individuals. Additional recruitment in the right inferior frontal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was observed in schizophrenia relative to both bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. The pattern of neural responses correctly identified individual patients with schizophrenia with an accuracy of 92%, and those with bipolar disorder with an accuracy of 79% in which mis-classification was typically of bipolar subjects as healthy controls. Conclusions In summary, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with altered function in prefrontal, striatal and default mode networks, but the magnitude of this dysfunction is particularly marked in schizophrenia. The pattern of response to verbal fluency is highly

  20. Problems attract problems: a network perspective on mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this

  1. Distinctive Rorschach profiles of young adults with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishimoto N

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Naoko Kishimoto,1 Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1 Junzo Iida,2 Toyosaku Ota,1 Shohei Tanaka,1 Masanori Kyo,3 Sohei Kimoto,1 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Faculty of Nursing, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyo Mental Clinic, Nara, Japan Objective: The differential diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ versus autism spectrum disorder (ASD can be clinically challenging because accumulating evidence suggests both clinical and biological overlaps between them. The aim of this study was to compare Rorschach profiles between young adults with SZ and those with ASD.Methods: We evaluated quantitative tendencies on the Rorschach test among 20 patients diagnosed with SZ and 20 diagnosed with ASD. Both groups were matched for age, sex, and intelligence quotient.Results: We found significant differences in six response variables on the Rorschach comprehensive system. Those with SZ had significantly higher scores on D score, adjusted D score (Adj D, developmental quality code reflecting ordinary response (DQo, and form quality minus (FQ - than those with ASD. In contrast, those with SZ had significantly lower scores on the active and developmental quality code reflecting synthesized response (DQ+ subscales than those with ASD.Conclusion: The present findings reveal that individuals with SZ might have more stress tolerance, stronger perception distortions, and simpler and poorer recognition than those with ASD. We suggest that the Rorschach test might be a useful tool for differentiating between SZ and ASD. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, perception, psychopathology, Rorschach test, schizophrenia

  2. Frequency and Correlates of Distant Visual Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Tang, L R; Correll, C U; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Xiang, Y Q; Xiang, Y T

    2015-09-01

    Distant visual impairment in the severely mentally ill is under-researched. This study aimed to assess the frequency and correlates of distant visual impairment in a cohort of Chinese psychiatric patients, including its effect on their quality of life. Adult psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder consecutively admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Beijing, China underwent assessments of psychopathology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report]), quality of life (12-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study [SF-12], 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ25]), adverse effects (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale), and presenting (as opposed to uncorrected) distant visual acuity (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution [LogMAR] chart with patients wearing spectacles, if they owned them). Distant visual impairment was defined as binocular distant visual acuity of a LogMAR score of ≥ 0.5 (visual impairment was 12.6% (15.2% with schizophrenia, 11.9% with bipolar disorder, 8.8% with major depressive disorder). In multiple logistic regression analysis, distant visual impairment was significantly associated with ocular disease only (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-6.7). Controlling for the confounding effect of ocular disease, patients with distant visual impairment had a lower quality of life in the general vision domain of the NEI-VFQ25 (F[2, 353] = 9.5, p = 0.002) compared with those without. No differences in the physical and mental domains of the SF-12 and in other domains of the NEI-VFQ25 were noted in these 2 groups. One-eighth of middle-aged severely mentally ill patients had distant visual impairment. Considering the impact of distant visual impairment on daily functioning, severely mentally ill patients need to be screened for impaired eyesight as part of their

  3. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  4. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolato B

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Bortolato,1 Kamilla W Miskowiak,2 Cristiano A Köhler,3 Eduard Vieta,4 André F Carvalho3 1Department of Mental Health, ULSS 10 “Veneto Orientale”, Venice, Italy; 2Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; 4Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated finding in SZ. There is no specific neuropsychological signature that can facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of SZ and BD, notwithstanding, neuropsychological deficits appear more severe in SZ. The literature in this field has provided contradictory results due to methodological differences across studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a

  5. [Pandora's digital box: mental disorders in cyberspace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D

    2011-01-01

    The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders.

  6. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels in schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and depression - associations with mortality and psychiatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, H T; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, which can affect disease trajectories. We aimed to assess levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) across individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression......, and to investigate associations with subsequent psychiatric admission and mortality. METHODS: We identified all adults in the Central Denmark Region during 2000-2012 with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression and a baseline measurement of CRP and/or WBC count. We followed.......5mg/L) (particularly during manic states, 3.9mg/L), followed by schizophrenia (3.1mg/L), and depression (2.8mg/L), while baseline WBC count did not differ (median 7.1×10(9)/L). Elevated CRP levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality by adjusted HRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.02-2.38) for levels...

  8. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  9. Atrial fibrillation in patients with severe mental disorders and the risk of stroke, fatal thromboembolic events and bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mette; Skjøth, Flemming; Kjældgaard, Jette Nordstrøm

    2017-01-01

    : Denmark (population 5.6 million), 2000-2015. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with AF with schizophrenia (n=534), severe depression (n=400) or bipolar disease (n=569) matched 1:5 on age, sex and calendar time to patients with AF without mental disorders. EXPOSURE: Inpatient or hospital-based outpatient diagnosis...... of schizophrenia, severe depression or bipolar disease. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs for stroke, fatal thromboembolic events and major bleeding comparing patients with and without mental disorders estimated by Cox regression with sequential adjustment for risk factors for stroke and bleeding......, comorbidity and initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT). RESULTS: Compared with matched comparisons, crude 5-year HRs of ischaemic stroke were 1.37 (95% CI 0.88 to 2.14) for schizophrenia, 1.36 (95% CI 0.89 to 2.08) for depression and 1.04 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.56) for bipolar disease. After adjusting...

  10. Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Wong, Corine Sau Man; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa; Chan, Wai Chi; Ng, Roger Man Kin; Hung, Se Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk Chi; Sham, Pak Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Lam, Ming; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chiang, Tin Po; Chan, Lap Kei; Lau, Gary Kar Wai; Lee, Allen Ting Chun; Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Leung, Joey Shuk Yan; Lau, Joseph Tak Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2017-10-21

    Lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders varies widely across studies. Epidemiological surveys have rarely examined prevalences of specific psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and the majority used a single-phase design without employing clinical reappraisal interview for diagnostic verification. The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong. The survey adopted a 2-phase design comprising first-phase psychosis screening and second-phase diagnostic verification incorporating clinical information from psychiatrist-administered semi-structured interview and medical record review to ascertain DSM-IV lifetime diagnosis for psychotic disorders. Data on sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics and service utilization were collected. Our results showed that lifetime prevalence was 2.47% for psychotic disorder overall, 1.25% for schizophrenia, 0.15% for delusional disorder, 0.38% for psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, 0.31% for bipolar disorder with psychosis, and 0.33% for depressive disorder with psychosis. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorder was associated with family history of psychosis, cigarette smoking and variables indicating socioeconomic disadvantage. Victimization experiences were significantly related to affective psychoses and other non-affective psychoses. Around 80% of participants with any psychotic disorder sought some kind of professional help for mental health problems in the past year. Using comprehensive diagnostic assessment involving interview and record data, our results indicate that approximately 2.5% of Chinese adult population had lifetime psychotic disorder which represents a major public health concern.

  11. [Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in DSM-5: summary of the changes compared to DSM-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, M; Schneider, F

    2014-05-01

    With the introduction of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) numerous changes in the area of the schizophrenia spectrum and psychotic disorders have been implemented. Establishing a metastructure based on the characteristics of the spectrum of psychopathological disturbances should improve clarity. The classical subtypes of schizophrenia were eliminated and specific psychopathological dimensions for the assessment of disease severity were added. The special role of Schneiderian first rank symptoms was abandoned and a higher delineation towards schizoaffective disorders is made. The nosological status of catatonia is clarified and occurs together with a consistent use of catatonic disturbances over all chapters. The attenuated psychosis syndrome is added as a new condition for further study. The shared psychotic disorder in the sense of a folie à deux is no longer maintained. However, the initial goal to integrate more disorder-specific etiopathogenetic information into the reconceptualization could not be achieved. Contemporaneously to the development process of DSM-5 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) carried out the research domain criteria project (RDoC) attempting to incorporate the current growth in knowledge of genetics, neurocognitive and cognitive sciences in future diagnostic systems. This article gives an overview of the changes that have been made within the revision process from DSM-IV to DSM-5.

