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Sample records for schizophrenia catatonic

  1. Effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in a patient with comorbid intellectual disability, catatonic schizophrenia, and oneiroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios Demetrios; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Janiri, Delfina; Massolo, Anna Claudia; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Criscuolo, Silvia; Callovini, Gemma; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo; Del Casale, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A patient with comorbid intellectual disability, catatonic schizophrenia, and recurrent oneiroid state of consciousness improved on long-acting risperidone and remains well at the three-year follow-up. We report a case treated with 50 mg long-acting risperidone administered every 14 days, who has been followed-up for three years. We studied his regional cerebral blood flow through technetium-99 m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography after two years of treatment. Symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia improved after two months of treatment, followed suit by oneiroid syndrome remission. Two years later, his brain perfusion was normal. No side effect has occurred since the patient was started on long-acting risperidone. Long-acting risperidone proved to be safe and effective in treating symptoms of catatonia and oneiroid syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Dexamethasone induced psychosis presenting with catatonic features

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on risperidone. She responded favourably to this and was discharged after two weeks on the ward, mentally stable with no evidence of thought disorder or hallucinations. This case demonstrates that dexamethasone can precipitate psychotic symptoms with catatonic features. (catatonic stupor) in previously well individuals.

  3. [Acute catatonic syndrome after neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, G; Jehel, L; Abgrall, G; Pelissolo, A; Allilaire, Jf

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who deve-loped catatonic syndrome a few days after neuroleptic mali-gnant syndrome (NMS), arising the problem of the chronology of both affections. A 20-year old woman with an history of bipolar disorder, experienced an acute manic syndrome that made hospitalization necessary. Fourteen days after loxa-pine prescription, the patient developed a NMS (DSM IV criteria) dyskinesia, dysphagia, fever and alteration of cons-ciousness. Hepatic transaminases and muscular enzymes increased. Neuroleptic was immediately interrupted and benzodiazepines (Lorazepam) was started. Biological parameters were normalized after 7 days, hyperpyrexia decreased and extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared but manic symptoms persisted. Two weeks later, the patient presented nega-tivism, rigidity of the four limb, catalepsia and hyperpyrexia. She also had been anxious for death and presented auditory hallucinations. Bacteriological samples and computed tomography were normal. This catatonic symptoms did not decreased and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was necessary. After six ECT, she started standing up, walking, taking food and speaking. After 12 ECT, the clinical state was the same as it was before the acute episod. The patient was then treated with valproate and lorazepam for anxiety symptoms. Acute catatonie, a rare and life-threatening acute syndrome was described in psychosis before the advent of neuroleptic drugs. It's characterized by hyperexia, stupor alternated with exctement, rigidity. Many etiolologic factors have been reported for this affection: psychogenic, organic or toxic. Neuroletic malignant syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of neuroleptic treatment occuring in about 1% of patients treated with neuroleptic. This syndrome is characterised by consciousness alteration, extrapyramidal symptoms, autonomic and thermic disorders. Similar clinical and biological features in catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) suggest a

  4. Quantitative Motor Activity Differentiates Schizophrenia Subtypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walther, Sebastian; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Koschorke, Philipp; Müller, Thomas J; Strik, Werner

    2009-01-01

    ...: In total, 60 patients with schizophrenia (35 paranoid, 12 catatonic, 13 disorganized) were investigated using continuous wrist actigraphy over 24 h in an inpatient setting on average 38 days after admission...

  5. Catatonic Dilemma in a 33-Year-Old Woman: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. We report a case of catatonia with elevated CK, elevated temperature, and hypoferritinemia after abrupt discontinuation of clozapine in a patient with known proneness to catatonic symptoms. Reinstatement of clozapine therapy was contraindicated due to leukopenia. Neuroleptic malign syndrome could not be ruled out by the administration of quetiapine; this prevented the quick use of other potent D2 antagonists. Some improvement was achieved through supportive therapy, high dose of lorazepam, and a series of 10 ECT sessions. Returning to baseline condition was achieved by a very careful increase of olanzapine. Discussion. Catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia as well as in NMS might be caused by a lack of striatal dopamine (CS or dopamine D2 antagonism (NMS. CS might be a “special” kind of schizophrenia featuring both hypo- and hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission. ECT has been described as a “psychic rectifier” or a “reset for the system.” The desirable effect of ECT in cases of CS might be dopaminergic stimulation in the striatum and decrease of both the dopaminergic activity in the limbic system and the serotonergic activity on 5-HT2 receptors. The desirable effect of ECT in NMS would be explained by activation of dopaminergic transmission and/or liberation of dopaminergic receptors from the causative neuroleptics.

  6. Uso de olanzapina e eletroconvulsoterapia em um paciente com esquizofrenia catatônica refratária e antecedentes de síndrome neuroléptica maligna Olanzapina y ECT en un enfermo con esquizofrenia catatónica refractaria y alto riesgo de síndrome neuroléptico maligno Olanzapine and ECT combined therapy in a refractory catatonic subtype schizophrenia patient with previous neuroleptic malignant syndrome episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes de Alvarenga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a história clínica e o manejo de um paciente masculino adulto com esquizofrenia catatônica refratária a dois neurolépticos típicos (haloperidol e clorpromazina e a outro agente atípico (risperidona, e com antecedente de dois episódios de síndrome neuroléptica maligna em vigência de neurolépticos típicos. Os autores optaram pela associação de eletroconvulsoterapia (ECT e olanzapina (7,5 mg. Foram obtidos consideráveis benefícios para o paciente.Presentamos un relato clínico referente a la historia precedente y al desarrollo de un enfermo varón con esquizofrenia catatónica refractaria a los neurolépticos convencionales (clorpromazina y haloperidol y a otro agente de nueva generación (risperidona. El enfermo presentó, en dos ocasiones, síndrome neuroléptico maligno, provocado por el uso de los neurolépticos convencionales. Los autores emplearon ECT y olanzapina (7,5 mg obteniendo considerable éxito clínico.This article describes the clinical history and management of an adult male patient with refractory catatonic schizophrenia to two typically used neurolpetic medications (haloperidol and chlorpromazine and to another atypical agent (risperidone.The patient had also presented two neuroleptic malignant syndrome episodes due to typical neuroleptic agents. The authors combined ECT and olanzapine (7.5 mg as treatment, and a considerable clinical improvement was obtained.

  7. Prevalence of the catatonic syndrome in an acute inpatient sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella eStuivenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this exploratory open label study we investigated the prevalence of catatonia in an acute psychiatric inpatient population. In addition, differences in symptom presentation of catatonia depending on the underlying psychiatric illness were investigated.METHODS: 130 patients were assessed with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS. A factor analysis was conducted in order to generate 6 catatonic symptom clusters. Composite scores based on this principal component analysis were calculated. RESULTS: When focusing on the first 14 items of the BFCRS, 101 patients (77.7% had at least 1 symptom scoring 1 or higher, whereas 66 patients (50.8% had at least 2 symptoms. Interestingly, when focusing on the DSM-5 criteria of catatonia, 22 patients (16.9% could be considered for this diagnosis. Furthermore, different symptom profiles were found, depending on the underlying psychopathology. Psychotic symptomatology correlated strongly with excitement symptomatology (r=.528,p<.001 and to a lesser degree with the stereotypy/mannerisms symptom cluster (r=.289; p=.001 and the echo/perseveration symptom cluster (r=.185;p=.035. Similarly, manic symptomatology correlated strongly with the excitement symptom cluster (r=.596;p<.001 and to a lesser extent with the stereotypy/mannerisms symptom cluster (r=.277;p=.001.CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of catatonic symptomatology. Depending on the criteria being used, we noticed an important difference in exact prevalence, which makes it clear that we need clear-cut criteria. Another important finding is the fact that the catatonic presentation may vary depending on the underlying pathology, although an unambiguous delineation between these catatonic presentations cannot be made. Future research is needed to determine diagnostical criteria of catatonia which are clinically

  8. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in catatonic patients: Efficacy and predictors of response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Federica; Medda, Pierpaolo; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Mauri, Mauro; Toni, Cristina; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-06-22

    Recent evidence favors the view of catatonia as an autonomous syndrome, frequently associated with mood disorders, but also observed in neurological, neurodevelopmental, physical and toxic conditions. From our systematic literature review, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results effective in all forms of catatonia, even after pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has failed. Response rate ranges from 80% to 100% and results superior to those of any other therapy in psychiatry. ECT should be considered first-line treatment in patients with malignant catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, delirious mania or severe catatonic excitement, and in general in all catatonic patients that are refractory or partially responsive to benzodiazepines. Early intervention with ECT is encouraged to avoid undue deterioration of the patient's medical condition. Little is known about the long-term treatment outcomes following administration of ECT for catatonia. The presence of a concomitant chronic neurologic disease or extrapyramidal deficit seems to be related to ECT non-response. On the contrary, the presence of acute, severe and psychotic mood disorder is associated with good response. Severe psychotic features in responders may be related with a prominent GABAergic mediated deficit in orbitofrontal cortex, whereas non-responders may be characterized by a prevalent dopaminergic mediated extrapyramidal deficit. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ECT is more effective in "top-down" variant of catatonia, in which the psychomotor syndrome may be sustained by a dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex, than in "bottom-up" variant, in which an extrapyramidal dysregulation may be prevalent. Future research should focus on ECT response in different subtype of catatonia and on efficacy of maintenance ECT in long-term prevention of recurrent catatonia. Further research on mechanism of action of ECT in catatonia may also contribute to the development of other

  10. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people with schizophrenia. Behavioral techniques, such as social skills training, can help the person function better in social and work situations. Job training and relationship-building ...

  11. Self-harm by severe glossal injury in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S.; Pardal, P. K.; Diwakar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-mutilation, the deliberate destruction occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders.Many methods of self-destructive behavior have been described in literature. Patients of schizophrenia are known to attempt self-harm due to command hallucination, catatonic excitement or because of associated depression, however severe glossal injury by biting has not been reported so far.Authors report case of self-harm of glossal injury by biting in schizophrenia. Treatment and management issues are discussed. PMID:23271870

  12. 'Myxoedema madness' with Capgras syndrome and catatonic features responsive to combination olanzapine and levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlykov, Maksim A; Rath, Swapnil; Badger, Alison; Winder, Gerald Scott

    2016-09-09

    We present the case of an elderly woman with hypothyroidism and no psychiatric history who presented with new onset of psychosis, paranoia, catatonic features and Capgras syndrome (CS). This case illustrates the spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms that may accompany hypothyroidism and the importance of considering thyroid dysfunction as a primary contributor to severe psychiatric symptoms, especially in previously stable patients. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combination levothyroxine and olanzapine, with its favourable cardiac profile, in the treatment of myxoedema madness. Antipsychotics can be weaned once psychiatric symptoms resolve and hormone levels are stabilised. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Isolated Positive Psychotic and Catatonic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpit; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressing neurological illness. Although patients with SSPE initially present with symptoms such as myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and personality/behavioral changes usually, rarely pure psychiatric symptoms (e.g., mania, psychosis, and catatonia) have also been reported during the initial course of the illness. We report an unusual case of an adolescent with SSPE presenting with prominent positive psychotic and catatonic symptoms with the absence of classical symptoms of SSPE in initial course of illness and further discussed the relevant literature.

  14. The nature and prevalence of catatonic symptoms in young people with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J; Hare, D J

    2017-06-01

    A proportion of young people with autism are reported to show catatonic-like symptoms in adolescence. The aetiology and prevalence of such presentations is unknown but include a set of behaviours that can best be described as attenuated. The current study empirically investigated the presence and nature of such attenuated behaviours in children and adolescents with autism using a newly developed 34-item third party report measure, the Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire. Caregivers or parents of young people with autism reported on the presentation of symptoms via the online completion of the Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire and two established clinical measures of repetitive behaviour and depression. Initial results indicate that the Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire is a workable clinical measure in this population with a degree of discriminant validity with regard to catatonia. Attenuated behaviour indicative of catatonia was relatively common in young people with autism with up to 20.2% having an existing diagnosis of catatonia and evidence of a relationship between attenuated behaviours and measures of depression and repetitive and restricted behaviours. Catatonic symptoms are more prevalent in young people with autism than previously thought, and the Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has potential as a clinical and research tool. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-harm by severe glossal injury in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilation, the deliberate destruction occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders.Many methods of self-destructive behavior have been described in literature. Patients of schizophrenia are known to attempt self-harm due to command hallucination, catatonic excitement or because of associated depression, however severe glossal injury by biting has not been reported so far.Authors report case of self-harm of glossal injury by biting in schizophrenia.Treatment and management issues are discussed.

  16. [Descriptive approach to latent forms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, B; Bougerol, T; Cura, B; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Scotto, J C

    1994-01-01

    The computerized medical file, used in routine work in an Adult Psychiatry University-Hospital Unit enabled us to select 113 cases among 1,000 consecutive hospitalizations, the diagnosis of which could possibly lead to schizophrenia. These cases which we named "paraschizophrenic states" are linked to DSM III-R criteria of borderline (27 cases), schizoid (40 cases) or schizotypical (15 cases) personalities, schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble (17 cases), brief reactional psychosis (14 cases). We selected 196 cases of schizophrenia in the same cohort of hospitalized patients. As it is now usually admitted, we marked out two subgroups in this second group: the positive schizophrenia which gather together the paranoid and undifferentiated patterns and the negative schizophrenia which correspond to disorganized, catatonic and residual models, according to DSM III-R criterion. We compared the "paraschizophrenic states'" group and its five subgroups (we indeed joined schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble under the name of "other psychotic trouble" by reason of their relative nosographic lacks of precision and of their too small sizes) with the schizophrenia's group and its two subgroups. Each group is matched for sex (1.51 men for 1 woman in the first group and 1.45 men for 1 woman in the second group). We evaluated statistics for markers usually studied in schizophrenia in each subgroup. These markers are of three classes: biographical: age during the study, age of troubles' onset, season of birth; socioeconomic: socioeconomic level of family and patient's student status; psychiatric: family (history affective trouble, psychotic trouble, alcoholism), treatment response and short- and middle-term prognosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  18. Neurological Soft Signs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Standardised Assessment and Comparison with Schizophrenia

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    D. Bolton

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have detected raised levels of neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, the specificity of these abnormalities remains uncertain. This study used a new standardised measure, the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI, to assess soft signs in 51 subjects with OCD. Comparison was made with data on patients with schizophrenia and a non-clinical control group from a previously reported study. Individuals with OCD showed raised levels of soft signs compared with non-clinical controls in many categories of the CNI: Motor Coordination, Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes, Extrapyramidal Signs, and Failure of Suppression. Compared with patients with schizophrenia, the OCD group had lower levels of neurological signs in some CNI categories: Hard Signs, Motor Co-ordination, Tardive Dyskinesia, Catatonic Signs, and Extrapyramidal Signs. However, levels of soft signs in the OCD group did not significantly differ from those in the schizophrenia group in other CNI categories: Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes and Failure of Suppression. The significance of these patterns of findings is discussed.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  20. Is schizophrenia disappearing? The rise and fall of the diagnosis of functional psychoses: an essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsholm, Per

    2016-11-09

    The categories of functional psychoses build on views of influential professionals. There have long been four main categories - affective, schizophrenic, schizoaffective/cycloid/reactive/polymorphic, and delusional/paranoid psychoses. The last three are included in "psychotic disorders". However, this dichotomy and the distinctions between categories may have been over-estimated and contributed to lack of progress. 1. The categories of functional psychoses have varied with time, place and professionals' views, with moving boundaries, especially between schizophrenia and affective psychoses. 2. Catatonia is most often related to affective and organic psychoses, and paranoia is related to grandiosity and guilt, calling in question catatonic and paranoid schizophrenia. Arguments exist for schizophrenia being a "misdiagnosis". 3. In some countries schizophrenia has been renamed, with positive consequences. 4. The doctrine of "unitary psychosis", which included abnormal affect, was left in the second half of the 1800s. 5. This was followed by a dichotomy between schizophrenia and affective psychoses and broadening of the schizophrenia concept, whereas affective symptoms were strongly downgraded. 6. Many homogeneous psychoses with mixtures of schizophrenic and affective symptoms were described and related to "psychotic disorders", although they might as well be affective disorders. 7. Critique of the extensive schizophrenia concept led to, in DSM-III and ICD-10, affective symptoms being exclusion criteria for schizophrenia and acceptance of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in affective psychoses. 8. However, affective symptoms are often difficult to acknowledge, diagnosis is often done on the basis of tradition and previous education, and patients' affect characterized accordingly. 9. DSM-5 is up-dated with separate chapters for catatonia and psychotic symptoms, and removal of the subtypes of schizophrenia. However, time may be running out for categorical psychosis

  1. A study of the possible association of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism with susceptibility to schizophrenia and in its subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, C; Ozdemir Koroglu, Z; Kurt, H; Yanas, M; Colak, E; Degirmenci, I; Gunes, H V

    2017-02-01

    Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system may occur at the level of plasminogen activation, mainly by PAI-1. Mental and physical stress caused to alterations of platelet function, and also decreased to fibrinolytic activity. Furthermore, stress-induced thrombosis regulation was proposed to be by PAI-1 in schizophrenia patients. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism in different Turkish clinical schizophrenia subtypes was investigated for its role in schizophrenia development. The clinical schizophrenia subtypes include paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated and residual, as diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition IV (DSM-IV). Samples of genomic DNA (250 total, including 150 schizophrenia patients and 100 healthy subjects) were analysed. PAI-1 4G/5G genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-allele-specific amplification. PCR products were separated by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis and then visualized. The genotype distributions (P = 0·136) and allele frequencies (P = 0·721 for 4G, P = 0. 097 for 5G) were not significantly different between patients with schizophrenia and control subjects for the 4G/5G polymorphism. Similar results were also found for the genotype distributions (P = 0·640) and allele frequencies (P = 0·763 for 4G, P = 0·448 for 5G) in the clinical schizophrenia subtypes compared to the each other. We conclude that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was not significantly associated with schizophrenia or its subtypes in the Turkish population. However, we recognize that with our sample sizes, we cannot exclude weak associations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  3. May Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level Be a Useful Tool for Assessment of the Severity of Schizophrenia and Evaluation of Therapy? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Ieda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies suggested dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in schizophrenia patients, but the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has been considered a useful tool for evaluating ANS, especially the sympathoadrenal medullary system. Furthermore, there was a report that patients with schizophrenia showed much higher sAA level than normal controls. Methods. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia. She needed the treatment of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. We evaluated her sAA level and her psychiatric symptoms during the treatment. Results. Before ECT treatment, she showed high sAA level. Her sAA level decreased during the course of ECT, and this attenuation was accompanied by improvement of schizophrenic symptoms. Conclusion. We consider that measurement of the sAA level may be one of the useful biological markers for assessment of psychotic state and efficacy of treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic

  5. The etiology of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gejman, Pablo V; Sanders, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in recent years represents a new dawn of knowledge for the risk factors of schizophrenia, and genome-wide approaches have revolutionized the field of genetic mapping of schizophrenia...

  6. Schizophrenia - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - English MP4 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  7. Special Report: Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Loren R.; Feinsilver, David

    The review and analysis of the current status of knowledge about schizophrenia and its treatment begins with a brief review of some statistics on mental health, the National Institute of Mental Health's grants program in schizophrenia, an NIMH-sponsored international conference on Schizophrenia - the Implications of Research Findings for Treatment…

  8. Overview of Childhood Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    Childhood schizophrenia is a rare but serious disorder with complex symptoms that affect children and their families. Childhood schizophrenia was once the term applied for all childhood psychoses, including autism and mood disorders, but more recently researchers have distinguished childhood schizophrenia from other disorders. There are differing…

  9. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  10. [A rare and not very studied disorder: childhood-onset schizophrenia. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D; de Chouly de Lenclave, M B

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia is rare: its prevalence is about 50 times lower than the one observed in adulthood. It is also frequently unrecognized, notably because its clinical aspect varies with age. The authors report the case of a prepubertal girl who developed a typical clinical picture of schizophrenia (paranoid subtype) by age 9. The patient was 10 years old when she was hospitalized for a relapse of a suspected childhood-onset schizophrenia. Several significant mental disorders were found in her family history: her mother was treated for mood disorders (including dysthymia and major depression with postpartum onset), while her father and a aunt exhibited schizophrenic disorders. In addition, prenatal and perinatal events (including probable prenatal maternal infection and obstetric complications) were reported by her mother. Demonstrable impairments were already present in her premorbid development: from the age of 3.5, she showed significant manifestations of behavioural inhibition and separation anxiety, severe difficulties in social adaptation, and language abnormalities (qualified by her general practitioner as selective mutism). At the age of 9, when her mother was hospitalized for a diabetes mellitus, she suddenly showed auditory and visual hallucinations associated with delusions. Their content included filiation, somatic, and persecutory themes. Grossly disorganized behaviour (and more particularly catatonic motor behaviours including catatonic rigidity and negativism and bizarre postures) was also observed. Negative symptoms (eg anhedonia, affective flattening, and alogia) were noted. Her IQ scores were 74 in the verbal subtests and 53 in the performance subtests. Because the diagnostic of childhood-onset schizophrenia was suspected, a neuroleptic treatment, haloperidol 3 mg/day, was tried. After a partial remission during a few months period (characterized by a decrease in delusions, anxiety and sleep difficulties), she showed a relapse leading

  11. Dopamine, psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesby, J P; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

    2018-01-01

    The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic...... dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function...... in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed. Furthermore, subjects deemed at high risk of developing schizophrenia show similar presynaptic dopamine abnormalities in the associative striatum. Thus, our view of subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia continues to evolve...

  12. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  13. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  14. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic episodes, patients frequently have negative symptoms: they become apathic, loose interest in hobbies and friends and lack energy. The cause of schizophrenia is not clear, though several theories have been...

  15. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Michael F.; Leitman, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke’s...

  16. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...

  17. The Danish schizophrenia registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  18. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  19. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  20. Schizophrenia and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Akarsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors play an important role in the development of schizophrenia that the etiology is clearly not known. However, specific inheritance mechanism of this disorder is still unclear. Inheritance of schizophrenia is thought to be polygenic or multifactorial. In the recent studies, mitochondrial function and cerebral energy metabolism abnormalities have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits and behavioral abnormalities evident as typically found in the clinical course of schizophrenia may develop due to the affection of neuronal plasticity and brain circuits by impaired function of mitochondria. Some changes were found in patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects in the researches examining both brain and peripheral tissues. Also, it was seen that antipsychotics used in the treatment of schizophrenia might lead to a progressive reduction in oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria by inhibition of respiratory chain. Especially the findings of the peripheral tissues in patients with schizophrenia were considered to be used as a biological marker for schizophrenia in these studies. Changes in the mitochondria of platelets are considered as a peripheral model for the neurons because of the lack of the platelets' own DNA. These changes reflect the findings of the brain in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. At the present time, making the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on only clinical criteria reveal the necessity of finding peripheral biological marker for schizophrenia. Thus further systematic studies investigating the relationship between schizophrenia and changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain are required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 340-354

  1. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential diagnosis of depressed mood in schizophrenia; a diagnostic algorithm based on review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;. 106: 83-96. 8. Andersen SW, Trana PV. The course of depressive symptoms in predicting relapse in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized comparison of olanzapine and risperidone.

  2. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  4. Biological perspectives of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmchen, H.; Henn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: The Middle Game in the Genetics of Schizophrenia; Genetics as an Approach to Etiology Group Report; The Contribution of Genetic Research to Diagnostic Issues in Schizophrenia; and Genetic Aspects of Neurotransmitter Metabolism in Schizoprhenia.

  5. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors which bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2. This endocannabinoid system is disturbed in schizophrenia. Indeed, there seems to be an association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms of the CB1 receptor gene. Moreover, CB1 receptors are found in higher density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia of patients with schizophrenia. Similarly, anandamide levels are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in the serum of schizophrenia patients, including during the prodromal state, suggesting that they may play a protective role in psychosis homeostasis. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  7. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features...... of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations...... in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology...

  8. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  9. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  10. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Nikolac Perkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  11. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide. PMID:28358316

  12. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Strac, Dubravka Svob; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-03-30

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, schizophrenia was considered to be a severe psychiatric disorder, with a chronic course and an unfavorable outcome. Throughout history, there has been incidence of schizophrenia, roughly one percent of the population, consistently, in every culture. It is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia has multifactorial etiology, with multiple susceptibility genes interacting with environmental insults to yield a range of phenotypes in the schizophrenia spectrum. The discovery of antipsychotics in the 1950s revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia and focused on the positive symptoms. By the 1960s, however, it became evident that the reduction in positive symptoms did not lead to recovery from schizophrenia and did not significantly improve the functional outcome. The advent of the novel antipsychotics during the last 15 years represents a significant improvement over the effectiveness of conventional antipsychotics. These agents are, however, not a magic bullet and bear their own side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, and QTc prolongation. Nevertheless, at this point, they seem to be more effective and safer than the conventional antipsychotics. Moreover, advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been and continue to be urgently needed.

  14. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  15. Iloperidone for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2010-08-01

    No existing antipsychotic adequately controls all symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Also, no antipsychotic adequately benefits most patients with this disorder. Finally, the safety and tolerability of each antipsychotic frequently dictate the choice of agent. The mechanism of action of iloperidone, its efficacy and its safety and tolerability when used to treat patients with schizophrenia. An appreciation of the potential advantages and disadvantages of iloperidone when used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is a recent addition to the current group of second-generation antipsychotics. While it may share many qualities with other agents in this class, its unique neuroreceptor signature and adverse-effect profile may prove beneficial in clinical practice.

  16. Electrophysiological Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily; Bachman, Peter; Glahn, David C; Bearden, Carrie E

    2016-01-01

    Endophenotypes are quantitative, heritable traits that may help to elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying complex disease syndromes, such as schizophrenia. They can be assessed at numerous levels of analysis; here, we review electrophysiological endophenotypes that have shown promise in helping us understand schizophrenia from a more mechanistic point of view. For each endophenotype, we describe typical experimental procedures, reliability, heritability, and reported gene and neurobiological associations. We discuss recent findings regarding the genetic architecture of specific electrophysiological endophenotypes, as well as converging evidence from EEG studies implicating disrupted balance of glutamatergic signaling and GABA-ergic inhibition in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We conclude that refining the measurement of electrophysiological endophenotypes, expanding genetic association studies, and integrating datasets are important next steps for understanding the mechanisms that connect identified genetic risk loci for schizophrenia to the disease phenotype. PMID:26954597

  17. Ophthalmology issues in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophrenia patients frequently describe in detail symptoms of a disturbance in various aspects of visual perception that may lead to worse clinical symptoms and decrease in quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the various studies that have explored the visual issues in schizophrenia.

