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Sample records for schizophrenia case study

  1. Schizophrenia and common sense: study of 3 single cases.

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    Naudin, J; Azorin, J; Mishara, A L; Wiggins, O P; Schwartz, M

    2000-01-01

    There is new interest in subjective experiences of schizophrenia. This kind of analysis emphasizes the subjective stories of patients, and the methods do not pretend to have the objectivity of science. However, the plausibility and the empathetic resonance of the single case may bring subjective confirmation to the validity of an insight and indicate new directions of research. Following this line, the authors present a study of 3 single cases of 'reflexive' residual type of schizophrenia. The methods for selecting the cases and the philosophical groundings of the concept of 'reflexive schizophrenia' are explained. The analysis of the single cases revealed that (1) schizophrenic persons' cognitive deficit is related to the constitution of common sense; (2) some schizophrenics cope with the cognitive deficit by creating a theoretical corpus of axioms stemming from common sense, namely the 'axioms of everyday life'; (3) this mechanism of coping is described as an inflexible attachment to 'axioms of everydayness', and (4) this attachment to common sense releases the patient from all personal investment of self in the process of anchoring in the living world and, on this basis, allows a relatively solid, although distant, attachment to reality. The nature of deficit in schizophrenia is also discussed by confronting the phenomenological point of view and the neuropsychological, that is the so-called 'theory of mind'. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Fetal growth and schizophrenia: a nested case-control and case-sibling study.

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    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Dalman, Christina; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-11-01

    The association between low birth weight and schizophrenia has been suggested by many studies. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a measure used as a proxy for intrauterine growth restriction. We aim to examine if children who are born SGA are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia and whether an association may be explained by factors shared among siblings. We linked 3 population-based registers: the Danish National Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish Civil Registration register to identify all persons born between 1978 and 2000. A nested case-control study and a case-sibling study design were used. There were 4650 cases of schizophrenia. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. SGA was defined as the lowest 10th birth weight percentile for a given sex and gestational age. SGA was associated with an IRR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.37) for schizophrenia in the case-control study. An IRR of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.97-1.68) was found in the case-sibling study. There is a modest association between SGA and schizophrenia. Our results indicate that this association is due to an independent effect of factors associated with low birth weight for gestational age per se, rather than other factors shared by siblings.

  3. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  4. [Somatotype and schizophrenia. A case-control study].

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    Pailhez, G; Rodríguez, A; Ariza, J; Palomo, A L; Bulbena, A

    2009-01-01

    To compare somatotypes of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls and to examine some associations between somatic (joint mobility, somatotype) and psychopathological (anxiety, clinical seriousness and schizophrenic types) features. Thirty four in-patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia assessed by SCID-I, aged 18 to 50 years, were recruited as cases. Thirty two subjects of a general non-clinical population were recruited as controls. Heath-Carter method and 5 questions to detect joint hypermobility were used to assess both somatotype and joint hypermobility. Trait anxiety (STAI) and BPRS were assessed at medical discharge. There were no statistically significant differences between mean somatotype groups (cases: 4(1/2) 5(1/2) 1(1/2); controls: 5 - 5 - 1(1/2)). Schizophrenic patients showed significantly more divergence among themselves in relationship to their own common mean [t = 1.98; gl = 64; p = 0.05] and accounted for more ectomorphic categories than the control group. Somatotype means of paranoid and disorganized types were significantly more homogeneous (with greater values of ectomorphism) than undifferentiated type [X2 = 6.61; gl = 2; p = 0.037]. There was a tendency towards positive association between anxiety - joint hypermobility and anxiety- ectomorphism, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. In spite of their limitations, the results provide suggestive data for identification of subtypes in mental illnesses that can be used as a nosologic knowledge or as potential risk markers.

  5. A Case Study on Promoting Neuroplasticity in a Patient With Schizophrenia.

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    Puskar, Kathryn; Slivka, Cynthia; Lee, Heeyoung; Martin, Colin; Witt, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of neuroplasticity, explore strategies that psychiatric nurse practitioners can use to improve cognitive functioning, and apply these strategies to a case study of a patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. This study used an explanatory descriptive approach with a single-case study to describe cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia and to illustrate practical implications. Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with typical onset in late adolescence and young adulthood. Cognitive impairment often accompanies schizophrenia and may lead to significant functional impairment. Research demonstrates that the brain is able to change (neuroplasticity) in response to environmental stimuli either negatively or positively. Evidence suggests intervention, including cognitive remediation, physical activity, and sleep, can positively modify neuroplasticity in schizophrenia and improve cognitive function, which may lead to improved quality of life. Psychiatric mental health nurses need to offer cognitive enhancing strategies to take advantage of neuroplasticity. Ongoing nursing education regarding therapeutic neurocognitive approaches from basic research should be emphasized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A case study on acupuncture in the treatment of schizophrenia

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    Bosch, M.P.C.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the use of acupuncture as an add on treatment for a patient with chronic schizophrenia. The 63-year-old woman suffered from persistent hallucinations and even physical pain as a result of the hallucination of a black bird that kept pecking her back. The patient received 12

  7. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

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    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  8. Dental caries status of patients with schizophrenia in Seville, Spain: a case-control study.

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    Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Monsalve-Guil, L; Ortiz-Garcia, I; Jimenez-Guerra, A; Lopez-Lopez, J; Segura-Egea, J J

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the dental status (DMFT) in patients with schizophrenia compared with a control group. In this case-control study, 50 patients with schizophrenia attended in the Psychiatric Unit at the Virgen Macarena University Hospital of Seville were compared with 50 people (without systemic diseases and not taking psychotropic drugs) in a control group attended in the School of Dentistry of Seville. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed according to the World Health Organization WHO criteria. Patients with schizophrenia showed a decayed teeth (DT) score of 7.26 ± 5.69 compared with 6.50 ± 4.37 for patients the control group. These differences were significant and suggest that dental caries are most prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. People who smoked showed significantly higher DT scores in both groups. Among patients with schizophrenia, smokers scored 9.34 ± 5.42 compared with 4.38 ± 4.82 for non-smokers. Among the healthy controls, smokers scored 6.88 ± 4.85 compared with 6.12 ± 3.85 for non-smokers (p schizophrenia showed a missing teeth (MT) score of 9.10 ± 8.56 compared with 5.38 ± 5.14 in control patients. MT scores increased significantly with age and with smoking in both groups of patients (p schizophrenia showed a filled teeth (FT) score of 1.38 ± 2.70 compared with 2.34 ± 3.48 in control patients. FT differences in gender and smoking habits between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects were statistically significant (p schizophrenia have extensive untreated dental disease. Patients with schizophrenia constitute a high risk population for dental health. This group showed a greater prevalence of decayed and missing teeth and more extensive treatment needs.

  9. [A rare and not very studied disorder: childhood-onset schizophrenia. A case report].

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    Bailly, D; de Chouly de Lenclave, M B

    2004-01-01

    pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the notion that such factors may be more salient in very early onset and more severe cases is now usually accepted. However, a number of environmental factors, including prenatal maternal infections and perinatal complications, may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, in addition to genetic factors. Because a significant relationship between stressful life events and exacerbations in positive symptoms was found in the case reported, the authors examine the role of such stress factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and in the course of illness. A brief review of studies that have examined the effects of antipsychotic agents in children with schizophrenia underscores the paucity of data available to guide clinicians in this area. However, these data suggest that children who receive conventional neuroleptics experience significant adverse effects, primarily sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, they suggest that new antipsychotic agents, such as clozapine, may be more effective than conventional neuroleptics, particularly in negative symptoms. Lastly, the authors emphasize the poor outcome usually reported in childhood-onset schizophrenia, highlighting the need of a long-term pharmacological and behavioural treatment. This case report, such as others, supports the hypo-thesis that there is a clinical continuity between early and later onset schizophrenia. It also suggests that very early onset schizophrenia is a more severe form of the disorder and may be secondary to greater familial vulnerability. Consequently, systematic studies of these patients may be particularly informative and may provide important informations for understanding the etiologic processes involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  10. Improving social behaviour in schizophrenia patients using an integrated virtual reality programme: a case study.

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    Rus-Calafell, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ribas-Sabaté, J

    2012-01-01

    Social skills training programmes are among the treatments of choice in schizophrenia. Virtual reality (VR) can improve the results obtained with traditional social skills programmes by helping to generalize the acquired responses to patients' daily lives. We present the results of a case study involving the application of an integrated VR programme for social skills training. A 30-year-old woman with a well-established diagnosis of schizophrenia was enrolled in the study. She completed four baseline sessions, 16 treatment sessions and four follow-up sessions three months after the end of the treatment. Using a multiple baseline across-behaviours design, three target behaviours were analysed: facial emotion recognition, social anxiety and conversation time. Symptoms and social function variables were also assessed. The results showed a positive change in the three target behaviours and improvements in interpersonal communication, assertiveness and negative symptoms. The VR programme proved useful for training the patient's social behaviour and, consequently, for improving her performance.

  11. A Case-Control Study of the Association between Polymorphisms in the Fibrinogen Alpha Chain Gene and Schizophrenia

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    Wenwang Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies using the mass spectrum analysis provided evidence that fibrinopeptide A (FPA could be a potential biomarker for schizophrenia diagnosis. We sought further to demonstrate that variants in the fibrinogen alpha chain gene (FGA coded FPA might confer vulnerability to schizophrenia. 1,145 patients with schizophrenia and 1,016 healthy volunteers from the Han population in Northeast China were recruited. The association of three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs2070011 in the 5′UTR, rs2070016 in intron 4, and rs2070022 in the 3′UTR in FGA and schizophrenia was examined using a case-control study design. Genotypic distributions of these three SNPs were not found to be significantly different between cases and controls (rs2070011: χ2=1.28, P=0.528; rs2070016: χ2=4.11, P=0.128; rs2070022: χ2=1.23, P=0.541. There were also no significant differences in SNP allelic frequencies between cases and controls (all P>0.05. Additionally, the frequency of haplotypes consisting of alleles of these three SNPs was not significantly different between cases and healthy control subjects (global χ2=9.27, P=0.159. Our study did not show a significant association of FGA SNPs with schizophrenia. Future studies may need to test more FGA SNPs in a larger sample to identify those SNPs with a minor or moderate effect on schizophrenia.

  12. Two Adolescents at Risk for Schizophrenia: A Family Case Study.

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    Taichert, Louise C.

    1979-01-01

    Studies complex factors contributing to the development of adolescent psychoses in two stepbrothers. Neurodevelopmental difficulties make them vulnerable to their parents' fears and conflicts. This affects the quality of their total life experience and the kind of parent-child relationships leading to their psychoses. A discussion by Saul L. Brown…

  13. Improving Social Cognition in People with Schizophrenia with RC2S: Two Single-Case Studies.

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    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in social interactions are a central characteristic of people with schizophrenia, and can be partly explained by impairments of social cognitive processes. New strategies of cognitive remediation have been recently developed to target these deficits. The RC2S therapy is an individualized and partly computerized program through which patients practice social interactions and develop social cognitive abilities with simulation techniques in a realistic environment. Here, we present the results of two case-studies involving two patients with schizophrenia presenting with specific profiles of impaired social cognition. Each patient completed three baseline sessions, 14 treatment sessions, and 3 follow-up sessions at the end of the therapy - and for 1 patient, another 3 sessions 9 months later. We used a multiple baseline design to assess specific components of social cognition according to the patients' profiles. Functioning and symptomatology were also assessed at the end of the treatment and 6 months later. Results highlight significant improvements in the targeted social cognitive processes and positive changes in functioning in the long term. The RC2S program seems, thus, to be a new useful program for social cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

  14. Improving social cognition in people with schizophrenia with RC2S: two single-case studies

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    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in social interactions are a central characteristic of people with schizophrenia, and can be partly explained by impairments of social cognitive processes. New strategies of cognitive remediation have been recently developed to target these deficits. The RC2S therapy is an individualized and partly computerized program through which patients practice social interactions and develop social cognitive abilities with simulation techniques in a realistic environment. Here we present the results of two case studies involving two patients with schizophrenia presenting with specific profiles of impaired social cognition. Each patient completed three baseline sessions, 14 treatment sessions, and three follow up sessions at the end of the therapy – and for one patient, another three sessions nine months later. We used a multiple baseline design to assess specific components of social cognition according to the patients’ profiles. Functioning and symptomatology were also assessed at the end of the treatment and six months later. Results highlight significant improvements in the targeted social cognitive processes and positive changes in functioning in the long term. The RC2S program seems thus to be a new useful program for social cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

  15. Improving Social Cognition in People with Schizophrenia with RC2S: Two Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in social interactions are a central characteristic of people with schizophrenia, and can be partly explained by impairments of social cognitive processes. New strategies of cognitive remediation have been recently developed to target these deficits. The RC2S therapy is an individualized and partly computerized program through which patients practice social interactions and develop social cognitive abilities with simulation techniques in a realistic environment. Here, we present the results of two case-studies involving two patients with schizophrenia presenting with specific profiles of impaired social cognition. Each patient completed three baseline sessions, 14 treatment sessions, and 3 follow-up sessions at the end of the therapy – and for 1 patient, another 3 sessions 9 months later. We used a multiple baseline design to assess specific components of social cognition according to the patients’ profiles. Functioning and symptomatology were also assessed at the end of the treatment and 6 months later. Results highlight significant improvements in the targeted social cognitive processes and positive changes in functioning in the long term. The RC2S program seems, thus, to be a new useful program for social cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. PMID:27199776

  16. Antipsychotic Medications and Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Hsing-Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization in association with the use of certain antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia patients.A nationwide cohort of 31,177 inpatients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years whose records were enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008 and were studied after encrypting the identifications. Cases (n = 147 were patients with subsequent acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization after their first psychiatric admission. Based on a nested case-control design, each case was matched with 20 controls for age, sex and the year of first psychiatric admission using risk-set sampling. The effects of antipsychotic agents on the development of acute coronary syndrome were assessed using multiple conditional logistic regression and sensitivity analyses to confirm any association.We found that current use of aripiprazole (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.27-10.64, p<0.05 and chlorpromazine (adjusted RR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.40-6.24, p<0.001 were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome. Although haloperidol was associated with an increased risk (adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.20-3.44, p<0.01, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. These three antipsychotic agents were also associated with an increased risk in the first 30 days of use, and the risk decreased as the duration of therapy increased. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score-adjusted modeling showed that the results were similar to those of multiple regression analysis.Patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, or haloperidol could have a potentially elevated risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, particularly at the start of therapy.