  12. [Comorbidity of substance use with mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidaki, V; Maliori, M

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reviews the international literature about dual diagnosis, meaning patients who have simultaneously mental health problems and substance use disorders and discusses epidemiology, clinical characteristics, but primarily etiopathogenesis and different treatment models and interventions. The epidemiological data coming from large-scale studies in the general population in USA, Australia and UK demonstrate the close relationship between mental health problems and substance use disorders. Also, the results from Greek research projects support this close relationship, but their research designs have significant limitations. Multiple and high risks are common in this population, like violent or suicidal behavior, self-harm, physical problems, while they appear less responsive to treatment. Subsequently, different models for etiopathogenesis of dual diagnosis have been suggested: (a) Causal relationship: secondary substance use disorder is subsequent of primary mental illness (self-medication hypothesis, supersenstivity model) or vice versa (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use trigger or contribute to development of mental illness). (b) Third factor as the cause of both mental and substance use disorders (genetic factor, neuropathology, traumatic experience, personality characteristics, multiple factors). (c) Comorbidty is due to chance. (d) Each disorder mutually exacerbates the other, regardless the cause. Here, the relationship between alcohol and depression is discussed further as example. The ideas and the research-evidence which support each of these models are presented. Also there is an overview of different treatment models: (a) Consecutive treatment: mental health treatment and substance misuse treatment are provided consecutively. (b) Parallel treatments: the patient attends programs of both mental health and substance use services simultaneously. (c) Integrated treatment: the same clinical team addresses both mental health issues and substance

  13. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  14. Impact of a Nursing in Psychiatry Course on Students' Attitudes Toward Mental Health Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbanas, Goran; Bosnjak, Dina; Sabo, Tamara

    2018-03-01

    Negative attitudes toward patients with mental illnesses are not uncommon among health professionals, and lead to poorer quality and outcomes of care. Because attitudes are formed early in life, the current study aimed to investigate if teaching psychiatry in secondary school nursing students (i.e., adolescents) changes attitudes toward three prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. A pilot quasi-experimental study was conducted with 51 fourth-year students in secondary nursing school who completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward these disorders on the first and last day of their Nursing in Psychiatry course. Results show that the stigma attached to all three disorders was significantly reduced after students completed the course. Students attached greater stigma to schizophrenia than PTSD, and to PTSD than depression, before and after the course. The study indicates that education in psychiatry helps reduce negative attitudes toward PTSD, schizophrenia, and depression. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(3), 45-51.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  16. Attachment, mentalizing and personality pathology severity in premeditated and impulsive aggression in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Bertelsen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    , only a few studies have examined the role of mentalizing abilities and personality pathology severity, and none have examined the role of attachment representations known to play a role in aggression. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research that differentiates between premeditated and impulsive...... aggression in schizophrenia. To this end, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 108 patients with schizophrenia to explore if a specific combination of mentalizing abilities, attachment representations and personality pathology severity pertain to premeditated aggression, controlling for essential...... clinical and socio-demographic variables. Findings reveal that a constellation of diminished mentalizing abilities, attachment pattern characterized by positive self-representations and negative representations of the other, and severe personality pathology, was associated with premeditated aggression...

  17. Neuropsychological Impairments in Schizophrenia and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. Kristian; Reilly, James L.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Gold, James M.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Sweeney, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Familial neuropsychological deficits are well established in schizophrenia but remain less well characterized in other psychotic disorders. This study from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium 1) compares cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis, 2) tests a continuum model of cognitive dysfunction in psychotic disorders, 3) reports familiality of cognitive impairments across psychotic disorders, and 4) evaluates cognitive impairment among nonpsychotic relatives with and without cluster A personality traits. Method Participants included probands with schizophrenia (N=293), psychotic bipolar disorder (N=227), schizoaffective disorder (manic, N=110; depressed, N=55), their first-degree relatives (N=316, N=259, N=133, and N=64, respectively), and healthy comparison subjects (N=295). All participants completed the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Results Cognitive impairments among psychotic probands, compared to healthy comparison subjects, were progressively greater from bipolar disorder (z=−0.77) to schizoaffective disorder (manic z=−1.08; depressed z=−1.25) to schizophrenia (z=−1.42). Profiles across subtests of the BACS were similar across disorders. Familiality of deficits was significant and comparable in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Of particular interest were similar levels of neuropsychological deficits in relatives with elevated cluster A personality traits across proband diagnoses. Nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenia probands without these personality traits exhibited significant cognitive impairments, while relatives of bipolar probands did not. Conclusions Robust cognitive deficits are present and familial in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Severity of cognitive impairments across psychotic disorders was consistent with a continuum model, in which more prominent affective features and less

  18. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  19. Mental Disorders and Charges of Violent Offences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses....... There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of a violent charge and mental disorders in general (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)[0.24; 4.38]). An association was found between violent charge and non-danish ethnicity (OR = 7.58, [1.60; 35.92]). Previously reported association between...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....

  20. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS) with mental disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Koizumi, J.; Shiraishi, H.; Ofuku, K.; Sasaki, M.; Hori, T.; Ishikawa, N.; Anno, I.; Ohkoshi, N.

    1990-01-01

    A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS) with mental disorder is reported. The SPECT study using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and MRI study revealed abnormality in the left parieto-occipital areas without abnormality in the brain CT or brain scintigram. These findings suggest a localized dysfunction of the brain capillary endothelium in association with the cerebral involvement of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (orig.)

  2. Neuromarkers for Mental Disorders: Harnessing Population Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jollans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant research into the neurobiology of mental disorders, to date neurobiological insights have had very little impact on psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. In this review, we contend that the search for neuroimaging biomarkers—neuromarkers—of mental disorders is a highly promising avenue toward improved psychiatric healthcare. However, many of the traditional tools used for psychiatric neuroimaging are inadequate for the identification of neuromarkers. Specifically, we highlight the need for larger samples and for multivariate analysis. Approaches such as machine learning are likely to be beneficial for interrogating high-dimensional neuroimaging data. We suggest that broad, population-based study designs will be important for developing neuromarkers of mental disorders, and will facilitate a move away from a phenomenological definition of mental disorder categories and toward psychiatric nosology based on biological evidence. We provide an outline of how the development of neuromarkers should occur, emphasizing the need for tests of external and construct validity, and for collaborative research efforts. Finally, we highlight some concerns regarding the development, and use of, neuromarkers in psychiatric healthcare.

  3. Mental disorder ethics: theory and empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, N; Starling, B

    2006-01-01

    Mental disorders and their care present unusual problems within biomedical ethics. The disorders themselves invite an ethical critique, as does society's attitude to them; researching the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders also presents special ethical issues. The current high profile of mental disorder ethics, emphasised by recent political and legal developments, makes this a field of research that is not only important but also highly topical. For these reasons, the Wellcome Trust's biomedical ethics programme convened a meeting, “Investigating Ethics and Mental Disorders”, in order to review some current research, and to stimulate topics and methods of future research in the field. The meeting was attended by policy makers, regulators, research funders, and researchers, including social scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, lawyers, philosophers, criminologists, and others. As well as aiming to inspire a stronger research endeavour, the meeting also sought to stimulate an improved understanding of the methods and interactions that can contribute to “empirical ethics” generally. This paper reports on the meeting by describing contributions from individual speakers and discussion sections of the meeting. At the end we describe and discuss the conclusions of the meeting. As a result, the text is referenced less than would normally be expected in a review. Also, in summarising contributions from named presenters at the meeting it is possible that we have created inaccuracies; however, the definitive version of each paper, as provided directly by the presenter, is available at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc.WTX025116.html. PMID:16446414

  4. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  5. Work out by Walking: A Pilot Exercise Program for Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Battaglini, Claudio L; Ludwig, Kelsey

    2016-09-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well documented, yet annual health care costs related to physical inactivity are well within the billions. Furthermore, individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are more likely to lead sedentary lives, exercise less than the general population, and die prematurely from preventable causes. Previous research examining the effects of exercise on individuals with SSDs has been encouraging yet limited in creating accessible and sustainable interventions. The current pilot study developed and evaluated the impact of Work out by Walking (WOW), a multicomponent group walking intervention on the health of 16 individuals with SSDs. Results indicated improvements in indicators of physical health, activity level, social support, and mental health and a high level of program satisfaction. Future research should examine multicomponent group walking programs for individuals with SSDs in larger samples and with the inclusion of a comparison condition.

  6. Incidence of child and adolescent mental disorders in children aged 0-17 with familial high risk for severe mental illness - A Danish register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne A E; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) have an increased risk of developing mental disorder themselves. In childhood they may have neurodevelopmental delays, cognitive deficits and social adversities. We aimed...... of mothers with schizophrenia had IRR of 2.60 (CI: 2.50-2.70, N = 2550) of having any diagnoses, for children of fathers with schizophrenia IRR was 2.06 (CI: 1.97-2.16, N = 1901) and for offspring of two parents with schizophrenia IRR was 4.57 (CI: 3.94-5.31, N = 175). For individuals with a mother...... with bipolar disorder the IRR was 2.29 (CI: 2.09-2.50, N = 502), with a father 1.77 (CI: 1.74-1.87, N = 320), whereas the IRR was 2.96 (CI: 2.63-3.34, N = 264) if both parents had unipolar depression. Discussion: Offspring of parents with a SMI have a higher risk of being diagnosed with any child...

  7. Formal thought disorder, neuropsychology and insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alvaro; McKenna, Peter J; Berrios, German E

    2009-01-01

    Information provided by patients with schizophrenia and their respective carers is used to study the descriptive psychopathology and neuropsychology of formal thought disorder (FTD). Relatively intellectually preserved schizophrenia patients (n = 31) exhibiting from no to severe positive FTD completed a self-report scale of FTD, a scale of insight as well as several tests of executive and semantic function. The patients' carers completed another scale of FTD to assess the patients' speech. FTD as self-reported by patients was significantly associated with the synonyms test performance and severity of the reality distortion dimension. FTD as assessed by a clinician and by the patients' carers was significantly associated with executive test performance and performance in a test of associative semantics. Overall insight was significantly associated with severity of the reality distortion dimension and graded naming test performance, but was not associated with self-reported FTD or severity of FTD as assessed by the clinician or carers. The self-reported experience of FTD has different clinical and neuropsychological correlates from those of FTD as assessed by clinicians and carers. The assessment of FTD by patients and carers used along with the clinician's assessment may further the study of this group of symptoms. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Reconceptualizing mental disorders: From symptoms to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural. A practical advantage of this conceptual change is that it suggests approaching mental disorders as brain dysfunctions treatable by biological and chemical means, in addition to social measures, such as accommodating mental patients in ordinary hospitals rather than in isolated "madhouses" at the mercy of amateurs or even charlatans. An additional advantage of the "embodiment" of mental diseases is that it suggests reframing some new research projects, such as explaining why the common cold causes mental fogginess, why hypertension can cause irritability, and why nicotine dependence can be even stronger than cocaine addiction. In other words, the present proposal is to complete the so-called "mapping of the mind onto the brain" by including the abnormal mental processes, which used to be treated by shamans at a time when the mind was conceived of as an immaterial entity detachable from the body. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....