  18. Affect Regulation in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hempel (Roelie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a serious mental disease, characterised by psychosis (delusions and hallucinations), apathy (a lack of motivation), social withdrawal, and cognitive impairment, which result in impaired functioning in different areas, such as work, school, independent living, and

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  20. Ophthalmology Issues in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophreni...

  1. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  3. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  4. Physical disease and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A E

    1988-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated about the existence of a relationship between physical disease and schizophrenia. Psychodynamic and life-stress theories offer opposing predictions about the nature of this relationship. Unfortunately, the empirical research on this topic is often contradictory and frequently plagued by various methodological inadequacies. Despite the theoretical controversy and methodological problems, the present review of the empirical literature suggests that patients with schizophrenia may be at increased risk for breast cancer and possibly for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia seem to be at reduced risk for developing either rheumatoid arthritis or lung cancer. The epidemiological investigations are worth pursuing since the convincing demonstration of a relationship between schizophrenia and a particular physical disease would yield valuable information about the pathogenesis of both disorders. Future research on this topic will need to consider the possible mediating effects of third variables, such as smoking habits, which may be associated with schizophrenia and which also are, independently, recognized as risk factors for particular physical disorders.

  5. Sex steroids and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Julie A

    2012-09-01

    The peak in incidence for schizophrenia is during late adolescence for both sexes, but within this time frame the peak is both earlier and steeper for males. Additionally, women have a second peak in incidence following menopause. Two meta-analyses have reported that men have an overall ∼40% greater chance of developing schizophrenia than do women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2004). These and other findings have led to the suggestion that ovarian hormones may be protective against schizophrenia. Less explored is the potential role of testosterone in schizophrenia, although disruptions in steroid levels have also been reported in men with the illness. The relationship between increased gonadal hormone release per se and peri-adolescent vulnerability for psychiatric illness is difficult to tease apart from other potentially contributory factors in clinical studies, as adolescence is a turbulent period characterized by many social and biological changes. Despite the obvious opportunity provided by animal research, surprisingly little basic science effort has been devoted to this important issue. On the other hand, the animal work offers an understanding of the many ways in which gonadal steroids exert a powerful impact on the brain, both shaping its development and modifying its function during adulthood. Recently, investigators using preclinical models have described a greater male vulnerability to neurodevelopmental insults that are associated with schizophrenia; such studies may provide clinically relevant insights into the role of gonadal steroids in psychiatric illness.

  6. The neuroproteomics of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    English, Jane A

    2011-01-15

    Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.

  7. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. On incomprehensibility in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the supposedly incomprehensibility of schizophrenic delusions. According to the contemporary classificatory systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10), some delusions typically found in schizophrenia are considered bizarre and incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to discuss...... the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that the notion...... in the light of solipsism. Finally, I discuss the phenomenological conception of schizophrenia, which conceives delusion formation as resulting from alterations of the structure of experiencing and from underlying self-disorders. I argue that although a psychological understanding that seeks to grasp meaning...

  9. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  10. [Schizophrenia or Asperger syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Viellard, Marine; Fakra, Eric; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine; Poinso, François

    2008-09-01

    Patients with Asperger syndrome are often diagnosed late or are wrongly considered to have schizophrenia. Misdiagnosing Asperger syndrome creates serious problems by preventing effective therapy. Several clinical signs described in Asperger syndrome could also be considered as clinical signs of schizophrenia, including impaired social interactions, disabilities in communication, restricted interests, and delusions of persecution. A number of clinical features may facilitate the differential diagnosis: younger age at onset, family history of pervasive developmental disorder, recurring conversations on the same topic, pragmatic aspects of language use, oddities of intonation and pitch, lack of imagination, and incomprehension of social rules are more characteristic of Asperger syndrome. Accurate distinction between Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia would make it possible to offer more treatment appropriate to the patient's functioning.

  11. The application of bifrontal electrotherapy in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia – case series description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Nowakowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrotherapy is considered a very effective and safe therapeutic method. Its most frequently described adverse effect is the impairment of cognitive functions. Currently, the most commonly applied form of electrotherapy are bitemporal procedures and the most frequent and best-studied indication for its application are depressive disorders. A method combining high effectiveness with satisfactory safety is the bifrontal application of the electrodes, although study results are often inconsistent. An issue which should also be noted is the lack of studies comparing the effectiveness of bifrontal and bitemporal procedures in the reduction of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and assessing the safety of these methods in terms of the influence on cognitive functions. The present paper presents a clinical description of four patients with schizophrenia who have undergone electrotherapy procedures performed applying the bifrontal method. The decisive indication for applying the bifrontal procedures were the memory disturbances the persistence of which was reported by the patients during the application of bitemporal procedures. The analysed clinical cases indicate the effectiveness of the bifrontal electrotherapy procedures which was comparable with the effectiveness of bitemporal procedures with the simultaneous better toleration of the former. Improvement was observed in terms of paranoid, catatonic and negative schizophrenia symptoms. At the same time the patients reported subjectively better tolerance of the procedures, as well as improvement in the recalling of facts and events.

  12. Mysticism and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2016-01-01

    Mysticism and schizophrenia are different categories of human existence and experience. Nonetheless, they exhibit important phenomenological affinities, which, however, remain largely unaddressed. In this study, we explore structural analogies between key features of mysticism and major clinical......-phenomenological aspects of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders-i.e. attitudes, the nature of experience, and the 'other', mystical or psychotic reality. Not only do these features gravitate around the issue of the basic dimensions of consciousness, they crucially seem to implicate and presuppose a specific alteration...

  13. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  14. Glutamatergic System and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It has a role several cognitive functions including learning, memory and perception. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is also involved in regulating neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and the pruning neurons. Glutamatergic exci-totoxicity has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and ketamine can cause both the positive and negative symptoms psychotic symptoms in normal humans, and worsen these symptoms in persons with schizophrenia. Hence, it has been hypotesized that schizophrenia may be associated with decreased NMDA-receptor activity. According to the hypothesis, NMDA reseptor hypofunction can lead to decreased inhibition of glutamatergic neurons and excessive glutamate release. Finally, the reduction of gray matter in several brain regions seen in patients with schizophrenia has been suggested to be the result of neurotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 394-405

  15. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  16. [Mixed states and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder, incorporating a wide range of symptoms that may occur at certain stages of the disease. The core symptoms can largely be divided into positive symptoms, e.g. hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms, e.g. apathia and emotional flattening.

  18. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baandrup L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1 Charlotte Cerqueira,2 Lea Haller,3 Lene Korshøj,3 Inge Voldsgaard,4 Merete Nordentoft5 1Centre for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR and Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 3The Danish Clinical Registries, Registry Support Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-West, Aarhus, 4Psychosis Ward, Section P, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research.Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients.Main variables: The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning.Descriptive data: The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may

  19. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  20. Is there an autoimmune basis for schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of schizophrenia still remains a mystery. Schizophrenia with coexistence of myasthenia gravis in the same patient raises the suspicion of autoimmune mechanisms involved in causation of schizophrenia.

  1. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described.......This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  2. [Schizophrenia and pain reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Medical practitioners do not for a long time pay enough attention to patient's pain. This approach is in the line of society feelings. Pain was long consider to be a contingency to withstand as showed in Christian's bible or Stoicism's principle. Changes in mentality appear in present times. It Seems obvious that for sociological and scientific reasons pain's care in medical and psychiatric disorders is now an important subject. Recent research in autistic disorders suggest that insensitivity observed in autism is not and analgesic phenomenon but a different behavioural reactivity to pain. Prevalence of schizophrenic disorder is from 0.5 to 1%. It is also a complex disorder that has defied decades of concerted efforts to uncover its origins and attenuate its symptoms. The most promising hypotheses suggest that neurodevelopmental impairment increases the risk of later schizophrenia. Most of recent researches in this topic did focus to trait or state markers. According to the vulnerability models of schizophrenia, trait marker are clinical, psychological, physiological, anatomical or cognitive impairments found in patients with schizophrenia during all the course of the illness and even before the onset. Several lines of evidence (case report, epidemiological studies, experimental studies) suggest that patients with schizophrenia shows a relative insensitivity to physical pain. We will review and critic the scientific literature in this specific topic. We will see if datas are relevant with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and vulnerability models. An OLDMEDLINE/MEDLINE query was performed to identify 50 articles relevant to our subject. 9 were case report or case series, 21 were clinical or epidemiological studies, 15 were experimental studies and we also found 5 previous review. Clinical and experimental data strongly suggest a decrease of Behavioural Reactivity to Pain (BRP) but there is a lack of argument to prove a real analgesia. Because schizophrenia is a

  3. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2014-10-14

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations. Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, 12 August 2013, which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PUBMED and PsycINFO.We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomised controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed:1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia;2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and for continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. We excluded data if loss to follow-up was greater than 50%. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified eight randomised trials, involving 530 participants, which met our selection criteria.For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction

  4. Episodic foresight and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Amanda D; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Robinson, Gail; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    People with schizophrenia have difficulty engaging in specific future-directed thoughts and behaviours, such as generating phenomenological characteristics of future events (a component of episodic foresight), and executing directed preparatory behaviours (a component of prospective memory). However, it remains unclear whether they also exhibit difficulties using episodic foresight to appropriately guide future-directed behaviours. People with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls were administered a behavioural measure that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight. In keeping with our focus on the functional application of foresight, this measure required participants to identify a problem, self-generate a resolution, and execute the appropriate future-directed intention. Relative to controls, people with schizophrenia were less likely to spontaneously acquire items that would later allow a problem to be solved, and were also less likely to subsequently use these items to solve the problems. There was no interaction between group and task, indicating that these two components of foresight were disrupted to an equivalent degree. In the clinical (but not the control) group, item acquisition and item use were correlated with general cognitive capacity. No significant associations with clinical variables emerged. The capacity to apply episodic foresight in a functionally adaptive way is disrupted in schizophrenia and may at least partially reflect broader cognitive dysfunction. Future work is now needed to clarify the implications of these difficulties in everyday life, as well as how these difficulties might be remediated. People with schizophrenia have known difficulties with episodic foresight, and it now appears that those difficulties extend to the performance of foresightful preparatory behaviours. Because preparatory behaviours are central to routine and adaptive planning, difficulties with episodic foresight may contribute to or be a result of

  5. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of

  6. [Schizophrenia in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Küppers, M

    1979-02-01

    After considerable controversies during the last decades there is no longer any doubt about childhood schizophrenia as a disease, although within German-speaking countries its somewhat wider definition like in Anglo-Saxon child- and adolescent psychiatry is not accepted. The relation of early childhood autism to the nosologic entity of schizophrenia still remains speculative. The etiology of childhood schizophrenia is not known, equally not that of the even less frequent manic-depressive disease. Symptoms, course, and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia which developes between preschool age and the begin of puberty are described in detail.

  7. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  8. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  9. Dexamethasone induced psychosis presenting with catatonic features

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    corticosteroids, there are however, few reported cases of catatonia due to steroids. A literature search revealed very few articles written on catatonia due to steroids. We report a case of apparent dexamethasone induced psychosis presenting with features of catatonia. B.O, a 20year old female undergraduate in Nigeria, was.

  10. Dexamethasone induced psychosis presenting with catatonic features

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disorders, delirium and anxiety disorders due to use of corticosteroids, there are however, few reported cases of catatonia due to steroids. A literature search revealed very few articles written on catatonia due to steroids. We report a case of apparent dexamethasone induced psychosis presenting with features of catatonia.

  11. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  12. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  13. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.

  14. Neural models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions - two diagnostic features of psychosis shared across the spectrum of heterogeneous schizophrenia constructs - can be described in terms of the pathophysiology of sensory information processing: hallucination is the impaired ability to classify representations as internally or externally generated, while delusion is the immutable linking of representations with each other in the absence of external dependency. The key anatomical systems in higher-order information ...

  15. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  16. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term schizophrenia was coined by Eugene Bleuler. Symptoms of schizophrenia are arranged into groups or clusters called as domains. The domains of dysfunctions are positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, mood and suicidity, and aggression. Cognition is the sum total of mental processes that makes us acquire knowledge and keeps us aware of our surroundings and thus enables us to arrive at appropriate judgments. Cognitive deficits are recognized as enduring and persistent features in schizophrenia and can be neuro-cognitive or relating to social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits are deficits in speed of processing, attention / vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving, social cognition. Cognitive function can be assessed by various methods like experimental approach, neuropsychological and psychometric and ecologic approach. Cognitive deficits are present at onset of illness producing substantial impairment. Unlike psychotic symptoms, which remit with treatment, functional impairments remain stable over time. Detail understanding of such symptoms will help in disability limitation. Various cognitive remediation programmes are underway with such intent. Articles till March, 2012 were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, which were studied in an attempt of understanding the topic. The information was structured and organized.

  17. [Psychoeducation in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Ospina, Juan Pablo; Rangel Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia includes the use of psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions that include psychoeducation. This strategy has been defined as the delivery of information about the disorder and its treatment in a systematic and structured way. To review the literature on the efficacy of psychoeducation in schizophrenia. A search in PubMed, SciELO, EMBASE and PsycINFO was made with the terms "psychoeducation", "schizophrenia" and "psychosocial intervention". Articles in Spanish and English language were reviewed. Psychoeducation can be applied to patients, family or both, and individually or in groups. The number of sessions can vary. There have been many studies that seek to determine the efficacy of psychoeducation in the clinical course, family dynamics and stigma, with results that favor its implementation, but so far it has not been possible to determine exactly how best to apply psychoeducation, mainly because of the great variability of designs. The studies on psychoeducation have shown efficacy. However, this might be an overestimation, as there is a high risk of bias. Consequently, there is not enough evidence. At least for now, it is reasonable to complement pharmacotherapy with psycoeducation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychopharmacology of aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  20. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  1. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  2. Benzodiazepines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Li, Chunbo; Tardy, Magdolna; Khorsand, Vesal; Gillies, Donna; Leucht, Stefan

    2012-11-14

    Because of the high number of people with schizophrenia not responding adequately to monotherapy with antipsychotic agents, the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of additional medication was examined in a number of clinical trials. One approach to this research question was the use of benzodiazepines, as monotherapy as well as in combination with antipsychotics. To determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of benzodiazepines in people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. In February 2011, we updated the literature search of the previous version of this systematic review (last search March 2005). We searched the trial register of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group (containing methodical searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, Dissertation abstracts, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PSYNDEX, PsycINFO, RUSSMED, Sociofile, supplemented with hand searching of relevant journals and numerous conference proceedings). Additionally, we inspected references of all identified studies for further relevant studies and contacted authors of relevant publications in order to obtain missing data from existing trials. We applied no language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing benzodiazepines (as monotherapy or as adjunctive agent) with antipsychotic drugs or placebo for the pharmacological management of schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Review authors (MD and CL) analysed independently the new references of the update-search referring to the inclusion criteria. MD and CL extracted all data from the included trials. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data by using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed each pre-selected outcome from the included trials with the risk of bias tool. The 2011 update search yielded three further randomised controlled trials. The review currently includes 34 studies with 2657 participants. Most

  3. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  4. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  5. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonagle, T; Sultana, A

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal. To review the effects of token economies for people with schizophrenia, or other serious or chronic mental illnesses, compared with standard care. Electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1985-1999), CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 1999), The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials (February 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and PsycLIT (1987-1998) were supplemented with reference searches, personal contact with trial authors and hand searches. Randomised studies comparing a token economy regime (one in which change is achieved by means of use of non-monetary, non-consumable tokens) to standard care for those with schizophrenia or any other similar chronic or serious mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality rated and data extracted. For dichotomous data relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. Where possible, the number needed to treat statistic (NNT) was also calculated. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Normal continuous data were summated using the weighted mean difference (WMD). Scale data were presented only for those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. Only three randomised controlled trials could be included in the analyses (total n=110). There were no usable data on target or non-target behaviour. One small study favoured the token economy approach for the outcome 'change in mental state' on the SANS-CV with improvement in negative symptoms at three months (n=40

  6. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  7. Schizophrenia and employment - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Johnson, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the extent to which work contributes to the recovery of people with schizophrenia. There is increasing interest in the subject because of new service models and the economic cost of unemployment in people with severe mental illness. A literature search was carried out with the aim of investigating: a). employment rates in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis and the extent to which they have changed over time; b). the barriers to work; c). the factors associated with being employed among people with schizophrenia; and d). whether employment influences other outcomes in schizophrenia. There are wide variations in reported employment rates in schizophrenia. Most recent European studies report rates between 10 % and 20%, while the rate in the US is less clear. There is a higher level of employment among first-episode patients. The employment rate in schizophrenia appears to have declined over the last 50 years in the UK. Barriers to getting employment include stigma,discrimination, fear of loss of benefits and a lack of appropriate professional help. The most consistent predictor of employment is previous work history. Working is correlated with positive outcomes in social functioning, symptom levels, quality of life and self esteem, but a clear causal relationship has not been established. Very low employment rates are not intrinsic to schizophrenia, but appear to reflect an interplay between the social and economic pressures that patients face, the labour market and psychological and social barriers to working.

  8. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  9. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar region of hand and the fingers and plantar region of sole and toes. Dermatoglyphic pattern, such as Whorls, Arches, Loops and atd angle have been hypothesized to be indirect measure for early abnormal development process that can lead later psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia. Under the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and schizophrenia, the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. The present study include 63 male and 46 female of schizophrenic patient diagnosed at Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour(IPHB Hospital, Goa were compared with control group accordingly. The patterns seen on hand and fingers were calculated and compared with the frequency of finger print patterns in control group. It was observed that there is increased frequency of arches and decrease frequency of whorls in control males and females which was significant difference, where as in female schizophrenics there is decrease frequency of radial loop compared to male schizophrenics and significant difference observed in atd angle of right and left hand between female control and female schizophrenics.

  10. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  11. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests....... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  12. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  13. Dance therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Xia, Jun

    2013-10-04

    Dance therapy or dance movement therapy (DMT) is defined as 'the psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual'. It may be of value for people with developmental, medical, social, physical or psychological impairments. Dance therapy can be practiced in mental health rehabilitation units, nursing homes, day care centres and incorporated into disease prevention and health promotion programmes. To evaluate the effects of dance therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care and other interventions. We updated the original July 2007 search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group' register in July 2012. We also searched Chinese main medical databases. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing dance therapy and related approaches with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD); for binary outcomes we calculated a fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 45) of reasonable quality. It compared dance therapy plus routine care with routine care alone. Most people tolerated the treatment package but nearly 40% were lost in both groups by four months (1 RCT n = 45, RR 0.68 95% CI 0.31 to 1.51, low quality evidence). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) average endpoint total scores were similar in both groups (1 RCT n = 43, MD -0.50 95% CI -11.80 to 10.80, moderate quality evidence) as were the positive sub-scores (1 RCT n = 43, MD 2.50 CI -0.67 to 5.67, moderate quality evidence). At the end of treatment, significantly more people in the dance therapy group had a greater than 20% reduction in PANSS negative symptom

  14. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Merinder, Lars Bertil; Belgamwar, Madhvi R

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. Objectives To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). We updated this search November 2012 and added 27 new trials to the awaiting assessment section. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. Main results This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ~ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0

  15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougall, Nadine; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; McDermott, Lisa M; McIntosh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... One proposed alternative to drug treatments is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To date, many research trials to assess effectiveness of TMS for people with symptoms of schizophrenia have been conducted worldwide...

  16. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  17. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    This doctoral thesis focuses on brain activity in response to proprioceptive stimulation in schizophrenia. The works encompass methodological developments substantiated by investigations of healthy volunteers and two clinical studies of schizophrenia spectrum patients. American psychiatrist Sandor...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time......-series averages or as oscillatory averages transformed into the frequency domain. Gamma activity evoked by electricity or by another type of somatosensory stimulus has not been reported before in schizophrenia. Gamma activity is considered to be a manifestation of perceptual integration. A new load stimulus...

  18. GWAS, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders; Pearce, Brad D

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile, data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes...... and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies point to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene......-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a fivefold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper, we summarize recent advances to clarify a possible...

  19. Supportive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lucy A; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Adams, Clive E

    2015-04-14

    Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care. We reliably selected studies, quality rated these and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we undertook intention-to-treat analyses. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) fixed-effect with 95% CIs. We estimated heterogeneity (I(2) technique) and publication bias. We used GRADE to rate quality of evidence. Four new trials were added after the 2012 search. The review now includes 24 relevant studies, with 2126 participants. Overall, the evidence was very low quality.We found no significant differences in the primary outcomes of relapse, hospitalisation and general functioning between supportive therapy and standard care.There were, however, significant differences favouring other psychological or psychosocial treatments over supportive therapy. These included hospitalisation rates (4 RCTs, n = 306, RR 1.82 CI 1.11 to 2.99, very low quality of evidence), clinical improvement in mental state (3 RCTs, n = 194, RR 1.27 CI 1.04 to 1.54, very low quality of evidence) and satisfaction of treatment for the recipient of care (1 RCT, n = 45, RR 3.19 CI 1.01 to 10.7, very low quality of evidence). For this comparison, we found no evidence of significant differences for rate of relapse, leaving the study early and quality of life.When we compared supportive therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy CBT), we again found no significant differences in primary

  20. Schizophrenia: genetics, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Marino, Elena; Adele, Pirovano; Ferrari, Barbara; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    Genetic factors are largely implicated in predisposing to schizophrenia. Environmental factors contribute to the onset of the disorder in individuals at increased genetic risk. Cognitive deficits have emerged as endophenotypes and potential therapeutic targets for schizophrenia because of their association with functional outcome. The aims of this review were to analyse the joint effect of genetic and environmental (G×E) factors on liability to schizophrenia and to investigate relationships between genes and cognitive endophenotypes focusing on practical applications for prevention and rehabilitation. Medline search of relevant studies published between 1990 and 2008. In schizophrenia, examples of G×E interaction include the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (Val158Met) polymorphism, which was found to moderate the onset of psychotic manifestations in response to stress and to increase the risk for psychosis related to cannabis use, and neurodevelopmental genes such as AKT1 (serine-threonine kinase), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DTNBP1 (dysbindin) and GRM3 (metabotropic glutamate receptor 3), which were associated with development of schizophrenia in adulthood after exposure to perinatal obstetric complications. Neurocognitive deficits are recognised as core features of schizophrenia that facilitate the onset of the disorder and have a great impact on functional outcome. Neurocognitive deficits are also endophenotypes that have been linked to a variety of genes [COMT, neuregulin (NRG1), BDNF, Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and dysbindin] conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia. Recently, it has emerged that cognitive improvement during rehabilitation therapy was under control of COMT (Val158Met) polymorphism. This review could indicate a pivotal role of psychiatric genetics in prevention and rehabilitation of schizophrenic psychoses.

  1. [The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A; Malchow, B; Falkai, P; Schmitt, A

    2014-08-01

    For many years, the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been the leading theory explaining the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, since the first observation showed that NMDA-receptor antagonists (e. g., PCP) can induce all kinds of schizophrenia symptoms in humans, the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia has been established as an additional explanation model. Apart from the PCP-induced psychoses, many other findings from all areas of modern neuroscience have confirmed and extended the glutamate hypothesis. This review discusses the available evidence for the glutamate hypothesis and puts the different findings into relation. Consecutively, the possibilities for a pharmacological modulation of the glutamate system and recent clinical trials are discussed. To sum up, one could note that the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia is now well-established. The development of glutamatergic antipsychotics is still in the early stages, but there is hope for a new generation of antipsychotics based on the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, recent findings from registration trials could not provide positive findings for the recently developed glutamatergic drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. [Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunnlechner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry.

  3. Valproate for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Xia, Jun; Helfer, Bartosz; Li, Chunbo; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-11-24

    Many people with schizophrenia do not achieve a satisfactory treatment response with ordinary antipsychotic drug treatment. In these cases, various add-on medications are used, and valproate is one of these. To examine whether:1. valproate alone is an effective treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses; and2. valproate augmentation of antipsychotic medication is an effective treatment for the same illnesses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (July 2002; February 2007; July 2012; March 04, 2016). We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of relevant studies in order to identify further trials. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing valproate to antipsychotics or to placebo (or no intervention), whether as the sole agent or as an adjunct to antipsychotic medication for the treatment of people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We independently inspected citations and, where possible, abstracts, ordered papers, and re-inspected and quality-assessed these. At least two review authors independently extracted data. We analysed dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to create a 'Summary of findings' table. The 2012 update search identified 19 further relevant studies, most of which were from China. Thus the review currently includes 26 studies with a total of 2184 participants. All trials examined the effectiveness of valproate as an adjunct to antipsychotics. With the exception of two studies, the studies were small, the participants and personnel were not blinded (neither was outcome assessment), and most were short-term and incompletely reported.For this update we prespecified seven main outcomes of interest: clinical response

  4. Risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Stephanie; Hosalli, Prakash; Furtado, Vivek A; Davis, John M

    2016-04-14

    Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug made available in a long-acting injection formulation. To examine the effects of depot risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medication.To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, cost and cost-effectiveness of risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2002, 2012, and October 28, 2015). We also checked the references of all included studies, and contacted industry and authors of included studies. Randomised clinical trials comparing depot risperidone with other treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Twelve studies, with a total of 5723 participants were randomised to the following comparison treatments: Risperidone depot versus placebo Outcomes of relapse and improvement in mental state were neither measured or reported. In terms of other primary outcomes, more people receiving placebo left the study early by 12 weeks (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.74 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88, very low quality evidence), experienced severe adverse events in short term (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.59 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93, very low quality evidence). There was however, no difference in levels of weight gain between groups (1 RCT, n=400, RR 2.11 95% CI 0.48 to 9.18, very low quality evidence). Risperidone depot versus general oral antipsychotics The outcome of improvement in mental state was not presented due to high levels of attrition, nor were levels of severe adverse events explicitly reported

  5. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this issue Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  6. A Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, William Kent; Wertheimer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Research shows a relationship between diagnoses of schizophrenia among twins. It was studied whether information that a twin was schizophrenic would bias diagnoses. Such information almost doubled the rater's estimates of probability of schizophrenia in a hypothetical case history. (NG)

  7. Specific Glial Functions Contribute to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.; de Leeuw, C.A.; Ripke, S.; Hultman, C. M.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smit, A.B.; Posthuma, D.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent

  8. [Hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia. Suffering from and with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneman, M; Sabbe, B G C

    2006-01-01

    Clinical experience shows that feelings of hopelessness quite often arise in patients with schizophrenia. To describe these feelings of hopelessness, obtain insight into interrelated factors, distinguish hopelessness from depression, study the influence of hopelessness on suicidal behaviour andfind out how feelings of hopelessness can influence the treatment that is provided. We searched the literature via MEDLINE and PsyCINFO using the key words 'schizophrenia', 'hopelessness', 'demoralization', and 'disappointment'. Demoralization is a broader term than hopelessness and is used quite often. Positive correlations arefound between hopelessness and: (1) awareness of illness; (2) engulfment; and (3) depressive symptoms. Negative correlations are found between hopelessness and: (1) cognitive disorders; and (2) an avoidant coping style. Hopelessness and demoralisation cannot be equalled with depression. Hopelessness clearly heightens suicidal tendencies. Feelings of hopelessness in a patient suffering from schizophrenia signal that closer attention should be given to that patient. Feelings of hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia are not necessarily a sign of pathology but may point to existential suffering. This needs to be recognised by those dealing with persons sufferingfrom schizophrenia,

  9. Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies t...