  17. Hypomania after augmenting venlafaxine and olanzapine with sarcosine in a patient with schizophrenia: a case study

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    Strzelecki D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Strzelecki, Justyna Szyburska, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Olga KałużyńskaDepartment of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Lódz, Central Clinical Hospital, Lódz, PolandAbstract: Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important and well-established role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Agents with glutamatergic properties such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine, bitopertin are investigated in schizophrenia with special focus on negative and cognitive symptomatology. In this article, we describe a case of a 34-year-old woman with diagnosis of schizophrenia with persistent moderate negative and cognitive symptoms, a participant of the Polish Sarcosine Study (PULSAR treated with olanzapine (25 mg per day and venlafaxine (75 mg per day. During ten weeks of sarcosine administration (2 g per day the patient’s activity and mood improved, but in the following 2 weeks, the patient reported decreased need for sleep, elevated mood, libido and general activity. We diagnosed drug-induced hypomania and recommended decreasing the daily dose of venlafaxine to 37.5 mg per day, which resulted in normalization of mood and activity in about 1 week. After this change, activity and mood remained stable and better than before adding sarcosine, and subsequent depressive symptoms were not noted. We describe here the second case report where sarcosine induced important affect changes when added to antidepressive and antipsychotic treatment, which supports the hypothesis of clinically important glutamate–serotonin interaction.Keywords: MNDA receptor, glutamatergic system, serotoninergic system

  18. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration.

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    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. CANNABIS USE AND ASSOCIATED HARMS AMONG SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS IN A NGERIAN CLINICAL SETTING: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Victor Lasebikan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The overall aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia with associated levels of harm in a Nigerian clinical setting.Method: In this case-control study, consecutive 150 patients with schizophrenia were matched by age and gender with an equal number of patients that utilized the general outpatient department of the State Hospital, Ring Road Ibadan.The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST was used to obtain prevalence of cannabis use and level of health risk as determined by the ASSIST score. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to determine the severity of psychosis. Results: Prevalence of cannabis use among the cases was 10.0% and 2.7% among the control group, p = 0.03. Mean ASSIST score was significantly higher among the cases compared with the control, p < 0.001. Respondents of male gender and those who were not married were significantly more likely to be cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia, p < 0.001, p < 0.02 respectively. Conclusion: Cannabis use was prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and was associated with health risks. Thus, routine screening for cannabis use and brief intervention is suggested to be integrated into care for adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

  20. Cannabis Use and Associated Harms among Schizophrenia Patients in a Nigerian Clinical Setting: A Case-Control Study.

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    Lasebikan, Victor; Aremu, Olaolu O

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia with associated levels of harm in a Nigerian clinical setting. In this case-control study, consecutive 150 patients with schizophrenia were matched by age and gender with an equal number of patients that utilized the general outpatient department of the State Hospital, Ring Road Ibadan. The alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) was used to obtain prevalence of cannabis use and level of health risk as determined by the ASSIST score. The positive and negative syndrome scale was used to determine the severity of psychosis. Prevalence of cannabis use among the cases and control group was 10.0 and 2.7%, respectively, p = 0.03. Mean ASSIST score was significantly higher among the cases compared with the control, p cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia (p Cannabis use was prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and was associated with health risks. Thus, routine screening for cannabis use and brief intervention is suggested to be integrated into care for adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

  1. Visual perceptual remediation for individuals with schizophrenia: Rationale, method, and three case studies.

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    Butler, Pamela D; Thompson, Judy L; Seitz, Aaron R; Deveau, Jenni; Silverstein, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of visual remediation strategies in schizophrenia despite abundant evidence of visual-processing alterations in this condition. We report preliminary, case-study-based evidence regarding the effects of visual remediation in this population. We describe implementation of a visual-perceptual training program called ULTIMEYES (UE) and initial results through 3 brief case studies of individuals with schizophrenia. UE targets broad-based visual function, including low-level processes (e.g., acuity, contrast sensitivity) as well as higher level visual functions. Three inpatients, recruited from a research unit, participated in at least 38 sessions 3 to 4 times per week for approximately 25 min per session. Contrast sensitivity (a trained task), as well as acuity and perceptual organization (untrained tasks), were assessed before and after the intervention. Levels of progression through the task are also reported. UE was well tolerated by the participants and led to improvements in contrast sensitivity, as well as more generalized gains in visual acuity in all 3 participants and perceptual organization in 2 participants. Symptom profiles were somewhat different for each participant, but all were symptomatic during the intervention. Despite this, they were able to focus on and benefit from training. The adaptive nature of the training was well suited to the slower progression of 2 participants. These case studies set the stage for further research, such as larger, randomized controlled trials of the intervention that include additional assessments of perceptual function and measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Neural Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study using Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy.

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    Taylor, S Trevor; Chhabra, Harleen; Sreeraj, Vanteemar S; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, behavioral symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Roughly, 70%-80% of schizophrenia patients experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), with 25%-30% demonstrating resistance to conventional antipsychotic medications. Studies suggest a promising role for add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of medication-refractory AVHs. The mechanisms through which tDCS could be therapeutic in such cases are unclear, but possibly involve neuroplastic effects. In recent years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been used successfully to study tDCS-induced neuroplastic changes. In a double-blind, sham-controlled design, we applied fNIRS to measure task-dependent cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes as a surrogate outcome of single session tDCS-induced effects on neuroplasticity in a schizophrenia patient with persistent auditory hallucinations. The observations are discussed in this case report.

  3. Cognitive performance of long-term institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia: A case control study

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    Alexandre Paim Diaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive impairment is inherent to the ageing process. Several studies suggest that patients with late-life schizophrenia have more marked cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and institutionalized elderly control patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases, matched for age, educational level and institutionalization time. Methods: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMCOG was used to test 10 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. Results were compared with those of 10 institutionalized control patients with history of Hansen's disease. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed a worse performance in terms of total CAMCOG score and on its subtests of orientation, language, abstraction, and memory (p≤0.05. Patients with schizophrenia also disclosed a non-significant trend toward lower scores on the MMSE and on calculus. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that schizophrenia was associated to worse cognitive impairment in long-term institutionalized elderly patients compared with institutionalized patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases.

  4. Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study

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    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

  5. Comparing life experiences of college students with differing courses of schizophrenia in Korea: case studies.

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    Sung, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Soyaja; Puskar, Kathryn R; Kim, Euisook

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify how daily experiences of college students with schizophrenia reflected the course of their disease. The sample included 8 college students with schizophrenia. Comparisons of life experiences were made across disease courses using themes established in a prior study. Subjects had different themes according to the following three disease courses: recovering, deteriorating, and fluctuating. This finding provides support for developing intervention strategies for college students in each disease course, such as the unique ways that psychiatric nurses can help college students with difficulties due to serious mental illness.

  6. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

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    Veling, Wim; Hoek, H. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of

  7. Improving Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia by Targeting Cognition and Metacognition with Computerized Cognitive Remediation: A Multiple Case Study

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    Élisabeth Thibaudeau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM (i.e., the ability to infer the mental states of others and cognition. Associations have often been reported between cognition and ToM, and ToM mediates the relationship between impaired cognition and impaired functioning in schizophrenia. Given that cognitive deficits could act as a limiting factor for ToM, this study investigated whether a cognitive remediation therapy (CRT that targets nonsocial cognition and metacognition could improve ToM in schizophrenia. Four men with schizophrenia received CRT. Assessments of ToM, cognition, and metacognition were conducted at baseline and posttreatment as well as three months and 1 year later. Two patients reached a significant improvement in ToM immediately after treatment whereas at three months after treatment all four cases reached a significant improvement, which was maintained through 1 year after treatment for all three cases that remained in the study. Improvements in ToM were accompanied by significant improvements in the most severely impaired cognitive functions at baseline or by improvements in metacognition. This study establishes that a CRT program that does not explicitly target social abilities can improve ToM.

  8. Cognitive Pragmatic Rehabilitation Program in Schizophrenia: A Single Case fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbatore, Ilaria; Geda, Elisabetta; Gastaldo, Luigi; Duca, Sergio; Costa, Tommaso; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), aimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods. The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain. Behavioural measures of the patient's communicative performance were also gathered before and after training and at follow-up. Results. The patient improved his communicative performance in almost all tests. Posttraining stronger ALFF signal emerged in the superior, inferior, and medial frontal gyri, as well as the superior temporal gyri. Conclusions. Even if based on a single case study, these preliminary results show functional changes at the cerebral level that seem to support the patient's behavioural improvements. PMID:28239498

  9. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2016-01-01

    history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R2=0.0021; P=0.00331; P-value threshold ... of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N......=978), cases reporting no such family history (N=4,503), and unscreened controls (N=8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup...

  10. Interaction between COMT haplotypes and cannabis in schizophrenia: a case-only study in two samples from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Javier; Sanjuán, Julio; Ramos-Ríos, Ramón; Paz, Eduardo; Agra, Santiago; Tolosa, Amparo; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    Cannabis use is one of the environmental factors with more solid evidence contributing to schizophrenia risk, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. One of the genes that may interact with cannabis is COMT, although available data are scarce. Here, we present a case-only study of the putative COMT-cannabis interaction in schizophrenia. Two Spanish samples from Santiago de Compostela and Valencia were screened for cannabis use. One hundred and fifty five individuals from a total of 748 patients were identified as cannabis users. Five SNPs in COMT, defining three common functional haplotypes with different enzymatic activities, were genotyped and analyzed for association at the SNP, haplotype and genotype levels. An association was detected between cannabis use and low activity variants (Pcannabis use in comparison to Val homozygous (Mantel-Haenszel OR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.27-3.26, P=0.0031, in the combined sample). These data are in contrast to those from Caspi et al. (Biol. Psychiatry 57 (2005)1117-1127) who found association between schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder and homozygosity at the high activity Val variant of rs4680. The results of our study are discussed in the context of previous findings, suggesting the involvement of COMT polymorphisms in the association between cannabis use and schizophrenia as well as the existence of additional factors mediating this association. However, further research is needed to confirm the COMT-cannabis interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette smoking and cognitive function in Chinese male schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients have higher smoking rates than the general population. Studies show that smoking may be a form of self-medication in an attempt to alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients of European background. This study examined the relationships between smoking and cognitive deficits in Chinese schizophrenic patients, which have previously received little systemic study. We recruited 580 male chronic patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 male control subjects who were matched on age and education. The subjects completed a detailed cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. All five RBANS subscales except for the Visuospatial/Constructional index showed significantly lower cognitive performance for schizophrenics than normal controls. The schizophrenic smokers scored lower than the schizophrenic non-smokers on the RBANS total score and the Visuospatial/Constructional and Immediate Memory indices. Similarly, the control smokers scored lower than the control non-smokers on the RBANS total score and the Immediate Memory index . Also, the schizophrenic smokers consistently performed the poorest on the cognitive domains of the RBANS. Among the schizophrenic patients, smokers displayed significantly fewer negative symptoms than non-smokers. Using multivariate regression analysis the following variables were independently associated with the RBANS total score: years of education, PANSS negative symptom score, age at schizophrenia onset, and number of hospitalizations. Our results show that smoking is associated with significant cognitive impairment in both schizophrenic patients and normal controls

  12. A case-linkage study of crime victimisation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders over a period of deinstitutionalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite high rates of self-reported crime victimisation, no study to date has compared official victimisation records of people with severe mental illness with a random community sample. Accordingly, this study sought to determine whether persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have higher rates of recorded victimisation than the general population, and to explore whether there have been changes in rates of recorded victimisation over a period of deinstitutionalisation. Methods The schizophrenia-spectrum cases were drawn from a state-wide public mental health register, comprising all persons first diagnosed with a schizophrenic illness in five year cohorts between 1975 – 2005. The criminal histories of 4,168 persons diagnosed with schizophrenic-spectrum disorders were compared to those of a randomly selected community sample of 4,641 individuals. Results Compared to community controls, patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to have a record of violent (10.1% vs. 6.6%, odds ratio 1.4) and sexually violent victimisation (1.7% vs. 0.3%, odds ratio 2.77), but less likely to have an official record of victimisation overall (28.7% vs. 39.1%, odds ratio 0.5). Over the approximate period of deinstitutionalisation, the rate of recorded victimisation has more than doubled in schizophrenia-spectrum patients, but stayed relatively constant in the general community. Conclusions People with schizophrenic-spectrum disorders are particularly vulnerable to violent crime victimisation; although co-morbid substance misuse and criminality both heighten the chances of victimisation, they cannot fully account for the increased rates. Deinstitutionalisation may have, in part, contributed to an unintended consequence of increasing rates of victimisation amongst the seriously mentally ill. PMID:23425519

  13. Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Masson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving and nontargeted (verbal fluency cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1 it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2 cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3 including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced.