  10. Symptoms of common mental disorders and their correlates Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...

  11. More Pronounced Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition for Schizophrenia than Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are typically separated in diagnostic systems. Behavioural, cognitive, and brain abnormalities associated with each disorder nonetheless overlap. We evaluated the diagnostic specificity of facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to determine whether select aspects of emotion recognition differed for the two disorders. The investigation used an experimental task that included the same facial images in an emotion recognition condition and an age recognition condition (to control for processes associated with general face recognition) in 27 schizophrenia patients, 16 bipolar I patients, and 30 controls. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients exhibited both shared and distinct aspects of facial emotion recognition deficits. Schizophrenia patients had deficits in recognizing angry facial expressions compared to healthy controls and bipolar patients. Compared to control participants, both schizophrenia and bipolar patients were more likely to mislabel facial expressions of anger as fear. Given that schizophrenia patients exhibited a deficit in emotion recognition for angry faces, which did not appear due to generalized perceptual and cognitive dysfunction, improving recognition of threat-related expression may be an important intervention target to improve social functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:23218816

  12. PREDICTORS FORMATION OF SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH CONCOMITANT SOMATIC-NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Semionovici PIDKORYTOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the level of stress in patients with paranoid schizophrenia with concomitant somatic-neurological disorders and quality of life as predictors of the formation of their social exclusion. The influence of somatic-neurological pathology for paranoid schizophrenia at different levels of stress.

  13. Cessation of cannabis use by patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nienke; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Berg, Sake; de Gier, Martin; Becker, Hiske; Linzen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis abuse has been found to be a component risk factor for the onset and poor outcome during the early course of schizophrenia and related disorders. Cannabis use has become a target for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia patients. Therefore, knowledge of factors that influence

  14. Rates and Predictors of Conversion to Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Following Substance-Induced Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starzer, Marie Stefanie Kejser; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Self-harm after a substance-induced psychosis was significantly linked to a higher risk of converting to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Half the cases of conversion to schizophrenia occurred within 3.1 years after a substance-induced psychosis, and half the cases of conversion to bipolar...

  15. [Mentalization based treatment and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F

    2017-08-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the

  16. Is game addiction a mental disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal

    This Ph.D. dissertation critically examines the concept of "video game addiction" and the science behind the proposal that the disorder should be officially recognized as a mental disorder called "Internet gaming disorder." Chapter One gives a short introduction to the history of the word...... "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... researchers' claims of negative effects caused by video game playing are wildly exaggerated. Chapter 3 adds a short review of what is sometimes cited as historical precursors to Internet gaming disorder and argue that these are, in fact, not examples of addictions. Chapter 4 will analyze the diagnostic...

  17. 75 FR 71632 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION... comments on any other aspects of the proposed listings for mental disorders that we receive during this... our mental disorders listings: Definitions we provide for the terms ``marked'' and ``extreme'' that...

  18. Free will and mental disorder: exploring the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynen, Gerben

    2010-12-01

    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions "an important loss of freedom" as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how "an important loss of freedom" should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research.

  19. Association of Per3 length polymorphism with bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramanujam Karthikeyan,1 Ganapathy Marimuthu,1 Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian,2 Gautham Arunachal,2 Ahmed S BaHammam,3 David Warren Spence,4 Daniel P Cardinali,5 Gregory M Brown,6 Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal7 1Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India; 2MS Chellamuthu Trust and Research Foundation, KK Nagar, Madurai, India; 3University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, National Plan for Science and Technology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Independent researcher, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Department of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 6Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 7Center for Healthful Behavior Change (CHBC, Division of Health and Behavior, Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, Clinical and Translational Research Institute, New York, New York, USA Background: Sleep–wake disturbances have frequently been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and are considered to be caused by an underlying circadian rhythm disorder. The study presented here was designed to investigate the existence of Per3 polymorphism in bipolar disorder type I (BD-I and schizophrenic patients in South India.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 311 BD-I patients, 293 schizophrenia patients, and 346 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Per3 genotyping was performed on DNA by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers.Results: An increased prevalence of five repeat homozygotes was seen in BD-I patients as compared with healthy controls (odds ratio =1.72 [95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.76, P=0.02]. In BD-I patients, the frequency of the five repeat allele was higher (allele frequency =0.41, and that of the four repeat allele lower (allele frequency =0.36 (χ2=4.634; P<0.03 than in

  20. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  1. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    Mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are common, incapacitating, and have the potential to be fatal. Despite the prevalence and gravity of mental disorders, our knowledge concerning everyday challenges associated with them is relatively limited. One of the most studied deficits related to everyday challenges is language impairment, yet we do not know how mental disorders can impact common forms of written communication, for example, social media. The aims of this study were to investigate written communication challenges manifest in online mental health communities focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as the impact of participating in these online mental health communities on written communication. As the control, we selected three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, exercising, and weight management. We examined lexical diversity and readability, both important features for measuring the quality of writing. We used four well-established readability metrics that consider word frequencies and syntactic complexity to measure writers' written communication ability. We then measured the lexical diversity by calculating the percentage of unique words in posts. To compare lexical diversity and readability among communities, we first applied pairwise independent sample t tests, followed by P value adjustments using the prespecified Hommel procedure to adjust for multiple comparison. To measure the changes, we applied linear least squares regression to the readability and lexical diversity scores against the interaction sequence for each member, followed by pairwise independent sample t tests and P value adjustments. Given the large sample of members, we also report effect sizes and 95% CIs for the pairwise comparisons. On average, members of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia communities showed indications of difficulty expressing their ideas compared with three other

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Developmental Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Canitano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD share clinical and genetic components that have long been recognized. The two disorders co-occur more frequently than would be predicted by their respective prevalence, suggesting that a complex, multifactor association is involved. However, DSM-5 maintains the distinction between ASD, with core social and communication impairments, and SSD, including schizophrenia (SCZ, with hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder as essential features. ASD and SSD have common biological underpinnings that may emerge early in development and unfold over time. One of the hypotheses supporting the similarities in the social and cognitive disturbances of ASD and SSD relates to abnormalities in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory cortical activity (E/I imbalance. E/I imbalance in neurodevelopmental disorders could be the consequence of abnormalities in genes coding for glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors or synaptic proteins followed by system derangements. SSD and ASD have been characterized as polygenic disorders in which to the onset and progression of disease is triggered by interactions among multiple genes. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is under intense investigation as a convergent altered pathway in the two spectrum disorders. Current understanding of shared and divergent patterns between ASD and SSD from molecular to clinical aspects is still incomplete and may be implemented by the research domain criteria approach.

  3. Academic Performance in Children of Mothers With Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Illness, and Risk for Subsequent Development of Psychosis: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A

    2017-01-01

    We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295-298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Academic Performance in Children of Mothers With Schizophrenia and Other Severe Mental Illness, and Risk for Subsequent Development of Psychosis: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Di Prinzio, Patsy; Young, Deidra; Jacoby, Peter; Whitehouse, Andrew; Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen; Morgan, Vera A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined the academic performance at age 12 years of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness using a large whole-population birth cohort born in Western Australia. We investigated the association between academic performance and the subsequent development of psychotic illness. Method: The sample comprised 3169 children of mothers with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar major depression, delusional disorder or other psychoses; ICD-9 codes 295–298), and 88 353 children of comparison mothers without known psychiatric morbidity. Academic performance of children was indexed on a mandatory state-wide test of reading, spelling, writing and numeracy. Results: A larger proportion of children (43.1%) of mothers with severe mental illness performed below the acceptable standard than the reference group (30.3%; children of mothers with no known severe mental illness). After adjusting for covariates, children of mothers with any severe mental illness were more likely than the reference group to perform below-benchmark on all domains except reading. For all children, poor spelling was associated with the later development of psychosis, but particularly for those at familial risk for severe mental illness (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI for HR = 1.21, 2.72). Conclusions: Children of mothers with a severe mental illness are at increased risk for sub-standard academic achievement at age 12 years, placing these children at disadvantage for the transition to secondary school. For children with familial risk for severe mental illness, very poor spelling skills at age 12 years may be an indicator of risk for later psychotic disorder. PMID:27131155

  5. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Scaletzky Knuth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  6. Comparison of self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Stanislav Matousek,1 Klara Latalova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Aleš Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: The views of one’s self-stigma and quality of life (QoL in patients with schizophrenia and depressive disorders are significant subjective notions, both being proven to affect patient’s functioning in life. The objective of this study was to investigate the QoL and self-stigma in connection with demographic factors and compare the two groups of patients in terms of those variables. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depressive disorders completed the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire during a routine psychiatric control. Furthermore, both patients and their psychiatrists evaluated the severity of the disorder by Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Results: The QoL of patients with depressive disorders or schizophrenia spectrum disorders did not significantly differ between the two groups. In both groups, unemployment was perceived to be a significant factor decreasing the QoL. Self-stigma was detected to be higher in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders than in patients with depressive disorders. A strong correlation was found between the two scales, meaning that those with higher levels of self-stigmatization were less prone to see their life as fulfilling and joyful. Conclusion: This study shows that the degree of the internalized stigma can be an