  10. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Else-Marie Løberg; Else-Marie Løberg; Kenneth Hugdahl; Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies ...

  11. Nosology, epidemiology and genetics of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuang, M.T.; Simpson, J.C. (Harvard Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Brockton, MA (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: The genetics of schizophrenia: An overview; The genetics of schizo-affective disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum; Mathematical models of genetic transmission; and Genetic studies of biochemical, pathophysiological and pharmacological factors in schizophrenia.

  12. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. Methods: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student′s tests. Results: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05. Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05, these differences were not significant in females. Conclusions: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia.

  13. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  14. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  15. [Fratricide and Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Leal, Juliana; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Fratricide is the killing of one's own bother. It's a type of homicide rarely seen on psychiatric practice. This is still a theme which is poorly studied, and not well understood by the scientific literature. To report a case of a men, with paranoid schizophrenia that murdered his own bother and had a psychiatric forensic evaluation to establish his penal responsibility. A psychiatric interview was carried out and the psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the interview and analysis of forensic and medical records, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Literature review was held about the theme. The examinee was considered not guilty by reason of insanity, due to the presence of a mental disorder that affected her entire understanding and volition of the practiced act. The study of such cases may illustrate and identify motivating factors related to homicidal behavior in individuals with severe mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Clozapine dose for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Selvizhi; Völlm, Birgit A; Huband, Nick

    2017-06-14

    Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech). However, it is unclear what dose of clozapine is most effective with the least side effects. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine at different doses and to identify the optimal dose of clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (August 2011 and 8 December 2016). All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of blinding status or language, that compared the effects of clozapine at different doses in people with schizophrenia and related disorders, diagnosed by any criteria. We independently inspected citations from the searches, identified relevant abstracts, obtained full articles of relevant abstracts, and classified trials as included or excluded. We included trials that met our inclusion criteria and reported useable data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We identified five studies that could be included. Each compared the effects of clozapine at very low dose (up to 149 mg/day), low dose (150 mg/day to 300 mg/day) and standard dose (301 mg/day to 600 mg/day). Four of the five included

  17. Predicting risk and the emergence of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-09-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The presence of certain molecular, biological, and psychosocial factors at certain points in the life span, has been linked to later development of schizophrenia. All need to be considered in the context of schizophrenia as a lifelong brain disorder. Research interest in schizophrenia is shifting to late childhood\\/early adolescence for screening and preventative measures. This article discusses those environmental risk factors for schizophrenia for which there is the largest evidence base.

  18. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  19. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  20. [Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Canceil, O; Krebs, M-O; Baylé, F-J

    2003-01-01

    The concept of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia has frequently been subject to debate. Authors widely admit the existence of early specific and non-specific signs preceding the first psychotic episode; however, they have yet to clearly demonstrate their ability to predict and specify the outbreak of a psychosis. These prodromal symptoms consist of behavioral abnormalities, pseudo-neurotic signs, subtle cognitive and affective changes. All these symptoms vary from patient to patient. In general, it is widely believed that future patients go through a variety of abnormal, subjective experiences that progressively develop during their pre-puberty and puberty periods. However, the limit of this assessment is that an individual could present the same prodromal symptoms without necessarily developing a psychotic illness, as a result of toxic intake, a situational crisis, etc. Furthermore, while the prodrome is a retrospective concept, its value and specificity can only be prospective, given that patients' descriptions of pre-morbid changes may be corrupted by inefficient memory reconstruction. DSM III-R included prodromal symptoms; individual presenting such symptoms would potentially present psychopathological vulnerability to psychosis regardless of associated genetic risk. Several investigations have shed doubts on their measurement's reliability; therefore, this classification is no longer present in the latest version (DSM IV). Moreover, recent neurodevelopemental hypothesis on schizophrenia have paved the way for possible early intervention, especially because early treatments could well improve illness prognosis. This viewpoint is reinforced by the improved tolerance of new anti-psychotic treatment. In this report, we review the key Articles published over the last 15 Years on this matter. We distinguish two schools of thought: on one hand, the German school referring to the validity of particular neuro-psychological symptoms: attention, perception

  1. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  2. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Meagan A.; Mather, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology class about schizophrenia. Students filled out a questionnaire containing twelve questions on a variety of issues connected to this disorder. The questions were tested in a pilot study using students in a fourth year Psychology course focused on…

  3. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Abstract. Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data ...

  4. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Imbalanced Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena E. Kegel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN. Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22 and those of controls (n = 26 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36. CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls ( P = 0.027. In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Bolding

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI than the normal adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with schizophrenia exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population.Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15% in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with schizophrenia reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis.

  7. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  8. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  9. When apparent schizophrenia is excluded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the beginning. Mr R was a 30-year-old male who was diagnosed with schizophrenia at the age of 19, after he presented with a typical combination of disorganised behaviour and persecutory delusions, against a background of daily comorbid polysubstance abuse. Owing to a pattern of frequent readmissions and poor ...

  10. Parkinsonian axial signs in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Barbui, Corrado; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated evidence of nigro-striatal denervation, disease progression and response to levodopa in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who developed parkinsonism. In the present study, we investigated whether axial parkinsonian signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia not necessarily related to chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs (AP) drugs. From a baseline cohort of 299 schizophrenic patients who did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for parkinsonism (presence of at least two of the following appendicular signs: bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity), we identified a group of patients who manifested two out of three axial parkinsonian signs (abnormality of trunk posture, hypomimia and short-step gait). Accordingly, we obtained two sub-groups of patients with schizophrenia, with (Schiz-Axial, N = 26), and without parkinsonian axial signs (Schiz-NO-Axial, N = 273). Clinical and demographical variables were compared between groups. The motor section of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) was employed to measure motor disability. Schiz-Axial patients were significantly older (p = 0.007) and had longer disease duration (p = 0.04) compared to Schiz-NO-Axial. The two groups did not differ for variables related to AP treatment. Total UPDRS motor score (p signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia associated to older age and longer disease duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  12. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  13. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huilan; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy.

  14. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler's monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler's monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain.

  15. Synapse pathology and translational applications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 0.7%. Despite its relatively low prevalence, the onset of schizophrenia usually occurs early in life, resulting in a severe lifelong disability for patients and increasing the economic and care burden on their families. This makes schizophrenia one of the most catastrophic mental illnesses. Although the etiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood, clinical, genetic, and pharmacological studies have indicated that its pathophysiology involves synaptic disturbances. Here, I review the evidence suggesting synaptic disturbance as the causal pathophysiology of schizophrenia and discuss the possible application of synaptic intervention as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia Disorders: Perspectives From the Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siever, Larry J; Davis, Kenneth L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This overview focuses on neurobiological abnormalities found in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, the prototype of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and chronic schizophrenia...

  17. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  18. Bleuler and the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler as...

  19. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, J; Addington, D

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...

  20. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    ..., which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression...

  1. Splitting in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    .... A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  2. Neurocognitive functioning and cannabis use in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit substance used among schizophrenia patients. The effects of cannabis are mediated through the endocannabinoid system, which is a major regulator of neurotransmission and may be disturbed in schizophrenia. Though cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia patients are still unclear. This paper reviews 19 studies that examine the cognitive effects of cannabis on schizophrenia by comparing cognitive functioning of cannabis-using and non-using schizophrenia patients across a vast range of domains (memory, attention and processing speed, executive functions, visuospatial, psychomotor and language). Of the studies included in the review, 11 reported better cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users, 5 found minimal or no difference between the groups and 3 found poorer cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users. The inconsistencies in the studies reviewed may stem from significant methodological variance between the studies regarding patient selection, adequate controls, cognitive measures used, measures of cannabis use, additional drugs used, and clinical aspects of schizophrenia. These methodological issues are discussed, as well as possible explanations for the results presented and suggestions for future research in this field.

  3. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapoport, J L; Giedd, J N; Gogtay, N

    2012-01-01

    ... greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis...

  4. Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Sponheim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d' to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

  5. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  6. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Schizophrenia and prospective memory impairments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2017-11-22

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area. We searched and reviewed relevant studies in this area between 2013 and August 2017. Findings of studies conducted so far indicate that PM is severely impaired in schizophrenia. The most frequent type of PM errors in individuals with schizophrenia is no response, or failure to carry out the intended action. PM impairments in schizophrenia have been found to be related to everyday functioning. For individuals with schizophrenia, a number of assessment techniques have been developed to assess PM. These include: self-report questionnaires, computerized tasks, psychometric test batteries, and virtual reality tasks. So far, a few studies have used the compensatory approach to improve PM performance in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk, and the results reported are promising. Based on findings of these studies, suggestions for the development of interventions for PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia are provided. PM dysfunction is an important impairment in individuals with schizophrenia, and more rehabilitation studies to improve PM performance in these individuals are needed.

  8. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  9. Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, R; Milnes, D

    2005-10-19

    Many people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication. In addition to medication, creative therapies, such as art therapy, may be helpful. Art therapy allows exploration of the patient's inner world in a non-threatening way through a therapeutic relationship and the use of art materials. It was mainly developed in adult psychiatric inpatient units and was designed for use with people for whom verbal psychotherapy would be impossible. To review the effects of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia compared with standard care and other psychosocial interventions. We updated the search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (February 2005), hand searched reference lists and 'Inscape' (the Journal of the British Association of Art Therapists), and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared art therapy with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from the studies. We excluded data where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow up. For continuous outcomes we calculated a weighted mean difference and its 95% confidence interval. For binary outcomes we calculated a fixed effects risk ratio (RR), its 95% confidence interval (CI) and a number needed to treat (NNT). The search identified 61 reports but only two studies (total n=137) met the inclusion criteria. Both compared art therapy plus standard care with standard care alone. More people completed the therapy if allocated to the art therapy group compared with standard care in the short (n=90, 1 RCT, RR 0.97 CI 0.41 to 2.29), medium (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.34 CI 0.15 to 0.80) and long term (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.96 CI 0.57 to 1.60). Data from one mental state measure (SANS) showed a small but significant difference favouring the art-therapy group (n=73, 1 RCT, WMD -2.3 CI -4.10 to -0.5). In

  10. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laruelle, M. [New York, Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Insitute. Brain Imaging Division

    1998-09-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D{sub 2} receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D{sub 2} receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D{sub 2} receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D{sub 2} receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D{sub 2} receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness.

  11. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  12. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  14. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  15. Schizophrenia: A Review for Family Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Donna R.

    2000-01-01

    Marriage and family counselors can play important roles for both the person with schizophrenia and his or her family. This article provides a resource for family counselors that includes a clinically relevant summary of the schizophrenia literature, its associated family burden, and applicable interventions and issues. (Contains 64 references.)…

  16. Changing the course of schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Glazer WM, iohnsiorte BM, Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia] Clin Psychiatry W97; 58; Suppl 10, 50-54. 3. Robinson DG, Woerner MG, McMenimon M, Mendelowitz A, Bilder RM. Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  17. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  18. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia | Naude | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, underrecognised and clinically important in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients are associated with distinct morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a ...

  19. Lilliputian hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichloroethylene poisoning.1,3-7 Lilliputian hallucinations were first described in schizophrenia by Lewis8, but have been reported as a rare phenomenon. In this report we describe a patient with schizophrenia who presented predominantly with Lilliputian hallucinations and review the literature with respect to Lilliputian.

  20. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  1. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article selectively reviews the literature treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and emphasises the importance of an holistic approach to individual patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment resistance, antipsychotics, augmentation, psychosocial treatments. South African Psychiatry Review Vol. 9(1) 2006: 17-23 ...

  2. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  3. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... cognitive behaviour therapy were described as useful treat- ment modalities for schizophrenic patients who comorbidly suffer from panic and anxiety.10. Panic symptoms. Panic disorder is an often unrecognized, but common comorbid illness in schizophrenia.19 Arieti attributed the etiology of schizophrenia ...

  4. #Schizophrenia: Use and misuse on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adam J; Tandon, Neeraj; Yang, Lawrence H; Duckworth, Ken; Torous, John; Seidman, Larry J; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-07-01

    The role and prevention of stigma in mental illness is an area of evolving research. The present study is the first to examine the use and misuse of the word 'schizophrenia' on Twitter.com in comparison with another illness (diabetes) by analyzing Tweets that use the adjective and noun forms of schizophrenia and diabetes. Tweets containing one of four search terms (#schizophrenia, #schizophrenic, #diabetes, #diabetic) were collected over a forty-day time period. After establishing inter-rater reliability, Tweets were rated along three dimensions: medical appropriateness, negativity, and sarcasm. Chi square tests were conducted to examine differences in the distributions of each parameter across illnesses and across each word form (noun versus adjective). Significant differences were seen between the two illnesses (i.e., among "schizophrenia", "schizophrenic", "diabetes", and "diabetic") along each parameter. Tweets about schizophrenia were more likely to be negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically. The adjective ("schizophrenic") was more often negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically than the noun "schizophrenia." Schizophrenia tweets were more likely to be negative and sarcastic when used non-medically and in a medically inappropriate manner. Our findings confirm the presence of a great deal of misuse of the term schizophrenia on Twitter, and that this misuse is considerably more pronounced by the adjectival use of the illness. These findings have considerable implications for efforts to combat stigma, particularly for youth anti-stigma efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic and treatment hierarchical reductionisms have resulted in an oversight of anxiety syndromes in schizophrenia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of different anxiety disorders in schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on inpatients of a tertiary care psychiatric hospital using a prospective, purposive sampling technique. The study consisted of 93 schizophrenia patients and a similar number of normal controls. The schizophrenia patients and controls were evaluated for psychopathology and the presence of anxiety disorder. Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (45.16% compared to controls (16.12%. Further, the prevalence of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients. No significant correlation was observed between anxiety disorder scores and psychopathology scores. Conclusions: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and OCD in schizophrenia is significantly higher in the general population. The onset of anxiety disorder commonly precedes the onset of schizophrenia.

  6. Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Kirsch, Peter

    Patients with schizophrenia not only suffer from prototypical psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations and from cognitive deficits, but also from tremendous deficits in social functioning. However, little is known about the interplay between the cognitive and the social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Our chapter gives an overview on behavioral, as well as functional imaging studies on social cognition in schizophrenia. Main findings on cognitive and motivational deficits in schizophrenia are reviewed and introduced within the context of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. The reviewed findings suggest that disturbed "social brain" functioning in schizophrenia, depending on the specific context, can either lead to a neglect of the emotions and intentions of others or to the false attribution of these emotions and intentions in an emotionally neutral social content. We integrate these findings with the current knowledge about aberrant dopaminergic firing in schizophrenia by presenting a comprehensive model explaining core symptoms of the disorder. The main implication of the presented model is that neither cognitive-motivational, nor social-cognitive deficits alone cause schizophrenia symptoms, but that symptoms only emerge by the interplay of disturbed social brain functioning with aberrant dopaminergic firing.

  7. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  8. The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMüller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigh levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22.1, in a region related to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and other immune functions. Another line of evidence demonstrates that chronic (disstress is associated with immune activation. The vulnerability-stress-inflammation model of schizophrenia includes the contribution of stress on the basis of increased genetic vulnerability for the pathogenesis

  9. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Ophoff, Roel A; Steinberg, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease...... conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have.......2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition....

  10. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... disorders, and eliminate the classic subtypes of schizophrenia. A dimensional assessment will be measured on a 0-4 point scale. It is recommended that the concept of attenuated psychosis syndrome is further investigated. The propositions affecting characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia might increase...... stigmatization and pharmacological treatment on poor indication. The introduction of dimensional assessments may make schizophrenia subtyping redundant and has the potential to enrich clinical practice and bridge communication between child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. The most recent guidelines...

  11. Stereotype Knowledge and Endorsement in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; D'Alpaos, Francesca; Carraro, Luciana; Pavan, Florencia; Galfano, Giovanni; Forti, Bruno

    2017-09-07

    Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2). Results showed that respondents in the clinical sample displayed less stereotype endorsement as compared to the matched healthy respondents. Most importantly, the contents of the responses provided by the 2 samples were strongly overlapped. Findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia tend to hold less negative attitudes toward stigmatized outgroups and, most notably, that knowledge about culturally transmitted stereotypes is relatively preserved in schizophrenia. Future research should address the generalizability of the findings in relation to the perception of other stigmatized social groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore...... whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...... liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other...

  13. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  14. Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, H.; Rujescu, D.; Cichon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...

  15. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  16. Osteoporosis Associated with Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common global mental diseases, with prevalence of 1%. Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis, than the normal. In comparison with the metabolic syndrome, for instance, there are little reports about osteoporosis which occurs secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. There are extensive recent works of literature indicating that osteoporosis is associated with schizophrenia particularly in patients under psychotropic medication therapy. As osteoporotic fractures cause significantly increased morbidity and mortality, it is quite necessary to raise the awareness and understanding of the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on physical health in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will review the relationship between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, hyperprolactinaemia, and osteoporosis.

  17. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, I...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  18. [Epigenetics of schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivollier, F; Lotersztajn, L; Chaumette, B; Krebs, M-O; Kebir, O

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent and disabling disease associated with heterogeneous psychiatric phenotypes. It emerges during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and has dramatic consequences for the affected individuals, causing considerable familial and social burden, as well as increasing health expenses. Although some progress has been made in the understanding of their physiopathology, many questions remain unsolved, and the disease is still poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis regarding psychotic disorders proposes that a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors, during critical periods of brain development increases the risk for these illnesses. Epigenetic regulations, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene x environment interactions at the level of the genome and may provide a potential substrate to explain the variability in symptom severity and family heritability. Initially, epigenetics was used to design mitotic and meiotic changes in gene transcription that could not be attributed to genetic mutations. It referred later to changes in the epigenome not transmitted through the germline. Thus, epigenetics refers to a wide range of molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and post-translational histone modifications. These mechanisms alter the way the transcriptional factors bind the DNA, modulating its expression. Prenatal and postnatal environmental factors may affect these epigenetics factors, having responsability in long-term DNA transcription, and influencing the development of psychiatric disorders. The object of this review is to present the state of knowledge in epigenetics of schizophrenia, outlining the most recent findings in the matter. We did so using Pubmed, researching words such as 'epigenetics', 'epigenetic', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'psychiatric'. This review summarizes evidences mostly for two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and post

  19. Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: therapeutic prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J; Guy, G W; Di Marzo, V

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not achieve adequate symptom control with standard antipsychotic drugs (APs). Some of these may prove responsive to clozapine, but non-response to APs remains an important clinical problem and cause of increased health care costs. In a significant proportion of patients, schizophrenia is associated with natural and iatrogenic metabolic abnormalities (obesity, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus), hyperadrenalism and an exaggerated HPA response to stress, and chronic systemic inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the brain plays an important role in maintaining normal mental health. ECS modulates emotion, reward processing, sleep regulation, aversive memory extinction and HPA axis regulation. ECS overactivity contributes to visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance and impaired energy expenditure. The cannabis plant synthesises a large number of pharmacologically active compounds unique to it known as phytocannabinoids. In contrast to the euphoric and pro-psychotic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), certain non-intoxicating phytocannabinoids have emerged in pre-clinical and clinical models as potential APs. Since the likely mechanism of action does not rely upon dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, synergistic combinations with existing APs are plausible. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are well established and are summarised below. Preliminary data reviewed in this paper suggest that CBD in combination with a CB1 receptor neutral antagonist could not only augment the effects of standard APs but also target the metabolic, inflammatory and stress-related components of the schizophrenia phenotype.

  20. [Schizophrenia-like personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V

    2009-03-01

    According to DSM-IV the cluster A personality disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. There exists a phenomenological similarity between the experience and behaviour of the so-called odd or eccentric personality disorders and the symptoms of schizophrenia. Evidence of common etiological factors is still the best for the schizotypal personality disorder. The cluster A personality disorders are among the less common personality disorders with a high co-occurrence. Present findings about the neurobiological substrate of the schizotypal personality disorder are discussed also taking neuropsychological results into consideration. A central prerequisite of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of cluster A personality disorders is a strong therapeutic patient relationship.

  1. Genetics and etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Janet L; Mikesell, Marci J; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2002-10-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most common, devastating, and least understood neuropsychiatric illnesses present in the human population. Despite decades of research involving neurochemical, neuroanatomical, neuropathologic, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychological, and genetic approaches, no clear etiopathophysiology has been elucidated. Among the most robust findings, however, is the contribution of genetics to disease development. Statistical models suggest that susceptibility to the disorder is governed by the effects of multiple genes, coupled with environmental and stochastic factors. This review briefly summarizes recent etiopathologic findings and hypotheses, with special attention to genetics.

  2. Evaluation of Dream Content among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Leeba Rezaie; Masoud Rezaei; Schwebel, David C.; Golrokh Younesi; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Mehrak Mohamadi; Arezo Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content...

  3. Dysregulations of Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbujo, Chijioke N; Sinclair, Duncan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism. This set of molecular events is an evolutionarily well-conserved process that involves vesicle recruitment, docking, membrane fusion, and recycling, leading to efficient neurotransmitter delivery at the synapse. Accumulated evidence indicate dysregulation of this mechanism impacting postsynaptic signal transduction via different neurotransmitters in key brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. In recent years, after ground-breaking work that elucidated the operations of this mechanism, research efforts have focused on the alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of presynaptic neurotransmitter release molecules in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In this review article, we present recent evidence from schizophrenia human postmortem studies that key proteins involved in the presynaptic release mechanism are dysregulated in the disorder. We also discuss the potential impact of dysfunctional presynaptic neurotransmitter release on the various neurotransmitter systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  4. Sibling caregivers of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.

  5. Vergence eye movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolding, Mark S; Lahti, Adrienne C; White, David; Moore, Claire; Gurler, Demet; Gawne, Timothy J; Gamlin, Paul D

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that smooth pursuit eye movements are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. However, under normal viewing conditions, targets move not only in the frontoparallel plane but also in depth, and tracking them requires both smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Although previous studies in humans and non-human primates suggest that these two eye movement subsystems are relatively independent of one another, to our knowledge, there have been no prior studies of vergence tracking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we have investigated these eye movements in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited substantially lower gains compared to healthy controls during vergence tracking at all tested speeds (e.g. 0.25 Hz vergence tracking mean gain of 0.59 vs. 0.86). Further, consistent with previous reports, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower gains than healthy controls during smooth pursuit at higher target speeds (e.g. 0.5 Hz smooth pursuit mean gain of 0.64 vs. 0.73). In addition, there was a modest (r≈0.5), but significant, correlation between smooth pursuit and vergence tracking performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our observations clearly demonstrate substantial vergence tracking deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In these patients, deficits for smooth pursuit and vergence tracking are partially correlated suggesting overlap in the central control of smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  7. Alignment and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Suzanne L K; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard J

    2008-09-01

    We predicted that participants with schizophrenia would be able to successfully "align" during conversation in the context of impaired theory of mind. Alignment is a process by which interlocutors' representations of the conversational situation converge; and it may, in part, explain how people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in dialogue despite experiencing impaired mentalising. Fifty-nine people with schizophrenia and 38 healthy adults completed a standardised, empirical conversational alignment task with a mentalising component and a measure of current IQ. The patients also completed two independent theory of mind tests. We used ANCOVAs to compare the groups' performances. The participants with schizophrenia and the healthy participants demonstrated equivalent alignment skills even though the schizophrenia participants displayed clear theory of mind difficulties. Symptom subtype analyses found no differences between subtype groups in alignment, but healthy controls and remitted patients performed significantly better on the mentalising component than the paranoia group. These results are consistent with the schizophrenia participants having intact alignment skills alongside mentalising impairments. We propose that this explains why people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in conversation but have difficulties with more complex dialogues, with resolving misunderstandings, and with untangling ambiguities during conversation.

  8. Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that personality traits differ in schizophrenia patients and family members compared to controls, suggesting familial risk. This study evaluated personality traits in a family study of schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between personality traits and symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 28 adult non-psychotic relatives, and 27 community controls completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Schizophrenia patients differed on many dimensions of the DAPP-BQ compared to controls and/or relatives: affective lability, anxiousness, callousness, conduct problems, cognitive dysregulation, identity problem, intimacy, insecure attachment, low affiliation, narcissism, oppositionality, restricted expression, self-harm, submissiveness, and suspiciousness. No differences were found between relatives and controls. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, associations were found between personality and particularly general symptoms, as well as social functioning. Personality traits can be conceptualized as an extended phenotype in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  10. Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades, and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30°/sec (p=0.007. The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively. The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001 for both 15°/sec and 30°/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.