  14. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia: a case-control study on the effects on social cognition and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Tas, Cumhur; Brown, Elliot C; Erdin, Soner; Onur, Ece; Cubukcoglu, Zeynep; Aydemir, Omer; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Brüne, Martin

    2014-09-24

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder that presents impairments in neurocognition and social cognition. Several studies have suggested that the etiology of schizophrenia can be partly explained by oxidative stress. However, our knowledge about the implications of oxidative stress on illness-related cognitive deficits is still far from being clear. The aim of this work was to study the role of oxidative stress molecules on social cognition and neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia. We assessed the peripheral levels of several molecules associated with oxidative stress, namely nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), homocysteine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in forty-one patients with schizophrenia and forty-three healthy participants. A battery of tests to measure neurocognition and social cognition was also administered to the schizophrenia group. We found that the schizophrenia group presented substantially higher levels of oxidative stress than the control group, as revealed by elevated quantities of the pro-oxidants NO and MDA, and decreased levels of the antioxidants GSH, SOD and NT4/5. Interestingly, the levels of NT4/5, which have been shown to have antioxidant effects, correlated with executive functioning, as measured by two distinct tests (WCST and TMT). However, social cognition and symptom severity were not found to be associated with oxidative stress. We propose a protective role of NT4/5 against oxidative stress, which appears to have a potentially beneficial impact on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

  15. Rare UNC13B variations and risk of schizophrenia: Whole-exome sequencing in a multiplex family and follow-up resequencing and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Jun; Hoya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Nunokawa, Ayako; Shibuya, Masako; Ikeda, Masashi; Inoue, Emiko; Okuda, Shujiro; Kondo, Kenji; Saito, Takeo; Kaneko, Naoshi; Muratake, Tatsuyuki; Igeta, Hirofumi; Iwata, Nakao; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    Rare genomic variations inherited in multiplex schizophrenia families are suggested to play a role in the genetic etiology of the disease. To identify rare variations with large effects on the risk of developing schizophrenia, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two affected and one unaffected individual of a multiplex family with 10 affected individuals. We also performed follow-up resequencing of the unc-13 homolog B (Caenorhabditis elegans) (UNC13B) gene, a potential risk gene identified by WES, in the multiplex family and undertook a case-control study to investigate association between UNC13B and schizophrenia. UNC13B coding regions (39 exons) from 15 individuals of the multiplex family and 111 affected offspring for whom parental DNA samples were available were resequenced. Rare missense UNC13B variations identified by resequencing were further tested for association with schizophrenia in two independent case-control populations comprising a total of 1,753 patients and 1,602 controls. A rare missense variation (V1525M) in UNC13B was identified by WES in the multiplex family; this variation was present in five of six affected individuals, but not in eight unaffected individuals or one individual of unknown disease status. Resequencing UNC13B coding regions identified five rare missense variations (T103M, M813T, P1349T, I1362T, and V1525M). In the case-control study, there was no significant association between rare missense UNC13B variations and schizophrenia, although single-variant meta-analysis indicated that M813T was nominally associated with schizophrenia. These results do not support a contribution of rare missense UNC13B variations to the genetic etiology of schizophrenia in the Japanese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neural Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study using Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S. Trevor; Chhabra, Harleen; Vanteemar S Sreeraj; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Sunil V Kalmady; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, behavioral symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Roughly, 70%–80% of schizophrenia patients experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), with 25%–30% demonstrating resistance to conventional antipsychotic medications. Studies suggest a promising role for add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of medication-refractory AVHs. The mechanisms through which tDCS could be ...

  17. A case-control study of the relationship between the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 gene and schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; He, Guang; Chen, Qingying; Wu, Shengnan; Xu, Yifeng; Feng, Guoyin; Li, Yucheng; Wang, Lijun; He, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Recent studies of the association between the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 gene (GRM3) and schizophrenia have produced conflicting results, although GRM3 is a promising candidate gene. Fujii et al. found a single nuclear polymorphism (SNP) for within this gene, rs1468412 to have a positive association to schizophrenia in Japanese patients. To investigate this further, we genotyped 7 SNPs around GRM3 including rs1468412, in 752 Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 752 controls using Taqman technology. We did not detect any association between rs1468412 and schizophrenia, however we found differences in the allele frequency distribution of SNP rs2299225 (p=0.0297, odds ration [OR]=1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.99) between cases and controls. Moreover, the overall frequency of haplotypes constructed from three SNPs including rs2299225 showed significant differences between cases and controls (p=0.0017). Our results partially support the previous studies in other ethnic groups and indicate that the GRM3 gene may play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese.

  18. Cannabis use and genetic predisposition for schizophrenia : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, W; Mackenbach, J P; van Os, J; Hoek, H W

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Part of this association may be explained by genotype-environment interaction, and part of it by genotype-environment correlation. The latter issue has not been explored. We investigated whether cannabis use is associated with

  19. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether

  20. [Schizophrenia and Liver Transplantation: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and risk of death from natural causes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Gasse, Christiane; Jensen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    , 2005, obtained from central Danish registers. From the study population of 27,633 patients with ICD-8- and ICD-10-diagnosed schizophrenia or other mainly nonaffective psychoses, aged 18-53 years, we identified 193 cases who died of natural causes within a 2-year period and 1,937 age- and sex...

  2. Continuing Day Treatment Programs Promote Recovery in Schizophrenia: A Case-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Kamna; Grace, Jeffery; Trigoboff, Eileen; Olympia, Josie L.; Annalett, Diane; Watson, Thomas; Poulose, Mon C.; Muzaffar, Tufail; Noyes, Frank L.; Kabatt, Anne; Cushman, Sharon; Antonelli, Maryann; Baxter-Banks, Ginger; Newcomer, David

    2009-01-01

    Continuing day treatment programs focus on community stabilization through comprehensive individualized rehabilitation. They promote recovery through a variety of practical clinical therapeutic interventions. This empirically based report describes a continuing day treatment program’s rehabilitation of four clients with schizophrenia, chronic type in a western New York mental health clinic who were in each of the specialty services: a two-phase program, a program for seniors, and a program fo...

  3. Transcriptome study of differential expression in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alan R.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Duan, Jubao; Drigalenko, Eugene I.; Moy, Winton; Freda, Jessica; He, Deli; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common SNPs, rare copy number variants (CNVs) and a large polygenic contribution to illness risk, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Bioinformatic analyses of significantly associated genetic variants point to a large role for regulatory variants. To identify gene expression abnormalities in schizophrenia, we generated whole-genome gene expression profiles using microarrays on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 413 cases and 446 controls. Regression analysis identified 95 transcripts differentially expressed by affection status at a genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05, while simultaneously controlling for confounding effects. These transcripts represented 89 genes with functions such as neurotransmission, gene regulation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) processing and immunity. This functional diversity is consistent with schizophrenia's likely significant pathophysiological heterogeneity. The overall enrichment of immune-related genes among those differentially expressed by affection status is consistent with hypothesized immune contributions to schizophrenia risk. The observed differential expression of extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) region histones (HIST1H2BD, HIST1H2BC, HIST1H2BH, HIST1H2BG and HIST1H4K) converges with the genetic evidence from GWAS, which find the xMHC to be the most significant susceptibility locus. Among the differentially expressed immune-related genes, B3GNT2 is implicated in autoimmune disorders previously tied to schizophrenia risk (rheumatoid arthritis and Graves’ disease), and DICER1 is pivotal in miRNA processing potentially linking to miRNA alterations in schizophrenia (e.g. MIR137, the second strongest GWAS finding). Our analysis provides novel candidate genes for further study to assess their potential contribution to schizophrenia. PMID:23904455

  4. Behavioral Experiments in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Roger; Nordahl, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first description of cognitive therapy of paranoid delusions appeared in the literature, the empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy in treating psychotic symptoms has been widely established. The aim of the present case study is to show how the behavioral experiment can be used as a powerful tool to change delusional thinking…

  5. Family caregiver burden in mental illnesses: The case of affective disorders and schizophrenia - a qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kardorff, Ernst; Soltaninejad, Ali; Kamali, Mohammad; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of people with mental illnesses often experience a wide range of burdens. Although many studies have confirmed burdens among family caregivers of mentally ill relatives in general, specific knowledge regarding the concrete everyday hassle and existential sorrows from the caregiverś subjective reasoning perspective is lacking. Furthermore, there is little evidence on the possible different effects of affective disorders and schizophrenia on the quality of burden; this is also true with regard to the role of cultural traditions and lay beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore the specific burdens experienced by caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. A qualitative study was conducted by semi-structured interviews with 45 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Eleven encumbering themes resulted from the interviews including incertitude, unawareness, emotional burden, stigma and blame, financial burden, physical burden, restriction in routine, disruption in routine, dissatisfaction with family, relatives, and acquaintances, troubles with patients' adherence to medication, and problems with health services and governmental support. Caring for a person with mental illness affects caregivers emotionally, financially, physically, and it elicits some restrictions in their routine (daily hassles). Finally, it causes conflicts in family relationships. Despite some differences regarding perceived burden among caregivers of schizophrenia and affective disorders, a common pattern of burden could be identified. Thus, authorities should provide adequate financial, educational, and psychosocial supports for caregivers of mental illnesses.

  6. Cognitive bias salience in patients with schizophrenia in relation to social functioning: A four-case observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Papsuev, Oleg O; Shmukler, Alexander B; Movina, Larisa G; Storozhakova, Yanina A; Kiryanova, Elena M

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognition and social cognition are the core deficits influencing social outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits are present in the prodromal phase, throughout the illness and in first-degree relatives. They are considered in the framework of neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative models as well as candidates for endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Four clinical cases with patients reflecting different cognitive profiles were chosen to demonstrate heterogeneity of cognitive biases and their influence on social function in vivo. The patients had undergone a number of neurocognitive and social cognitive measures. Better functioning was observed in patients with less affected domains of emotional processing and theory of mind, while neurocognitive statuses were incongruent to levels of social functioning. Further investigation on large samples concerning capacity for empathy and its role in social functioning is needed. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  8. ATA homozigosity in the IL-10 gene promoter is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Spanish females: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Piqueras Jose

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three IL-10 gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms -1082G > A, -819C > T and -592C > A and the haplotypes they define in Caucasians, GCC, ACC, ATA, associated with different IL-10 production rates, have been linked to schizophrenia in some populations with conflicting results. On the basis of the evidence of the sex-dependent effect of certain genes in many complex diseases, we conducted a sex-stratified case-control association study to verify the linkage of the IL-10 gene promoter SNPs and haplotypes with schizophrenia and the possible sex-specific genetic effect in a Spanish schizophrenic population. Methods 241 DSM-IV diagnosed Spanish schizophrenic patients and 435 ethnically matched controls were genotyped for -1082G > A and -592C > A SNPs. Chi squared tests were performed to assess for genetic association of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes with the disease. Results The -1082A allele (p = 0.027, A/A (p = 0.008 and ATA/ATA (p = 0.003 genotypes were significantly associated with schizophrenia in females while neither allelic nor genotypic frequencies reached statistical significance in the male population. Conclusions Our results highlight the hypothesis of an imbalance towards an inflammatory syndrome as the immune abnormality of schizophrenia. Anyway, a better understanding of the involvement of the immune system would imply the search of immune abnormalities in endophenotypes in whose sex and ethnicity might be differential factors. It also reinforces the need of performing complex gene studies based on multiple cytokine SNPs, including anti and pro-inflammatory, to clarify the immune system abnormalities direction in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  9. Musical Hallucinations and Schizophrenia: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Klut

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical hallucinations are a type of complex auditory hallucinations. They are a relatively rare and etiologically heterogeneous phenomenon. Their major causes are deafness, organic brain disease, epilepsy and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. Based on a clinical case report the authors aim to review and discuss the etiology and psychopathology of musical hallucinations. It seems to be an under recognized phenomenon that, if systematically inquired, may enable a better understanding and characterization of the patient ́s clinical picture.

  10. Robust differences in antisaccade performance exist between COGS schizophrenia cases and controls regardless of recruitment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Radant, AD; Millard, SP; Braff, DL; Calkins, ME; Dobie, DJ; Freedman, R.; Green, MF; Greenwood, TA; Gur, RE; Gur, RC; Lazzeroni, LC; Light, GA; Meichle, SP; Nuechterlein, KH; Olincy, A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014. The impaired ability to make correct antisaccades (i.e., antisaccade performance) is well documented among schizophrenia subjects, and researchers have successfully demonstrated that antisaccade performance is a valid schizophrenia endophenotype that is useful for genetic studies. However, it is unclear how the ascertainment biases that unavoidably result from recruitment differences in schizophrenia subjects identified in family versus case-control studies may influence patient-contr...

  11. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole

    2015-01-01

    contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher...... risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include......Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range...

  12. Cardiac complications associated with short-term mortality in schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia: a nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Tang Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. METHODS: In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741, we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia. Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. RESULTS: Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01. Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01, incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183 and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01. Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.