  7. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  8. Unique and Overlapping Symptoms in Schizophrenia Spectrum and Dissociative Disorders in Relation to Models of Psychopathology: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Selwyn B.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Moskowitz, Andrew; Aleman, André; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and dissociative disorders (DDs) are described in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) as 2 categorically distinct diagnostic categories. However, several studies indicate high levels of co-occurrence between these diagnostic groups, which might be explained by overlapping symptoms. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the research concerning overlap and differences in symptoms between schizophrenia spectrum and DDs. For this purpose the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant literature. The literature contained a large body of evidence showing the presence of symptoms of dissociation in SSDs. Although there are quantitative differences between diagnoses, overlapping symptoms are not limited to certain domains of dissociation, nor to nonpathological forms of dissociation. In addition, dissociation seems to be related to a history of trauma in SSDs, as is also seen in DDs. There is also evidence showing that positive and negative symptoms typically associated with schizophrenia may be present in DD. Implications of these results are discussed with regard to different models of psychopathology and clinical practice. PMID:27209638

  9. Co-occurring mental illness, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder among clients of forensic mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  11. Domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2018-06-07

    This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Aspects of Theory of Mind that attenuate the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Peter L; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-09-01

    Despite the apparent relevance of persecutory delusions to social relationships, evidence linking these beliefs to social functioning has been inconsistent. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that theory of mind moderates the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning. 88 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed concurrently for social functioning, severity of persecutory delusions, and two components of theory of mind: mental state decoding and mental state reasoning. Mental state decoding was assessed using the Eyes Test, mental state reasoning using the Hinting Task, and social functioning assessed with the Social Functioning Scale. Moderation effects were evaluated using linear models and the Johnson-Neyman procedure. Mental state reasoning was found to moderate the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning, controlling for overall psychopathology. For participants with reasoning scores in the bottom 78th percentile, persecutory delusions showed a significant negative relationship with social functioning. However, for those participants with mental state reasoning scores in the top 22nd percentile, more severe persecutory delusions were not significantly associated with worse social functioning. Mental state decoding was not a statistically significant moderator. Generalizability is limited as participants were generally men in later phases of illness. Mental state reasoning abilities may buffer the impact of persecutory delusions on social functioning, possibly by helping individuals avoid applying global beliefs of persecution to specific individuals or by allowing for the correction of paranoid inferences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Social cognition in schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). While these deficits are more severe in schizophrenia, there is a significant overlap between conditions. However, it was hypothesized that social cognitive deficits might be more specific to schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM) abilities in schizophrenia and BP. 26 studies comparing 1301 patients with schizophrenia and 1075 with BP were included. Schizophrenia patients significantly underperformed compared with BP patients in both facial emotion recognition (d=0.39) and ToM (d=0.57). Neurocognitive deficits significantly contributed to schizophrenia-BP group differences for ToM. However, between-group differences for social cognition were not statistically more severe than neurocognition. Social cognitive impairment is more severe in schizophrenia in comparison to BP. However, between-group differences are modest and are comparable to other neurocognitive differences between schizophrenia and BP. There is significant overlap in social cognitive performance deficits observed in both schizophrenia and BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing cognitive heterogeneity on the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, T E; Lewandowski, K E; Tan, E J; Ospina, L H; Ongur, D; Neill, E; Gurvich, C; Pantelis, C; Malhotra, A K; Rossell, S L; Burdick, K E

    2017-07-01

    Current group-average analysis suggests quantitative but not qualitative cognitive differences between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing recognition that cognitive within-group heterogeneity exists in both disorders, but it remains unclear as to whether between-group comparisons of performance in cognitive subgroups emerging from within each of these nosological categories uphold group-average findings. We addressed this by identifying cognitive subgroups in large samples of SZ and BD patients independently, and comparing their cognitive profiles. The utility of a cross-diagnostic clustering approach to understanding cognitive heterogeneity in these patients was also explored. Hierarchical clustering analyses were conducted using cognitive data from 1541 participants (SZ n = 564, BD n = 402, healthy control n = 575). Three qualitatively and quantitatively similar clusters emerged within each clinical group: a severely impaired cluster, a mild-moderately impaired cluster and a relatively intact cognitive cluster. A cross-diagnostic clustering solution also resulted in three subgroups and was superior in reducing cognitive heterogeneity compared with disorder clustering independently. Quantitative SZ-BD cognitive differences commonly seen using group averages did not hold when cognitive heterogeneity was factored into our sample. Members of each corresponding subgroup, irrespective of diagnosis, might be manifesting the outcome of differences in shared cognitive risk factors.

  15. Mental disorders across the adult life course and future coronary heart disease: evidence for general susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Batty, G David; Osborn, David P J; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is unclear whether this association between mental health and CHD is present across a wider range of mental disorders. Methods and Results Participants were 1,107,524 Swedish men conscripted at mean age 18.3 years. Mental disorders were assessed by psychiatric interview on conscription and data on hospital admissions for mental disorder and CHD were obtained from national registers during 22.6 years of follow-up. Increased risk of incident CHD was evident across a range of mental disorders whether diagnosed at conscription or on later hospital admission. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) according to diagnoses at conscription ranged from 1.30 (1.05, 1.60) (depressive disorders) to 1.92 (1.60, 2.31) (alcohol-related disorders). The equivalent figures according to diagnoses during hospital admission ranged from 1.49 (1.24, 1.80) (schizophrenia) to 2.82 (2.53, 3.13) (other substance use disorders). Associations were little changed by adjustment for parental socioeconomic status, or body mass index, diabetes and blood pressure measured at conscription, but were partially attenuated by adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, and intelligence measured at conscription, and for education and own socioeconomic position. Conclusions Increased risk of incident CHD is present across a range of mental disorders and is observable when disorders are diagnosed at a young age. PMID:24190959

  16. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  17. Stigma: The relevance of social contact in mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Víctor M; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Santamaría, Pilar; Martínez, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor

    The stigma associated with mental illness is a health problem, discriminating and limiting the opportunities for sufferers. Social contact with people suffering a mental disorder is a strategy used to produce changes in population stereotypes. The aim of the study was to examine differences in the level of stigma in samples with social contact and the general population. The study included two experiments. The first (n=42) included players in an open football league who played in a team with players with schizophrenia. In the second included, a sample without known contact (n=62) and a sample with contact (n=100) were compared. The evaluation tool used was AQ-27, Spanish version (AQ-27-E). The mean difference between the two samples of each of the 9 subscales was analyzed. In the first experiment, all the subscales had lower scores in post-contact than in pre-contact, except for responsibility. The two subscales that showed significant differences were duress (t=6.057, p=.000) and Pity (t=3.661, p=.001). In the second experiment, seven subscales showed a significance level (p=responsibility and did not. It is observed that the social contact made in daily situations can have a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. This can help to promote equality of opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental and behavioural disorders in the ICD-11: concepts, methodologies, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-30

    This review provides an overview of the concepts, methods and current status of the development of the Eleventh Revision of the Mental and Behavioural Disorders chapter of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the global use of the current version (ICD-10) for a wide range of applications in clinical practice and health statistics, a major aim of the development process for ICD-11 has been to increase the utility of the classification system. Expert working groups with responsibility for specific disorder groupings first suggested a set of revised diagnostic guidelines. Then surveys were performed to obtain suggestions for revisions from practicing health professionals. A completely revised structure for the classification of mental and behavioural disorders was developed and major revisions were suggested, for example, for schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. A new category of "gaming disorder" has been proposed and conditions related to sexual health and gender identity will be classified separately from mental disorders. An ICD-11 beta draft is freely available on the internet and public comments are invited. Field studies of the revised diagnostic guidelines are in process to obtain additional information about necessary improvements. A tabulated crosswalk from previous ICD-10 to then ICD-11 criteria will be necessary to ascertain the continuity of diagnoses for epidemiological and other statistical purposes. The final version of ICD-11 is currently scheduled for release by the World Health Assembly in 2018.

  19. Causal beliefs of the public and social acceptance of persons with mental illness: a comparative analysis of schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Matschinger, H; Angermeyer, M C

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether biological illness explanations improve tolerance towards persons with mental illness or not. Several theoretical models have been proposed to predict the relationship between causal beliefs and social acceptance. This study uses path models to compare different theoretical predictions regarding attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we elicited agreement with belief in biogenetic causes, current stress and childhood adversities as causes of either disorder as described in an unlabelled case vignette. We further elicited potentially mediating attitudes related to different theories about the consequences of biogenetic causal beliefs (attribution theory: onset responsibility, offset responsibility; genetic essentialism: differentness, dangerousness; genetic optimism: treatability) and social acceptance. For each vignette condition, we calculated a multiple mediator path model containing all variables. Biogenetic beliefs were associated with lower social acceptance in schizophrenia and depression, and with higher acceptance in alcohol dependence. In schizophrenia and depression, perceived differentness and dangerousness mediated the largest indirect effects, the consequences of biogenetic causal explanations thus being in accordance with the predictions of genetic essentialism. Psychosocial causal beliefs had differential effects: belief in current stress as a cause was associated with higher acceptance in schizophrenia, while belief in childhood adversities resulted in lower acceptance of a person with depression. Biological causal explanations seem beneficial in alcohol dependence, but harmful in schizophrenia and depression. The negative correlates of believing in childhood adversities as a cause of depression merit further exploration.