  11. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    It was first suggested that disordered proprioception was a core feature of schizophrenia by Sandor Rado in 1953. Using a recently designed proprioceptive event-related potential paradigm based on a change of load, we studied 12 unmedicated male out-patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls....... In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  12. Methamphetamine enhances the development of schizophrenia in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huabing; Lu, Qiong; Xiao, Enhua; Li, Qiuyun; He, Zhong; Mei, Xilong

    2014-02-01

    Although there is some evidence that methamphetamine (MA) abuse may play a causative role in the development of schizophrenia, studies directly linking these 2 are rare. In our study, the effect of MA abuse on the development of schizophrenia was investigated in 15 MA abusers who are offspring of patients with schizophrenia and 15 siblings of MA abusers without a history of drug abuse. Cognitive deficits and resting-state brain function were evaluated in all participants. Correlations between cognitive deficits and schizophrenia development were investigated. Significantly more cognitive impairments were observed in MA abusers, compared with their siblings without a history of drug use. Significant abnormalities in regional homogeneity (ReHo) signals were observed in resting brain in MA abusers. Decreased ReHo was found to be distributed over the bilateral cingulate gyrus, right Brodmann area 24, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. Seven MA abusers were diagnosed with schizophrenia, while 1 control sibling was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the 5-year follow-up. The cognitive scores correlated with the development of schizophrenia in MA abusers. Our study provides direct evidence for the causative role of MA use in the etiology of schizophrenia and highlights the role of MA-induced brain abnormalities in cognitive deficiency and development of schizophrenia.

  13. Schizophrenia and psychoneuroimmunology: an integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-05-01

    Since decades immunological aberrancies have been reported in schizophrenia patients. As schizophrenia represents a heterogenous disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations, complex interactions between the immune system in the brain might have important etiological implications. Recent findings of altered expression of immune-related genes, changes of peripheral and central cytokines, antibodies and immune cells point toward dysbalanced immune response processes in schizophrenia. Based on immunogenetic factors, immune dysfunctions caused by infections, increased autoimmune reactivity and low-grade inflammatory processes in the periphery as well as in central nervous system may affect neurobiological circuits including changed neurotransmitter metabolisms contributing to pathophysiological alterations in schizophrenia. These immunological abnormalities might provide tools for better diagnostic characterization of this heterogenous disease and on the other side, they may also support the development of immune-related therapeutic strategies.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOBACCO DEPENDENCE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhidewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  15. A Role for Noncoding Variation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Roussos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of common variant loci associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia reside within noncoding sequence of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate promoter and enhancer enrichment in schizophrenia variants associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL. The enrichment is greater when functional annotations derived from the human brain are used relative to peripheral tissues. Regulatory trait concordance analysis ranked genes within schizophrenia genome-wide significant loci for a potential functional role, based on colocalization of a risk SNP, eQTL, and regulatory element sequence. We identified potential physical interactions of noncontiguous proximal and distal regulatory elements. This was verified in prefrontal cortex and -induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons for the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C risk locus. Our findings point to a functional link between schizophrenia-associated noncoding SNPs and 3D genome architecture associated with chromosomal loopings and transcriptional regulation in the brain.

  16. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  17. [Does cannabis use lead to schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, K

    2011-11-02

    There is a high comorbidity between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Several factors contribute to this comorbidity: secondary development of addiction, cannabis-related induction of psychosis and shared neurobiological alterations. Meanwhile, there is evidence that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that a frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for schizophrenia. Interestingly, schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis use often show significantly better performances in neuropsychological tests than patients without cannabis use. This is nevertheless not due to a positive effect of cannabis, but a sign of cannabis-related psychosis induction in subjects with a higher level of function and less cognitive impairment. Whether cannabis use leads to schizophrenia is determined by the individual vulnerability.

  18. Telepsychiatry and carer education for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haley, C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scientific evidence, most families of people with schizophrenia in Europe never receive a carer education programme. We evaluated whether a carer education course delivered by telepsychiatry was as effective as a carer education course delivered in situ.

  19. Functional disorganization of representations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Pachoud, B; Claudel, B; Granger, B

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this article describes a model of disorganization of representations in schizophrenia. We assume that subjects with schizophrenia have some interfering activity in memory. Such an interfering activity induces a functional decontextualization of information and the reciprocal is true. This model accounts for different classes of cognitive troubles that have been observed in schizophrenia. In the second part, we describe a text-comprehension experiment that studies two paradigmatic cases of episodic and semantic contextualization of information: the "compartmentalization" and the "thematization" of fictional narratives. Compartmentalization refers to the way in which representations of different narratives are separated in memory; thematization refers to the way in which representations of one narrative are structured in function of a theme. In our experiment, compartmentalization and thematization are assessed by a method of priming in word recognition. In agreement with our model, the results show that subjects with schizophrenia are impaired in compartmentalization and thematization when compared with anxious-depressed subjects.

  20. The nature of relapse in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emsley, Robin; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Asmal, Laila; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple relapses characterise the course of illness in most patients with schizophrenia, yet the nature of these episodes has not been extensively researched and clinicians may not always be aware...

  1. The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC-SOHO) study: baseline clinical and functional characteristics and antipsychotic use patterns in the North Africa and Middle Eastern (AMEA) region: original article.

  2. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  3. Brain connectomics imaging in schizophrenia study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder of which the biological underpinning is still unclear. Increasing evidence in neuroscience has indicated that schizophrenia arises from abnormal connections within or between networks, hence called dysconnectvity syndrome. Recently, we established an automatic method to analyze integrity of the white matter tracts over the whole brain based on diffusion MRI data, named tract-based automatic analysis (TBAA), and used this method to study white matter connection in patients with schizophrenia. We found that alteration of tract integrity is hereditary and inherent; it is found in siblings and in patients in the early phase of disease. Moreover, patients with good treatment outcome and those with poor outcome show distinctly different patterns of alterations, suggesting that these two groups of patients might be distinguishable based on the difference in tract alteration. In summary, the altered tracts revealed by TBAA might become potential biomarkers or trait markers for schizophrenia.

  4. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  6. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal...... ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  7. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  8. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between...... psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts...... of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted...

  9. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  10. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...

  11. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    44 years worldwide. ... of emotion among people with schizophrenia. They found that ethnicity also influences perception of the ... felt inside the female sexual organ, abdomen or throat. Mamlambo. (a hallucination of a beautiful seductive ...

  12. Amygdalofrontal Functional Disconnectivity and Aggression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J.; Shehzad, Zarrar E.; Kelly, A.M. Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Javitt, Daniel C.; Michael P. Milham

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity i...

  13. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Šagud, Marina; Radoš, Iva

    2016-03-01

    Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. There is accumulating evidence that alterations in DHEA(S) levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The possible effects of DHEA(S) as augmentation therapy in schizophrenia, related to psychological and somatic aspects of this disease, are discussed.

  14. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  15. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  16. Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual...... of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap...

  17. Selective Loss of Smaller Spines in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Matthew L; Alhassan, Jamil; Newman, Jason T; Richard, Michelle; Gu, Hong; Kelly, Ryan M; Sampson, Alan R; Fish, Kenneth N; Penzes, Peter; Wills, Zachary P; Lewis, David A; Sweet, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss. Primary auditory cortex deep layer 3 spine density and volume was assessed in 20 pairs of schizophrenia and matched comparison subjects in an initial and replication cohort (12 and eight pairs) by immunohistochemistry-confocal microscopy. Targeted mass spectrometry was used to quantify postsynaptic density and voltage-gated calcium channel protein expression. The effect of increased voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression on spine density and volume was assessed in primary rat neuronal culture. Only the smallest spines are lost in deep layer 3 of the primary auditory cortex in subjects with schizophrenia, while larger spines are retained. Levels of the tryptic peptide ALFDFLK, found in the schizophrenia risk gene CACNB4, are inversely correlated with the density of smaller, but not larger, spines in schizophrenia subjects. Consistent with this observation, CACNB4 overexpression resulted in a lower density of smaller spines in primary neuronal cultures. These findings require a rethinking of the overpruning hypothesis, demonstrate a link between small spine loss and a schizophrenia risk gene, and should spur more in-depth investigations of the mechanisms that govern new or small spine generation and stabilization under normal conditions as well as how this process is impaired in schizophrenia.

  18. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  19. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  20. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, David L.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Roberts, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide an overview of social cognition in schizophrenia. The column begins with a short introduction to social cognition. Then, we describe the application of social cognition to the study of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on key domains (i.e., emotion perception, Theory of Mind, and attributional style). We conclude the column by discussing the relationship of social cognition to neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functioning, with an eye toward strateg...

  1. Schizophrenia: two-faced meaning of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Naudin, Jean

    2002-12-08

    The authors stress the current two-faced meaning of vulnerability that conveys both an objective and a subjective direction of sense, leading to a naturalistic model as well as a humanistic one. These models are heirs of both the Kraepelinian and Bleulerian conceptions of schizophrenia. Coping strategies and resilience are core concepts of the humanistic model. Research on these protective factors may be of major importance in the current debate on prevention in schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  3. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritani Makiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Methods Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p Results No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57 was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39. Conclusion The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  4. The social brain hypothesis of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURNS, JONATHAN

    2006-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Wittgenstein allow us to arrive at a new "philosophy of interpersonal relatedness", which better reflects the "embodied mind" and signifies the end of Cartesian dualistic thinking. In this paper I review the evolution, development and neurobiology of the social brain - the anatomical and functional substrate for adaptive social behaviour and cognition. Functional imaging identifies fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain, while the discovery of "mirror neurons" provides an understanding of social cognition at a cellular level. Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and affective responsiveness. Furthermore, recent research indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder of functional and structural connectivity of social brain networks. These findings lend support to the claim that schizophrenia represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Individuals with this disorder find themselves seriously disadvantaged in the social arena and vulnerable to the stresses of their complex social environments. This state of "disembodiment" and interpersonal alienation is the core phenomenon of schizophrenia and the root cause of intolerable suffering in the lives of those affected. PMID:16946939

  5. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  7. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  8. The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Sean P; Gurvich, Caroline T; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence has implicated the central muscarinic system as contributing to a number of symptoms of schizophrenia and serving as a potential target for pharmaceutical interventions. A theoretical review is presented that focuses on the central muscarinic system's contribution to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim is to bridge the void between pertinent neuropsychological and neurobiological research to provide an explanatory account of the role that the central muscarinic system plays in the symptoms of schizophrenia. First, there will be a brief overview of the relevant neuropsychological schizophrenia literature, followed by a concise introduction to the central muscarinic system. Subsequently, we will draw from animal, neuropsychological and pharmacological literature, and discuss the findings in relation to cognition, schizophrenia and the muscarinic system. Whilst unifying the multiple domains of research into a concise review will act as a useful line of enquiry into the central muscarinic systems contribution to the symptoms of schizophrenia, it will be made apparent that more research is needed in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  10. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  11. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409

  12. Risperidone versus placebo for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattehalli, Ranganath D; Zhao, Sai; Li, Bao Guo; Jayaram, Mahesh B; Xia, Jun; Sampson, Stephanie

    2016-12-15

    Risperidone is the first new-generation antipsychotic drug made available in the market in its generic form. To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of risperidone compared with placebo for treating schizophrenia. On 19th October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We checked the references of all included studies and contacted industry and authors of included studies for relevant studies and data. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing oral risperidone with placebo treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently screened studies, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and the 95% CI. We created a 'Summary of findings table' using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The review includes 15 studies (N = 2428). Risk of selection bias is unclear in most of the studies, especially concerning allocation concealment. Other areas of risk such as missing data and selective reporting also caused some concern, although not affected on the direction of effect of our primary outcome, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis. Many of the included trials have industry sponsorship of involvement. Nonetheless, generally people in the risperidone group are more likely to achieve a significant clinical improvement in mental state (6 RCTs, N = 864, RR 0.64, CI 0.52 to 0.78, very low-quality evidence). The effect withstood, even when three studies with >50% attrition rate were removed from the analysis (3 RCTs, N = 589, RR 0.77, CI 0.67 to 0.88). Participants receiving placebo were less

  13. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  14. Apoptotic engulfment pathway and schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Xiangning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.

  15. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish lon...... first admitted for epilepsy at later ages. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between epilepsy and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. The two conditions may share common genetic or environmental causes.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... longitudinal registers. SUBJECTS: The cohort comprised 2.27 million people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epilepsy, psychosis, personal birth data. RESULTS: We found an increased risk of schizophrenia (relative risk 2.48, 95% confidence interval 2.20 to 2.80) and schizophrenia-like psychosis (2.93, 2.69 to 3...

  16. The incidence of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark in the period 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhl, Johanne Olivia Gronne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic co...

  17. Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p schizophrenia-associated variant (rs75059851) may modulate negative symptoms. Multi-locus models may provide interesting insights about the biological mechanisms that mediate psychopathological dimensions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the person hearing them. Delusions. These are false beliefs that don’t change even when the ... NAMI Ending the Silence, NAMI FaithNet, NAMI Family & Friends, NAMI Family Support Group, NAMI Family-to-Family, ...

  19. Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, L.; Sno, H. N.; Goedhart, S.; van der Stel, J.; Heering, H. D.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the potential relationship between multisensory disintegration and self-disorders in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sensory processing impairments affecting multisensory integration have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. From a developmental perspective

  20. Hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Gispen-De Wied, CC

    OBJECTIVE - Pharmacoepidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, we decided to assess glucose metabolism in a population of patients With schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral

  1. 'Recovery-Oriented' Talk Therapy May Help Curb Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 'Recovery-Oriented' Talk Therapy May Help Curb Schizophrenia Even very ill patients progressed over time, researchers ... of talk therapy may provide lasting benefits for schizophrenia patients, a new study suggests. This approach is ...

  2. Use of the word schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Nuno; Falcão de Almeida, Telma; Araújo, Filipa; Molodynski, Andrew; Venâncio, Ângela; Bouça, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Stigmatizing references to schizophrenia have a negative impact on self-esteem, deter treatment seeking and diminish the effectiveness of treatment. To analyze the reporting of schizophrenia in Portuguese newspapers. We analyzed five high circulation Portuguese newspapers between 2007 and 2013. We selected all news containing the word "esquizofrenia" (schizophrenia). Several variables were collected. About 1058 news items contained the word schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was mentioned metaphorically in 40% of the cases and in the context of Crime in 22%. When used in a Criminal context, schizophrenia was mostly attributed to people who were the perpetrators of the crime (93%). When used metaphorically, schizophrenia had a negative connotation in 90% of cases. We found an increasing reporting of schizophrenia in the criminal news and serious crimes. Our results suggest the media has an active role promoting stigma, as well as passively broadcasting and thus passing on prejudices.

  3. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekar, Aswin; Bialas, Allison R.; de Rivera, Heather; Davis, Avery; Hammond, Timothy R.; Kamitaki, Nolan; Tooley, Katherine; Presumey, Jessy; Baum, Matthew; van Doren, Vanessa; Genovese, Giulio; Rose, Samuel A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Daly, Mark J.; Carroll, Michael C.; Stevens, Beth; McCarroll, Steven A.; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging

  4. Cognitive control and discourse comprehension in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context."There is no "centre of Speech" in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind.The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language"William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890"The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor"Kraepelin, 1919.

  5. Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eAnticevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to ‘maintain’ affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical ‘cold’ cognitive operation may result in ‘affective’ deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia – namely an intact ability to perceive emotion ‘in the moment’ but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We discuss the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex

  6. Altered functional and anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camchong, Jazmin; MacDonald, Angus W; Bell, Christopher; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a lack of integration between thought, emotion, and behavior. A disruption in the connectivity between brain processes may underlie this schism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used to evaluate functional and anatomical brain connectivity in schizophrenia. In all, 29 chronic schizophrenia patients (11 females, age: mean=41.3, SD=9.28) and 29 controls (11 females, age: mean=41.1, SD=10.6) were recruited. Schizophrenia patients were assessed for severity of negative and positive symptoms and general cognitive abilities of attention/concentration and memory. Participants underwent a resting-fMRI scan and a DTI scan. For fMRI data, a hybrid independent components analysis was used to extract the group default mode network (DMN) and accompanying time-courses. Voxel-wise whole-brain multiple regressions with corresponding DMN time-courses was conducted for each subject. A t-test was conducted on resulting DMN correlation maps to look between-group differences. For DTI data, voxel-wise statistical analysis of the fractional anisotropy data was carried out to look for between-group differences. Voxel-wise correlations were conducted to investigate the relationship between brain connectivity and behavioral measures. Results revealed altered functional and anatomical connectivity in medial frontal and anterior cingulate gyri of schizophrenia patients. In addition, frontal connectivity in schizophrenia patients was positively associated with symptoms as well as with general cognitive ability measures. The present study shows convergent fMRI and DTI findings that are consistent with the disconnection hypothesis in schizophrenia, particularly in medial frontal regions, while adding some insight of the relationship between brain disconnectivity and behavior. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome study of differential expression in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alan R.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Duan, Jubao; Drigalenko, Eugene I.; Moy, Winton; Freda, Jessica; He, Deli; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common SNPs, rare copy number variants (CNVs) and a large polygenic contribution to illness risk, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Bioinformatic analyses of significantly associated genetic variants point to a large role for regulatory variants. To identify gene expression abnormalities in schizophrenia, we generated whole-genome gene expression profiles using microarrays on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 413 cases and 446 controls. Regression analysis identified 95 transcripts differentially expressed by affection status at a genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05, while simultaneously controlling for confounding effects. These transcripts represented 89 genes with functions such as neurotransmission, gene regulation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) processing and immunity. This functional diversity is consistent with schizophrenia's likely significant pathophysiological heterogeneity. The overall enrichment of immune-related genes among those differentially expressed by affection status is consistent with hypothesized immune contributions to schizophrenia risk. The observed differential expression of extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) region histones (HIST1H2BD, HIST1H2BC, HIST1H2BH, HIST1H2BG and HIST1H4K) converges with the genetic evidence from GWAS, which find the xMHC to be the most significant susceptibility locus. Among the differentially expressed immune-related genes, B3GNT2 is implicated in autoimmune disorders previously tied to schizophrenia risk (rheumatoid arthritis and Graves’ disease), and DICER1 is pivotal in miRNA processing potentially linking to miRNA alterations in schizophrenia (e.g. MIR137, the second strongest GWAS finding). Our analysis provides novel candidate genes for further study to assess their potential contribution to schizophrenia. PMID:23904455

  8. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  9. SCHIZOPHRENIA IN A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE clinical and neurocognitive aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the long-term course and to study factors of potential relevance for the treatment and rehabilitation process of patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders. Specific issues concerned cognitive reduction, tardive dyskinesia (TD), prolactin-induced side effects, remission and lack of insight. Method: A naturalistic multicenter study of 225 patients, diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders and treated with risperido...

  10. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia.......Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  11. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the ......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...

  12. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy......, predict violence, regardless of other symptomatology associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, emergent data suggest that specific mentalizing profiles can be associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia, an issue that warrants further consideration in future research....

  13. Bridging the science-to-service gap in schizophrenia care in the Netherlands : the Schizophrenia Quality Improvement Collaborative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duin, Danielle; Franx, Gerdien; Van Wijngaarden, Bob; Van der Gaag, Mark; Van Weeghel, Jaap; Slooff, Cees; Wensing, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Many patients with schizophrenia are not treated in line with evidence-based guidelines. This study examines the large-scale implementation of the National Multidisciplinary Guideline for schizophrenia in the Netherlands. Design. Observational, prospective study, with repeated

  14. Bridging the science-to-service gap in schizophrenia care in the Netherlands: the Schizophrenia Quality Improvement Collaborative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, D. van; Franx, G.; Wijngaarden, B. van; Gaag, M. van der; Weeghel, J. Van; Slooff, C.; Wensing, M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: /st> Many patients with schizophrenia are not treated in line with evidence-based guidelines. This study examines the large-scale implementation of the National Multidisciplinary Guideline for schizophrenia in the Netherlands. DESIGN: /st> Observational, prospective study, with

  15. Impaired perception of negative emotional prosody in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; van den Bosch, R.J; Brouwer, W.H.

    This paper aims to report on the perception of emotional prosody, in schizophrenia and to discuss its relationship with perfomance on neurocognitive measures. It consists of a comparison of 20 clinically stable schizophrenia patients with 20 healthy, controls. Schizophrenia patients were impaired in

  16. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa | Mosotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical presentation of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers. Method: A sample of 100 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia was evaluated using the Psychiatric Interview Questionnaire. Results: Core symptoms of schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers do not ...

  17. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  18. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use ge...

  19. Neuregulin-1 genotypes and eye movements in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P eye movement variables...

  20. Raloxifene trial in postmenopausal woman with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharoor, Hema; Goyal, Aparna

    2015-10-01

    Raloxifene augmentation in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia has shown promising results. Younger patients diagnosed as treatment-resistant schizophrenia and treated with raloxifene (120 mg/day) have reported significant improvement in symptoms. This case highlights how raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can play a major role in alleviating positive and negative symptoms in postmenopausal women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

  1. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  2. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Do People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Burton, Cassandra; Galletly, Cherrie

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program. PMID:23304499

  4. Do People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.

  5. [Schizophrenia and Liver Transplantation: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood stressors and symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2013-10-01

    There are many psychiatric disorders for which severe adverse events in childhood have been shown to be significant risk factors. This is particularly true for schizophrenia. The authors designed this study to determine whether specific childhood stressors might contribute to the specific symptoms of schizophrenia and not merely to increased risk for the psychosis. The authors divided childhood stressors into two domains: 1-"Childhood Neglect" in which the stressor is passively experienced as in the case of absent parenting and 2-"Childhood Abuse" in which the trauma is actively inflicted as in the case of physical maltreatment. Data for the study consist of the cumulative anonymous records of 134 schizophrenia patients carefully separated by positive or negative symptomatology. MANOVA testing yielded a statistically significant finding; childhood neglect is correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia and childhood abuse is associated with positive symptoms of the psychosis. The authors speculate that type of childhood stressor may incubate the specific symptoms of adult schizophrenia. They also call for more research on this topic since this is the first study of its kind.

  8. Environmental Adaptations Improve Everyday Action in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rachel K; Rhodes, Emma; Giovannetti, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive functioning, particularly executive functioning, is a strong predictor of functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation has been shown to improve specific cognitive processes, but adjunctive interventions are required for meaningful gains in adaptive functioning, particularly in people with chronic illness. This study examined whether (and how) environmental adaptations, used without training, may circumvent cognitive difficulties and facilitate everyday task performance in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered cognitive measures and two versions of the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)-a standard version (ST-NAT), and a user-centered version (UC-NAT) that incorporated environmental adaptations designed to facilitate task performance. The NAT conditions were counterbalanced across participants. Analyses compared performance between the NAT versions and examined the cognitive correlates of each NAT condition. Individuals with schizophrenia made fewer errors on the UC-NAT as compared to the ST-NAT; this between-group difference was significant for all error types. Compared to the ST-NAT, the UC-NAT performance was not significantly associated with an executive function measure of planning. Environmental adaptations may be implemented without extensive training to improve everyday action in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Environmental adaptations that reduce planning demands may be most effective in this population.

  9. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Structural Connectivity, and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Whitford

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental tenet of the “disconnectivity” theories of schizophrenia is that the disorder is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. Given that the white matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain, abnormalities in these fiber bundles have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique that enables the visualization of white matter macrostructure in vivo, and which has provided unprecedented insight into the existence and nature of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The paper begins with an overview of DTI and more commonly used diffusion metrics and moves on to a brief review of the schizophrenia literature. The functional implications of white matter abnormalities are considered, particularly with respect to myelin's role in modulating the transmission velocity of neural discharges. The paper concludes with a speculative hypothesis about the relationship between gray and white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

  12. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  13. Schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia: Paul E. Meehl's blueprint for the experimental psychopathology and genetics of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2006-05-01

    Paul E. Meehl proposed a model of the cause and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related states in the early 1960s (Meehl, 1962), which he later revised in 1990 (Meehl, 1990). His model emphasized a genetically influenced aberration in neural transmission that could eventuate in clinical schizophrenia, nonpsychotic schizotypic states, or apparent normalcy depending on the coexistence of other factors. His model embodied the core ideas of the diathesis-stressor framework that would come to dominate experimental and developmental psychopathology for the next 40 years. The author reviews Meehl's model of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia and reviews and clarifies some frequent misunderstandings of the model.

  14. Neuregulin-1 genotypes and eye movements in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, H.M.; Ettinger, U.; Magnusdottir, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a putative susceptibility gene for schizophrenia but the neurocognitive processes that may involve NRG-1 in schizophrenia are unknown. Deficits in antisaccade (AS) and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are promising endophenotypes, which may be associated with brain...... dysfunctions underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of NRG-1 genotypes with AS and SPEM in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Patients (N = 113) and controls (N = 106) were genotyped for two NRG-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms...... findings of impaired AS and SPEM performance in schizophrenia patients (all P

  15. [Genetic classification of clinical forms of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I A; Trubnikov, V I

    1989-01-01

    In an analysis of 225 families of probands with different forms of the course of children's schizophrenia, a hypothesis on the degree of their genetical similarity (or dissimilarity) was tested. Malignant and slow progredient form of children schizophrenia showed major genetical similarity (correlation coefficient 1.0) with the recurrent schizophrenia occupying a separate position having no common genetical predisposition factors with nuclear forms of schizophrenia. Paroxysmal progredient schizophrenia displayed a distinct genetical relation to any other form (genetical correlation coefficient ranging in 0.5-0.7).

  16. Autoimmune diseases and infections as risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B; Eaton, William W

    2012-01-01

    Immunological hypotheses have become increasingly prominent when studying the etiology of schizophrenia. Autoimmune diseases, and especially the number of infections requiring hospitalization, have been identified as significant risk factors for schizophrenia in a dose-response relationship, which....... However, the findings could also be an epiphenomenon and not causal, due to, for instance, common genetic vulnerability, which could be supported by the observations of an increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases and infections in parents of patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, autoimmune...... diseases and infections should be considered in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia symptoms, and further research is needed of the immune system's possible contributing pathogenic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia....

  17. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  18. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...