  13. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia species antibodies in patients with schizophrenia: a case-control study from western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Sibel; Celik, Merve; Akcali, Alper; Oyekcin, Demet Gulec; Sahin, Ozlem Oztürk; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-06-01

    We examined IgG antibody seroprevalence and risk factors for anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia sp. in schizophrenic patients. This case-control study included 30 schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy individuals. Serological analyses were identified by using ELISA technique. In the case group the Toxoplasma seropositivity was 33.3% and Borrelia seropositivity was 13.3%, while in the control group the Toxoplasma positivity was 21.7% and Borrelia seropositivity was 15.0%. There was no significant difference with regard to seroprevalence between the groups (P = 0.232; P = 0.832, respectively). There was statistically significant difference between case and control groups related to hand and kitchen utensil hygiene after dealing with raw meat (P = 0.001). Our data showed the rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was higher in the case group, while the rate of Borrelia antibodies was higher in the control group. In both groups the high rates of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia sp. is thought to be due to neglect of personal hygiene. The present study also is the first to examine the association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is an association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia or not.

  14. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  15. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore...... whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...... liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other...

  16. Robust differences in antisaccade performance exist between COGS schizophrenia cases and controls regardless of recruitment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radant, Allen D; Millard, Steven P; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Meichle, Sean P; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Swerdlow, Neal R; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Tsuang, Debby W

    2015-04-01

    The impaired ability to make correct antisaccades (i.e., antisaccade performance) is well documented among schizophrenia subjects, and researchers have successfully demonstrated that antisaccade performance is a valid schizophrenia endophenotype that is useful for genetic studies. However, it is unclear how the ascertainment biases that unavoidably result from recruitment differences in schizophrenia subjects identified in family versus case-control studies may influence patient-control differences in antisaccade performance. To assess the impact of ascertainment bias, researchers from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) compared antisaccade performance and antisaccade metrics (latency and gain) in schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-1, a family-based schizophrenia study, to schizophrenia and control subjects from COGS-2, a corresponding case-control study. COGS-2 schizophrenia subjects were substantially older; had lower education status, worse psychosocial function, and more severe symptoms; and were three times more likely to be a member of a multiplex family than COGS-1 schizophrenia subjects. Despite these variations, which were likely the result of ascertainment differences (as described in the introduction to this special issue), the effect sizes of the control-schizophrenia differences in antisaccade performance were similar in both studies (Cohen's d effect size of 1.06 and 1.01 in COGS-1 and COGS-2, respectively). This suggests that, in addition to the robust, state-independent schizophrenia-related deficits described in endophenotype studies, group differences in antisaccade performance do not vary based on subject ascertainment and recruitment factors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

  18. The impact of a short-term cohousing initiative among schizophrenia patients, high school students, and their social context: A qualitative case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Palacios-Ceña

    Full Text Available A number of programs have been developed to promote the contact between adolescents and mentally-ill patients, in order to break the stigma, improve understanding, promote mental health and prevent substance abuse. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with schizophrenia, high school students, and their social context, participating in a short-term cohousing initiative.A qualitative case-study approach was implemented. Patients with schizophrenia from the San Juan de Dios Psychiatric Hospital, female students from Almen High School, and participants from their social context (parents, hospital staff, and teachers were included, using purposeful sampling. Data were collected from 51 participants (15 patients, nine students, 11 hospital staff, six teachers, 10 parents via non-participant observation, focus groups, informal interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal diaries and letters. A thematic analysis was performed.The themes identified included a learning to live together: students and patients participate and learn together; b the perception of the illness and the mentally-ill: the barrier between health and disease is very slim, and society tends to avoid contact with those who are ill; c change: a transformation takes place in students, in their self-perception, based on the real and intense nature of the experience; d a trial and an opportunity: patients test their ability to live outside the hospital; e discharge and readmission: discharge is experienced as both a liberation and a difficulty, whereas relapse and readmission are experienced as failures.Our findings can help us to better understand schizophrenia and encourage a more positive approach towards both the illness and those who suffer from it. These results may be used for the development of cohousing programs in controlled environments.

  19. The impact of a short-term cohousing initiative among schizophrenia patients, high school students, and their social context: A qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Martín-Tejedor, Emilio Andrés; Elías-Elispuru, Ana; Garate-Samaniego, Amaia; Pérez-Corrales, Jorge; García-García, Elena

    2018-01-01

    A number of programs have been developed to promote the contact between adolescents and mentally-ill patients, in order to break the stigma, improve understanding, promote mental health and prevent substance abuse. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with schizophrenia, high school students, and their social context, participating in a short-term cohousing initiative. A qualitative case-study approach was implemented. Patients with schizophrenia from the San Juan de Dios Psychiatric Hospital, female students from Almen High School, and participants from their social context (parents, hospital staff, and teachers) were included, using purposeful sampling. Data were collected from 51 participants (15 patients, nine students, 11 hospital staff, six teachers, 10 parents) via non-participant observation, focus groups, informal interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal diaries and letters. A thematic analysis was performed. The themes identified included a) learning to live together: students and patients participate and learn together; b) the perception of the illness and the mentally-ill: the barrier between health and disease is very slim, and society tends to avoid contact with those who are ill; c) change: a transformation takes place in students, in their self-perception, based on the real and intense nature of the experience; d) a trial and an opportunity: patients test their ability to live outside the hospital; e) discharge and readmission: discharge is experienced as both a liberation and a difficulty, whereas relapse and readmission are experienced as failures. Our findings can help us to better understand schizophrenia and encourage a more positive approach towards both the illness and those who suffer from it. These results may be used for the development of cohousing programs in controlled environments.

  20. The impact of a short-term cohousing initiative among schizophrenia patients, high school students, and their social context: A qualitative case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domingo Palacios-Ceña; Emilio Andrés Martín-Tejedor; Ana Elías-Elispuru; Amaia Garate-Samaniego; Jorge Pérez-Corrales; Elena García-García

    2018-01-01

    ... and prevent substance abuse. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with schizophrenia, high school students, and their social context, participating in a short-term cohousing initiative...

  1. Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that personality traits differ in schizophrenia patients and family members compared to controls, suggesting familial risk. This study evaluated personality traits in a family study of schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between personality traits and symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 28 adult non-psychotic relatives, and 27 community controls completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Schizophrenia patients differed on many dimensions of the DAPP-BQ compared to controls and/or relatives: affective lability, anxiousness, callousness, conduct problems, cognitive dysregulation, identity problem, intimacy, insecure attachment, low affiliation, narcissism, oppositionality, restricted expression, self-harm, submissiveness, and suspiciousness. No differences were found between relatives and controls. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, associations were found between personality and particularly general symptoms, as well as social functioning. Personality traits can be conceptualized as an extended phenotype in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav

    2013-12-01

    A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide. Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism. In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia. Copyright

  3. Lilliputian hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichloroethylene poisoning.1,3-7 Lilliputian hallucinations were first described in schizophrenia by Lewis8, but have been reported as a rare phenomenon. In this report we describe a patient with schizophrenia who presented predominantly with Lilliputian hallucinations and review the literature with respect to Lilliputian.

  4. Abnormally Increased Secretion in Olfactory Neuronal Precursors from a Case of Schizophrenia Is Modulated by Melatonin: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Montserrat G; Galván-Arrieta, Tania; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Argueta, Jesús; Benítez-King, Gloria; Trueta, Citlali

    2017-07-13

    The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the human olfactory epithelium have been recently characterized as a reliable model for studying the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our previous work has shown that melatonin enhances the development of morphological and functional features of cloned olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) from a healthy subject. In this work we found that primary cultures of ONPs obtained from a schizophrenic patient display an increased potassium-evoked secretion, when compared with ONPs from an age- and gender-matched healthy control subject (HCS). Secretion was evaluated by FM1-43 fluorescence cumulative changes in response to depolarization. Interestingly, a 12 h-melatonin treatment modulated the abnormally increased secretion in SCZ ONPs and brought it to levels similar to those found in the HCS ONPs. Our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton might be a target for melatonin effects, since it induces the thickening of actin microfilament bundles. Further research will address the mechanisms by which melatonin modulates neurochemical secretion from ONPs.

  5. Narcolepsy Presenting as Schizophrenia: A Literature Review and Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid Ramzi

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that causes significant disability and morbidity. Narcolepsy is a disorder, less prevalent than schizophrenia, but a disorder in which symptoms overlap with schizophrenia. This overlap in symptoms can cause narcolepsy to be confused with schizophrenia. The differences and similarities between narcolepsy and schizophrenia are discussed in the context of two cases. The first case describes an adolescent and the second case describes a refractory case of n...

  6. Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, J; Keating, B J; Lasserre, A M; Gan, W; Lyall, D M; Ward, J; Smith, D J; Pell, J P; Sattar, N; Paré, G; Holmes, M V

    2017-01-24

    Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia. Genetic variants were employed as instruments to recapitulate a randomized controlled trial involving two groups (cannabis users vs nonusers) to estimate the causal effect of cannabis use on risk of schizophrenia in 34 241 cases and 45 604 controls from predominantly European descent. Genetically-derived estimates were compared with a meta-analysis of observational studies reporting ever use of cannabis and risk of schizophrenia or related disorders. Based on the genetic approach, use of cannabis was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) of schizophrenia for users vs nonusers of cannabis: 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.67; P-value=0.007). The corresponding estimate from observational analysis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.19-1.67; P-value for heterogeneity =0.76). The genetic markers did not show evidence of pleiotropic effects and accounting for tobacco exposure did not alter the association (OR of schizophrenia for users vs nonusers of cannabis, adjusted for ever vs never smoker: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83). This adds to the substantial evidence base that has previously identified cannabis use to associate with increased risk of schizophrenia, by suggesting that the relationship is causal. Such robust evidence may inform public health messages about cannabis use, especially regarding its potential mental health consequences.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.252.

  7. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  8. A False Case of Clozapine-Resistant Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Maia-de-Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the subjects that most concerns physicians is treatment-resistance. About 30%–60% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to antipsychotic treatment and are known as refractory schizophrenia patients. Clozapine has been the drug of choice in such cases. However, approximately 30% of them do not respond to clozapine either. Here, we describe a patient with an initial diagnosis of refractory schizophrenia who had a history of dramatic aggressiveness. However, in this case, “refractoriness” was a wrong diagnosis. A case of psychosis secondary to epilepsy had been treated as schizophrenia for almost 20 years. Reports like this one are important because they remind us of how a thorough investigation can lead to the correct diagnosis and improve the patient's prognosis.

  9. Brain connectomics imaging in schizophrenia study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder of which the biological underpinning is still unclear. Increasing evidence in neuroscience has indicated that schizophrenia arises from abnormal connections within or between networks, hence called dysconnectvity syndrome. Recently, we established an automatic method to analyze integrity of the white matter tracts over the whole brain based on diffusion MRI data, named tract-based automatic analysis (TBAA), and used this method to study white matter connection in patients with schizophrenia. We found that alteration of tract integrity is hereditary and inherent; it is found in siblings and in patients in the early phase of disease. Moreover, patients with good treatment outcome and those with poor outcome show distinctly different patterns of alterations, suggesting that these two groups of patients might be distinguishable based on the difference in tract alteration. In summary, the altered tracts revealed by TBAA might become potential biomarkers or trait markers for schizophrenia.

  10. Comparative Study on Serum Levels of 10 Trace Elements in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lailai; Guo, Jing; Feng, Fangbo; Qiu, Jinyun; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain obscure. This study explored the associations between schizophrenia risk and serum levels of 10 trace elements. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted and matched by age and sex. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of nickel, molybdenum, arsenic, aluminum, chromium, manganese, selenium, copper, iron and zinc by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between trace elements and schizophrenia risk. Totally 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited in the study. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that copper≤0.97 μg/mL, selenium≤72 ng/mL and manganese>3.95 ng/mL were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. The study showed that lower levels of selenium, copper and higher levels of manganese were found in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls. PMID:26186003

  11. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  13. Zoophilic recidivism in schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours involving animals.1 Sexual contact with animals often occurs as a substitute for heterosexual relations ... was observed to be unusually attached to pet dogs. Many of his pets died in curious circumstances. ... deviant behaviour may form part of psychotic symptoms occurring in the context of schizophrenia7, none ...

  14. Remission of Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia following Bone Marrow Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Miyaoka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the case of a 24-year-old male with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, with predominant severe delusion and hallucination, who received bone marrow transplantation (BMT for acute myeloid leukemia. After BMT, he showed a remarkable reduction in psychotic symptoms without administration of neuroleptics. He also showed drastic improvement in social functioning. Follow-up evaluations 2 and 4 years after BMT showed persistent significant improvement of the psychotic state and social functioning. Recent findings show that the major underlying pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia is immune dysregulation. Thus, conceptually, BMT, a cellular therapy, that facilitates the counteractive processes of balancing inflammation by immune regulation, could produce beneficial clinical effects in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Further studies are required to define the true benefits of BMT for the possible curative treatment of schizophrenia.