  20. The NVL gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Jianhua; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Wen, Zujia; Song, Zhijian; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong

    2015-10-01

    NVL (nuclear VCP (valosin containing protein)/p97-Like), a member of the AAA-ATPase (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) family, encodes a novel hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)-interacting protein NVL2 which is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Previous researches have reported the impacts of telomerase activity on mental illness and the potential association between NVL and major depressive disorder. To validate the susceptibility of NVL to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by NVL for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, we analyzed 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) using TaqMan® technology, in 1045 major depressive disorder patients, 1235 schizophrenia patients and 1235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found that rs10916583 (P(allele) = 0.020, P(genotype) = 0.028, OR = 1.156) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 0.014, P(genotype) = 0.007, OR = 0.718) were associated with major depressive disorder, while rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 1.08E-02, OR = 1.213), rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 7.40E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.07E-05, OR = 0.598) and rs10799541 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.10E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.049, OR= 0.826) showed statistically significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 9.00E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 3.15E-02, OR = 1.187) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.92E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.84E-05, OR = 0.653) remained strongly associated with the analysis of combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Our results indicated that the NVL gene may contain overlapping common genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The roles of NVL in telomerase biogenesis were also highlighted in psychiatric pathogenesis. The study on

  1. Reduced expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in schizophrenia but not in schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, ER; Ahmed, MR; Gurevich, VV; Benovic, JL; Gurevich, EV

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of multiple G protein-mediated signaling pathways are detected in schizophrenia. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins terminate signaling by G protein-coupled receptors exerting powerful influence on receptor functions. Modifications of arrestin and/or GRKs expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. Cortical expression of arrestins and GRKs was measured postmortem in control and subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Additionally, arrestin/GRK expression was determined in elderly patients with schizophrenia and age-matched control. Patients with schizophrenia, but not schizoaffective disorder, displayed reduced concentration of arrestin and GRK mRNAs and GRK3 protein. Arrestins and GRK significantly decreased with age. In elderly patients, GRK6 was reduced, with other GRKs and arrestins unchanged. Reduced cortical concentration of GRKs in schizophrenia (resembling that in aging) may result in altered G protein-dependent signaling, thus contributing to prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia. The data suggest distinct molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PMID:21784156

  2. Brain volume in male patients with recent onset schizophrenia with and without cannabis use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, L.; Machielsen, M.W.; van der Meer, F.J.; van Gasselt, A.C.; Meijer, C.J.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.W.; Caan, M.W.; Cousijn, J.; den Braber, A.; van 't Ent, D.; Rive, M.M.; Schene, A.H.; van de Giessen, E.; Huyser, C.; de Kwaasteniet, B.P.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), and this comorbidity is associated with an unfavourable course. Early onset or frequent cannabis use may influence brain structure. A key question is whether comorbid CUDs modulate brain morphology alterations

  3. Clozapine and obsessions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.; Gorsira, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase or emergence of obsessions was compared in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders taking clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 121 consecutively admitted patients

  4. Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research on the Experience of Being a Partner to an Individual with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura Foran

    2017-03-01

    Several qualitative studies explore the experience of being a partner to an individual with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but these studies remain isolated "islands of knowledge." This meta-ethnography aimed to synthesize current qualitative studies using Noblit and Hare's method. Thirteen studies were identified for inclusion. Three overarching themes were revealed: unmet expectations of relationship, renegotiating relationship roles, and separation versus togetherness. Themes interacted as a cycle with separation versus togetherness as temporal endpoints. Partners also renegotiated relationships with mental health professionals to accommodate unmet expectations. Leverage points for intervention were identified.

  5. Impact of Psychoeducation on Knowledge of and Attitude Toward Medications in Clients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Sung, Byung-Ju; Kang, Youngmi; Yoo, So Yeon

    2016-04-01

    To examine a psychoeducational intervention's effects on knowledge and attitudes toward antipsychotic medication in clients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. A one-group pretest-posttest design was employed. A convenience sample (61 psychiatric clients aged 20 or above) was recruited from a Korean mental health center. At baseline, participants had limited knowledge (M = 50.89, range: 27-77, SD = 12.05) of and negative feelings toward antipsychotic medications (M = -.89, range: -8 to 8, SD = 4.27). Both measures significantly improved post-intervention. A psychoeducational intervention improved clients' knowledge of and attitudes toward antipsychotic medications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Outpatients With Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, Remco; Cohen, Dan; Schulte, Peter F J; Nugter, Annet

    2016-12-01

    Several studies show an association between schizophrenia and low levels of vitamin D. To date, there are only few studies about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency is less common among patients with bipolar disorder than among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A second hypothesis is that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorders than among the general Dutch population.Most studies have been conducted with hospitalized patients; in this study, we only included outpatients. All outpatients of a center for bipolar disorders and all outpatients of 3 flexible assertive community treatment teams were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. We included 118 patients with bipolar disorder and 202 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Vitamin D levels were deficient in 30.3% (95% confidence interval, 25.5-35.6) of the cases. The type of psychiatric disorder was not a predictor of vitamin D deficiency. The absolute difference in risk of deficiency between the study population and the Dutch Caucasian population was 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-29.3%). In this study, vitamin D deficiency was 4.7 times more common among outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder than among the Dutch general population.Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, we believe that outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder should be considered at risk of having low levels of vitamin D. Annual measurement of vitamin D levels in psychiatric outpatients with these disorders seems to be justified to maintain bone health, muscle strength, and to prevent osteoporosis.

  7. Mental disorder diagnoses among children and adolescents who use antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvåg, Ragnar; Hartz, Ingeborg; Bramness, Jørgen G; Hjellvik, Vidar; Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are used increasingly by children and adolescents and there is concern about off-label use. We aimed to study which substances, and for which mental disorder diagnoses, antipsychotic drugs were prescribed to 0-18-year-old boys and girls in Norway. Linked data from the national health registry for prescription drugs in 2010 and mental disorder diagnoses in 2008-2012 were used to study the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use, the type of antipsychotic drug substances used, mental disorder diagnoses in users and distribution of drugs per diagnostic category across gender. In total, 0.18% of Norwegian children and adolescents were prescribed antipsychotic drugs during 2010, of which there were more boys (0.23%) than girls (0.13%). Risperidone was the most frequently used substance among boys (57.4%) and girls (32.3%), followed by aripiprazole (19.4%) in boys and quetiapine (27.4%) in girls. The most common mental disorder diagnoses among male users were hyperkinetic (49.9%) and autism spectrum disorder (27.1%), while anxiety disorders (41.5%) and depressive illness (33.6%) were most common among female users. A schizophrenia-like psychosis diagnosis was given to 11.1% of the male and 18.2% of the female users. A hyperkinetic disorder was diagnosed among 56.9% and 52.4% of the male risperidone and aripiprazole users, respectively. Among female quetiapine users, 57.1% were diagnosed with anxiety disorders and 52.4% with depressive illness. These results demonstrate that children and adolescents who use antipsychotic drugs are predominantly diagnosed with non-psychotic mental disorders such as hyperkinetic disorder among boys and anxiety disorder or depressive illness among girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Rehabilitation to people with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Government Committee on Psychiatry states that recovery-oriented rehabilitation is an important framework and direction in psychiatry. Recovery-oriented rehabilitation means that the intervention is based on best practice. It is also based on four values: self-determination, person inv...... involvement, self-determination/choice and growth potential. A comprehensive national plan of action on how to develop a recovery-oriented rehabilitation to Danish citizens with mental disorders is recommended....

  9. Main features of narrow sociological theories explaining mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.

  10. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  11. Medication adherence levels and differential use of mental-health services in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to antipsychotics for schizophrenia is associated with favorable clinical outcomes. This study compared annual mental-health service utilization by recent medication adherence levels for patients treated for schizophrenia, and assessed whether adherence levels change from pre- to post-psychiatric hospitalization. Methods We analyzed data from a large prospective, non-interventional study of patients treated for schizophrenia in the United States, conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Detailed mental-health resource utilization was systematically abstracted from medical records and augmented with patients' self report. Medication possession ratio (MPR with any antipsychotic in the 6 months prior to enrollment was used to categorize patients as: adherent (MPR ≥ 80%, N = 1758, partially adherent (MPR ≥ 60% Results Adherent patients had a lower rate of psychiatric hospitalization compared with partially adherent and non-adherent patients (p Conclusion Adherence is associated with lower utilization of acute care services and greater engagement in outpatient mental-health treatment. Adherence is a potentially dynamic phenomenon, which may improve, at least temporarily, following patients' psychiatric hospitalizations.

  12. How genes and environmental factors determine the different neurodevelopmental trajectories of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjaha, Arsime; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2012-03-01

    The debate endures as to whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are separate entities or different manifestations of a single underlying pathological process. Here, we argue that this sterile argument obscures the fact that the truth lies somewhere in between. Thus, recent studies support a model whereby, on a background of some shared genetic liability for both disorders, patients with schizophrenia have been subject to additional genetic and/or environmental factors that impair neurodevelopment; for example, copy number variants and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia but not with bipolar disorder. As a result, children destined to develop schizophrenia show an excess of neuromotor delays and cognitive difficulties while those who later develop bipolar disorder perform at least as well as the general population. In keeping with this model, cognitive impairments and brain structural abnormalities are present at first onset of schizophrenia but not in the early stages of bipolar disorder. However, with repeated episodes of illness, cognitive and brain structural abnormalities accumulate in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, thus clouding the picture.