  19. The relationship between psychoanalysis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard

    2003-02-01

    In this article, the author considers psychoanalysts' current attitudes towards schizophrenia. After early optimism of a psychoanalytic approach, interest has waned, other than in the field of first-onset psychosis. This was because of poor outcome figures and regarding schizophrenia as now having a biological, rather than psychological, base. The author argues that there is a paradox, because only psychoanalysis offers a framework for relating to psychotic patients in a way that helps them to make sense of their experiences. A framework is described, with clinical examples, to illustrate the application of analytic thinking to patients with schizophrenia. Psychoanalysis needs to revitalize its attitude to psychosis, as it has a significant contribution to make within general psychiatry, not least in the training of the next generation of psychiatrists.

  20. [Neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia--preclinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Wisłowska, Aleksandra; Zienowicz, Małgorzata; Maciejak, Piotr; Skórzewska, Anna; Płaźnik, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder of unknown origin, characterised by abnormalities in the realms of perception, thinking and the experience of emotions that onset is restricted to young adulthood. Many techniques that range from neuropathology to neuroimaging identified subtle brain abnormalities particularly in frontal, temporal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia test hypotheses that this disease is caused by a defect in cerebral development which results in altered neural connectivity, brain neurochemistry and aberrant behaviour observed in adult life. Recent evidence indicates that neonatal hippocampal damage may affect prefrontal neuronal integrity. The developmental lesion model appears to have predictive validity because treatment with antipsychotic drugs normalises some abnormal behaviour changes. Therefore it will be a useful paradigm in the work on new therapies and in providing new insights about pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia.

  1. [Blonanserin in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjin, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Seiya

    2013-04-01

    Blonanserin was developed in Japan in 2008 as an antipsychotic drug. It has high affinity for dopamine D2/3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but shows low affinity for adrenergic alpha1, histamine H1, and muscarinic M1 receptors. Several short-term double-blind trials demonstrated that blonanserin was well tolerated and had equal efficacy to haloperidol and risperidone in terms of positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. It was also superior to haloperidol in improving negative symptoms. We have recently reported that blonanserin may improve some types of cognitive function associated with the frontal lobe activity in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Taken together, blonanserin may be a promising candidate for a first-line antipsychotic for patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia.

  2. Phospholipid, arachidonate and eicosanoid signaling in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messamore Erik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential role of arachidonic acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We discuss how abnormal levels of arachidonic acid may arise, and how dysregulation of signaling molecules derived from it have the potential to disrupt not only dopamine signaling, but numerous other physiological processes associated with the illness. Pharmacological doses of niacin stimulate the release of arachidonic acid; and arachidonic acid-derived molecules in turn dilate blood vessels in the skin. A blunted skin flush response to niacin is reliably observed among patients with schizophrenia. The niacin response abnormality may thus serve as a biomarker to identify a physiological subtype of schizophrenia associated with defective arachidonic acid-derived signaling.

  3. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  4. [Typical forms of schizophrenia in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E; Konzewoi, V

    1978-01-01

    Aside from typical forms of late schizophrenia which generally conform to the definition given by M. Bleuler, there also are psychoses appearing in old age which differ significantly from the atypical symptoms and consequently present certain diagnostic difficulties. This report contains descriptions of late manifestations in schizophrenic psychoses, which develop with a continuous or assault-like course with a prevalence of parnoial disorders. Paranoid delusions, in such cases, are characterized by aging traits (concrete and short-term delusions, exaggeration of the degree of superficial persecution and prejudice, and a limited number of people involved in the delusions). The development of such forms of late schizophrenia takes a slowly progressing course. The results of these studies, especially the psychopathological symptomatology, the genetic-constitutional background and the development and outcome of these psychoses are analyzed in detail. The data permit to consider such forms of psychose as atypical variants of late schizophrenia.

  5. Exploring imagined movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Rossetti, Yves; d'Amato, Thierry; Dalery, Jean; Saoud, Mohamed

    2002-04-16

    Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments indicative of an inability to accurately monitor internally generated images. Motor imagery measures the ability to generate internal images of intended but not executed motor movements. Ten patients with schizophrenia completed actual and imagined versions of a pointing task with a well defined speed-accuracy trade-off function. For controls, movement time increases as target size decreases for both actual and imagined movements. Despite showing the expected speed-accuracy trade-off for actual movements, the imagined movements of schizophrenics showed no reliable relationship to target size. This was true for each patient and appeared to be independent of symptom profile. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are unable to generate accurate internal images of their own motor movements.

  6. Osteomyelitis of zygoma in a schizophrenia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonori, Mizutani; Hiroki, Adachi; Masayuki, Hojo

    2012-07-03

    A 43-year-old man with schizophrenia presented to our hospital with appetite loss and general fatigue lasting 1-2 months. His face was flared and swollen, and he shed tears of pus. He could answer any questions, but never complained of pain. We found dacryocystitis with subcutaneous abscess with contiguous osteomyelitis with culture-proven Stapylococcus aureus, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Although DM neuropathy was mild, he did not complain of pain. We searched thoroughly for other abscesses since S aureus grew in all four of his blood cultures. We re-examined his whole body by CT, which revealed multiple muscle abscesses in both legs. It is reviewed that schizophrenia patients are relatively insensitive to physical pain. Thus, we should keep in mind that they may have multiple, unpredictable and rare underlying diseases, such as our case. Careful and thorough examinations are essential for treatment in schizophrenia patients.

  7. Aripiprazole for late-life schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Rado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Rado, Philip G JanicakPsychiatric Clinical Research Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger ­populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high co-morbidity rates (both psychiatric and ­medical in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics leading to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, focusing on the potential role of aripiprazole.Keywords: aripiprazole, schizophrenia, elderly, dopamine partial antagonist

  8. Epidemiology of Schizophrenia in Bandarabbass in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a harmful disorder with an unknown etiology that causes dysfunction and interferes with work, school and the patient's communications. The prevalence and incidence rate of schizophrenia varies in different countries. The aim of the current study is to investigate the epidemiology of schizophrenia in Bandarabbass in 2009.Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2009 in Ebnesina Mental Hospital and patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria were enrolled (198 patients. Then, by using a checklist prepared by a psychiatry specialist, the data was extracted from the medical records. The gathered data was analyzed by SPSS 19 using the descriptive statistics test.Results: The mean age of the 198 participants was 36.5±11.591, and 69.2 percent of them were male and 30.8 percent were female. Also 60.6 percent of the patients were married and 76.8 percent were unemployed. Four percent had diabetes and 3 percent were hypertensive and 84.3 percent didn't have substance use comorbidity. Hallucinations were seen in 45.4 percent of the patients and 60.1 percent experienced delusions. Conclusion: As discussed above, many of the symptoms were different in Bandarabbass and this confirms that race plays a significant role in schizophrenia and its symptoms. Therefore more research must be performed about schizophrenia in different regions. Since the presentation of this disorder varies, unique treatments according to patient’s race might be needed.

  9. Neurodynamics and schizophrenia research: editors' introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R E; McGlashan, T H

    1993-01-01

    The term, "neurodynamics," refers to interactions of large numbers of neurons that, in the short term, transform input information derived from their environments into meaningful outputs and, in the long term, use this information to alter their own architectures. This general concept may be useful in framing and investigating research questions that could advance our understanding of the nature, course, and treatment of schizophrenia. The mechanism of action of neuroleptics, the anatomic localization of schizophrenia, the stability of associated brain disturbances over time, and the distinction of state versus trait variables are briefly discussed as examples of issues whose understanding may be enhanced by a neurodynamic perspective.

  10. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Muta, Hiromi; Somada, Shinichi; Maeda, Toyoki; Mutoh, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kanako; Suehiro, Yoko; Hisano, Terumasa; Kurita, Ryo; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Mori, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Tsunetomi, Nobuto; Uchida, Akihiro; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia. A 64-year-old man, who had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic disorder at the age of 30, presented with alopecia, atrophic nail changes, hyperpigmentation of the skin, and inflammatory polyposis of the stomach and colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography of the stomach and colon revealed diffuse mucosal thickening with small hypoechoic areas, corresponding to edema of the lamina propria. After treatment with parenteral hyperalimentation and tranexamic acid, his physical findings and polyposis gradually improved. This is the first report of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia.

  11. Sulpiride treatment of Cotard's syndrome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Ito, Masanao; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Otani, Koichi

    2004-05-01

    A 33-year-old male suffering from schizophrenia developed the typical symptoms of Cotard's syndrome, i.e., various delusions of negation and severe depressive symptoms. Atypical symptoms such as delusions of persecution and control related to body parts were also observed. These symptoms gradually improved by the treatment with sulpiride 300 mg/day. In the course of improvement of Cotard's syndrome, the patient developed Capgras syndrome. This report suggests that sulpiride is effective for Cotard's syndrome in schizophrenia. It also suggests that the symptoms of Cotard's syndrome are modified according to basic disorders, and this syndrome has a close connection with Capgras syndrome.

  12. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study

  13. Modeling cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellendonk, Christoph; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that is still characterized by its symptoms rather than by biological markers because we have only a limited knowledge of its underlying molecular basis. In the past two decades, however, technical advances in genetics and brain imaging have provided new insights into the biology of the disease. Based on these advances we are now in a position to develop animal models that can be used to test specific hypotheses of the disease and explore mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we consider some of the insights that have emerged from studying in mice the relationship between defined genetic and molecular alterations and the cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:19409625

  14. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  15. Aripiprazole for late-life schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2010-09-07

    Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high co-morbidity rates (both psychiatric and medical) in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics leading to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, focusing on the potential role of aripiprazole.

  16. The Psychology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Biological and Psychotherapeutic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mantosh J

    2016-08-01

    The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio-psycho-social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; and it provides a framework by which to organize our treatment efforts (both psychotherapeutic and particularly biological), which can improve adherence and outcomes. A coherent psychological model (the deficit model) based on object relations theory best explains all the biological, psychological, clinical, and sociocultural factors relevant to the understanding and treatment of persons with schizophrenia. A better understanding of a coherent psychology of persons with schizophrenia and provision of psychotherapies improves both the biological and psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with schizophrenia.

  17. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning......) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  18. Inflammation and the Two-Hit Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, Keith A.; Kusnecov, Alex W.; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and individual cost of schizophrenia necessitates finding better, more effective treatment, diagnosis, and prevention strategies. One of the obstacles in this endeavor is the diverse set of etiologies that comprises schizophrenia. A substantial body of evidence has grown over the last few decades to suggest that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome with overlapping symptoms and etiologies. At the same time, an increasing number of clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have shown links between schizophrenia and inflammatory conditions. In this review, we analyze the literature on inflammation and schizophrenia, with a particular focus on comorbidity, biomarkers, and environmental insults. We then identify several mechanisms by which inflammation could influence the development of schizophrenia via the two-hit hypothesis. Lastly, we note the relevance of these findings to clinical applications in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24247023

  19. Inverse association between urbanicity and treatment resistance in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Pedersen, Carsten B; MacCabe, James H

    2016-01-01

    ) as a more severe form of schizophrenia or separate entity of schizophrenia has not been fully explored yet. We aimed to investigate the association between urbanicity and incidence of TRS. METHODS: A large Danish population-based cohort of all individuals with a first schizophrenia diagnosis after 1996......BACKGROUND: Living in a larger city is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia; and world-wide, consistent evidence shows that the higher the degree of urbanicity the higher the risk of schizophrenia. However, the association between urbanicity and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS...... was followed until 2013 applying survival analysis techniques. TRS was assessed using a treatment-based proxy, defined as the earliest observed instance of either clozapine initiation or hospital admission due to schizophrenia after having received two prior antipsychotic monotherapy trials of adequate...

  20. Non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives The primary treatment for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is antipsychotic medication. One of the many public health challenges in mental illness, is to identify contributing factors to non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The objective...... of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of risk factors for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia in a European and American context. Methods The study was a systematic literature review of studies that included at least two measurements of pharmacological adherence...... of illness, alcohol or drug abuse and unspecified younger age. Conclusions The findings in this systematic literature review are consistent with previous reviews on non-adherence and schizophrenia. It stresses the methodological challenges in psychiatric adherence research and establishes the need for more...

  1. Omega – 3 fatty acids in schizophrenia – part I: importance in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róg Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing offer of antipsychotic drugs, the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia is still unsatisfactory. Drug resistance, lack of complete remission and the increasing risk of metabolic complications are the reasons why the new forms of therapy in schizophrenia among which unsaturated essential fatty acids omega 3 (EFAs ω-3 affecting the proper functioning of nervous system, are mentioned, are being looked for.

  2. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The

  3. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Misty; Lyon, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), particularly when diagnosed prior to the age of 13, is considered to be especially rare and severe. This article provides an in-depth look into its symptomatology, general course, long-term functioning, diagnostic criteria, and methods of assessing the disorder. It also includes discussions of the various…

  4. Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patient at risk of victimisation, homelessness and a poorer outcome.20. Culture mediating the relationship between family therapy and schizophrenia. Culture has been shown to influence EE and studies have explored the role of cultural ideas and practices in relapse. In western based studies, a relapse rate of over ...

  5. Zoophilic recidivism in schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours involving animals.1 Sexual contact with animals often occurs as a substitute for heterosexual relations ... was observed to be unusually attached to pet dogs. Many of his pets died in curious circumstances. ... deviant behaviour may form part of psychotic symptoms occurring in the context of schizophrenia7, none ...

  6. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  7. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... nin also plays a role.4 Serotonin is implicated in anxiety and .... Symptoms of anxiety and depression can develop at any time .... depression. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia are of considerable clinical importance. Their existence may compromise social and vocational functioning, they ...

  8. Dimensions of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrop, R.; Matuschek, E.; Ruhrmann, S.; Brockhaus, A.; Tendolkar, I.; Bertsch, A.; Klosterkötter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of eight working memory tests used to assess prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia research [Letter-Number Span (LNS), Digit-Symbol Test (DST), Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B), Delayed Response Task (DRT) for spatial working memory,

  9. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients with schizophr...

  10. Magnetization transfer imaging in chronic schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antosik-Biernacka, A.; Peuskens, H.; Hert, M. de; Peuskens, J.; Sunaert, S.; Hecke, P. van; Goraj, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that new imaging methods such as magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) may play an important role in detecting subtle gray- and white-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate whether MTI, analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel

  11. Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex

    2017-05-01

    As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence - especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey - can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.

  12. Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease: Selected therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are very much linked to the dopaminergic system, yet a larger understanding that goes behind this ''simplified explanation'' of the linked phenomena remains important to further novel advances. The description of factors related to both disorders including implicated receptors, ...

  13. Effort and cognition in schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Marielle; Sanz, Juan Carlos; Schmand, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether low cognitive test scores in schizophrenia patients are due to insufficient effort and, if so, to what extent. Method: Mental effort was measured with the Word Memory Test (WMT), an effort test that has been extensively validated.

  14. Self construction in schizophrenia: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Trudy; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use subject positions to identify self construction in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia that the dialogical model, using analysis of narrative, does not as easily recognize. The paper presents a discourse analysis of self construction in eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews are analysed, wherein focus falls on how participants construct self in talk through the use of subject positioning. The findings indicate that Harr's theory of self and the implied method of discourse analysis enables more subtle and nuanced constructions of self to be identified than those highlighted by Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002). The analysis of subject positions revealed that participants constructed self in the form of Harr's (The singular self: An introduction to the psychology of personhood, 1998, London: Sage) self1, self2, and self3. The findings suggest that there may be constructions of self used by people diagnosed with schizophrenia that are not recognized by the current research methods focusing on narrative. The paper argues for the recognition of these constructions and by implication a model of self that takes into account different levels of visibility of self construction in talk.

  15. Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a Nigerian with Schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a well-characterized syndrome in alcoholism and malnutrition, little is written of its prevalence or presentation in patients with psychiatric illness. We present a case of a 37-year-old Nigerian male with schizophrenia and malnutrition who presented with delirium and ophthalmoplegia ...

  16. Cloze Procedure and Written Language in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between relevant clinical symptoms and the predictability of language utterances in schizophrenia. Specifically, investigates the sensitivity of the Cloze procedure to various modes of language response, attempting to detect differences between language samples written by schizophrenics and controls. Analyzes experimental…

  17. Targeting the inflammatory component of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rahmoune (Hassan); L.W. Harris (Laura); P.C. Guest (Paul); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease characterised by an array of clinical manifestations. A large number of studies over the last 20 years have pointed towards immune system abnormalities in patients suffering from this condition. In addition, the psychosis and cognitive dysfunction

  18. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data to ...

  19. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  20. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia | Scribante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of both anxiety and hysterical symptoms have been described in schizophrenic populations. Various explanations exist. The issue of whether such symptoms represent discrete clinical entities or are intrinsic to the schizophrenic process, requires further research. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Hysterical

  1. The Diagnosis of Schizophrenia According to Kraepelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Gamito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's methodology and clinical descriptions are still influential in the XXIst century psychiatry. Concerning schizophrenia, the author questions the internal cohesion and predicitve validity of the actual "phenotypes", returning to Kraepelin's concepts regarding the psychopathology and evolution of the disease. The author suggests that the validation of such concepts could influence research and clinical practice.

  2. Nature vs. nurture: two brothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, N L; James, C A; Darling, R J; Findley, L S; Oliver, K

    2001-01-01

    The nature vs. nurture argument as it pertains to two brothers. To explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Review of the literature and the authors' clinical experience. The nature vs. nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces.

  3. Fetal programming of schizophrenia: select mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with adverse intrauterine experiences. An adverse or suboptimal fetal environment can cause irreversible changes in brain that can subsequently exert long-lasting effects through resetting a diverse array of biological systems including endocrine, immune and nervous. It is evident from animal and imaging studies that subtle variations in the intrauterine environment can cause recognizable differences in brain structure and cognitive functions in the offspring. A wide variety of environmental factors may play a role in precipitating the emergent developmental dysregulation and the consequent evolution of psychiatric traits in early adulthood by inducing inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and epigenetic dysregulation. However, the precise mechanisms behind such relationships and the specificity of the risk factors for schizophrenia remain exploratory. Considering the paucity of knowledge on fetal programming of schizophrenia, it is timely to consolidate the recent advances in the field and put forward an integrated overview of the mechanisms associated with fetal origin of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Critique of the Diagnostic Construct Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines problems in the clinical utility of the diagnosis of schizophrenia including reliance on questionable data, arbitrary criteria and categorization, inadequate precision for assessment and treatment evaluation, and omission of information on causal current and historical environmental factors. Some alternatives to the…

  5. Automatization and working memory capacity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalten, Tamar R; Ramsey, Nick F; Jansma, J Martijn; Jager, Gerry; Kahn, René S

    2008-03-01

    Working memory (WM) dysfunction in schizophrenia is characterized by inefficient WM recruitment and reduced capacity, but it is not yet clear how these relate to one another. In controls practice of certain cognitive tasks induces automatization, which is associated with reduced WM recruitment and increased capacity of concurrent task performance. We therefore investigated whether inefficient function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia was associated with a failure in automatization. FMRI data was acquired with a verbal WM task with novel and practiced stimuli in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls. Participants performed a dual-task outside the scanner to test WM capacity. Patients showed intact performance on the WM task, which was paralleled by excessive WM activity. Practice improved performance and reduced WM activity in both groups. The difference in WM activity after practice predicted performance cost in controls but not in patients. In addition, patients showed disproportionately poor dual-task performance compared to controls, especially when processing information that required continuous adjustment in WM. Our findings support the notion of inefficient WM function and reduced capacity in schizophrenia. This was not related to a failure in automatization, but was evident when processing continuously changing information. This suggests that inefficient WM function and reduced capacity may be related to an inability to process information requiring frequent updating.

  6. Schizophrenia and sex differences in emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, M.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to be impaired in several domains of emotional processing. These deficits have been associated with impaired social functioning. Since female patients show better social skills than male patients and healthy women outperform men in emotion recognition and

  7. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...

  8. Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and implementation barriers in the South African context. ... Additionally, in adapting models designed for first-world settings, consideration needs to be given to aspects such as language, educational level and accessibility of mental health care facilities. Family ...

  9. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Langdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure required participants to judge whether various social behaviors were normal or reasonable in the context in which the behaviors occurred. Whereas patients demonstrated clear deficits in theory-of-mind, they performed similarly to controls when judging socially appropriate behaviors and violations of social norms. Patients, however, were less likely than controls to judge social behavior as reasonable when the behavior was impolite but understandable if the characters’ thoughts were taken into account. This latter difficulty correlated with patients’ performance deficits on the theory-of-mind tasks. Overall, findings suggest that basic social knowledge is intact in schizophrenia, though judgments of social behavior are affected by patients’ theory-of-mind deficits.

  10. Self-mutilation of nose in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilation is not a single clinical entity and occurs in various psychiatric syndromes. Major self-mutilation is rare and catastrophic complication of severe mental illness. Patients with command hallucinations, religious preoccupations, substance abuse and social isolation are the most vulnerable. We report and discuss a case of complete self-mutilation of nose in a patient with schizophrenia.

  11. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Al Zuhairi, Karam Sadoon Majeed

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...

  12. The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-12-29

    Dec 29, 2004 ... The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness. Sean Exner Baumann. Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ..... Darwins' dangerous idea. Evolution and the meaning of life. Penguin, 1995. 13. Libet B. How does conscious experience arise? The neural time fac- tor.

  13. Thalamocortical synchronization and cognition: implications for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Roux, Frederic; Singer, Wolf

    2013-03-20

    Cognitive deficits are a core dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this issue of Neuron, Parnaudeau et al. (2013) investigated synchronization in thalamocortical pathways in an animal model to address the disconnection between brain regions as a mechanism for working memory impairments in the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Narcolepsy-cataplexy and schizophrenia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lai, Ping-Chin; Hwang, Fan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding of narcolepsy, little information the on association between narcolepsy and psychosis is available, except for amphetamine-related psychotic reactions. Our case-control study aimed to compare clinical differences and analyze risk factors in children who developed narcolepsy with cataplexy (N-C), schizophrenia, and N-C followed by schizophrenia. Three age- and gender-matched groups of children with N-C schizophrenia (study group), N-C (control group 1), and schizophrenia only (control group 2) were investigated. Subjects filled out sleep questionnaires, sleep diaries, and quality of life scales, followed by polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), routine blood tests, HLA typing, genetic analysis of genes of interest, and psychiatric evaluation. The risk factors for schizophrenia also were analyzed. The study group was significantly overweight when measuring body mass index (BMI) (P=.016), at narcolepsy onset compared to control group 1, and the study group developed schizophrenia after a mean of 2.55±1.8 years. Compared to control group 2, psychotic symptoms were significantly more severe in the study group, with a higher frequency of depressive symptoms and acute ward hospitalization in 8 out of 10 of the subjects. They also had poorer long-term response to treatment, despite multiple treatment trials targeting their florid psychotic symptoms. All subjects with narcolepsy were HLA DQ B1(∗)0602 positive. The study group had a significantly higher frequency of DQ B1(∗)-03:01/06:02 (70%) than the two other groups, without any significant difference in HLA-DR typing, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels, hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 gene, HCRTR1, and the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene, HCRTR2, or blood infectious titers. BMI and weight at onset of narcolepsy as well as a higher frequency of DQ B1(∗)-03:01/06:02 antigens were the only significant differences in the N-C children with secondary

  15. Role of cannabis and endocannabinoids in the genesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Núñez, Luis; Ellenbroek, Bart A; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia. It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabis sativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand. On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people, may lead to a worse outcome of the disease, or it can affect normal brain development during adolescence, increasing the risk for schizophrenia in adulthood. Regarding genetic predisposition, alterations affecting the cannabinoid CNR1 gene could be related to schizophrenia. On the other hand, the endogenous cannabinoid system is altered in schizophrenia (i.e., increased density of cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in corticolimbic regions, enhanced cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels), and dysregulation of this system can interact with neurotransmitter systems in such a way that a "cannabinoid hypothesis" can be integrated in the neurobiological hypotheses of schizophrenia. Finally, there is also evidence that some genetic alterations of the CNR1 gene can act as a protectant factor against schizophrenia or can induce a better pharmacological response to atypical antipsychotics. Cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in predisposed people, it can affect neurodevelopment during adolescence leading to schizophrenia, and a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system can participate in schizophrenia. It is also worth noting that some specific cannabinoid alterations can act as neuroprotectant for schizophrenia or can be a psychopharmacogenetic rather than a vulnerability factor.

  16. Elderly patients with schizophrenia and depression: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney; Kasckow, John W

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms poses many challenges for clinicians. Current classifications of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia include: Major Depressive Episodes that occur in patients with schizophrenia and are not classified as schizoaffective disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression in which depressive symptoms do not meet criteria for Major Depression. Research indicates that the presence of any of these depressive symptoms negatively impacts the lives of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to older patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and to guide mental health professionals to better understand the diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms includes first reassessing the diagnosis to make sure symptoms are not due to a comorbid condition, metabolic problems or medications. If these are ruled out, pharmacological agents in combination with psychosocial interventions are important treatments for older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. A careful assessment of each patient is needed in order to determine which antipsychotic would be optimal for their care; second-generation antipsychotics are the most commonly used antipsychotics. Augmentation with an antidepressant medication can be helpful for the elderly patient with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. More research with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions is needed, however, to better understand how to treat this population of elderly patients.