  15. Mania associated with paliperidone treatment in schizophrenia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Demir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paliperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia. Paliperidone can cause some rare side effects during treatment. Despite many publications of mania and hypomania induced by antipsychotics, mania cases induced by paliperidone are few in the literature. In this case a schizophrenia patient showing symptoms of mania during usage of paliperidone with a dose of 9 mg/day in which the symptoms rapidly disappeared after discontinuation of paliperidone and initiation of aripiprazole was reported. Clinicians should be aware of that Paliperidone treatment may trigger mania symptoms. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 321-323

  16. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia.......Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  17. Intersubjectivity in schizophrenia: life story analysis of three cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázaval, Leonor; Sharim, Dariela

    2014-01-01

    The processes involved in schizophrenia are approached from a viewpoint of understanding, revealing those social elements susceptible to integration for psychotherapeutic purposes, as a complement to the predominant medical-psychiatric focus. Firstly, the paper describes the patients’ disturbances of self-experience and body alienations manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, the paper examines the patients’ personal biographical milestones and consequently the acute episode is contextualized within the intersubjective scenario in which it manifested itself in each case. Thirdly, the patients’ life stories are analyzed from a clinical psychological perspective, meaningfully connecting symptoms and life-world. Finally, it will be argued that the intersubjective dimension of the patients’ life stories shed light not only on the interpersonal processes involved in schizophrenia but also upon the psychotherapeutic treatment best suited to each individual case. PMID:24575073

  18. Genome-wide association study of schizophrenia in Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamada

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder with genetically complex traits. Genetic variants should explain a considerable portion of the risk for schizophrenia, and genome-wide association study (GWAS is a potentially powerful tool for identifying the risk variants that underlie the disease. Here, we report the results of a three-stage analysis of three independent cohorts consisting of a total of 2,535 samples from Japanese and Chinese populations for searching schizophrenia susceptibility genes using a GWAS approach. Firstly, we examined 115,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 120 patient-parents trio samples from Japanese schizophrenia pedigrees. In stage II, we evaluated 1,632 SNPs (1,159 SNPs of p<0.01 and 473 SNPs of p<0.05 that located in previously reported linkage regions. The second sample consisted of 1,012 case-control samples of Japanese origin. The most significant p value was obtained for the SNP in the ELAVL2 [(embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 2] gene located on 9p21.3 (p = 0.00087. In stage III, we scrutinized the ELAVL2 gene by genotyping gene-centric tagSNPs in the third sample set of 293 family samples (1,163 individuals of Chinese descent and the SNP in the gene showed a nominal association with schizophrenia in Chinese population (p = 0.026. The current data in Asian population would be helpful for deciphering ethnic diversity of schizophrenia etiology.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sachin S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual hallucinations are commonly seen in various neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Current models of visual processing and studies in diseases including Parkinsons Disease and Lewy Body Dementia propose that Acetylcholine (Ach plays a pivotal role in our ability to accurately interpret visual stimuli. Depletion of Ach is thought to be associated with visual hallucination generation. AchEI's have been used in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in dementia and Parkinson's Disease patients. In Schizophrenia, it is thought that a similar Ach depletion leads to visual hallucinations and may provide a target for drug treatment Case Presentation We present a case of a patient with Schizophrenia presenting with treatment resistant and significantly distressing visual hallucinations. After optimising treatment for schizophrenia we used Rivastigmine, an AchEI, as an adjunct to treat her symptoms successfully. Conclusions This case is the first to illustrate this novel use of an AchEI in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in a patient with Schizophrenia. Targeted therapy of this kind can be considered in challenging cases although more evidence is required in this field.

  20. [A case of transient auditory agnosia and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Jin; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of transient functional auditory agnosia and schizophrenia and discuss their relationship. A 30-year-old woman with schizophrenia reporting bilateral hearing loss was found in history taking to be able to hear but could neither understand speech nor discriminate among environmental sounds. Audiometry clarified normal but low speech discrimination. Otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) elsewhere evidenced no abnormal findings. We assumed that taking care of her grandparents who had been discharged from the hospital had unduly stressed her, and her condition improved shortly after she stopped caring for them, returned home and started taking a minor tranquilizer.

  1. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people with schizophrenia. Behavioral techniques, such as social skills training, can help the person function better in social and work situations. Job training and relationship-building ...

  2. [Augmentation of Clozapine With Paliperidone in Schizophrenia Patients With Partial Response to Treatment: A Case Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderoğlu, Aysun; Çelik, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine is the only antipsychotic which has definitely shown to be effective in refractory schizophrenia. Clozapine treatment is usually preferred in schizophrenia patients with a partial response to treatment and augmentation strategies are tried when clozapine also fails to provide full treatment response. In treatment resistant schizophrenia patients addition of a second antipsychotic is a frequently preferred augmentation method. With previous augmentation strategies consistent positive results could not be obtained. Paliperidone is a risperidone metabolite and it has proven effectiveness in schizophrenia treatment. Although most effects of paliperidone on central nervous system are similar with risperidone, there are some differences. In this case series treatments of 5 schizophrenia patients who still had symptoms despite clozapine treatment were augmented with paliperidone during 6 months of follow up. This augmentation was tolerated well by the patients, and caused improvements in both positive and negative symptoms. Particularly, improvement in negative symptoms after addition of paliperidone was remarkable in our patients. Evaluation of paliperidone's effects on negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with partial response to clozapine treatment using randomized, placebo controlled studies may provide an important treatment choice.

  3. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    .07-1.29). Association studies on suicide attempts are however conflicting (heterogeneity index I(2) = 0.54) and do not support the A218C/A779C polymorphisms being a susceptibility locus for suicidal behavior among individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (OR = 0.96 [0.80-1.16]). We conclude that the TPH1 A218....../A779 locus increases the susceptibility of schizophrenia in Caucasian and Asian populations. In addition, the data at hand suggest that the locus contributes to the liability of psychiatric disorders characterized by elevated suicidal rates, rather than affecting suicidal behavior of individuals...... associated with schizophrenia. The minor allele (A) of this polymorphism (A218C) is also more frequent in patients who have attempted suicide and individuals who died by suicide, than in healthy control individuals. In an attempt to replicate previous findings, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  4. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders, i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33.

  5. Association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence: a case-control study in young patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanck Michael W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. There is growing evidence that DTNPB1 contributes to intelligence and cognition. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene and intellectual functioning in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (first-episode psychosis, FEP, their healthy siblings, and unrelated controls. Methods From all subjects IQ measurements were obtained (verbal IQ [VIQ], performance IQ [PIQ], and full scale IQ [FSIQ]. Seven SNPs in the DTNBP1 gene were genotyped using single base primer extension and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser deionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF. Results Mean VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores differed significantly (p Conclusion Although preliminary, our results provide evidence for association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence in patients with FEP and their unaffected siblings. Genetic variation in the DTNBP1 gene may increase schizophrenia susceptibility by affecting intellectual functioning.

  6. Association study between the Taq1A (rs1800497 polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Cordeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder with recurrent relapse and functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The Taq1A polymorphism (located in the gene cluster NTAD is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs1800497 polymorphism was shown to be associated with DRD2 gene expression. Therefore the present work aims to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and such polymorphism. The compared distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 235 patients and 834 controls. Genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a trend of allelic association between the Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497 with schizophrenia in the studied sample. However no statistically differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed by gender or schizophrenia subtypes.

  7. Association study of PDE4B gene variants in Scandinavian schizophrenia and bipolar disorder multicenter case-control samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Otnæss, Mona K; Wirgenes, Katrine V

    2010-01-01

    and analyzed 40 and 72 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in SZ and BP multicenter samples, respectively, from the Scandinavian Collaboration on Psychiatric Etiology (SCOPE), involving 837 SZ cases and 1,473 controls plus 594 BP cases and 1,421 partly overlapping controls. Six and 16 tag...... in the SZ sample were also associated with BP, but the genotypic effect (i.e., homozygosity for the minor allele), pointed in opposite directions. Finally, four SNPs were found to be associated with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive symptom scores in a subgroup of SZ patients (n = 153...

  8. Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2010-01-01

    The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. The mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce transient psychotic symptoms, while unclear may involve dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurotransmission. However, only a very small proportion of the general population exposed to cannabinoids develop a psychotic illness. It is likely that cannabis exposure is a “component cause” that interacts with other factors to “cause” schizophrenia or a psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. Nevertheless, in the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, the role of component causes remains important and warrants further study. Dose, duration of exposure, and the age of first exposure to cannabinoids may be important factors, and genetic factors that interact with cannabinoid exposure to moderate or amplify the risk of a psychotic disorder are beginning to be elucidated. The mechanisms by which exposure to cannabinoids increase the risk for developing a psychotic disorder are unknown. However, novel hypotheses including the role of cannabinoids on neurodevelopmental processes relevant to psychotic disorders are being studied. PMID:19609589

  9. Nutritional status, food intake and cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia in southern Brazil: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Daniela; Eskinazi, Bianca; Camboim Rockett, Fernanda; Delgado, Vera Beatriz; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid Dalira

    2014-01-01

    To verify food consumption patterns and presence of risk anthropometric parameters in schizophrenic patients, trying to assess some modifiable cardiovascular risk. Twenty-five schizophrenic outpatients, attended at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, and 25 healthy controls matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI) were included. Demographic (age, sex and socioeconomic status), anthropometric (weight, height and waist circumference), clinical (antipsychotics) and dietary consumption data (food frequency questionnaire) were obtained. There was a 40% frequency of overweight and 40% of obesity as verified by BMI, and 80% of increased risk of metabolic complications as measured by waist circumference. Most of the patients (68%) used atypical antipsychotics and no association was found between the distribution of the nutritional status according to BMI and type of antipsychotic used. There was a higher intake of total calories, calories and protein per kilogram of body weight, percentage of carbohydrates, and lower intake of omega-6, phytosterols, vitamin A and α-tocopherol by cases. Cholesterol and sodium intake did not differ between groups (365 ± 152 mg of cholesterol in cases and 313 ± 146 mg in controls; (3499 ± 1695 mg sodium by cases and 2874 ± 800 by controls). In this sample of schizophrenic patients there was a higher intake of calories and lower consumption of α-tocoferol and phitosterols, compared to controls. There was also elevated sodium, and cholesterol intake, and high frequency of overweight and central obesity. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  11. Dual Cases of Type 1 Narcolepsy with Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, Francesca; Lin, Ling; Julià, Maria Rosa; Clemente, Antonio; Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Ollila, Hanna M.; Hong, Seung Chul; Arboleya, Susana M.; Einen, Mali A.; Faraco, Juliette; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cases of narcolepsy in association with psychotic features have been reported but never fully characterized. These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges and may shed new light on immune associations in schizophrenia. Method: Our case series was gathered at two narcolepsy specialty centers over a 9-year period. A questionnaire was created to improve diagnosis of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder in patients with narcolepsy. Pathophysiological investigations included full HLA Class I and II typing, testing for known systemic and intracellular/synaptic neuronal antibodies, recently described neuronal surface antibodies, and immunocytochemistry on brain sections to detect new antigens. Results: Ten cases were identified, one with schizoaffective disorder, one with delusional disorder, two with schizophreniform disorder, and 6 with schizophrenia. In all cases, narcolepsy manifested first in childhood or adolescence, followed by psychotic symptoms after a variable interval. These patients had auditory hallucinations, which was the most differentiating clinical feature in comparison to narcolepsy patients without psychosis. Narcolepsy therapy may have played a role in triggering psychotic symptoms but these did not reverse with changes in narcolepsy medications. Response to antipsychotic treatment was variable. Pathophysiological studies did not reveal any known autoantibodies or unusual brain immunostaining pattern. No strong HLA association outside of HLA DQB1*06:02 was found, although increased DRB3*03 and DPA1*02:01 was notable. Conclusion: Narcolepsy can occur in association with schizophrenia, with significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Dual cases maybe under diagnosed, as onset is unusually early, often in childhood. Narcolepsy and psychosis may share an autoimmune pathology; thus, further investigations in larger samples are warranted. Citation: Canellas F, Lin L, Julià MR, Clemente A, Vives-Bauza C, Ollila HM, Hong

  12. Disturbances in body ownership in schizophrenia: evidence from the rubber hand illusion and case study of a spontaneous out-of-body experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N Thakkar

    Full Text Available A weakened sense of self may contribute to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self-awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI. Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can lead to a sense of ownership over the rubber hand, a shift in perceived position of the real hand, and a limb-specific drop in stimulated hand temperature. We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature.The RHI was elicited in 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched controls by placing their unseen hand adjacent to a visible rubber hand and brushing real and rubber hands synchronously or asynchronously. Perceived finger location was measured before and after stimulation. Hand temperature was taken before and during stimulation. Subjective strength of the illusion was assessed by a questionnaire.Across groups, the RHI was stronger during synchronous stimulation, indicated by self-report and proprioceptive drift. Patients reported a stronger RHI than controls. Self-reported strength of RHI was associated with schizotypy in controls Proprioceptive drift was larger in patients, but only following synchronous stimulation. Further, we observed stimulation-dependent changes in skin temperature. During right hand stimulation, temperature dropped in the stimulated hand and rose in the unstimulated hand. Interestingly, induction of RHI led to an out-of-body experience in one patient, linking body disownership and psychotic experiences.The RHI is quantitatively and qualitatively stronger in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that patients have a more flexible body representation and weakened sense of self, and potentially indicate abnormalities in temporo-parietal networks implicated in body ownership. Further, results suggest that these body ownership disturbances might be at the heart of a subset of

  13. Exposure to genocide and the risk of schizophrenia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S Z; Levav, I; Goldberg, Y; Pugachova, I; Becher, Y; Yoffe, R

    2016-03-01

    No evidence exists on the association between genocide and the incidence of schizophrenia. This study aims to identify critical periods of exposure to genocide on the risk of schizophrenia. This population-based study comprised of all subjects born in European nations where the Holocaust occurred from 1928 to 1945, who immigrated to Israel by 1965 and were indexed in the Population Register (N = 113 932). Subjects were followed for schizophrenia disorder in the National Psychiatric Case Registry from 1950 to 2014. The population was disaggregated to compare groups that immigrated before (indirect exposure: n = 8886, 7.8%) or after (direct exposure: n = 105 046, 92.2%) the Nazi or fascist era of persecutions began. The latter group was further disaggregated to examine likely initial prenatal or postnatal genocide exposures. Cox regression modelling was computed to compare the risk of schizophrenia between the groups, adjusting for confounders. The likely direct group was at a statistically (p schizophrenia (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.51) than the indirect group. Also, the likely combined in utero and postnatal, and late postnatal (over age 2 years) exposure subgroups were statistically at greater risk of schizophrenia than the indirect group (p schizophrenia, and identified in utero and postnatal (combined) and late postnatal (age over 2 years) exposures as critical periods of risk.