  13. Mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders among street homeless people in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet; Assefa, Dawit; Haile, Kibrom; Chaka, Asrat; Solomon, Haddish; Hagos, Petros; Yohannis, Zegeye; Haile, Kelemua; Bekana, Lulu; Agidew, Melkamu; Demise, Seife; Tsegaye, Belachew; Solomon, Melat

    2017-01-01

    About 25-60% of the homeless population is reported to have some form of mental disorder. To our knowledge, there are no studies aimed at the screening, diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation, and support of homeless people with mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders in general in Ethiopia. This is the first study of its kind in Africa which was aimed at screening, diagnosis, care, treatment, rehabilitation, and support of homeless individuals with possible MNS disorder. Community-based survey was conducted from January to March 2015. Homeless people who had overt and observable psychopathology and positive for screening instruments (SRQ20, ASSIST, and PSQ) were involved in the survey and further assessed for possible diagnosis by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnoses and international diagnostic criteria for seizure disorders for possible involvement in care, treatment, rehabilitation services, support, and training. The Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS version 20) was used for data entry, clearance, and analyses. A total of 456 homeless people were involved in the survey. Majority of the participants were male ( n   =  402; 88.16%). Most of the homeless participants had migrated into Addis Ababa from elsewhere in Ethiopia and Eritrea (62.50%). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders resulted to be common problems in the study participants (92.11%; n   =  420). Most of the participants with mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders (85.29%; n   =  354) had psychotic disorders. Most of those with psychosis had schizophrenia (77.40%; n   =  274). Almost all of the participants had a history of substance use (93.20%; n   =  425) and about one in ten individuals had substance use disorders (10.54%; n   =  48). Most of the participants with substance use disorder had comorbid other mental and neurologic disorders (83.33%; n   =  40). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders are common (92

  14. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  15. Relationship between Mental Health and Burden among Primary Caregivers of Outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Jia; Hu, Jize; Hu, JingChu

    2018-01-24

    There is growing recognition that caring for a patient with schizophrenia often results in high levels of perceived burden and poorer overall mental health for caregivers. A quantitative cross-sectional design and standardized instruments were used to collect data from 355 primary caregivers of adults in outpatient care with schizophrenia in China. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between caregiver burden and mental health among primary caregivers and whether this association is influenced by personality, coping style, and family functioning, based on a diathesis-stress perspective. Goodness-of-fit indices (χ 2 /df = 1.406, GFI = 0.919, CFI = 0.957, etc.) confirmed that the modified model fit the data well. In line with the diathesis-stress model, and with this study's hypotheses, we found that caregiver burden was significantly related to mental health outcomes directly. The final model showed that personality traits, coping style, and family function influenced the relationship between caregiver burden and mental health. The neuroticism personality traits have a direct effect on caregiver burden and family functioning in this sample. Coping style had a direct effect on the caregiver burden, and family functioning had a direct effect on the caregiver burden. Our final model about primary caregivers can be applied clinically to predict mental health outcomes from caregiver burden. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  16. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  17. Facial emotion recognition in paranoid schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share deficits in emotion processing. In order to identify convergent and divergent mechanisms, we investigated facial emotion recognition in SZ, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typically developed controls (TD). Different degrees of task difficulty and emotion complexity (face, eyes; basic emotions, complex emotions) were used. Two Benton tests were implemented in order to elicit potentially confounding visuo-perceptual functioning and facial processing. Nineteen participants with paranoid SZ, 22 with HFASD and 20 TD were included, aged between 14 and 33 years. Individuals with SZ were comparable to TD in all obtained emotion recognition measures, but showed reduced basic visuo-perceptual abilities. The HFASD group was impaired in the recognition of basic and complex emotions compared to both, SZ and TD. When facial identity recognition was adjusted for, group differences remained for the recognition of complex emotions only. Our results suggest that there is a SZ subgroup with predominantly paranoid symptoms that does not show problems in face processing and emotion recognition, but visuo-perceptual impairments. They also confirm the notion of a general facial and emotion recognition deficit in HFASD. No shared emotion recognition deficit was found for paranoid SZ and HFASD, emphasizing the differential cognitive underpinnings of both disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delusional disorder and schizophrenia: a comparative study across multiple domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, V; Cuesta, M J

    2016-10-01

    Delusional disorder (DD) is an under-researched condition and its relationship to schizophrenia (SZ) controversial. This study aimed to further characterize DD and to examine multi-domain evidence for the distinction between DD and SZ. Using univariate analyses we examined 146 subjects with DD, 114 subjects with paranoid SZ and 244 subjects with non-paranoid SZ on 52 characteristics from several domains including demographics, risk factors, premorbid features, illness characteristics, index episode features, delusional-related features, response to treatment and outcome. In a further step, we searched for independent associations of the examined characteristics with DD v. SZ. Univariate analyses showed that DD differed from either form of SZ in 40 characteristics, the pattern of findings indicated that paranoid SZ was much more similar to non-paranoid SZ than DD. Relative to subjects with SZ, those with DD were more likely to have drug abuse before illness onset, better premorbid sexual adjustment, later age at illness onset, higher levels of affective symptoms and lack of insight, poorer response to antipsychotic medication, better functioning in the domains of personal care, paid work and social functioning; last, subjects with DD had fewer but more severe delusions and higher ratings of conviction of delusional experience than those with SZ. Predominance of jealousy and somatic delusions was confined to subjects with DD. DD and SZ represent two distinct classes of disorders, the differential features of DD being of nosological, aetiological and therapeutic relevance.

  19. Pro-health role of optimism among people with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Potempa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many scientific reports indicate that optimism positively affects our psychophysical well-being. The main purpose of the conducted research was to verify whether optimism is a predictor of health-oriented resources also in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, depressive disorders and depressive schizoaffective disorders. The following health-oriented factors were evaluated in the study: health behaviour, life satisfaction, social functioning and coping with stress. Furthermore, we have verified whether there were any differences related to the level of optimism and health-oriented factors between individuals with mental disorders and a control group. Methods: The following tools were used in the study: Optimism Questionnaire, Health-Related Behaviour Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory. Results: Effects of optimism on some of the health-oriented factors were observed in patients with mental disorders as well as in healthy individuals. Significant differences in the level of health-oriented resources between the study population and controls were reported. Conclusions: The study suggests that generalisation of the conclusions regarding healthy population to individuals with mental disorders should be done with caution. Further research is needed to investigate the health behaviour determinants in patients with mental disorders.

  20. Suicidal ideation and attempts among people with severe mental disorder, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duko, Bereket; Ayano, Getinet

    2018-01-01

    People with severe mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide and suicide attempts compared to the general population. In low and middle-income countries, research concerning suicide attempts and completed suicide among people living with severe mental disorder is limited. The objective of this study was to assess suicide and attempts in people with severe mental disorder at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September 2016. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected using systematic random-sampling technique. The composite international diagnostic interview was used to assess suicide that was administered by psychiatry professionals. Substance use disorder was assessed through face-to-face interviews using structured clinical interview of DSM-IV. A total of 542 (272 schizophrenia + 270 bipolar disorder) patients were included in the study. One hundred nineteen (43.75%) of schizophrenic participants and 128 (47.1%) of bipolar participants have suicidal ideation. Fifty-six (20.7%) of schizophrenic participants and 58 (21.3%) of bipolar participants have suicidal attempt. Among the schizophrenic and bipolar patients who had suicidal ideation, 31.8 and 32.60% had co-morbid substance use disorder, respectively. In this study, which was performed in Ethiopia, suicidal ideation and attempt were shown to be common problems in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Co-morbid substance use disorder was a more frequent phenomenon among patients with suicidal ideation and attempt. Attention should be given to screen and assess suicidal ideation and attempt in persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  1. Temperament and personal character relationship with symptoms of schizophrenia disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is limited concerning the role of temperament and character factors on schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that dimensions of temperament and character influence symptoms and functions in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament and character with positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The research sample consisted of 100 men which were randomly selected from schizophrenia patients with positive and negative symptoms at Razi hospital in Tabriz. Temperament and character inventory and positive and negative symptoms scale were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using t-test and discriminate analyses. Results: The research findings showed that patients with schizophrenia with negative symptoms had higher levels of self– transcendence and harm avoidance. However, patients with schizophrenia with positive symptoms had higher levels of cooperativeness. The results of discriminate analysis showed that explained 37 percent of variance of self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness for only function between groups of schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. Discriminate function obtained was classified correctly by stepwise method 68.3 percent schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms.Conclusion: It can be concluded that self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness discriminated the patients with schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. The study confirmed important implications about intensity of symptomology and early intervention for patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. The incidence of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark in the period 2000-2012. A register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Johanne Olivia Grønne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 2000 and 2012. Their history of contacts was traced back to 1969. Broad schizophrenia included schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, persistent delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other nonorganic and unspecified psychotic disorders, (ICD 10 codes F20-F29). Narrow schizophrenia was defined with the ICD 10 codes F20.0-F20.9. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using Poisson regression. The IRR for broad schizophrenia increased by 1.43 (CI 95% 1.34-1.52) for females and 1.26 (CI 95% 1.20-1.33) for males. IRR for narrow schizophrenia increased by 1.36 (CI 95% 1.24-1.48) for females and 1.20 (CI 95% 1.11-1.29) for males. There was a significantly increased incidence in patients up to 32years of age. This was mainly explained by a significant 2-3 fold increase in outpatient incidence. We found a significant decrease in IRR for patients with broad and narrow schizophrenia aged 33 or older for both in- and outpatients. The increased incidence of schizophrenia could partly be explained by better implementation of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in child and adolescent psychiatry and improved access to early intervention services, but a true increase in incidence of schizophrenia cannot be excluded. The decrease of incidence in the older age group could indicate that the national Danish early intervention strategy was successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive and functional deficits in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as a function of the presence and history of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Christopher R; Best, Michael W; Depp, Colin; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Pulver, Ann E; Harvey, Philip D