  17. Experiential pleasure deficits in different stages of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Lui, Simon S Y; Geng, Fu-Lei; Li, Ying; Li, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Tan, Shu-Ping; Cheung, Eric F C; Kring, Ann M; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-08-01

    Prior research has found dampened anticipatory pleasure but relatively intact consummatory pleasure in people with first-episode and more chronic schizophrenia, but no study has examined anticipatory and consummatory pleasure across the schizophrenia spectrum. To confirm the factor structure of the Chinese version of the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), which measures four components of anhedonia, we recruited 364 people with schizophrenia for confirmatory factor analysis. To examine anhedonia in people across the schizophrenia spectrum, we recruited people with first-episode (n=76) and chronic schizophrenia (n=45), people with schizotypal traits (n=210), first-degree relatives (n=45) of people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Deficit in abstract anticipatory pleasure appeared to be most severe in people with chronic schizophrenia, while dampened abstract consummatory pleasure was observed in people with schizotypal personality features and in people with chronic schizophrenia. In addition, both abstract anticipatory and abstract consummatory pleasure were negatively correlated with negative schizotypal personality features and schizophrenia symptoms. Our results suggest that deficits in anticipatory pleasure are present across the schizophrenia spectrum, particularly in the abstract domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney; Kasckow, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Background The treatment of older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms poses many challenges for clinicians. Current classifications of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia include: Major Depressive Episodes that occur in patients with schizophrenia and are not classified as schizoaffective disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Schizophrenia with subsyndromal depression in which depressive symptoms do not meet criteria for Major Depression. Research indicates that the presence of any of these depressive symptoms negatively impacts the lives of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to older patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and to guide mental health professionals to better understand the diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusions The treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms includes first reassessing the diagnosis to make sure symptoms are not due to a comorbid condition, metabolic problems or medications. If these are ruled out, pharmacological agents in combination with psychosocial interventions are important treatments for older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. A careful assessment of each patient is needed in order to determine which antipsychotic would be optimal for their care; second-generation antipsychotics are the most commonly used antipsychotics. Augmentation with an antidepressant medication can be helpful for the elderly patient with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. More research with pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions is needed, however, to better understand how to treat this population of elderly patients. PMID:21177241

  19. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  20. Evidence of Common Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Leon; Tansey, Katherine E; Rai, Dheeraj; Jones, Peter; Ripke, Stephan; Chambert, Kimberly D; Moran, Jennifer L; McCarroll, Steven A; Linden, David E J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Walters, James T R; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia but there is limited understanding of the genetic relationship between cognition in the general population and schizophrenia. We examine how common variants associated with schizophreniaen massecontribute to childhood cognitive ability in a population-based sample, and the extent to which common genetic variants associated with childhood cognition explain variation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n= 69 516) and tested for association with IQ, attention, processing speed, working memory, problem solving, and social cognition in over 5000 children aged 8 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Polygenic scores for these cognitive domains were tested for association with schizophrenia in a large UK schizophrenia sample (n= 11 853). Bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) estimated the amount of shared genetic factors between schizophrenia and cognitive domains. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was associated with lower performance IQ (P= .001) and lower full IQ (P= .013). Polygenic score for performance IQ was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (P= 3.56E-04). Bivariate GCTA revealed moderate genetic correlation between schizophrenia and both performance IQ (rG= -.379,P= 6.62E-05) and full IQ (rG= -.202,P= 5.00E-03), with approximately 14% of the genetic component of schizophrenia shared with that for performance IQ. Our results support the presence of shared common genetic factors between schizophrenia and childhood cognitive ability. We observe a genetic relationship between schizophrenia and performance IQ but not verbal IQ or other cognitive variables, which may have implications for studies utilizing cognitive endophenotypes for psychosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  1. Neurobiology of aggression and violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael

    2011-09-01

    There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome 22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism of this gene affects COMT activity. Methionine (Met)/Met homozygote schizophrenia patients show 4- to 5-fold lower COMT activity than valine (Val)/Val homozygotes, and some but not all studies have found an association with aggression and violence. Recently, a new functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Ala72Ser, was found to be associated with homicidal behavior in schizophrenia, but this finding warrants further replication. Studies published so far indicate that an association with the monoamine oxidase A, B, or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 genes is unlikely. Data for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene are conflicting and limited. Data from the limited number of neuroimaging studies performed to date are interesting. Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.

  2. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-09-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine amygdala/ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) functional connectivity (FC) and its relation to aggression in schizophrenia. Twenty-one healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Regions of interest were placed in the amygdala based on previously published work. A voxelwise FC analysis was performed in which the mean time series across voxels for this bilateral amygdala seed was entered as a predictor in a multiple regression model with motion parameters and global, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter signals as covariates. Patients showed significant reductions in FC between amygdala and vPFC regions. Moreover, in patients, the strength of this connection showed a significant inverse relationship with aggression, such that lower FC was associated with higher levels of self-rated aggression. Similar results were obtained for 2 other measures--Life History of Aggression and total arrests. These results suggest that amygdala/vPFC FC is compromised in schizophrenia and that this compromise is associated with aggression.

  3. Sistem Pakar Untuk mendiagnosis Gangguan Jiwa Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landung Sudarmana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mental illness (schizophrenia are quite large. According to the results of Basic Health Research in 2015, there is 0.467 percent of the population in Indonesia, in other hands, 1.093.150 Indonesians were suffered from schizophrenia, if schizophrenia does not get attention and appropriate treatment, it will be very bad for the patient. Community stigma about mental disorder often leads schizophrenia patients to be too late taken to a health facility. People believed that schizophrenia is caused by mystical things so that the first treatment is brought the patients to alternative medications. The development of a very rapid computer nowadays makes us easily build a web-based expert system. This expert system is trying to find a satisfactory solution as an expert does. The system was developed to diagnose the schizophrenic mental disorder and the diagnosis was done by analyzing the inputs symptoms, in the form of checklists of what people were felt, then choosing the density of its severity. The results of the diagnosis provide an outcome, i.e. the names of the disease along with the possible percentage value generated based on the selected symptoms. This research intended to build an expert system using PHP and MySQL programming language to store its database, while the inference method using forward chaining is the process of tracing that begins by displaying a data set or convincing facts to the final conclusion. This research resulted a diagnosis schizophrenic mental disorder expert system that is capable to early diagnosing schizophrenic disorder, based on the symptoms that have been selected by the user with a simple appearance that is easy to understand and can be accessed by many users.

  4. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  5. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  6. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A; Abramovic, Lucija; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; van Eijk, Kristel R; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  7. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes : large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Oosterwijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  8. Schizophrenia patients with high intelligence: A clinically distinct sub-type of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černis, E; Vassos, E; Brébion, G; McKenna, P J; Murray, R M; David, A S; MacCabe, J H

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients are typically found to have low IQ both pre- and post-onset, in comparison to the general population. However, a subgroup of patients displays above average IQ pre-onset. The nature of these patients' illness and its relationship to typical schizophrenia is not well understood. The current study sought to investigate the symptom profile of high-IQ schizophrenia patients. We identified 29 schizophrenia patients of exceptionally high pre-morbid intelligence (mean estimated pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) of 120), of whom around half also showed minimal decline (less than 10 IQ points) from their estimated pre-morbid IQ. We compared their symptom scores (SAPS, SANS, OPCRIT, MADRS, GAF, SAI-E) with a comparison group of schizophrenia patients of typical IQ using multinomial logistic regression. The patients with very high pre-morbid IQ had significantly lower scores on negative and disorganised symptoms than typical patients (RRR=0.019; 95% CI=0.001, 0.675, P=0.030), and showed better global functioning and insight (RRR=1.082; 95% CI=1.020, 1.148; P=0.009). Those with a minimal post-onset IQ decline also showed higher levels of manic symptoms (RRR=8.213; 95% CI=1.042, 64.750, P=0.046). These findings provide evidence for the existence of a high-IQ variant of schizophrenia that is associated with markedly fewer negative symptoms than typical schizophrenia, and lends support to the idea of a psychosis spectrum or continuum over boundaried diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Procedural memory predicts social skills in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Yuki; Rogers, Mark A; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2006-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies that have investigated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial outcome in schizophrenia, no studies have looked at the relationship between procedural memory and social skills measures in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to investigate whether procedural memory, often preserved in schizophrenia, could predict nonverbal social skills in chronic patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen outpatients with schizophrenia participated in our study. Procedural memory was evaluated using the Mirror Reading Test, and nonverbal and verbal social skills were evaluated using a structured role play test. As predicted, there was a significant positive correlation between the learning index of the Mirror Reading Test and nonverbal skills (Spearman rho=0.559, p = 0.038), but not for verbal communication skills or processing skills. Although preliminary, these results provide the first evidence of an association between procedural memory and nonverbal social skills in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  11. Oxytocin and Social Cognitions in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovskaya, Oksana; Shmukler, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic multifactorial disorder. Over the last years, there has been a growing interest in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which is considered by many as the core abnormality of the disease. In the systematic review we focus on the social cognition and its correlation with the neuropeptide oxytocin, which is shown to be involved in the emotion recognizing processes, in the trust behavior and many other aspects of social functioning. The systematic review was performed in order to summarize the data on the liaison of oxytocin with the social cognition impairment in schizophrenia patients. Oxytocin is assumed to be a potential therapeutic agent for schizophrenia, with a special link to social cognitive functions. The oxytocinergic system is a promising neuromodulator of emotion recognition that may have the potential to normalize the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Further studies are required to provide more data on the correlations between oxytocin and socialcognition as well as other schizophrenia symptoms.

  12. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms......, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  13. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  14. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    SHINN, ANN K; Baker, Justin T.; Kathryn Eve Lewandowski; Dost eOngur; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the cognitive dysmetria and dysmetria of thought models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the to...

  15. Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: Evidence for distinct cognitive profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients’ neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or ...

  16. Prenatal Nutritional Deficiency and Risk of Adult Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alan S.; Susser, Ezra S.

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring. The plausibility of several candidate micro...

  17. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: relationship to medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Sarah A; Maye, Jacqueline; Rogers, Alexandra; Correll, David; Zamroziewicz, Marta; Kurtz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.

  18. Gray matter changes in patients with deficit schizophrenia and non-deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Halil İbrahim; Eker, Mehmet Çağdaş; Zengin, Burçak; Yılmaz, Dinçer Akaydın; İşman Haznedaroğlu, Damla; Çınar, Cem; Kitiş, Ömer; Akay, Ahmet; Gönül, Ali Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Reduced gray matter volume is a frequently reported finding in brain imaging studies performed with schizophrenia patients. Some studies suggest a probable link between the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and gray matter loss; however, some of the negative symptoms observed in schizophrenia patients are not primarily linked to the core of schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare gray matter volumes in patients with primary negative symptoms (deficit schizophrenia [DS]), non-DS (NDS) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 11 DS patients, 18 non-DS patients, and 17 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. The Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to determine which patients were DS and non-DS. MR images were compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Contrary to expectations, no evidence to support less gray matter in DS patients than in NDS patients was observed. Furthermore, NDS patients had less gray matter volume in several brain regions (frontal and temporal cortices) than did the DS patients. All patients had perisylvian gray matter volume deficits, though the NDS patients had more widespread volume deficiencies. No evidence to support the hypothesis that DS patients have less gray matter volume than those of NDS patients was observed. On the contrary, DS patients had more gray matter volume in some regions; the differences observed in gray matter volume in these brain regions between the 2 patient groups may be responsible for the differences in their clinical manifestations.

  19. New Clinically Relevant Findings about Violence by People with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh; Klein, Sanja

    2017-02-01

    To review findings with clinical relevance that add to knowledge about antisocial and aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia. Nonsystematic literature review. Recent evidence shows that individuals who develop schizophrenia present cognitive deficits, psychotic-like experiences, and internalizing and externalizing problems from childhood onwards. Many of their relatives present not only schizophrenia-related disorders but also antisocial behaviour. While the increased risk of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia has been robustly established, recent findings show that by first contact with clinical services for psychosis, most people with schizophrenia who will engage in aggressive behaviour may be identified. At first episode, 2 distinct types are distinguishable: those who present a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood and those who began engaging in aggressive behaviour as illness onsets. Antipsychotic medications and other treatments shown to be effective for schizophrenia are needed by both types of patients. Additionally, those with a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood require cognitive-behavioural programs aimed at reducing these behaviours and promoting prosocial behaviour. Reducing physical victimisation and cannabis use will likely reduce aggressive behaviour. Evidence suggests that threats to hurt others often precede assaults. At first contact with services, patients with schizophrenia who have engaged in aggressive behaviour should be identified and treated for schizophrenia and for aggression. Research is needed to identify interactions between genotypes and environmental factors, from conception onwards, that promote and that protect against the development of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia.

  20. Potential role of amino acids in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shamaila; Shaukat, Faiza; Gul, Anjuman; Arooj, Mahwish; Malik, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a syndrome of inconclusive etiopathogenesis with a prevalence of about 1% in general population. Underlying factors include genetic predisposition and defected neurodevelopment in early stages of life. The role of amino acids has been indicated in some reports. However, very few workers have detailed the effect of each amino acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of amino acids levels during schizophrenia. Any single amino acid defect cannot lead to the development of the disease. Higher concentration of glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, and arginine are reported by many scientists in blood samples of patients of schizophrenia. Levels of rest of the amino acids show inconsistent results. Involvement of glutamate in pathophysiology of schizophrenia was hypothesized as early as the 1980s. It was demonstrated that dissociative anesthetics which are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists can produce all negative, psychotic, cognitive, and physiological features of schizophrenia in healthy controls. This led to the development of hypothesis of NMDA receptor hypofunctioning in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Later on, it was also found that agents enhancing functioning of NMDA receptor at glycine modulatory site, improved symptoms in patients of schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic medications. Thus, the relationship of perturb amino acid levels with the biological basis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia is an important area to be further explored for effective management of schizophrenic patients.

  1. Prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with psoriasis: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Tu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified, the finding that psoriatic patients with comorbid cerebrovascular disease or chronic pulmonary disease have higher odds for schizophrenia may imply psoriatic patients with those comorbidities are likely to have higher inflammatory burden, which would contribute to the development of schizophrenia if a disruption of the blood–brain barrier is present. Further investigations are indicated to validate the hypothesis explaining the association between known comorbidies of psoriasis and schizophrenia.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenya Nan; Feng Wan; Lanshin Chang; Sio Hang Pun; Mang I. Vai; Agostinho Rosa

    2017-01-01

    .... Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia...

  3. [Clinico-diagnostic evaluation of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P

    1989-01-01

    Psychopathologic and nosologic issues of acute paranoid and Kandinsky-Clerambault syndromes are discussed on the background of clinical studies of 225 schizophrenic patients with these syndromes being initial manifestations. The data on the syndromes typology, clinical value and prognosis of acute delirious disorders are presented. These are shown to be not confined to progredient schizophrenia, including its paranoid form. Rather, they can manifest a course of the disease unspecific for schizophrenia, the so-called schizophrenic reactions and phasic states thus reflecting the course of latent schizophrenia. A differentiated approach to clinical and psychopathological analysis of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia is essential for adequate choice of medicosocial measures and epidemiologic investigations.

  4. Treatment patterns for schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia among Medicaid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Wan, George J

    2009-02-01

    This study compared background characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and service use of adults treated for schizoaffective disorder and adults treated for schizophrenia. Medicaid claims data from two states were analyzed with a focus on adults treated for schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia. Patient groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, pharmacologic treatment, and health service use during 180 days before and after a claim for either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A larger proportion of patients were treated for schizophrenia (N=38,760; 70.1%) than for schizoaffective disorder (N=16,570; 29.9%). During the 180 days before the index diagnosis claim, significantly more patients with schizoaffective disorder than those with schizophrenia were treated for depressive disorder (19.6% versus 11.4%, pdisorder (14.8% versus 5.8%, pdisorder (11.8% versus 9.7%, pdisorder (6.9% versus 5.3%, pschizoaffective disorder, 87.3%; schizophrenia, 87.0%), although patients with schizoaffective disorder were significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive antidepressants (61.7% versus 44.0%, pschizoaffective disorder were also significantly more likely than patients with schizophrenia to receive psychotherapy (23.4% versus 13.0%, pSchizoaffective disorder is commonly diagnosed among Medicaid beneficiaries. These patients often receive complex pharmacologic regimens, and many also receive treatment for mood disorders. Differences in service use patterns between schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia argue for separate consideration of their health care needs.

  5. Is there any role of latent toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Nuran; Bilgiç, Serkan; Gürok, Mehmet Gürkan; Karaboğa, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    A large number of studies have hypothesized that Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially relevant etiological factor in some cases of schizophrenia. By contrast, some studies have disproved this association. The aim of this study was to investigate whether latent toxoplasmosis has any role in schizophrenia disease. Additionally, the association between T. gondii and subtypes of schizophrenia, and the impacts of toxoplasmosis on psychopathology were examined in the study. A total of 85 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to T. gondii was examined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay method. Seropositivity rates were 43.5% for the patients with schizophrenia and 43.3% for the healthy controls (odds ratio: 1.008, 95% confidence interval: 0.517-1.964, p = 0.981).There was no significant difference in T. gondii IgG positivity between the schizophrenia and control groups with respect to sex and age. The difference in seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies among the schizophrenia subtypes was not statistically significant (p = 0.934). No significant difference was found in Positive and Negative Syndrome Subscales between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free patients. In the study area with a high prevalence of T. gondii, no association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia was detected. These findings showed that toxoplasmosis has no role in the risk of schizophrenia disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Schizophrenia in Medline 1950-2006: a bibliometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, Sten S; Wetterberg, Lennart

    2010-05-01

    The aim was to perform a bibliometric study, and compare the quantity of publications on schizophrenia with the total medical literature in Medline during 57 years, 1950-2006. The annual additions of literature to Medline are continually increasing and form the Medline growth curve. Comparisons of the number of publications on schizophrenia, or any other disease, to this curve, may be used to estimate the research activity. Methods for the identification of relevant references to papers on schizophrenia were evaluated and three different samples were operationally defined, retrieved and counted. During 1950-2006, 16.28 million references were added to Medline. Nearly 68000, 0.42%, references were related to schizophrenia. The percentage of papers on schizophrenia among the psychiatric literature decreased from 5.2 to 2.6%. The present study indicates that the number of references on schizophrenia in Medline has followed the general increase of medical publications. This pattern differs compared to some other research fields such as dementia, HIV, and peptic ulcer. Samples of references on schizophrenia may be retrieved in Medline by operational definitions of search methods. The quantity of schizophrenia research during 57 years has kept pace with the total medical literature. One interpretation of the results is that more resources are needed to enhance research activities on schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hospital Contacts With Infection and Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-01-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence...... a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact...... of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families....

  8. Schizophrenia genetic variants are not associated with intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Scheltinga, A.F.T.; Bakker, S.C.; Van Haren, N.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with lower pre-morbid intelligence (IQ) in addition to (pre-morbid) cognitive decline. Both schizophrenia and IQ are highly heritable traits. Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic variants associated with schizophrenia, including copy number variants (CNVs......) and a polygenic schizophrenia (risk) score (PSS), may influence intelligence. Method IQ was estimated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). CNVs were determined from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using the QuantiSNP and PennCNV algorithms. For the PSS, odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data...

  9. Emotional Response Deficits in Schizophrenia: Insights From Affective Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kring, Ann M; Moran, Erin K

    2008-01-01

    ... our understanding of emotional response deficits in schizophrenia. We review naturalistic studies and elicitation studies that evoke emotion responses among participants, including emotion expression, experience, and autonomic physiology...

  10. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Advances in Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alex Kopelowicz; Robert Paul Liberman; Roberto Zarate

    2006-01-01

      Social skills training consists of learning activities utilizing behavioral techniques that enable persons with schizophrenia and other disabling mental disorders to acquire interpersonal disease...

  12. Current understandings about cognition and the neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder. Cognitive deficits are one of the core features of schizophrenia. Multiple domains of cognition (executive function, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal fluency, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and social cognition are affected in patients with schizophrenia. Deficits in cognition led to impairment in the real world functioning. Identifying the cognitive deficits and early intervention is required for better functional outcome. This review focuses on conceptual understanding of cognition with its neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia and its different clinical implications.

  13. Quality and Predictors of Diabetes Care Among Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Carinci, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    -recommended process performance measures. Variables assessed as predictors of diabetes care included patient-specific (sex, age, smoking, substance abuse, Global Assessment of Functioning score, and duration of schizophrenia), provider-specific (quality of schizophrenia care), and system-specific (annual patient...... examination at least once every second year (RR=.97, CI=.94-.99), and foot examination (RR=.96, CI=.93-.99). Predictors of poor diabetes care among individuals with schizophrenia included documented drug abuse and low contact volume of the diabetes clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with schizophrenia received...

  14. [Cognition, schizophrenia and the effect of antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, E

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we conclude that cognitive impairments are as important as positive and negative symptoms in the clinical assessment and management of patients with schizophrenia. This is not a comprehensive review, considering that the new Measurement And Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) model will soon provide valuable data. It is however a product of the collective efforts of a French Canadian clinical research team that proposes a synthesis of data of pragmatic interest to clinicians. Medication with improved safety and cognition profile, gene-rally lead to better outcomes by facilitating compliance with drug regimens and rehabilitation programs. In addition, measures of attention and executive function (EF) appear to improve with novel antipsychotics when compared to traditional neuroleptics. Nevertheless, evaluating cognitive performance is not a routine procedure outside the domain of research. For example, procedural learning (PL) -- an important measure of cognitive function -- refers to cognitive and motor learning processes in which execution strategies cannot be explicitly described (ie learning by doing). These actions or procedures are then progressively learned through trial and error until automation of optimal performance is established. Procedural learning is rarely assessed in clinical practice. Inconsistent findings regarding the effects of neuroleptic drugs on PL have been reported. Trials using acute administration of chlorpromazine in normal subjects induced PL deficits, suggesting the direct effect of neuroleptics, presumably via a D(2) dopamine blockade in the striatum. In a recent study by our group, schizophrenia patients, divided into three groups according to their pharmacological treatment (haloperidol, clozapine and risperidone) were compared to normal controls on two PL tasks; a visuomotor learning task (mirror drawing) and a problem solving learning task (Tower of Toronto). No deficits were detected

  15. 'The verses of madness': schizophrenia and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Holloway, David; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2012-12-20

    In the early 19th century, Lombroso introduced the concept of hereditary taint to describe the coexistence of 'madness' and creativity. In a recent investigation, Rust et al reported a study designed to test the traditionally assumed relationship between creativity and schizophrenia. They uncovered an association between creative originality and the positive cognitive aspects of schizotypal thinking. Poetry is not only the 'product' of psychopathology but it can also be utilised as a form of therapy: "My name is David Holloway, I am a 33 year old poet/blogger with paranoid schizophrenia. A poet called Charles Bukowski has described poetry as the 'ultimate psychiatrist', and I am a firm believer in this. The strongest part of my personality is my belief in the power of love. My recovery has relied heavily on medication, diet and exercise. However it is the power of poetry that has been my true inspiration."

  16. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all childre...... among persons with a history of febrile seizures. The association may be due to a damaging effect of prolonged febrile seizures on the developing brain, shared etiological factors, or confounding by unmeasured factors......BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...

  17. Newer antipsychotics and upcoming molecules for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melvin; Amrutheshwar, Radhika; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Kattimani, Shivanand; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2013-08-01

    The management of schizophrenia has seen significant strides over the last few decades, due to the increasing availability of a number of antipsychotics. Yet, the diminished efficacy in relation to the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, and the disturbing adverse reactions associated with the current antipsychotics, reflect the need for better molecules targeting unexplored pathways. To review the salient features of the recently approved antipsychotics; namely, iloperidone, asenapine, lurasidone and blonanserin. We discuss the advantages, limitations and place in modern pharmacotherapy of each of these drugs. In addition, we briefly highlight the new targets that are being explored. Promising strategies include modulation of the glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways, as well as cholinergic systems. Although regulatory bodies have approved only a handful of antipsychotics in recent years, the wide spectrum of targets that are being explored could eventually bring out antipsychotics with improved efficacy and acceptability, as well as the potential to revolutionize psychiatric practice.

  18. [Intervention of Schizophrenia From the Community Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana María; Montoya González, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease for which pharmacological management is an insufficient therapeutic measure to ensure adaptation to the community and restoring the quality of life of the patient, with a multidimensional management and community interventions being necessary. Case report. This case report illustrates a multidisciplinary treatment response, based on a community care model for mental health from Envigado, Colombia. The management of schizophrenia requires multimodal interventions that include community screening, psychoeducation of individuals, their families and society, addressing different areas of operation that allow adaptation of the subject to his social environment. A integrated intervention that can be provided on a Community scale, with the implementation of policies that allow it to be applied. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Schizophrenia classification using functional network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Heuton, Kyle

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on discovering statistical biomarkers (features) that are predictive of schizophrenia, with a particular focus on topological properties of fMRI functional networks. We consider several network properties, such as node (voxel) strength, clustering coefficients, local efficiency, as well as just a subset of pairwise correlations. While all types of features demonstrate highly significant statistical differences in several brain areas, and close to 80% classification accuracy, the most remarkable results of 93% accuracy are achieved by using a small subset of only a dozen of most-informative (lowest p-value) correlation features. Our results suggest that voxel-level correlations and functional network features derived from them are highly informative about schizophrenia and can be used as statistical biomarkers for the disease.

  20. Factors inducing falling in schizophrenia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yoko; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Yuri, Yoshimi; Katsumura, Hitomi; Hara, Tomihiro; Usui, Yuki; Fujino, Yoritaka; Nomura, Takuo; Hirao, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients. PMID:28356628

  1. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio......A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...

  2. Factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand,. Johannesburg ... Substance abuse is common among patients with schizophrenia16 and can lead to .... Financial. 24.6. 9.8. 13.1. 12. 9.2. 1.3. 3.9. Life stressors. Relapse. No relapses. Other. 12.3. 6.6. Fig. 1. Reasons for poor adherence in the study population. Fig. 2.

  3. Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Oliver D; Murray, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major burden1. The dopamine (DA) and neurodevelopmental hypotheses attempt to explain the pathogenic mechanisms and origins of the disorder respectively2-4. Recently an alternative, the cognitive model, has gained popularity5. However the first two theories have not been satisfactorily integrated, and the most influential iteration of the cognitive model makes no mention of DA, neurodevelopment, or indeed the brain5. Here we show that developmental alterations secondar...

  4. Musical Hallucinations and Schizophrenia: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Klut

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical hallucinations are a type of complex auditory hallucinations. They are a relatively rare and etiologically heterogeneous phenomenon. Their major causes are deafness, organic brain disease, epilepsy and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. Based on a clinical case report the authors aim to review and discuss the etiology and psychopathology of musical hallucinations. It seems to be an under recognized phenomenon that, if systematically inquired, may enable a better understanding and characterization of the patient ́s clinical picture.