  14. Multiple affected Afrikaner families in a schizophrenia genetic study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report on six multiple affected Afrikaner families suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. These families form part of an ongoing study on genetics of schizophrenia. Three or more first degree relatives were affected in these families. In each family, the following will be reported on: a family tree, ...

  15. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  16. A quantitative meta-analysis of population-based studies of premorbid intelligence and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; White, Ian R.; Jones, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A premorbid IQ deficit supports a developmental dimension to schizophrenia and its cognitive aspects that are crucial to functional outcome. Better characterisation of the association between premorbid IQ and the disorder may provide further insight into its origin and etiology. We aimed to quantify premorbid cognitive function in schizophrenia through systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal, population-based studies, and to characterize the risk of schizophrenia across the entire range of premorbid IQ. Method Electronic and manual searches identified general population-based cohort or nested case–control studies that measured intelligence before onset of schizophrenic psychosis using standard psychometric tests, and that defined cases using contemporaneous ICD or DSM. Meta-analyses explored dose–response relationships between premorbid cognitive deficit (using full-scale, verbal and performance IQ) and risk of schizophrenia. Meta-regression analyses explored relationships with age of illness onset, change in premorbid intelligence over time and gender differences. Results Meta-analysis of 4396 cases and over 745 000 controls from 12 independent studies confirmed significant decrements in premorbid IQ (effect size − 0.43) among future cases. Risk of schizophrenia operated as a consistent dose–response effect, increasing by 3.7% for every point decrease in IQ (p IQ decrement was associated with earlier illness onset (p IQ and risk for schizophrenia, and age of illness onset argue for a widespread neurodevelopmental contribution to schizophrenia that operates across the entire range of intellectual ability. This also suggests higher IQ may be protective in schizophrenia, perhaps by increasing active cognitive reserve. PMID:21764562

  17. The estrogen hypothesis of Schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: Association study in three independent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm Sally

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a highly heritable complex psychiatric disorder with an underlying pathophysiology that is still not well understood. Metaanalyses of schizophrenia linkage studies indicate numerous but rather large disease-associated genomic regions, whereas accumulating gene- and protein expression studies have indicated an equally large set of candidate genes that only partially overlap linkage genes. A thorough assessment, beyond the resolution of current GWA studies, of the disease risk conferred by the numerous schizophrenia candidate genes is a daunting and presently not feasible task. We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia or at least with gender-associated aspects of the illness. Results We genotyped 185 SNPs in three independent case-control samples of Scandinavian origin (a total of 765 patients and 1274 control subjects. Variants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 gene (MAPK14 and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1 and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (FBP1 were nominal significantly associated with schizophrenia, and several haplotypes within enolase 2 gene (ENO2 consist of the same SNP allele having elevated risk of schizophrenia. Importantly, we find no evidence of stratification due to nationality or gender. Conclusion Several gene variants in the Glycolysis were associated with schizophrenia in three independent samples. However, the

  18. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: A Danish national register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    -control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted to investigate the risk of schizophrenia associated with exposure to a range of obstetric events. The sample included 1039 first admissions to, or contacts with Danish psychiatric services with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia......A range of complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and complications of delivery have been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies have been able to adjust for a broad range of potential confounding factors. A national population nested case...... and 24, 826 individually matched controls. Adjusting for the other obstetric factors, family psychiatric history, and socio-economic and demographic factors, risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal non-attendance at antenatal appointments (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 2.08, 95% CI: 1.0, 4...

  19. Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takako; Kaga, Akimune; Akagi, Kozo; Iwahashi, Hideki; Makino, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Yoko; Kawamura, Takae; Sato, Taiju; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Miwa, Shinya; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Nakae, Shingi

    2014-11-20

    Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy has a very high maternal and fetal mortality rate. We report a case of successful maternal and neonatal survival in association with emergency cesarean section of a schizophrenic pregnant patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cardiopulmonary arrest in a pregnant woman with schizophrenia. The parents were Japanese. The mother was 39 years old and had no history of prior pregnancy. Her admission to our hospital at 36 weeks and 4 days of pregnancy was due to deterioration of schizophrenia. On the first day of hospitalization, she collapsed after a seizure and vomiting, and an emergency resuscitation team was called immediately. The team identified apparent aspiration and successfully resuscitated the patient after 11 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest. An emergency cesarean section was performed in the operating room. The newborn male infant received bag and mask ventilation at birth, and his Apgar scores were 5 at 1 minute and 8 at 5 minutes. He had a myoclonic seizure on the 2nd day of life: however, he experienced no further seizures on anticonvulsant medication after that episode. On the 18th day of life, magnetic resonance imaging of his brain revealed bilateral small hyperintensities on T1-weighted images in the basal ganglia. The mother and her newborn were discharged from our hospital without neurological disorders. We speculate that the cause of cardiopulmonary arrest was aspiration due to seizure, and it is possible that a neurological response was evoked by administration of antipsychotic drugs and/or by eclampsia. Medical staff must be aware of the possibility of cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnant women with schizophrenia.

  20. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof-of-concept and roadmap for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Shugart, Yin Yao; Ho, Yvonne YW; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between schizophrenia cases and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. The current study provides proof-of-concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures), and defines a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural/functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26854805

  1. Treatment of Visual Hallucinations in Schizophrenia by Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia and various neurological disorders have some signs and symptoms. Visual hallucinations are one of such disorders. The related studies in some diseases for example Parkinson Disease and Lewy Body Dementia indicate that Acetylcholine (Ach plays a significant role in neuropsychiatric manifestation and its association with visual hallucination; therefore, visual hallucinations occur due to the depletion of Ach. Drug therapies such as Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs for increasing Ach level may be beneficial in treating visual hallucination. AchEI's have been used in the treatment of visual hallucinations in Dementia and Parkinson's Disease. We thought that a similar Ach depletion may cause visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia and may provide a target for drug treatment. We had a patient with schizophrenia whose psychotic symptoms responded to the treatment plan, but her visual hallucination did not. However, the patient's visual hallucination successfully responded to Rivastigmine (AchEI. "nThis case illustrates the use of an AchEI in the treatment of refractory visual hallucinations in a patient with schizophrenia.

  2. Dual cases of type 1 narcolepsy with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, Francesca; Lin, Ling; Julià, Maria Rosa; Clemente, Antonio; Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Ollila, Hanna M; Hong, Seung Chul; Arboleya, Susana M; Einen, Mali A; Faraco, Juliette; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-09-15

    Cases of narcolepsy in association with psychotic features have been reported but never fully characterized. These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges and may shed new light on immune associations in schizophrenia. Our case series was gathered at two narcolepsy specialty centers over a 9-year period. A questionnaire was created to improve diagnosis of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder in patients with narcolepsy. Pathophysiological investigations included full HLA Class I and II typing, testing for known systemic and intracellular/synaptic neuronal antibodies, recently described neuronal surface antibodies, and immunocytochemistry on brain sections to detect new antigens. Ten cases were identified, one with schizoaffective disorder, one with delusional disorder, two with schizophreniform disorder, and 6 with schizophrenia. In all cases, narcolepsy manifested first in childhood or adolescence, followed by psychotic symptoms after a variable interval. These patients had auditory hallucinations, which was the most differentiating clinical feature in comparison to narcolepsy patients without psychosis. Narcolepsy therapy may have played a role in triggering psychotic symptoms but these did not reverse with changes in narcolepsy medications. Response to antipsychotic treatment was variable. Pathophysiological studies did not reveal any known autoantibodies or unusual brain immunostaining pattern. No strong HLA association outside of HLA DQB1*06:02 was found, although increased DRB3*03 and DPA1*02:01 was notable. Narcolepsy can occur in association with schizophrenia, with significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Dual cases maybe under diagnosed, as onset is unusually early, often in childhood. Narcolepsy and psychosis may share an autoimmune pathology; thus, further investigations in larger samples are warranted. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  3. The cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia: a laser capture microdissection study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of brain and peripheral tissues in schizophrenia patients have indicated impaired energy supply to the brain. A number of studies have also demonstrated dysfunction of the microvasculature in schizophrenia patients. Together these findings are consistent with a hypothesis of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this study, we have investigated the cerebral vascular endothelium of schizophrenia patients at the level of transcriptomics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used laser capture microdissection to isolate both microvascular endothelial cells and neurons from post mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. RNA was isolated from these cell populations, amplified, and analysed using two independent microarray platforms, Affymetrix HG133plus2.0 GeneChips and CodeLink Whole Human Genome arrays. In the first instance, we used the dataset to compare the neuronal and endothelial data, in order to demonstrate that the predicted differences between cell types could be detected using this methodology. We then compared neuronal and endothelial data separately between schizophrenic subjects and controls. Analysis of the endothelial samples showed differences in gene expression between schizophrenics and controls which were reproducible in a second microarray platform. Functional profiling revealed that these changes were primarily found in genes relating to inflammatory processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides preliminary evidence of molecular alterations of the cerebral microvasculature in schizophrenia patients, suggestive of a hypo-inflammatory state in this tissue type. Further investigation of the blood-brain barrier in schizophrenia is warranted.

  4. Genome-wide association study of multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinson, Douglas F; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs).......The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs)....

  5. Differential effects of common variants in SCN2A on general cognitive ability, brain physiology, and messenger RNA expression in schizophrenia cases and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Trampush, Joey W; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Ningping; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Lim, Hun Ki; Ursini, Gianluca; Bigos, Kristin L; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Baum, Graham L; Rujescu, Dan; Callicott, Joseph H; Hyde, Thomas M; Berman, Karen F; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    One approach to understanding the genetic complexity of schizophrenia is to study associated behavioral and biological phenotypes that may be more directly linked to genetic variation. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with general cognitive ability (g) in people with schizophrenia and control individuals. Genomewide association study, followed by analyses in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain physiology in vivo, and RNA sequencing in postmortem brain samples. The discovery cohort and unaffected siblings were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Brain Disorders Branch schizophrenia genetics studies. Additional schizophrenia cohorts were from psychiatric treatment settings in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The discovery cohort comprised 339 with schizophrenia and 363 community control participants. Follow-up analyses studied 147 unaffected siblings of the schizophrenia cases and independent schizophrenia samples including a total of an additional 668 participants. Imaging analyses included 87 schizophrenia cases and 397 control individuals. Brain tissue samples were available for 64 cases and 61 control individuals. We studied genomewide association with g, by group, in the discovery cohort. We used selected genotypes to test specific associations in unaffected siblings and independent schizophrenia samples. Imaging analyses focused on activation in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Brain tissue studies yielded messenger RNA expression levels for RefSeq transcripts. The schizophrenia discovery cohort showed genomewide-significant association of g with polymorphisms in sodium channel gene SCN2A, accounting for 10.4% of g variance (rs10174400, P = 9.27 × 10(-10)). Control individuals showed a trend for g/genotype association with reversed allelic directionality. The genotype-by-group interaction was also genomewide

  6. A Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, William Kent; Wertheimer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Research shows a relationship between diagnoses of schizophrenia among twins. It was studied whether information that a twin was schizophrenic would bias diagnoses. Such information almost doubled the rater's estimates of probability of schizophrenia in a hypothetical case history. (NG)

  7. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    of an Adjective Check List (ACL). In 1991-93, adult psychiatric status was assessed for 242 of these individuals, who were classified into three categories: schizophrenia spectrum (n=24), other psychiatric diagnoses (n=72) and healthy controls (n=145). Personality characteristics derived from the ACL were linked......, friendliness, cooperation, self-control and significantly higher on aggression. Non-significant trends indicated that this group displayed more deviant personality scores than psychiatric controls. Children who later develop schizophrenia spectrum disorder differed from normal controls with respect to a number......Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...

  8. Narrative evolution and assimilation of problematic experiences in a case of pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osatuke, Katerine; Reid, Mary; Stiles, William B; Kasckow, John W; Zisook, Sidney; Mohamed, Somaia

    2011-01-01

    This case study applied the assimilation model to examine the changing narrative of an outpatient with schizophrenia and symptoms of depression across a successful pharmacotherapy. The assimilation model describes how clients assimilate painful, problematic experiences. Therapeutic progress is understood to reflect increasing assimilation, measured by the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES). The authors used a 15-min semistructured interview (Problematic Experiences Questionnaire) to elicit narrative descriptions of the patient's problems and coping across five interviews throughout his 12-week treatment. They describe how the patient's narrative and APES ratings of his main problems by two clinicians changed in concert through treatment, explain these developments using assimilation concepts, and interpret the results in relation to assimilation and insight in schizophrenia.

  9. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) alternations has since long been suspected in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase; TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been...

  10. [Neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia--preclinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Wisłowska, Aleksandra; Zienowicz, Małgorzata; Maciejak, Piotr; Skórzewska, Anna; Płaźnik, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder of unknown origin, characterised by abnormalities in the realms of perception, thinking and the experience of emotions that onset is restricted to young adulthood. Many techniques that range from neuropathology to neuroimaging identified subtle brain abnormalities particularly in frontal, temporal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia test hypotheses that this disease is caused by a defect in cerebral development which results in altered neural connectivity, brain neurochemistry and aberrant behaviour observed in adult life. Recent evidence indicates that neonatal hippocampal damage may affect prefrontal neuronal integrity. The developmental lesion model appears to have predictive validity because treatment with antipsychotic drugs normalises some abnormal behaviour changes. Therefore it will be a useful paradigm in the work on new therapies and in providing new insights about pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia.