    2018-05-18

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder overlap considerably. Schizophrenia is a primary psychotic disorder, whereas approximately half of people with bipolar disorder will experience psychosis. In this study, we examined the extent to which cognitive and functional impairments are related to the presence and history of psychosis across the two disorders. A total of 633 participants with bipolar disorder I, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder were recruited for a study on the genetics of cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants were classified into five groups: bipolar disorder with current psychosis (N = 30), bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (N = 162), bipolar disorder with no history of psychosis (N = 92), schizophrenia with current psychosis (N = 245), and schizophrenia with past psychosis (N = 104). Cognitive profiles of all groups were similar in pattern; however, both current psychosis (P bipolar disorder and schizophrenia experienced similar impairments in real-world functioning if they were experiencing current psychosis (P = .32). The presence of active psychosis is an important cross-diagnostic factor in cognition and functioning in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Characterization and treatment of cognition and functional deficits in bipolar disorder should consider the effects of both current and history of psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Kant on mental disorder. Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This paper sets out Kant's anthropological account of mental disorder. I begin with a discussion of the nature of Kant's 'pragmatic anthropology' and the implications of the fact that his discussion of mental disorder takes place in that context. I then set out Kant's taxonomy of the mind and discuss the various disorders affecting the cognitive faculty and the faculties of feeling and desire. I end with a brief discussion of Kant's views on the causes, preventions, and treatments of mental disorder.

  6. Exclusion of close linkage between the synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter locus and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persico, A.M.; Uhl, G.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhe Wu [Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The principal brain synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, thus contributing to determination of the size of releasable neurotransmitter vesicular pools. Potential involvement of VMAT2 gene variants in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders was tested using polymorphic VMAT2 gene markers in 156 subjects from 16 multiplex pedigrees with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, and schizotypal disorders and mood incongruent psychotic depression. Assuming genetic homogeneity, complete ({theta} = 0.0) linkage to the schizophrenia spectrum was excluded under both dominant and recessive models. Allelic variants at the VMAT2 locus do not appear to provide major genetic contributions to the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in these pedigrees. 16 refs.

  7. BrainAGE score indicates accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2017-08-30

    BrainAGE (brain age gap estimation) is a novel morphometric parameter providing a univariate score derived from multivariate voxel-wise analyses. It uses a machine learning approach and can be used to analyse deviation from physiological developmental or aging-related trajectories. Using structural MRI data and BrainAGE quantification of acceleration or deceleration of in individual aging, we analysed data from 45 schizophrenia patients, 22 bipolar I disorder patients (mostly with previous psychotic symptoms / episodes), and 70 healthy controls. We found significantly higher BrainAGE scores in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder patients. Our findings indicate significantly accelerated brain structural aging in schizophrenia. This suggests, that despite the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there might be an additional progressive pathogenic component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A possible new approach to understanding mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, P J

    2012-09-01

    The aetiology of mental disorders is not fully understood. This paper presents an analysis of the conceptual control process exploring the tools of conceptual application and the phases and the mechanism of the control process and seeks to show how the illness states of mental disorder naturally come to occur. Living occurs in a world of change. For living to occur some control is required and to exert control, to provide direction for the conceptual process, some interpretation of significance, some definition of need is also required. Such interpretation, monitoring significance in relation to the many aspects of change, forms the base on which living occurs. Change in human terms is intrinsically insecure and interpretation of significance is an interpretation of security, an interpretation of control in living. Conceptual control is a process applied to maintain security, to maintain a secure base for the interpretation of significance, it is a process applied to produce and hold a sense of control. Powering a process, producing and holding a sense of control, is an active process and so requires some form of energy. Human beings have a sense of that energy, something exhibited in terms such as full of energy, tired, exhausted. As energy is required to power the control process, accompanying the sense of energy is a sense of the ability to provide power, is a sense of the ability to hold and maintain control, is a sense of security. As available energy reduces there is difficulty holding the same sense of control, a person in the same setting comes to feel more insecure. This can result in a person experiencing mental disorder from mild to severe degree. Mild where conceptual process is applied to manage just one or a very few particular needs, severe and more general where the insecurity affects the base of interpretation. In this later case seeking to protect security can lead to mania, mood-incongruent delusions, schizophrenia. Failing ability to protect can

  9. The Global Burden of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world’s disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Method For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. Results In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Conclusion Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the

  10. The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A; Ferrari, Alize J; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world's disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the research necessary to develop better

  11. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo

  12. The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia - a 15 year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse M.; Hesse, Morten; Lykke, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    also significantly more at risk of dying during follow-up than were patients with schizophrenia only. Conclusions The findings suggest that the long-term course of schizophrenia is considerably more severe in patients who have a dual diagnosis compared to patients with schizophrenia only Substance use......; Substance use disorders; Alcohol; Cannabis; Longitudinal; Course of illness; Health services utilization...

  13. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.; Derks, E.M.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of

  14. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family

  15. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall population (6.4% vs....... 1.8%; P disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective...

  16. Management of mental health disorders in HIV-positive patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental Health Guidelines Committee, Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, ... triple diagnosis (HIV/mental disorder/substance use disorder), or mental .... fatigue or loss of energy .... between 20% and 60% of HIV-positive adults suffer from some form ... patients on complex regimens should be reviewed regularly with a.

  17. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  18. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...

  19. GAD2 Alternative Transcripts in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, and in Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey N Davis

    Full Text Available Genetic variation and early adverse environmental events work together to increase risk for schizophrenia. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, plays a major role in normal brain development, and has been strongly implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. GABA synthesis is controlled by two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce a number of alternative transcripts. Genetic variants in the GAD1 gene are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and reduced expression of its major transcript in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. No consistent changes in GAD2 expression have been found in brains from patients with schizophrenia. In this work, with the use of RNA sequencing and PCR technologies, we confirmed and tracked the expression of an alternative truncated transcript of GAD2 (ENST00000428517 in human control DLPFC homogenates across lifespan besides the well-known full length transcript of GAD2. In addition, using quantitative RT-PCR, expression of GAD2 full length and truncated transcripts were measured in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The expression of GAD2 full length transcript is decreased in the DLPFC of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, while GAD2 truncated transcript is increased in bipolar disorder patients but decreased in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, the patients with schizophrenia with completed suicide or positive nicotine exposure showed significantly higher expression of GAD2 full length transcript. Alternative transcripts of GAD2 may be important in the growth and development of GABA-synthesizing neurons as well as abnormal GABA signaling in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders.

  20. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  1. Artistic creativity and risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression: a Swedish population-based case-control study and sib-pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, J H; Sariaslan, A; Almqvist, C; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Kyaga, S

    2018-06-01

    Many studies have addressed the question of whether mental disorder is associated with creativity, but high-quality epidemiological evidence has been lacking.AimsTo test for an association between studying a creative subject at high school or university and later mental disorder. In a case-control study using linked population-based registries in Sweden (N = 4 454 763), we tested for associations between tertiary education in an artistic field and hospital admission with schizophrenia (N = 20 333), bipolar disorder (N = 28 293) or unipolar depression (N = 148 365). Compared with the general population, individuals with an artistic education had increased odds of developing schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI = [1.69; 2.12]) bipolar disorder (odds ratio = 1.62 [1.50; 1.75]) and unipolar depression (odds ratio = 1.39 [1.34; 1.44]. The results remained after adjustment for IQ and other potential confounders. Students of artistic subjects at university are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression in adulthood.Declaration of interestNone.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum bundle and corpus callosum in schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Hoof, Anna; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Güllmar, Daniel

    2017-08-30

    Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls. ANOVA analysis showed significant main effects of group for RD and ADC (both elevated in schizophrenia). Across the corpus callosum ROIs, there was not group effect on FA, but for RD (elevated in schizophrenia, lower in bipolar disorder) and ADC (higher in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder). Our findings show similarities and difference (some gradual) across regions of the two major fibre tracts implicated in these disorders, which would be consistent with a neurobiological overlap of similar clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal

    2018-04-01

    Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.