  5. Learning discriminative functional network features of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo; Brown, Matthew; Greiner, Russell; Bashivan, Pouya; Polosecki, Pablo; Dursun, Serdar

    2017-03-01

    Associating schizophrenia with disrupted functional connectivity is a central idea in schizophrenia research. However, identifying neuroimaging-based features that can serve as reliable "statistical biomarkers" of the disease remains a challenging open problem. We argue that generalization accuracy and stability of candidate features ("biomarkers") must be used as additional criteria on top of standard significance tests in order to discover more robust biomarkers. Generalization accuracy refers to the utility of biomarkers for making predictions about individuals, for example discriminating between patients and controls, in novel datasets. Feature stability refers to the reproducibility of the candidate features across different datasets. Here, we extracted functional connectivity network features from fMRI data at both high-resolution (voxel-level) and a spatially down-sampled lower-resolution ("supervoxel" level). At the supervoxel level, we used whole-brain network links, while at the voxel level, due to the intractably large number of features, we sampled a subset of them. We compared statistical significance, stability and discriminative utility of both feature types in a multi-site fMRI dataset, composed of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. For both feature types, a considerable fraction of features showed significant differences between the two groups. Also, both feature types were similarly stable across multiple data subsets. However, the whole-brain supervoxel functional connectivity features showed a higher cross-validation classification accuracy of 78.7% vs. 72.4% for the voxel-level features. Cross-site variability and heterogeneity in the patient samples in the multi-site FBIRN dataset made the task more challenging compared to single-site studies. The use of the above methodology in combination with the fully data-driven approach using the whole brain information have the potential to shed light on "biomarker discovery" in schizophrenia.

  6. Relationship between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglewicz, Aleksander J; Piotrowski, Patryk; Stodolak, Anna

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests a correlation between schizophrenia and exposure to infectious agents. The majority of studied cases concerns the infection caused by T. gondii, an obligatory intracellular parasite that infects about 1/3 of the entire human population, according to the available data. The acute stage of the disease, predominantly short-lived and transient, transforms into the latent and chronic phase in which the parasite localizes within tissue cysts, mainly in the central nervous system. The chronic toxoplasmosis, primarily regarded as benign and asymptomatic, might be responsible, in light of current scientific evidence, for a vast array of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Numerous epidemiological case-control studies show a higher prevalence of T. gondii infestation in individuals with various psychiatric and behavior disorders, including schizophrenia. This paper tends to review the relevant studies that demonstrate links between schizophrenia and T. gondii infestation, of which the latter may be acquired in different developmental phases. Apart from epidemiological correlation studies, some papers on other associations were also presented, describing putative patophysiological mechanisms that might be at least partly responsible for chronic infection-induced neuromediator disturbances, together with morphological and functional alterations, e.g., low-grade neuroinflammation, which are likely to induce psychopathological symptoms. Toxoplasmosis is only one of the putative infectious agents that derange correct brain growth and differentiation, alongside genetic and environmental factors. All of them may lead eventually to schizophrenia. A better knowledge of infection mechanisms and its influence on neurobiochemical and neuropathological pathways may enable more efficient therapy and the prevention of this devastating disease.

  7. Violence in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Randal G.; Maximon, Julia; Kusumi, Jonathan; Lurie, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children ...

  8. Schizophrenia, antipsychotics and risk of hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Jensen, Signe O W; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2013-01-01

    In a nationwide study using linkage of Danish hospital registers we examined predictors of hip fracture (ICD-10: S72) in 15,431 patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20 or ICD-8: 295) and 3,807,597 population controls. Shorter education, disability pension, lifetime alcohol abuse, somatic co......-morbidity, antipsychotics (IRR=1.19; 95% CI 1.15-1.24), antidepressant (IRR=1.18; 95% CI 1.16-1.20), anticholinergics (IRR=1.29; 95% CI 1.22-1.36), benzodiazepines (IRR=1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.08) and corticosteroids (IRR=1.44; 95% CI 1.36-1.53) were significant predictors. In 556 persons with schizophrenia and hip fracture...... (matched to 1:3 to schizophrenia controls without hip fracture), antipsychotic polypharmacy predicted hip fracture. Analyses among antipsychotic monotherapy patients showed no differential effect of individual antipsychotics. A dose-response relationship of hip fracture and lifetime antipsychotics...

  9. Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2010-01-01

    The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. The mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce transient psychotic symptoms, while unclear may involve dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurotransmission. However, only a very small proportion of the general population exposed to cannabinoids develop a psychotic illness. It is likely that cannabis exposure is a “component cause” that interacts with other factors to “cause” schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. Nevertheless, in the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, the role of component causes remains important and warrants further study. Dose, duration of exposure, and the age of first exposure to cannabinoids may be important factors, and genetic factors that interact with cannabinoid exposure to moderate or amplify the risk of a psychotic disorder are beginning to be elucidated. The mechanisms by which exposure to cannabinoids increase the risk for developing a psychotic disorder are unknown. However, novel hypotheses including the role of cannabinoids on neurodevelopmental processes relevant to psychotic disorders are being studied. PMID:19609589

  10. [Disturbances of emotional prosody in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurańska, Joanna; Gurański, Konstanty

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in understanding and expression of emotional prosody of speech (aprosodia) belong to frequent but rarely described symptoms of schizophrenia, that negatively influence the life quality of patients. The role of prosody in the process of verbal communication is to complement and emphasize the language (linguistic prosody) and affective (emotional prosody) aspects of the spoken announcements. The authors review literature, including studies on functional brain imaging, and analyze profile and ground of the disturbances in the emotional prosody in patients with schizophrenia. Similarly to patients with damage to the right hemisphere, the speech of schizophrenia patients often is monotonous and deprived of emotional coloring, despite preserved experiencing of appropriate emotions, similarly to healthy subjects. In the acoustic speech analysis of patients with schizophrenic psychosis, reduced fundamental frequency of the utterance, clinically defined as aprosodia, was showed. It was noticed that the problems in identifying emotions concern mainly negative emotions and that bigger defects were demonstrated by men. The authors emphasize the need to recognize and include appropriate therapeutic treatments in prosody disturbances, which aim is to improve the well-being and social functioning of the patients.

  11. Amusia and protolanguage impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, J T; Scaramello, N; Jakubovitz, A; Lehrfeld, J M; Laukka, P; Elfenbein, H A; Silipo, G; Javitt, D C

    2014-10-01

    Both language and music are thought to have evolved from a musical protolanguage that communicated social information, including emotion. Individuals with perceptual music disorders (amusia) show deficits in auditory emotion recognition (AER). Although auditory perceptual deficits have been studied in schizophrenia, their relationship with musical/protolinguistic competence has not previously been assessed. Musical ability was assessed in 31 schizophrenia/schizo-affective patients and 44 healthy controls using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). AER was assessed using a novel battery in which actors provided portrayals of five separate emotions. The Disorganization factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used as a proxy for language/thought disorder and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to assess cognition. Highly significant deficits were seen between patients and controls across auditory tasks (p music-perceiving groups, which remained significant after controlling for group status and education. Correlations with AER were specific to the melody domain, and correlations between protolanguage (melody domain) and language were independent of overall cognition. This is the first study to document a specific relationship between amusia, AER and thought disorder, suggesting a shared linguistic/protolinguistic impairment. Once amusia was considered, other cognitive factors were no longer significant predictors of AER, suggesting that musical ability in general and melodic discrimination ability in particular may be crucial targets for treatment development and cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

  12. Religious content of hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.

  13. Physical performance and disability in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Strassnig

    2014-06-01

    Disability is a multidimensional construct that results from different, and often interacting, factors associated with specific types and levels of impairment. In schizophrenia, the most poignant and well characterized determinants of disability are symptoms, cognitive and related skills deficits, but there is limited understanding of other relevant factors that contribute to disability. Here we conceptualize how reduced physical performance interacts with aging, neurobiological, treatment-emergent, and cognitive and skills deficits to exacerbate ADL disability and worsen physical health. We argue that clearly defined physical performance components represent underappreciated variables that, as in mentally healthy people, offer accessible targets for exercise interventions to improve ADLs in schizophrenia, alone or in combination with improvements in cognition and health. And, finally, due to the accelerated aging pattern inherent in this disease – lifespans are reduced by 25 years on average – we present a training model based on proven training interventions successfully used in older persons. This model is designed to target the physical and psychological declines associated with decreased independence, coupled with the cardiovascular risk factors and components of the metabolic syndrome seen in schizophrenia due to their excess prevalence of obesity and low fitness levels.

  14. Pathway-Specific Dopamine Abnormalities in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jodi J; Chohan, Muhammad O; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Moore, Holly; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    In light of the clinical evidence implicating dopamine in schizophrenia and the prominent hypotheses put forth regarding alterations in dopaminergic transmission in this disease, molecular imaging has been used to examine multiple aspects of the dopaminergic system. We review the imaging methods used and compare the findings across the different molecular targets. Findings have converged to suggest early dysregulation in the striatum, especially in the rostral caudate, manifesting as excess synthesis and release. Recent data showed deficit extending to most cortical regions and even to other extrastriatal subcortical regions not previously considered to be "hypodopaminergic" in schizophrenia. These findings yield a new topography for the dopaminergic dysregulation in schizophrenia. We discuss the dopaminergic innervation within the individual projection fields to provide a topographical map of this dual dysregulation and explore potential cellular and circuit-based mechanisms for brain region-dependent alterations in dopaminergic parameters. This refined knowledge is essential to better guide translational studies and efforts in early drug development. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spinocerebellar ataxia-10 with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spino-cerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10 is an autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, seizures and nystagmus with a fragmented pursuit. Schizophrenia has been reported with SCAs 1 and 2 yet in SCA 10, psychiatric manifestations are uncommon. We report a Hispanic family involving a father and his four children with SCA10 genetic mutation. Two of his children, a 20-year-old female and a 23-year-old male, presented with gradually progressive spino-cerebellar ataxia and paranoid schizophrenia. Neurological examination revealed ocular dysmetria, dysdiadokinesia, impaired finger-to-nose exam, gait ataxia and hyperreflexia in both the cases. Additionally, they had a history of psychosis with destructive behavior, depression and paranoid delusions with auditory hallucinations. Serology and CSF studies were unremarkable and MRI brain revealed cerebellar volume loss. Ultimately, a test for ATAXIN-10 mutation was positive thus confirming the diagnosis of SCA10 in father and his four children. We now endeavor to investigate the association between schizophrenia and SCA10.

  16. What visual illusions teach us about schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Edouard eNotredame

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Illusion, namely a mismatch between the objective and perceived properties of an object present in the environment, is a common feature of visual perception, both in normal and pathological conditions. This makes illusion a valuable tool with which to explore normal perception and its impairments. Although still debated, the hypothesis of a modified, and typically diminished, susceptibility to illusions in schizophrenia patients is supported by a growing number of studies. The current paper aimed to review how illusions have been used to explore and reveal the core features of visual perception in schizophrenia from a psychophysical, neurophysiological and functional point of view. We propose an integration of these findings into a common hierarchical Bayesian inference framework. The Bayesian formalism considers perception as the optimal combination between sensory evidence and prior knowledge, thereby highlighting the interweaving of perceptions and beliefs. Notably, it offers a holistic and convincing explanation for the perceptual changes observed in schizophrenia that might be ideally tested using illusory paradigms, as well as potential paths to explore neural mechanisms. Implications for psychopathology (in terms of positive symptoms, subjective experience or behavior disruptions are critically discussed.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Mcilwain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meghan E Mcilwain1,2, Jeff Harrison1, Amanda J Wheeler1,3, Bruce R Russell1,21School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 0.7% worldwide and significant, often devastating, consequences on social and occupational functioning. A range of antipsychotic medications are available; however, suboptimal therapeutic response in terms of psychotic symptoms is common and affects up to one-third of people with schizophrenia. Negative symptoms are generally less amenable to treatment. Because of the consequences of inadequate symptom control, effective treatment strategies are required for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine has been shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics in treatment-resistant populations in several studies; however, the occurrence of adverse effects, some of which are potentially life-threatening, are important limitations. In addition to those who are intolerant to clozapine, only 30% to 50% experience clinically significant symptom improvement. This review describes the recent evidence for treatment strategies for people not responding to nonclozapine antipsychotic agents and people not responding or only partially responding to clozapine.Keywords: antipsychotic, refractory, clozapine

  18. Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jeanette

    2010-02-01

    Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.

  19. Why does schizophrenia develop at late adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, C; Trower, P

    2001-03-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most researched, yet still one of the least understood, of the mental disorders. One key area that remains comparatively neglected is the fact that schizophrenia typically develops at late adolescence. In common with people with psychotic disorders, around 25% of normal teenagers also report finding adolescence very distressing, and a substantial empirical literature shows that certain characteristics typical of adolescence such as conflicted family relationships, grandiosity, egocentrism, and magical ideation bear a distinct resemblance to phenomena seen in psychotic disorders. Indeed, such phenomena, as might be judged prodromal or symptomatic in first-onset schizophrenia, have been shown to be remarkably common in normal adolescents, generally in about 50% of samples. Furthermore, prodromal-like signs in normal adolescents appear to be functionally linked to psychological development. For most adolescents, such phenomena pass with successful psychological development. It is proposed that psychosis in late adolescence is a consequence of severe disruption in this normally difficult psychological maturational process in vulnerable individuals, and explanations are offered as to why and how this comes about. It is suggested that problems either in reaching psychological maturity with regard to parents or in bonding to peers or both, may lead to crucial self-construction difficulties, and that psychosis emerges out of such "blocked adolescence." This approach proposes therapeutic interventions that enable professional services to side with both parents and clients simultaneously, and is normalizing and stigma-free.

  20. Can persons with schizophrenia appreciate visual art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Norton, D; McBain, R

    2008-10-01

    The way schizophrenia patients perceive the world is largely mysterious. Understanding and appreciating the visual world begins with the perception of basic visual features, which is altered in this mental disorder. Yet, the roles basic visual features play in functional activities such as appreciation of art are unclear. This study examined the effects of visual feature manipulation on beauty perception of art in schizophrenia patients (n=29) and in normal controls (n=30). Three pieces of art--The Starry Night (Van Gogh), Mona Lisa (Da Vinci) and a natural landscape photograph (anonymous)--were manipulated in terms of their coloration (removal of color), spatial frequency content (low or high-frequency pass) and visual noise level (with added noise). Subjects judged the beauty of the original and visual-feature-manipulated artworks by rating each piece individually (1 to 7) and by ranking all pieces from most to least beautiful. For the three original art pieces, averaged ratings and rankings were similar in patients and controls. However, when the visual features of the original pieces were manipulated, changes in the beauty ratings were significantly smaller in patients. The reduced sensitivity to visual feature manipulations suggests that the modulation of basic visual signals, often used for vivid and dynamic expressions in art, may be under-appreciated in schizophrenia.

  1. AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat eEmamian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a prevalent complex trait disorder manifested by severe neurocognitive dysfunctions and lifelong disability. During the past few years several studies have provided direct evidence for the involvement of different signaling pathways in schizophrenia. In this review, we mainly focus on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways in schizophrenia. The original study on the involvement of this pathway in schizophrenia was published by Emamian et al in 2004. This study reported convergent evidence for a decrease in AKT1 protein levels and levels of phosphorylation of GSK3β in the peripheral lymphocytes and brains of individuals with schizophrenia; a significant association between schizophrenia and an AKT1 haplotype; and a greater sensitivity to the sensorimotor gating−disruptive effect of amphetamine, conferred by AKT1 deficiency. It also showed that haloperidol can induce a stepwise increase in regulatory phosphorylation of AKT1 in the brains of treated mice that could compensate for the impaired function of this signaling pathway in schizophrenia. Following this study, several independent studies were published that not only confirmed the association of this signaling pathway with schizophrenia across different populations, but also shed light on the mechanisms by which AKT/GSK3 pathway may contribute to the development of this complex disorder. In this review, following an introduction on the role of AKT in human diseases and its functions in neuronal & non-neuronal cells, a review on the results of studies published on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia after the original 2004 paper will be provided. A brief review on other signaling pathways involved in schizophrenia and the possible connections with AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway will be discussed. Moreover, some possible molecular mechanisms acting through this pathway will be discussed besides the mechanisms by which they may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Finally

  2. Potential Value of Genomic Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Zhuo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the global population, and the disease has imposed a considerable burden on families and society. Although, the exact cause of schizophrenia remains unknown, several lines of scientific evidence have revealed that genetic variants are strongly correlated with the development and early onset of the disease. In fact, the heritability among patients suffering from schizophrenia is as high as 80%. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs are one of the main forms of genomic variations, ubiquitously occurring in the human genome. An increasing number of studies have shown that CNVs account for population diversity and genetically related diseases, including schizophrenia. The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the development of novel genomic technologies, which have led to the identification of schizophrenia-associated CNVs, insight into the roles of the affected genes in their intervals in schizophrenia, and successful manipulation of the target CNVs. In this review, we focus on the recent discoveries of important CNVs that are associated with schizophrenia and outline the potential values that the study of CNVs will bring to the areas of schizophrenia research, diagnosis, and therapy. Furthermore, with the help of the novel genetic tool known as the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system, the pathogenic CNVs as genomic defects could be corrected. In conclusion, the recent novel findings of schizophrenia-associated CNVs offer an exciting opportunity for schizophrenia research to decipher the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and development of schizophrenia as well as to provide potential clinical applications in genetic counseling, diagnosis, and therapy for this complex mental disease.

  3. Association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia: lack of association with schizophrenia and possible association with affective disturbances of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Seok, Hosik; Jeon, Hye Sook; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Gyeong Im; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyzes monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and norepinephrine. MAOA also plays a key role in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene located on the X chromosome and schizophrenia. We also analyzed the relationships between these SNPs and the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, affective disturbances, and poor concentration. Two hundred seventy five Korean schizophrenia patients and 289 control subjects were recruited. Three SNPs [rs6323 (Arg294Arg), rs1137070 (Asp470Asp), and rs3027407 (3'-untranslated region)] of the MAOA gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. The common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia according to the Operation Criteria Checklist were analyzed. Three examined SNPs showed no associations with male and female schizophrenia, respectively (p>0.05). In the analysis of the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, three examined SNPs were associated with affective disturbances, especially restricted affect and blunted affect in male schizophrenia, respectively (restricted affect, p=0.002, OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.00; blunted affect, p=0.009, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.22-4.12). The SNPs were not associated with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia (persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, and poor concentration). These results suggest that exonic SNPs (rs6323, rs1137070, and rs3027407) of the MAOA gene may be contributed to affective disturbances of Korean males schizophrenia, especially restricted affect and blunted affect.

  4. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  5. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Cahn, W.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  6. WHAT DETERMINES WISCONSIN CARD SORTING PERFORMANCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDOES, AJW; VANDENBOSCH, RJ

    1992-01-01

    Deficient performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) by patients with schizophrenia is a consistent finding. Although the test has been found sensitive to frontal lobe damage in neurological patients, it is not certain whether WCST performance in schizophrenia is caused by a structural

  7. Inflexible Minds : Impaired Attention Switching in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Henderikus G. O. M.; Martens, Sander; de Witte, Marc R.; Bruggeman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of sustained attention is assumed to be a core cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia. However, this seems inconsistent with a recent hypothesis that in schizophrenia the implementation of selection (i.e., sustained attention) is intact but the control of selection (i.e., switching the

  8. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  9. Geographical and temporal variations in clozapine prescription for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Schjerning, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Despite its unsurpassed efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine remains underutilized. Trends in the prescription of clozapine in patients with ICD-10 F20.x schizophrenia were assessed using data from Danish national registers. Three substudies were carried out: (i) an assessment...

  10. Associations of personality with intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Nabors, Lori

    2013-06-30

    Motivation is often disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about how it relates to personality. We examined intrinsic motivation (IM), two personality domains from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and symptoms in 58 male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Analyses revealed IM may be linked to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Brugada syndrome ECG is highly prevalent in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.; Cohen, D.; Seldenrijk, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Tan, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background-The causes of increased risk of sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia are not resolved. We aimed to establish (1) whether ECG markers of sudden cardiac death risk, in particular Brugada-ECG pattern, are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, and (2) whether increased prevalence

  12. Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate overconfidence in errors among individuals with psychosis using a visual perception task. Speaking to the specificity of this abnormality for schizophrenia and its pathogenetic relevance, overconfidence in errors and knowledge corruption were elevated in patients with schizophrenia relative to both control groups and were correlated with paranoia.

  13. Prenatal nutritional deficiency and risk of adult schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Susser, Ezra S

    2008-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944--1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring. The plausibility of several candidate micronutrients as potential risk factors for schizophrenia and the biological mechanisms that may underlie these associations are then reviewed. These nutrients include folate, essential fatty acids, retinoids, vitamin D, and iron. Following this discussion, we describe the methodology and results of an epidemiologic study based on a large birth cohort that has tested the association between prenatal homocysteine, an indicator of serum folate, and schizophrenia risk. The study capitalized on the use of archived prenatal serum specimens that make it possible to obtain direct, prospective biomarkers of prenatal insults, including levels of various nutrients during pregnancy. Finally, we discuss several strategies for subjecting the prenatal nutritional hypothesis of schizophrenia to further testing. These approaches include direct assessment of additional prenatal nutritional biomarkers in relation to schizophrenia in large birth cohorts, studies of epigenetic effects of prenatal starvation, association studies of genes relevant to folate and other micronutrient deficiencies, and animal models. Given the relatively high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy, this work has the potential to offer substantial benefits for the prevention of schizophrenia in the population.

  14. The ethics of research into schizophrenia prevention: a carer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D R

    2000-11-01

    To outline from a carer's/family's perspective the ethical concerns raised by research into screening for factors in people at risk of schizophrenia. The need for families and carers of people with schizophrenia to seek a voice in the ethics of research into schizophrenia prevention is described. The possibility that societal myths, literature and language have created sustained ignorance about psychotic illnesses, resulting in fear and/or prejudice, is considered. The impact of these factors greatly exacerbating the burden of schizophrenia for sufferers and their families is discussed. There is evidence that people with schizophrenia share the disadvantages of other disempowered minorities. It is necessary for ethical constraints to be cognisant of this; research should include critically exploring reasons for attempting to eliminate the condition. Development of an ethical framework for prevention research into schizophrenia should include carer/family input. From a carer/family perspective, research into schizophrenia should be directed at ameliorating the effects of the illness by advancing methods of early diagnosis and by finding suitable treatments that do not carry punitive side-effects, thus allowing people with the illness to reach their potential in all aspects of their lives. Therapeutic relief combined with the elimination of social ostracism would greatly benefit people with schizophrenia and their families.

  15. Race and Hospital Diagnoses of Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of schizophrenia among African American clients is a longstanding and critical disparity in mental health services. Overdiagnosis of schizophrenia is detrimental because it increases the potential for treatment with the wrong medications. Inadequate assessment of mood disorders, co-occurring substance abuse, and…

  16. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care. PMID:25485152

  17. Schizophrenia Delays and Alters Maturation of the Brain in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaud, Gwenaelle; Mackay, Clare; Andersson, Jesper; James, Susan; Quested, Digby; Ray, Manaan Kar; Connell, Julie; Roberts, Neil; Crow, Timothy J.; Matthews, Paul M.; Smith, Stephen; James, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia appears to be clinically more severe than the adult-onset form of the disease. In a previous study, we showed that anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities found in adolescents patients were larger and more widespread than what had been reported in the literature on adult schizophrenia. Particularly, we…

  18. Genetics of schizophrenia: communicating scientific findings in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having a family history of the disorder is currently the best predictor for the development of several disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Does our current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of schizophrenia support the clinical application of this knowledge in the form of genetic counselling?

  19. Anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jinyoung

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare anomalous subjective experiences in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression, in order to elucidate differences in subjective experiences and examine their potential clinical correlates in schizophrenia and mood disorders. The subjective experiences of 78 outpatients with schizophrenia (n=32), bipolar disorder (n=24) and unipolar depression (n=22), and 32 healthy controls were comprehensively assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). The FCQ total score was significantly higher in the schizophrenia and depression groups than in the healthy control group. There were no significant differences in the FCQ total or subscale scores among the schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and bipolar disorder groups. In the schizophrenia group, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative factor score was a significant negative predictor of the severity of subjective experiences assessed by the FCQ total score. Disruption of subjective experiences in patients with unipolar depression was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and younger age. In the bipolar disorder group, women reported more disruptions in subjective experience. Anomalous subjective experiences measured by the FCQ are not specific to schizophrenia, and the severity of these experiences in unipolar depression is substantially high. The finding of a dissimilar pattern of predictors of subjective experiences across different diagnostic groups suggests the complexity and variety of factors contributing to anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Caring for patients with schizophrenia places an enormous burden on the caregivers. The magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the burden reported by caregiving relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  2. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  3. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  4. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  5. Multiple affected Afrikaner families in a schizophrenia genetic study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report on six multiple affected Afrikaner families suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. These families form part of an ongoing study on genetics of schizophrenia. Three or more first degree relatives were affected in these families. In each family, the following will be reported on: a family tree, ...

  6. First episode schizophrenia | Khamker | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric condition. Patients with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive symptoms, which can become evident late in adolescence or in early adulthood. The peak age for presentation is 20 years in males and 25 years in females. This chronic condition follows a ...

  7. Schizophrenia and processing of facial emotions : Sex matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, MRM; Aleman, A; Montagne, B; Kahn, RS

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia and control subjects. To this end, 53 patients with schizophrenia (28 men and 25 women), and 42 controls (21 men and 21 women) were assessed with the use of a facial affect recognition morphing

  8. Continuity of care of outpatients with schizophrenia in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To study the needs of outpatients suffering from schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. Methods. A qualitative descriptive design was selected to study the needs of a non-probability purposive sample of 50 outpatients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. Data were collected on their ...

  9. Genetic and family counselling for schizophrenia: Where do we ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent genetic findings have led to profound changes in genetic and family counselling for schizophrenia patients and their families. Objectives: The article gives an overview of the present knowledge regarding the genetic and family counselling for schizophrenia. Method: Literature searches were performed ...

  10. Novel Immune Response to Gluten in Individuals with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A link between celiac disease and schizophrenia, has been speculated for several years. The reported association is based primarily on reports of elevated levels of antibodies to gliadin (a component of gluten). However, the significance of such antibodies in schizophrenia and whethe...

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder : An Unusual Presentation of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Amul; Sharma, Himanshu; Thakker, Yogesh

    2004-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder is a psychiatric disorder in its own right, rarely it can be a variant of a variety of psychiatric syndromes like schizophrenia, mood disorders, OCD etc. Following is an unusual case report of a female patient who presented with body dysmorphic disorder later diagnosed as having schizophrenia.