  11. Eye movements and schizophrenia in Papua New Guinea: qualitative analyses with case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J S; Johnson, F Y

    1995-06-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movement dysfunction is a psychophysiological and genetic marker for schizophrenia seen in 50-80% of patients and in about 40% of their first-degree relatives. In this study, we qualitatively assessed the smooth pursuit eye movements of 33 psychiatric patients (including 32 diagnosed with schizophrenia) and 30 control subjects in the Port Moresby area of Papua New Guinea. Brief case histories of each patient were also reviewed. Using a conservative estimate of smooth pursuit dysfunction, we found that 42% of the psychiatric patients had the marker, compared to 10% of the controls. Specific eye movement abnormalities were also much more common among the patients. A patient who had previously 'run amok' and another who was a cargo cultist had smooth pursuit dysfunction; a patient whose psychotic symptoms may have been due to cerebral malaria did not have the marker. Highland and coastal patients were similar in their expression of the marker. This study, the first of its kind done outside of large-scale, urbanized societies, provides further evidence for a common biological basis for schizophrenia in biologically and culturally diverse populations worldwide.

  12. Association study of schizophrenia and IL-2 receptor {beta} chain gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Yang, Z.W.; Zhang, X.R.; Brar, J.S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    A case-control association study was conducted in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, n = 42) and unaffected controls (n = 47) matched for ethnicity and area of residence. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) concentrations, as well as a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the IL-2RP chain gene, were examined in both groups. No significant differences in IL-2R concentrations or in the distribution of the polymorphism were noted. This study does not support an association between schizophrenia and the IL-2RP gene locus, contrary to the suggestive evidence from linkage analysis in multicase families. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of shared genetic susceptibility loci between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia based on genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K E; Rosengren, Anders; Thygesen, Johan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have documented higher than expected comorbidity (or, in some cases, inverse comorbidity) between schizophrenia and several autoimmune disorders. It remains unknown whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic susceptibility loci.  Aims: The present study...... associated with schizophrenia (1.7 × 10−8≥ p ≥ 4.0 × 10−21). While these observations confirm the existence of shared genetic susceptibility loci between schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases, the findings did not show a significant enrichment.  Conclusion: The findings do not support a genetic overlap...

  14. Evaluation of shared genetic susceptibility loci between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia based on genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffding, Louise K; Rosengren, Anders; Thygesen, Johan H; Schmock, Henriette; Werge, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented higher than expected comorbidity (or, in some cases, inverse comorbidity) between schizophrenia and several autoimmune disorders. It remains unknown whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic susceptibility loci. The present study aimed to investigate whether verified genome wide significant variants of autoimmune disorders confer risk of schizophrenia, which could suggest a common genetic basis. Seven hundred and fourteen genome wide significant risk variants of 25 autoimmune disorders were extracted from the NHGRI GWAS catalogue and examined for association to schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia GWAS samples (36,989 cases and 113,075 controls). Two independent loci at 4q24 and 6p21.32-33 originally identified from GWAS of autoimmune diseases were found genome wide associated with schizophrenia (1.7 × 10(-8 )≥( )p ≥ 4.0 × 10(-21)). While these observations confirm the existence of shared genetic susceptibility loci between schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases, the findings did not show a significant enrichment. The findings do not support a genetic overlap in common SNPs between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia that in part could explain the observed comorbidity from epidemiological studies.

  15. Estimated cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Sumiyoshi, Chika; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Fujimoto, Michiko; Fukunaga, Masaki; Miura, Kenichiro; Takebayashi, Yuto; Okada, Naohiro; Isomura, Shuichi; Kawano, Naoko; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kuga, Hironori; Isobe, Masanori; Oya, Kazuto; Okahisa, Yuko; Takaki, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kato, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ueno, Takefumi; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kasai, Kiyoto; Ozaki, Norio; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Imura, Osamu; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2017-05-01

    Studies have reported that cognitive decline occurs after the onset of schizophrenia despite heterogeneity in cognitive function among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of estimated cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia by comparing estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and current intellectual functioning. A total of 446 patients with schizophrenia (228 male, 218 female), consisting of three sample sets obtained from 11 psychiatric facilities, and 686 healthy controls participated in this study. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) was used to measure the participants' current full-scale IQ (FSIQ). The premorbid IQ was estimated using the Japanese Adult Reading Test-25. Estimated cognitive decline (difference score) was defined as the difference between the estimated premorbid IQ and the current FSIQ. Patients with schizophrenia showed greater estimated cognitive decline, a lower FSIQ, and a lower premorbid IQ compared with the healthy controls. The mean difference score, FSIQ, and estimated premorbid IQ were -16.3, 84.2, and 100.5, respectively, in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, 39.7% of the patients had a difference score of 20 points or greater decline. A discriminant analysis showed that the difference score accurately predicted 81.6% of the patients and healthy controls. These results show the distribution of difference score in patients with schizophrenia. These findings may contribute to assessing the severity of estimated cognitive decline and identifying patients with schizophrenia who suffer from cognitive decline. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Language in schizophrenia Part 2: What can psycholinguistics bring to the study of schizophrenia...and vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperberg, Gina R

    2010-08-01

    This is the second of two articles that discuss higher-order language and semantic processing in schizophrenia. The companion article (Part 1) gives an introduction to language dysfunction in schizophrenia patients. This article reviews a selection of psycholinguistic studies which suggest that sentence-level abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from a relative overdependence on semantic associative relationships at the expense of building higher-order meaning. Language disturbances in schizophrenia may be best conceptualized as arising from an imbalance of activity across two streams of processing, one drawing upon semantic relationships within semantic memory and the other involving the use of combinatorial mechanisms to build propositional meaning. I will also discuss some of the ways in which the study of schizophrenia may offer new insights into the cognitive and neural architecture of the normal language system.

  17. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  18. Multianalyte markers of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Faith; Schroeder, Jennifer; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Bahn, Sabine; Yolken, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have identified altered molecular profiles in blood samples from individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder using multianalyte immunoassay platforms but there has been little comparison of the two groups in the same investigation. A total of 337 participants including 146 with schizophrenia, 79 with bipolar disorder, and 112 non-psychiatric controls had a blood sample drawn from which 166 analytes were measured. The initial dataset was split; classification models were developed in a training dataset and their performance evaluated in a test dataset. Principal component analysis was used to generate factor scores that were then compared between the groups. In a training set, a total of 7 independent factors were generated using 29 markers that were both normally distributed and significantly associated with diagnosis. Many of these analytes are components of the immune system and involved in the inflammatory response to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Two of the seven principal component scores discriminated between individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder; additional factors distinguished individuals with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from control individuals, while two factors were not significantly different between any of the diagnostic groups. In a test dataset, the schizophrenia vs. control Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis shows an overall accuracy of 77% for schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder, 84% for schizophrenia vs. controls, and 72% for bipolar disorder vs. An increased understanding of the role of altered pathways in serious psychiatric disorders may lead to novel methods for disease diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hypo-metabolism of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex associated with working memory impairment in 18 cases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazgaj, Robert; Tal, Assaf; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Rothman, Karen; Messinger, Julie Walsh; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (Work-Mem), the capacity to hold and manipulate information, activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially its caudal subregion. Impaired Work-Mem and structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC are reported in schizophrenia. This study aims to elucidate the pathogenesis of Work-Mem dysfunction in schizophrenia by comparing metabolite concentrations across ACC subregions. This retrospective study of 18 schizophrenia cases and 10 matched controls used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI, TR/TE = 1800/35 ms, 0.5 cm(3) spatial resolution) to test whether the Work-Mem Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition is associated with differences in the rostral to caudal ACC ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). Higher caudal:rostral ACC Cr (but not NAA) concentrations were associated with decreased Work-Mem Index in cases (r = -0.6, p = 0.02), with a similar trend in controls (r = -0.56, p = 0.10), although caudal:rostral ACC Cr correlated with NAA in cases and controls (r = 0.67 and 0.62, p working memory impairment in schizophrenia. Changes in the rostral (not the expected caudal) subregion underscore the interconnections between the ACC subregions and may offer laboratory markers for treatment trials, etiology studies, and perhaps even enhanced identification of prodromal "at risk" subjects.

  20. Systematic review and collaborative recalculation of 133,693 incident cases of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, M; Hanssen, M; Köhler, S; Verkaaik, M; Verhey, F R; van Winkel, R; van Os, J; Allardyce, J; Veling, Willem

    BACKGROUND: This systematic review and collaborative recalculation was set up to recalculate schizophrenia incidence rates from previously published studies by age and sex. METHOD: PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched (January 1950 to December 2009) for schizophrenia incidence

  1. Does varenicline worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder? A review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Joseph M; Durango, Alejandra

    2012-08-01

    To review published cases and prospective studies describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database were searched in July 2011 using the key words schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, aggression, hostility, suicidal ideation AND varenicline to identify reports published between January 2006 and July 2011 in English. Five case reports, 1 case series, 1 retrospective study, 10 prospective studies (17 publications), and 1 meeting abstract describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were identified. Review articles and articles describing findings other than the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Thirteen reports were included in the final analysis. Information on each study's patient population, age, diagnosis, medication treatment, tobacco use history, adverse effects, and outcome was collected from the published reports. Of the 260 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who received varenicline in these published reports, 13 patients (5%) experienced the onset or worsening of any psychiatric symptom, although 3 of the 13 patients experienced a very brief negative effect after 1 dose. No patients experienced suicidal ideation or suicidal behaviors. Published reports suggest that, in most stable, closely monitored patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, varenicline treatment is not associated with worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Current, prospective studies are assessing effectiveness and further assessing safety in this population. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Levothyroxine Augmentation in Clozapine Resistant Schizophrenia: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohollah Seddigh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports that show different thyroid abnormalities in schizophrenia without clear establishment of their role in etiology and treatment outcome of schizophrenia. Among these reports, there are only a few that consider a role for thyroid hormones as augmenting agents in the treatment with antipsychotic drugs. This case report outlines symptom subsidence of a patient with clozapine refractory paranoid schizophrenia and normal thyroid function who added levothyroxine to clozapine and found that symptoms of psychosis returned once levothyroxine was discontinued. Although this observation needs to be confirmed in controlled clinical trials, we aimed to discuss possible hypothesized mechanisms underlying this observation.

  3. Association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia: lack of association with schizophrenia and possible association with affective disturbances of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Seok, Hosik; Jeon, Hye Sook; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Jong Woo; Yu, Gyeong Im; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyzes monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and norepinephrine. MAOA also plays a key role in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene located on the X chromosome and schizophrenia. We also analyzed the relationships between these SNPs and the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, affective disturbances, and poor concentration. Two hundred seventy five Korean schizophrenia patients and 289 control subjects were recruited. Three SNPs [rs6323 (Arg294Arg), rs1137070 (Asp470Asp), and rs3027407 (3'-untranslated region)] of the MAOA gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. The common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia according to the Operation Criteria Checklist were analyzed. Three examined SNPs showed no associations with male and female schizophrenia, respectively (p>0.05). In the analysis of the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, three examined SNPs were associated with affective disturbances, especially restricted affect and blunted affect in male schizophrenia, respectively (restricted affect, p=0.002, OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.00; blunted affect, p=0.009, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.22-4.12). The SNPs were not associated with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia (persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, and poor concentration). These results suggest that exonic SNPs (rs6323, rs1137070, and rs3027407) of the MAOA gene may be contributed to affective disturbances of Korean males schizophrenia, especially restricted affect and blunted affect.

  4. Social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia - An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Ł; Wichniak, A; Jarkiewicz, M; Schudy, A; Gola, M; Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Łojek, E

    2016-09-01

    Despite social cognitive dysfunction that may be observed in patients with schizophrenia, the knowledge about social and nonsocial affective processing in schizophrenia is scant. The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioural responses to neutral and negative stimuli with (faces, people) and without (animals, objects) social content in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a visual oddball paradigm with either negative or neutral pictures from the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) as targets while EEG was recorded. Half of the stimuli within each category presented social content (faces, people). Negative stimuli with social content produced lower N2 amplitude and higher mean LPP than any other type of stimuli in both groups. Despite differences in behavioural ratings and alterations in ERP processing of affective stimuli (lack of EPN differentiation, decreased P3 to neutral stimuli) SCZ were still able to respond to specific categories of stimuli similarly to HC. The pattern of results suggests that with no additional emotion-related task demands patients with schizophrenia may present similar attentional engagement with negative social stimuli as healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. No Reliable Association between Runs of Homozygosity and Schizophrenia in a Well-Powered Replication Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that inbreeding increases the risk of recessive monogenic diseases, but it is less certain whether it contributes to the etiology of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. One way to estimate the effects of inbreeding is to examine the association between disease diagnosis and genome-wide autozygosity estimated using runs of homozygosity (ROH in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Using data for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 21,868, Keller et al. (2012 estimated that the odds of developing schizophrenia increased by approximately 17% for every additional percent of the genome that is autozygous (β = 16.1, CI(β = [6.93, 25.7], Z = 3.44, p = 0.0006. Here we describe replication results from 22 independent schizophrenia case-control datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 39,830. Using the same ROH calling thresholds and procedures as Keller et al. (2012, we were unable to replicate the significant association between ROH burden and schizophrenia in the independent PGC phase II data, although the effect was in the predicted direction, and the combined (original + replication dataset yielded an attenuated but significant relationship between Froh and schizophrenia (β = 4.86,CI(β = [0.90,8.83],Z = 2.40,p = 0.02. Since Keller et al. (2012, several studies reported inconsistent association of ROH burden with complex traits, particularly in case-control data. These conflicting results might suggest that the effects of autozygosity are confounded by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, urbanicity, and religiosity, which may be associated with both real inbreeding and the outcome measures of interest.