  4. Neuroanatomical phenotypes in mental illness: identifying convergent and divergent cortical phenotypes across autism, ADHD and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Tae M; Raznahan, Armin; Shaw, Philip; Gogtay, Nitin; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2018-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks. We found cortical anomalies were preferentially enriched across functional networks rather than clustering spatially. Specifically, cortical thickness showed significant enrichment between patients with ASD and those with ADHD in the default mode network, between patients with ASD and those with schizophrenia in the frontoparietal and limbic networks, and between patients with ADHD and those with schizophrenia in the ventral attention network. Networks enriched in cortical thickness anomalies were also strongly represented in functional MRI results (Neurosynth; r = 0.64, p = 0.032). We did not account for variable symptom dimensions and severity in patient populations, and our cross-sectional design prevented longitudinal analyses of developmental trajectories. These findings suggest that common deficits across neuropsychiatric disorders cannot simply be characterized as arising out of local changes in cortical grey matter, but rather as entities of both local and systemic alterations targeting brain networks.

  5. Strange bedfellows: economics, happiness and mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The high economic and social costs associated with the 'common mental disorders', and the need to scale up appropriate care services, are now widely recognized, but responses vary from country to country. In Britain, a current government initiative to promote psychological therapy is driven both by economic pressures and by research on the factors of happiness, or life-satisfaction. This article provides a short critical review of the project. A health policy analysis, with regard to problem definition; objectives; sources of information; criteria for evaluation; impact on existing services, and comparison with alternative strategies. The new programme, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), aims to expand treatment services by training 3,600 'psychological therapists' in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which they will then apply in the wider community. This service, with an initial budget of 173 million pounds sterling, will provide treatment for depression and chronic anxiety from local centres across the country. The programme is intended to pay for itself by reducing incapacity costs. Closer examination, however, raises questions concerning the project's theoretical basis, logistics and research methodology, and casts doubt on its advantages over alternative approaches. The IAPT project is ill-designed to achieve its objectives and unsuitable as a model for treatment and care of the common mental disorders in other countries. An alternative strategy, based on closer integration of community mental health and primary health care, should be tested and on previous experience seems likely to prove more cost-effective.

  6. Mental disorder and victimisation in prison: Examining the role of mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E

    2018-04-01

    There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Psychiatric disorders in child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Moreno, Dolores; de la Serna, Elena; Baeza, Inmaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-10-01

    Early clinical manifestations predating schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) have not been fully characterized. Child offspring studies are a valuable opportunity to study the natural history of the illness from its earliest stages. However, there is limited evidence assessing young offspring of SZ and BP simultaneously. We set out to assess rates of psychiatric disorders in child and adolescent offspring of SZ and BP, relative to offspring of community controls, so as to characterize the early phenotype of the disorders comparatively. SZ and BP parents with offspring aged 7-17years were recruited through adult mental health services of two tertiary hospitals. Community control (CC) parents were recruited from the same geographical area. Ninety BP-offspring, 41 SZ-offspring and 107 CC-offspring were assessed using the K-SADS-PL by child psychiatrists blinded to parental status. Differences in prevalence of psychiatric disorders between groups were adjusted for confounders and for sibling correlation using generalised estimating equations. We found a gradient of clinical severity and social disadvantage between SZ, BP and CC-offspring. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, SZ and BP-offspring presented higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than CC-offspring. ADHD was more prevalent in SZ-offspring than BP-offspring, and BP-offspring presented a higher prevalence of depression than CC-offspring. The higher rates of ADHD in SZ-offspring suggest that abnormal neurodevelopmental processes may exert a stronger influence in SZ than BP. Follow-up of these children will help elucidate the role of ADHD and depression phenotypes in predicting future transition to SZ or BP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychotropic prescribing in seriously violent men with schizophrenia or personality disorder in a UK high security hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Brown, Keir; Naji, Mahmood; Francioni, Alex; Myers, Kyle; Samarendra, Harsh; Mushtaq-Chaudhry, Haseeb; Heslop, Stephen; Sengupta, Samrat; Ross, Callum C; Larkin, Fintan; Das, Mrigendra

    2016-02-01

    To analyze antipsychotic prescribing patterns in a UK high security hospital (HSH) that treats seriously violent men with either schizophrenia or personality disorder and examine how different groups consented to treatment and prescribing for metabolic conditions. We hypothesized that there would be high prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, and high-dose antipsychotic and clozapine prescribing. HSHs treat seriously violent, mentally disordered offenders, and the extant literature on prescribing patterns in forensic settings is sparse. Prescribing and clinical data on all 189 patients in a UK HSH were collected from the hospital's databases. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The population was split into the following groups: schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD-only), personality disorder (PD-only), and comorbid schizophrenia spectrum disorder and PD. The majority (93.7%) of all patients were prescribed at least one antipsychotic, and (27.5%) were on clozapine. Polypharmacy was prevalent in 22.2% and high-dose antipsychotic in 27.5%. Patients on clozapine were more likely to be prescribed antidiabetic, statins, or antihypertensive medication. Patients in the PD-only group were more likely to be deemed to have the capacity to consent to treatment and be prescribed clozapine in contrast to the SSD-only group. Rates of clozapine and high-dose antipsychotic prescribing were higher than in other psychiatric settings, while polypharmacy prescribing rates were lower. Higher clozapine prescribing rates may be a function of a treatment-resistant and aggressive population. A higher proportion of PD-only patients consented to treatment and received clozapine compared with in-house SSD-only as well as other psychiatric settings. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Structural brain alterations associated with schizophrenia preceded by conduct disorder: a common and distinct subtype of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Leygraf, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W; Scherbaum, Norbert; Forsting, Michael; Wiltfang, Jens; Gizewski, Elke R; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 is a precursor of schizophrenia in a minority of cases and is associated with violent behavior through adulthood, after taking account of substance misuse. The present study used structural magnetic imaging to examine gray matter (GM) volumes among 27 men with schizophrenia preceded by CD (SZ+CD), 23 men with schizophrenia but without CD (SZ-CD), 27 men with CD only (CD), and 25 healthy (H) men. The groups with schizophrenia were similar in terms of age of onset and duration of illness, levels of psychotic symptoms, and medication. The 2 groups with CD were similar as to number of CD symptoms, lifelong aggressive behavior, and number of criminal convictions. Men with SZ+CD, relative to those with SZ-CD, displayed (1) increased GM volumes in the hypothalamus, the left putamen, the right cuneus/precuneus, and the right inferior parietal cortex after controlling for age, alcohol, and drug misuse and (2) decreased GM volumes in the inferior frontal region. Men with SZ+CD (relative to the SZ-CD group) and CD (relative to the H group) displayed increased GM volumes of the hypothalamus and the inferior and superior parietal lobes, which were not associated with substance misuse. Aggressive behavior, both prior to age 15 and lifetime tendency, was positively correlated with the GM volume of the hypothalamus. Thus, among males, SZ+CD represents a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Although differences in behavior emerge in childhood and remain stable through adulthood, further research is needed to determine whether the differences in GM volumes result from abnormal neural development distinct from that of other males developing schizophrenia.

  10. Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with

  11. Acculturation, enculturation, and perceptions of mental disorders in Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Asha; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2010-04-01

    One hundred eighteen Asian Indian immigrants completed questionnaires assessing behavioral acculturation, values enculturation, and perceptions of the psychological and medical determinants of case descriptions of major depression and schizophrenia, as well as treatment-seeking recommendations and stigma associated with treatment seeking. Case vignettes depicted symptoms meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for major depression and schizophrenia. Results revealed that responses to male case vignettes elicited lower levels of endorsement of psychological determinants and higher levels of endorsement of biological determinants in comparison to female case vignettes. Moreover, vignette gender moderated the relationship between behavioral acculturation and perceptions of the psychological basis of the disorders depicted in the vignettes. Both vignette gender and type of disorder moderated the relationship between years in the United States and perceptions of biological determinants. The study findings were consistent with traditional gender ideals among Asian Indians. Moreover, behavioral acculturation appeared to moderate traditional conceptions of masculinity toward greater recognition of the psychological bases of mental disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  13. Different psychological effects of cannabis use in adolescents at genetic high risk for schizophrenia and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Chris; Groom, Madeleine J; Das, Debasis; Calton, Tim; Bates, Alan T; Andrews, Hayley K; Jackson, Georgina M; Liddle, Peter F

    2008-10-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether young people at risk for schizophrenia are at increased risk of adverse mental effects of cannabis use. We examined cannabis use and mental health functioning in three groups of young people aged 14-21; 36 non-psychotic siblings of adolescents with schizophrenia (genetic high risk group), 25 adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 72 healthy controls. The groups were sub-divided into 'users' and 'non-users' of cannabis based on how often they had used cannabis previously. Mental health functioning was quantified by creating a composite index derived from scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Global Assessment of Function (GAF). A significant positive association between cannabis use and mental health disturbance was confined to young people at genetic high risk for schizophrenia. To determine whether the relationship was specific to particular dimensions of mental health function, a second composite index was created based on scores from the SPQ Disorganisation and SDQ hyperactivity-inattention sub-scales. Again, there was a significant positive association between cannabis use and factor scores which was specific to the genetic high risk group. There was a trend for this association to be negative in the ADHD group (p=0.07). The findings support the view that young people at genetic high risk for schizophrenia are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems associated with cannabis use. Further research is needed to investigate the basis of relationships between cannabis and mental health in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Piñar, M; Mathur, R; Foguet, Q; Ayis, S; Robson, J; Ayerbe, L

    2016-05-01

    The evidence informing the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with psychiatric disorders is weak. This cohort study used data from all patients, aged≥30, registered in 140 primary care practices (n=524,952) in London to estimate the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco consumption, obesity, and physical inactivity, between 2005 and 2015, for patients with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar or personality disorder. The role of antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation in these associations was also investigat