  12. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  13. Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

  14. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  15. Facilitating recruitment of patients with schizophrenia to a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....

  16. Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, Russell L.; Schijven, Dick; van Rheenen, Wouter; van Eijk, Kristel R.; O'Brien, Margaret; Kahn, René S.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Goris, An; Bradley, Daniel G.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Hardiman, Orla; Veldink, Jan H.; Shatunov, Aleksey; Dekker, Annelot M.; Diekstra, Frank P.; Pulit, Sara L.; van der Spek, Rick A. A.; van Doormaal, Perry T. C.; Sproviero, William; Jones, Ashley R.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Rowe, Dominic B.; Pamphlett, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Bauer, Denis; Kahlke, Tim; Williams, Kelly; Eftimov, Filip; Fogh, Isabella; Ticozzi, Nicola; Lin, Kuang; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; de Carvalho, Mamede; Pinto, Susana; Mora, Jesus S.; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Polak, Meraida; Chandran, Siddharthan; Colville, Shuna; Swingler, Robert; Morrison, Karen E.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Hardy, John; Orrell, Richard W.; Pittman, Alan; Sidle, Katie; Fratta, Pietro; Malaspina, Andrea; Petri, Susanne; Abdulla, Susanna; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Meyer, Thomas; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Basak, Nazli; Meitinger, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Blagojevic-Radivojkov, Milena; Andres, Christian R.; Maurel, Cindy; Bensimon, Gilbert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Brice, Alexis; Payan, Christine A. M.; Saker-Delye, Safa; Dürr, Alexandra; Wood, Nicholas; Tittmann, Lukas; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; Nöuthen, Markus M.; Amouyel, Philippe; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Curtis, Charles; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; Weber, Markus; Shaw, Christopher E.; Smith, Bradley N.; Pansarasa, Orietta; Cereda, Cristina; del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P.; D'alfonso, Sandra; Bertolin, Cinzia; Sorarù, Gianni; Mazzini, Letizia; Pensato, Viviana; Gellera, Cinzia; Tiloca, Cinzia; Ratti, Antonia; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Brunetti, Maura; Arcuti, Simon; Capozzo, Rosa; Zecca, Chiara; Lunetta, Christian; Penco, Silvana; Riva, Nilo; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Blair, Ian; Leigh, P. Nigel; Casale, Federico; Chio, Adriano; Beghi, Ettore; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Tortelli, Rosanna; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Powell, John; Ludolph, Albert C.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Robberecht, Wim; van Damme, Philip; Brown, Robert H.; Glass, Jonathan; Landers, John E.; Andersen, Peter M.; Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Silani, Vincenzo; van Es, Michael A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Breen, Gerome; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chan, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, Jimmy; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide

  17. Visualization analysis of author collaborations in schizophrenia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Duan, Zhiguang

    2015-02-19

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that levies a heavy medical toll and cost burden throughout the world. Scientific collaborations are necessary for progress in psychiatric research. However, there have been few publications on scientific collaborations in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of author collaborations in schizophrenia research. This study used 58,107 records on schizophrenia from 2003 to 2012 which were downloaded from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI Expanded) via Web of Science. CiteSpace III, an information visualization and analysis software, was used to make a visual analysis. Collaborative author networks within the field of schizophrenia were determined using published documents. We found that external author collaboration networks were more scattered while potential author collaboration networks were more compact. Results from hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the main collaborative field was genetic research in schizophrenia. Based on the results, authors belonging to different institutions and in different countries should be encouraged to collaborate in schizophrenia research. This will help researchers focus their studies on key issues, and allow each other to offer reasonable suggestions for making polices and providing scientific evidence to effectively diagnose, prevent, and cure schizophrenia.

  18. Reading Emotions from Body Movement: A Generalized Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Østefjells, Tiril; Nymo, Katharina; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84) compared to healthy control participants (n = 84), aiming to answer three questions: (1) whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; (2) whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and (3) whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101). Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral) were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  19. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  20. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Kouidrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.

  1. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggest...

  2. Longitudinal evaluation of the psychomotor syndrome in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docx, L.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Fransen, E.; Bervoets, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Bossche, M.J.A. Van Den; Vermeylen, S.; Temmerman, A.; Morsel, A.M.; Morrens, M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal course of psychomotor signs and symptoms after illness onset in schizophrenia. Therefore, a 1-year follow-up study was conducted in which patients with schizophrenia were assessed three times with an extensive battery of psychomotor rating scales and tests. The

  3. Disruption of the neurexin 1 gene is associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rujescu, Dan; Ingason, Andres; Cichon, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Deletions within the neurexin 1 gene (NRXN1; 2p16.3) are associated with autism and have also been reported in two families with schizophrenia. We examined NRXN1, and the closely related NRXN2 and NRXN3 genes, for copy number variants (CNVs) in 2977 schizophrenia patients and 33 746 controls from...

  4. Reading emotions from body movement: a generalized impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84 compared to healthy control participants (n = 84, aiming to answer three questions: 1 whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; 2 whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and 3 whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101. Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  5. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  6. Cognitive Discernible Factors between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Prouteau, Antoniette; Briand, Catherine; Nicole, Luc; Lalonde, Pierre; Lesage, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorders (SA) are associated with cognitive deficits. Generally, a schizoaffective diagnosis is associated with better prognosis on the level of social integration. It is also well established that cognition is an important factor for good social outcome in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that,…

  7. Dissociation and social cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Selwyn B.; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Lysaker, Paul H.

    While there is emerging evidence that dissociation is linked with trauma history and possibly symptoms in schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether dissociation represents a symptom dimensions in its own right in schizophrenia and as such is uniquely related to other features of illness. To explore

  8. CANTAB Explicit Memory Is Less Impaired in Addicted Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stephane; Briand, Catherine; Prouteau, Antoinette; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Lesage, Alain; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that in order to sustain the lifestyle of substance abuse, addicted schizophrenia patients would have less negative symptoms, better social skills, and less cognitive impairments. Mounting evidence supports the first two assumptions, but data lack regarding cognition in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Seventy-six schizophrenia…

  9. Social cognition and quality of life in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, Arija; Fett, Anne-Kathrin; Derks, Eske; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with poor quality of life (QOL). Whereas the effects of neurocognitive deficits and psychopathology on QOL of schizophrenia patients have recently been elucidated, little is known about social cognitive deficits in this regard. This study investigated the influence of

  10. Prefrontal inefficiency is associated with polygenic risk for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Walton (Esther); D. Geisler (Daniel); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); J. Hass (Johanna); J. Turner (Jessica); J. Liu (Jingyu); S.R. Sponheim (Scott); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); V. Rœssner (Veit); R.L. Gollub (Randy); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractConsidering the diverse clinical presentation and likely polygenic etiology of schizophrenia, this investigation examined the effect of polygenic risk on a well-established intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. We hypothesized that a measure of cumulative genetic risk based on

  11. Family Characteristics Relevant to the Development and Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Frederick

    This paper discusses the role of family variables in the development of schizophrenia. Other theories regarding the etiology of schizophrenia are summarized to show the complexity of the problem. Both biological and psychosocial factors are discussed. The review of current developments is organized around three family characteristics that have…

  12. Use of Depot Antipsychotic Medications for Medication Nonadherence in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    West, Joyce C.; Marcus, Steven C.; Wilk, Joshua; Countis, Lisa M.; Regier, Darrel A.; Olfson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe factors associated with initiation of depot antipsychotic medications in psychiatric outpatients with schizophrenia and recent medication nonadherence. Methods: A national sample of psychiatrists reported on adult outpatients with schizophrenia who were nonadherent with oral antipsychotic medications in the last year. Results: In total, 17.6% of psychiatrists initiated depot antipsychotic injections. Initiation was significantly and positively associated with public in...

  13. Brain Processing of proprioception and self-disorder in Schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)......12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)...

  14. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  15. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  16. Prevention and schizophrenia--the role of dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John; Brown, Alan; St Clair, David

    2011-03-01

    Adequate prenatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development. There is a growing body of evidence from epidemiology linking exposure to nutritional deprivation and increased risk of schizophrenia. Based on studies from the Netherlands and China, those exposed to macronutrient deficiencies during famine have an increased risk of schizophrenia. With respect to micronutrients, we focus on 3 candidates where there is biological plausibility for a role in this disorder and at least 1 study of an association with schizophrenia. These nutrients include vitamin D, folic acid, and iron. While the current evidence is incomplete, we discuss the potential implications of these findings for the prevention of schizophrenia. We argue that schizophrenia can draw inspiration from public health interventions related to prenatal nutrition and other outcomes and speculate on relevant factors that bear on the nature, risks, impact, and logistics of various nutritional strategies that may be employed to prevent this disorder.

  17. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  18. Depressive and paradepressive symptoms clinical features in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Sincha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, etiology and pathogenesis of which is still not completely uncovered and cause number of complications, decrease quality of life and hinder rehabilitation of the patients. Materials and metods. In order to establish depression and paradepressive symptoms features in patients with schizophrenia the next methods were used: clinical- psychopathological, anamnestic and catamnestic methods. 107 patients with schizophrenia (F20 and 30 patients with schizoaffective disorder, mixed type (F25 were examined. Conclusion. Correlative relationship between depressive, hallucinatory-delusional, deficits and neuroleptic manifestations symptoms has been indicated. factors of induction and amplification of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were determined. Ethiopsychopathogenic variants of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were obtained.

  19. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Köhler-Forsberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician's monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood...... abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark......-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4%) were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s) for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present...

  20. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

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    Marcia Radanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  1. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia.......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...

  2. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  3. Schizophrenia in males of cognitive performance: discriminative and diagnostic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analuiza Camozzato

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminative and diagnostic values of neuropsychological tests for identifying schizophrenia patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 36 male schizophrenia outpatients and 72 healthy matched volunteers was carried out. Participants underwent the following neuropsychological tests: Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Verbal Fluency, Stroop test, Mini Mental State Examination, and Spatial Recognition Span. Sensitivity and specificity estimated the diagnostic value of tests with cutoffs obtained using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. The latent class model (diagnosis of schizophrenia was used as gold standard. RESULTS: Although patients presented lower scores in most tests, the highest canonical function for the discriminant analysis was 0.57 (Verbal Fluency M. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained in the Verbal Fluency M test (75 and 65, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological tests showed moderate diagnostic value for the identification of schizophrenia patients. These findings suggested that the cognitive impairment measured by these tests might not be homogeneous among schizophrenia patients.

  4. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first......-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...

  5. Comparing two schizophrenia-specific quality of life instruments in institutionalized people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ting; Yang, Ai-Lun; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2017-12-01

    Clinical health professionals may have difficulties to select appropriate schizophrenia-specific Quality of life (QoL) instruments because of the limited information regarding their psychometric properties. Two widely used schizophrenia-specific QoL instruments (Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 [SQLS-R4] and Lancashire Quality of Life Profile [LQOLP]) were compared in institutionalized people with schizophrenia, and useful recommendations for clinical health professionals were provided. Participants (n = 100) filled out the two instruments twice. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted. Both SQLS-R4 domains (r = 0.573-0.731) and LQOLP domains (r = 0.303-0.778) had good test-retest reliability. However, the objective QoL domains in the LQOLP showed lower internal consistency (α = 0.219-0.617) than its subjective QoL domains (α = 0.532-0.947) and the SQLS-R4 domains (α = 0.768-0.939). The CFAs with two correlated underlying instruments constructs and two correlated underlying QoL traits (viz., Physical and Psychosocial QoL) performed the best data-model fit (CFI = 0.990, RMSEA = 0.039, SRMR = 0.039), which supported the validity of both instruments. Although both SQLS-R4 and LQOLP were valid and reliable, using SQLS-R4 on institutionalized people seemed to be more psychometrically solid than using the LQOLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  7. Short communication: Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel G; Sainz Cort, Alberto; Ligthart, Lannie; Draisma, Harmen H M; Minică, Camelia C; Gillespie, Nathan A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between schizophrenia and cannabis use. As both traits are substantially heritable, a shared genetic liability could explain the association. We use two recently developed genomics methods to investigate the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Firstly, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were created based on summary statistics from the largest schizophrenia genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis to date. We analysed the association between these schizophrenia polygenic scores and multiple cannabis use phenotypes (lifetime use, regular use, age at initiation, and quantity and frequency of use) in a sample of 6,931 individuals. Secondly, we applied LD-score regression to the GWA summary statistics of schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use to calculate the genome-wide genetic correlation. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were significantly (αcannabis use phenotypes, including lifetime use, regular use, and quantity of use, with risk scores explaining up to 0.5% of the variance. Associations were not significant for age at initiation of use and two measures of frequency of use analyzed in lifetime users only, potentially because of reduced power due to a smaller sample size. The LD-score regression revealed a significant genetic correlation of rg=0.22 (SE=0.07, p=0.003) between schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use. Common genetic variants underlying schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use are partly overlapping. Individuals with a stronger genetic predisposition to schizophrenia are more likely to initiate cannabis use, use cannabis more regularly, and consume more cannabis over their lifetime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Niacin Sensitivity and the Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messamore, Erik; Hoffman, William F.; Yao, Jeffrey K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with a blunted flush response to niacin. Since niacin-induced skin flushing is mediated by vasodilators derived from arachidonic acid (AA), we tested whether the blunted flush response to niacin is a marker of AA deficiency. Methods Eight concentrations of methylnicotinate were applied to the forearms of 20 adults with schizophrenia and 20 controls. Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow responses was used to derive values for niacin sensitivity (defined as the concentration eliciting half-maximal response, i.e., EC50 value) and efficacy (defined as the maximal evoked blood flow response). RBC membrane fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results Niacin sensitivity and efficacy were reduced in schizophrenia. In the control group, there was significant correlation between AA levels and niacin sensitivity as well as a trend toward correlation between AA levels and niacin efficacy. In contrast, neither sensitivity nor efficacy of niacin correlated with AA levels in schizophrenia. An expected correlation between the levels of AA and its elongation product (adrenic acid) was absent in schizophrenia. Adrenic acid levels correlated with niacin efficacy in schizophrenia. Conclusions The schizophrenia-associated niacin response abnormality involves both diminished sensitivity and reduced efficacy. The lack of expected correlation between levels of AA and adrenic acid suggests homeostatic imbalance within the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pathway in schizophrenia. Though AA levels were unrelated to measures of niacin response in schizophrenia, the correlation between adrenic acid and niacin efficacy in schizophrenia suggests relevance of the n-6 PUFA pathway to the blunted niacin response. PMID:20417059

  9. Is treatment-resistant schizophrenia categorically distinct from treatment-responsive schizophrenia? a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amy L; Samanaite, Ruta; Mill, Jonathan; Egerton, Alice; MacCabe, James H

    2017-01-13

    Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and around a third of patients are treatment-resistant. The only evidence-based treatment for these patients is clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic with relatively weak dopamine antagonism. It is plausible that varying degrees of response to antipsychotics reflect categorically distinct illness subtypes, which would have significant implications for research and clinical practice. If these subtypes could be distinguished at illness onset, this could represent a first step towards personalised medicine in psychiatry. This systematic review investigates whether current evidence supports conceptualising treatment-resistant and treatment-responsive schizophrenoa as categorically distinct subtypes. A systematic literature search was conducted, using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL and OpenGrey databases, to identify all studies which compared treatment-resistant schizophrenia (defined as either a lack of response to two antipsychotic trials or clozapine prescription) to treatment-responsive schizophrenia (defined as known response to non-clozapine antipsychotics). Nineteen studies of moderate quality met inclusion criteria. The most robust findings indicate that treatment-resistant patients show glutamatergic abnormalities, a lack of dopaminergic abnormalities, and significant decreases in grey matter compared to treatment-responsive patients. Treatment-resistant patients were also reported to have higher familial loading; however, no individual gene-association study reported their findings surviving correction for multiple comparisons. Tentative evidence supports conceptualising treatment-resistant schizophrenia as a categorically different illness subtype to treatment-responsive schizophrenia. However, research is limited and confirmation will require replication and rigorously controlled studies with large sample sizes and prospective study designs.

  10. Language in schizophrenia Part 2: What can psycholinguistics bring to the study of schizophrenia...and vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperberg, Gina R

    2010-08-01

    This is the second of two articles that discuss higher-order language and semantic processing in schizophrenia. The companion article (Part 1) gives an introduction to language dysfunction in schizophrenia patients. This article reviews a selection of psycholinguistic studies which suggest that sentence-level abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from a relative overdependence on semantic associative relationships at the expense of building higher-order meaning. Language disturbances in schizophrenia may be best conceptualized as arising from an imbalance of activity across two streams of processing, one drawing upon semantic relationships within semantic memory and the other involving the use of combinatorial mechanisms to build propositional meaning. I will also discuss some of the ways in which the study of schizophrenia may offer new insights into the cognitive and neural architecture of the normal language system.

  11. Development of the Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS: an intervention to improve pleasure and motivation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eNguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The efficacy of drug-based treatments and psychological interventions on the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains limited. Recent literature has distinguished negative symptoms associated with a diminished capacity to experience, from those associated with a limited capacity for expression. The Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS is a new method that specifically aims to reduce the syndrome of a diminished capacity to experience. Methods: The intervention’s vital ingredients were identified through a literature review of emotion in schizophrenia and positive psychology. The program has been beta-tested on various groups of healthcare professionals. Results: A detailed description of the final version of PEPS is presented here. The French version of the program is freely downloadable. Conclusions: PEPS is a specific, short, easy to use, group-based intervention to improve pleasure and motivation in schizophrenia. It was built considering a recovery-oriented approach to schizophrenia.

  12. Narcolepsy Presenting as Schizophrenia: A Literature Review and Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid Ramzi

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that causes significant disability and morbidity. Narcolepsy is a disorder, less prevalent than schizophrenia, but a disorder in which symptoms overlap with schizophrenia. This overlap in symptoms can cause narcolepsy to be confused with schizophrenia. The differences and similarities between narcolepsy and schizophrenia are discussed in the context of two cases. The first case describes an adolescent and the second case describes a refractory case of n...

  13. Quetiapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Schmid, Franziska; Hunger, Heike; Schwarz, Sandra; Srisurapanont, Manit; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (’atypical’) antipsychotic drugs have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. It is not clear how the effects of the various second generation antipsychotic drugs differ. Objectives To evaluate the effects of quetiapine compared with other second generation antipsychotic drugs for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007), inspected references of all identified studies, and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies, drug approval agencies and authors of trials for additional information. Selection criteria We included all randomised control trials comparing oral quetiapine with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 21 randomised control trials (RCTs) with 4101 participants. These trials provided data on four comparisons - quetiapine versus clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone or ziprasidone. A major limitation to all findings is the high number of participants leaving studies prematurely (57.6%) and the substantial risk of biases in studies. Efficacy data favoured olanzapine and risperidone compared with quetiapine (PANSS total score versus olanzapine:10 RCTs, n=1449, WMD 3.66 CI 1.93 to 5.39; versus risperidone: 9 RCTs, n=1953, WMD 3.09 CI 1.01 to 5.16), but clinical meaning is unclear

  14. [Emotional Memory and Electrocortical Activity in Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marc E; Champagne, Julie; Glaser, Emma; Mendrek, Adrianna

    Context Abnormal emotion processing is frequent in schizophrenia and affects social and functional outcome. Past event-related potential (ERP) research investigating processing of affective stimuli in schizophrenia was done mainly with facial expressions and revealed impaired facial emotion recognition in patients relative to control subjects. Experimentations involving fMRI with this group of patients, showed alteration of limbic and frontal regions in response to emotional unpleasant images, compared to neutral stimuli during a memory task. Other studies have also noted an increase in brain activity when the activation of the stimuli was high compared to low arousal stimuli. This may indicate a different sensitivity threshold to emotional arousal and emotional valence involving frontal pathways in these patients. But very few studies attempted to separate the contributions of emotional valence and arousal within an episodic memory protocol with ERP, in that population.Goal The aim of the current research is to investigate brain electro-cortical activity in schizophrenia in response to emotional images during an episodic memory task.Method ERP components were analyzed in 16 schizophrenic and 17 control participants matched for age, sex and intelligence. ERPs were obtained from 56 EEG electrodes. The tasks consisted in a classical episodic memory task that presented 100 repeated old and 100 new photographic images divided into four categories (unpleasant-high arousal, unpleasant-low arousal, pleasant-high arousal and pleasant-low arousal) selected from the International Affective Picture System. The N200, P300 and late positive component (LPC) mean amplitude, were analyzed using repeated-measure analyses of variance (MANOVA).Results Patients with schizophrenia and control subjects gave comparable subjective evaluations of arousal and valence. However, the frontal N200 and the P300 both showed an interaction of the group x memory x valence x hemisphere (F [1

  15. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  16. [Disintegration of social cognitive processes in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła, Hanna; Krukow, Paweł; Kalinowska, Joanna; Urbańska, Anna; Stelmach, Ewa; Kowal, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid development of research on social cognition (SC) impairments in schizophrenia, efforts are still made to generate new, broader theoretical models which include the neural network approach to those dysfunctions. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the structure of SC in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy subjects. The studied groups consisted of 55 subjects: 30 patients with paranoid schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, and 25 control healthy subjects matched for age, gender and education to the clinical group. In order to assess processes of SC, a battery of tests was administered: Theory of Mind Picture Stories to assess theory of mind, trials "Faces" (from Ekman and Friesen's set of emotional expressions) and "Figures" (from the publication by Argyle) to evaluate recognition of emotions from facial and gesture expression. The methods included also an assessment of self-criticism (insight) relating to the subject's processes of SC. The level of efficacy of SC was lower in the patients compared to the controls. In the clinical group, theory of mind was the most important factor for the overall level of SC and its impairments. There was inadequate, decreased patients' self-criticism regarding their execution of SC tests. The insight did not correlate with any other SC variables in the clinical group. In general, the group characterized by lower integration of social cognitive processes, also obtained lower scores in individual dimensions of SC. The structure of social cognitive processes in schizophrenic group, unlike in healthy subjects, shows characteristics of generalized disintegration.

  17. Treatment resistant schizophrenia in Slovenian population

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    Tea Terzić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractBackground. Approximately 30 % of patients with schizophrenia do not achieve remission upon antipsychotic treatment. The purpose of this article is to present the differences between treatment resistant and treatment responsive patients in Slovenian population.Methods. The prospective study included 138 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM IV. They were divided in the treatment responsive (94 patients and resistant group (44 patients. Groups were compared regarding the basic demographic and treatment related data.Results. Our results showed gender-related differences; the treatment resistant group included more men than women (p = 0.021, and men were younger than women (p = 0.019. In the treatment resistant group  the first psychotic episode occurred at a younger age (p = 0.005, on average it occured 3.86 years earlier than in the treatment responsive group. Treatment resistant patients had more hospitalizations (p = 0.001 and received higher doses of antipsychotic therapy in the past (p = 0.030 and present (p = 0.001. They were also prescribed clozapine earlier than the responsive group (p = 0.001. Regardless of the treatment response, patients living in a relationship had lower levels of total PANSS positive symptoms (p = 0.013 and total general symptoms (p = 0.050 than single and widowed patients.Conclusions. We made a comparative study of a group of treatment resistant and treatment responsive schizophrenia patients in slovenian population for the first time. An early onset of the disease, male gender, more pronounced psychopathological symptoms and low global functioning can indicate increased risk for unfavourable disease progress. It is important that these patients are recognised early to ensure optimal treatment.

  18. Esquizofrenia refratária Refractory schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Elkis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste artigo é o de revisar vários aspectos da esquizofrenia refratária levando em conta questões relacionadas à definição, aspectos clínicos, correlatos psicobiológicos, tratamentos farmacológicos e não farmacológicos, assim como preditores de resposta terapêutica. MÉTODO: Pesquisa no Medline, assim como artigos dos autores. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Pelo menos um terço dos pacientes com esquizofrenia são refratários a tratamento com antipsicóticos e as evidências apontam a clozapina em monoterapia como a principal opção nesses casos. A politerapia com antipsicóticos não tem apoio em evidências. Ensaios clínicos recentes mostraram que a potencialização da clozapina com outros antipsicóticos não é superior ao placebo.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present paper is to review the various aspects of refractory schizophrenia regarding issues such as definitions, clinical aspects, psychobiological correlates, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options and predictors of treatment response. METHOD: Medline search as well as articles of the authors. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Refractory schizophrenia affects at least one third of patients with schizophrenia and the best evidence shows that is monotherapy with clozapine remains the mainstay for the treatment of such condition. Antipsychotic polipharmacy is not supported by current evidence and recent clinical trials have shown that clozapine augmentation with antipsychotics has no benefit over placebo.

  19. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-08-01

    The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n=57) in a cross-sectional study. We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) 'preference for positive reinterpretation and growth' coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) 'preference for mental disengagement' coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) 'social support-seeking' coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of 'denial' as a coping style and insight or distress. Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between 'positive reinterpretation and growth' and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others.

  20. The neurobiology of relapse in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Gary; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Fervaha, Gagan; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Hahn, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine's proposed role in psychosis proved a starting point in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse, fitting given the central role positive symptoms play. This link is reflected in early work examining neurotransmitter metabolite and drug (e.g. amphetamine, methylphenidate) challenge studies as a means of better understanding relapse and predictors. Since, lines of investigation have expanded (e.g. electrophysiological, immunological, hormonal, stress), an important step forward if relapse per se is the question. Arguably, perturbations in dopamine represent the final common pathway in psychosis but it is evident that, like schizophrenia, relapse is heterogeneous and multidimensional. In understanding the neurobiology of relapse, greater gains are likely to be made if these distinctions are acknowledged; for example, efforts to identify trait markers might better be served by distinguishing primary (i.e. idiopathic) and secondary (e.g. substance abuse, medication nonadherence) forms of relapse. Similarly, it has been suggested that relapse is 'neurotoxic', yet individuals do very well on clozapine after multiple relapses and the designation of treatment resistance. An alternative explanation holds that schizophrenia is characterized by different trajectories, at least to some extent biologically and/or structurally distinguishable from the outset, with differential patterns of response and relapse. Just as with schizophrenia, it seems naïve to conceptualize the neurobiology of relapse as a singular process. We propose that it is shaped by the form of illness and in place from the outset, modified by constitutional factors like resilience, as well as treatment, and confounded by secondary forms of relapse. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.