  6. No Reliable Association between Runs of Homozygosity and Schizophrenia in a Well-Powered Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emma C; Bjelland, Douglas W; Howrigan, Daniel P; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Breen, Gerome; Borglum, Anders; Cichon, Sven; Degenhardt, Franziska; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Genovese, Giulio; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herms, Stefan; Hoffman, Per; Maier, Wolfgang; Mattheisen, Manuel; Morris, Derek; Mowry, Bryan; Müller-Mhysok, Betram; Neale, Benjamin; Nenadic, Igor; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rietschel, Marcella; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Rujescu, Dan; Schulze, Thomas G; Simonson, Matthew A; Stahl, Eli; Strohmaier, Jana; Witt, Stephanie H; Sullivan, Patrick F; Keller, Matthew C

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that inbreeding increases the risk of recessive monogenic diseases, but it is less certain whether it contributes to the etiology of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. One way to estimate the effects of inbreeding is to examine the association between disease diagnosis and genome-wide autozygosity estimated using runs of homozygosity (ROH) in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Using data for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 21,868), Keller et al. (2012) estimated that the odds of developing schizophrenia increased by approximately 17% for every additional percent of the genome that is autozygous (β = 16.1, CI(β) = [6.93, 25.7], Z = 3.44, p = 0.0006). Here we describe replication results from 22 independent schizophrenia case-control datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 39,830). Using the same ROH calling thresholds and procedures as Keller et al. (2012), we were unable to replicate the significant association between ROH burden and schizophrenia in the independent PGC phase II data, although the effect was in the predicted direction, and the combined (original + replication) dataset yielded an attenuated but significant relationship between Froh and schizophrenia (β = 4.86,CI(β) = [0.90,8.83],Z = 2.40,p = 0.02). Since Keller et al. (2012), several studies reported inconsistent association of ROH burden with complex traits, particularly in case-control data. These conflicting results might suggest that the effects of autozygosity are confounded by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, urbanicity, and religiosity, which may be associated with both real inbreeding and the outcome measures of interest.

  7. The incidence rate of cancer in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Jiasi; Yu, Xiya; Zheng, Huiwen; Sun, Xu; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Chunbo; Bi, Xiaoying

    2017-09-21

    Numerous studies report that cancer prevalence in patients with schizophrenia might be different from the general population, but findings remain controversial. Our updated meta-analysis of cohort studies aims to analyze the data from cohort studies concerning the incidence risk of overall cancer and some site-specific cancers in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a systemic search through electronic databases. Cohort studies evaluating and describing the cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for assessing the incidence risk of cancer. There were 16 cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, which combined a total of 480,356 participants with schizophrenia and 41,999 cases of cancer. Results showed that there was a slight significant decreased overall risk ratio of cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia (RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99). When stratified by cancer site and gender, there were significant decreased incidence risk rates of colorectal cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) and prostate cancer (RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71) in those patients, moreover, the incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased significantly in male patients (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98), and the incidence rate of lung cancer increased significantly in female patients (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The incidence risk of some cancers was reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Gender and type of cancer were two important confounding factors contributed to the heterogeneity that required adjustment in our cancer incidence meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huilan; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy.

  9. Clozapine use in childhood and adolescent schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carolina; Papachristou, Efstathios; Wimberley, Theresa; Gasse, Christiane; Dima, Danai; MacCabe, James H; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Frangou, Sophia

    2015-06-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (EOS) begins in childhood or adolescence. EOS is associated with poor treatment response and may benefit from timely use of clozapine. This study aimed to identify the predictors of clozapine use in EOS and characterize the clinical profile and outcome of clozapine-treated youths with schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide population-based study using linked data from Danish medical registries. We examined all incident cases of EOS (i.e., cases diagnosed prior to their 18th birthday) between December 31st 1994 and December 31st 2006 and characterized their demographic, clinical and treatment profiles. We then used multivariable cox proportional hazard models to identify predictors of clozapine treatment in this patient population. We identified 662 EOS cases (1.9% of all schizophrenia cases), of whom 108 (17.6%) had commenced clozapine by December 31st 2008. Patients had on average 3 antipsychotic trials prior to clozapine initiation. The mean interval between first antipsychotic treatment and clozapine initiation was 3.2 (2.9) years. Older age at diagnosis of schizophrenia [HR=1.2, 95% CI (1.05-1.4), p=0.01], family history of schizophrenia [HR=2.1, 95% CI (1.1-3.04), p=0.02] and attempted suicide [HR=1.8, 95% CI (1.1-3.04), p=0.02] emerged as significant predictors of clozapine use. The majority of patients (n=96, 88.8%) prescribed clozapine appeared to have a favorable clinical response as indicated by continued prescription redemption and improved occupational outcomes. Our findings support current recommendations for the timely use of clozapine in EOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  11. High Expressed Emotion and Schizophrenia: A Study of Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevention of relapse is one of the major aims of treatment of emotional disorders. Expressed emotion (EE) is one concept that has been associated with relapse. The study is aimed at studying the relationship between expressed emotion and the clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Evaluation of familial influences on the course and severity of schizophrenia among US and Indian cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Smita N.; Bhatia, Triptish; Wood, Joel; Brar, Jaspreet S.; Thelma, B. K.; Ganguli, Rohan; Day, Richard; Gottesman, Irving I.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Psych, MRC

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior studies suggest familial (possibly genetic) influences on the course of schizophrenia. Aims The aim of this study was to compare familial influences on the course and severity of schizophrenia in two independent samples. Method Thirteen selected measures were compared among affected sibling pairs (ASPs) from Pittsburgh, USA and New Delhi, India (48 US pairs, 53 Indian pairs). For each ASP proband, an unrelated patient was selected randomly from a suitable pool of cases ascertained in the same study (Sibpair proband – comparison case or S-C pairs). Correlations between these pairs were compared. Results The correlations varied by item and by site. Significant correlations for longitudinal course and pattern of severity were noted among the ASPs from USA, but did not remain significant following corrections for multiple comparisons. Comparisons between the correlations for ASPs and the S-C pairs, used to estimate familial effects, yielded trends for the ASP correlations to be numerically larger than the S-C correlations in both samples. Separate cross-site comparisons revealed several significant differences with regard to several demographic and clinical variables. The possible impact of the cross-site variations on the observed ASP correlations is discussed. Conclusions Though familial factors did not appear to have a significant impact on course/severity using this novel design, the suggestive trends need to be examined in larger samples. PMID:15133593

  13. The Opinions of Italian Psychology Students About People Diagnosed with Depression and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    MAGLIANO, LORENZA; Schioppa, Giustina; Costanzo, Regina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the opinions about depression and schizophrenia among Italian psychology students, and whether students’ opinions changed during education. Of the 705 students who read a description of depression (N = 275) or schizophrenia (N = 430) and then completed a questionnaire on their opinions about the disorder, 490 made a correct diagnosis (depression = 243/275; schizophrenia: 247/430) and were included in the study. Compared to schizophrenia-group students, depression-group stu...

  14. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence of schizophrenia in pe...

  15. [Beliefs about psychosocial consequences of schizophrenia and depression: a comparative study in a sample of secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiello, Giuseppina; Magliano, Lorenza

    2007-01-01

    Description of students' opinions about schizophrenia and depression. The study was carried out on a sample of 445 secondary school students, randomly allocated to a "schizophrenia" or a "depression" group (N = 221 and N = 224, respectively). Each respondent was asked to read a case-vignette describing a case of schizophrenia or depression, and then to fill the Questionnaire on the Opinions about Mental Illness--General Population's version (QO-GP). 35% of students in "schizophrenia" group vs. 85% in "depression" group attributed a correct diagnosis to case-vignette. 19% of students in the "schizophrenia" group vs. 39% in the "depression" group believed that these mental disorders can recover. Affective and civil rights were more frequently acknowledged to patients with depression than to those with schizophrenia. In both groups, the majority of students stated that mentally ill patients were unpredictable and socially dangerous. Students who reported TV stories on people with mentally ill were more frequently convinced on their unpredictability and social dangerousness. These results outline the need to: a) plan educational campaigns for students on mental disorders; b) alert media professionals on the impact that the way they present crimes committed by mentally ill patients may have on general population.

  16. Cognitive behaviour therapy in patients with schizophrenia who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, T; Dudley, R; Brown, S; Turkington, D; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-06-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) as an adjunct to medication has been shown to improve symptom management in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is understood about the value of CBT for people who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication. A post hoc case series design was used to examine the outcome data of three participants selected from a randomized controlled trial for CBT for schizophrenia. The participants were included if they had received CBT and were not prescribed antipsychotic medication during active treatment. The three patients improved on outcome measures of psychopathology, depression, or negative symptoms, some to a clinically significant degree. CBT is a feasible treatment for people with schizophrenia who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication. It may be a valuable alternative to medication in treating symptoms of schizophrenia.

  17. naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... NATURALISTIC STUDY OF OLANZAPINE IN TREATMENT-RESISTANT SCHIZOPHRENIA AND ACUTE MANIA, DEPRESSION AND OBSESSIONAL ... All with primary diagnosis of severe depression and mania achieved full ...... of nefazodone as a serotonin uptake inhibitor and a serotin antagonist in vivo ...

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripke, Stephan; Sanders, Alan R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Sklar, Pamela; Holmans, Peter A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Duan, Jubao; Ophoff, Roel A.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Scolnick, Edward; Cichon, Sven; Clair, David St.; Corvin, Aiden; Gurling, Hugh; Werge, Thomas; Rujescu, Dan; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Pato, Carlos N.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Purcell, Shaun; Dudbridge, Frank; Neale, Benjamin M.; Rossin, Lizzy; Visscher, Peter M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Fanous, Ayman; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Mowry, Bryan J.; Golimbet, Vera; De Hert, Marc; Jonsson, Erik G.; Bitter, Istvan; Pietilainen, Olli P. H.; Collier, David A.; Tosato, Sarah; Agartz, Ingrid; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amdur, Richard L.; Amin, Farooq; Bass, Nicholas; Bergen, Sarah E.; Black, Donald W.; Borglum, Anders D.; Brown, Matthew A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Catts, Stanley V.; Choudhury, Khalid; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nicholas; Danoy, Patrick A.; Datta, Susmita; De Haan, Lieuwe; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donnelly, Peter; Donohoe, Gary; Duong, Linh; Dwyer, Sarah; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Glenthoj, Birte; Godard, Stephanie; Hamshere, Marian; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Hougaard, David M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Ingason, Andres; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jakobsen, Klaus D.; Jay, Maurice; Juergens, Gesche; Kahn, Renes; Keller, Matthew C.; Kenis, Gunter; Kenny, Elaine; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Konnerth, Heike; Konte, Bettina; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Lasseter, Virginia K.; Laurent, Claudine; Lawrence, Jacob; Lencz, Todd; Lerer, F. Bernard; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Linszen, Don H.; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Maclean, Alan W.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Malloy, Pat; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGrath, John J.; McIntosh, Andrew; McLean, Duncan E.; McQuillin, Andrew; Melle, Ingrid; Michie, Patricia T.; Milanova, Vihra; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nielsen, Jimmi; Nikolov, Ivan; Nordentoft, Merete; Norton, Nadine; Noethen, Markus M.; O'Dushlaine, Colm T.; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Orntoft, Torben F.; Owen, Michael J.; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George; Pato, Michele T.; Peltonen, Leena; Petursson, Hannes; Pickard, Ben; Pimm, Jonathan; Pulver, Ann E.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby; Quinn, Emma M.; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Rethelyi, Janos M.; Ribble, Robert; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Ruggeri, Mirella; Schall, Ulrich; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scott, Rodney J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stefansson, Kari; Strange, Amy; Strengman, Eric; Stroup, T. Scott; Suvisaari, Jaana; Terenius, Lars; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thygesen, Johan H.; Timm, Sally; Toncheva, Draga; van den Oord, Edwin; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud; Veldink, Jan; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, August G.; Wiersma, Durk; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Hywel J.; Williams, Nigel M.; Wormley, Brandon; Zammit, Stan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Daly, Mark J.; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded

  19. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  20. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  1. Inflammatory Biomarkers and Risk of Schizophrenia: A 2-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Borges, Maria Carolina; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Bowden, Jack; Davey Smith, George

    2017-12-01

    Positive associations between inflammatory biomarkers and risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, have been reported in observational studies. However, conventional observational studies are prone to bias, such as reverse causation and residual confounding, thus limiting our understanding of the effect (if any) of inflammatory biomarkers on schizophrenia risk. To evaluate whether inflammatory biomarkers have an effect on the risk of developing schizophrenia. Two-sample mendelian randomization study using genetic variants associated with inflammatory biomarkers as instrumental variables to improve inference. Summary association results from large consortia of candidate gene or genome-wide association studies, including several epidemiologic studies with different designs, were used. Gene-inflammatory biomarker associations were estimated in pooled samples ranging from 1645 to more than 80 000 individuals, while gene-schizophrenia associations were estimated in more than 30 000 cases and more than 45 000 ancestry-matched controls. In most studies included in the consortia, participants were of European ancestry, and the prevalence of men was approximately 50%. All studies were conducted in adults, with a wide age range (18 to 80 years). Genetically elevated circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Risk of developing schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were included as cases. Given that many studies contributed to the analyses, different diagnostic procedures were used. The pooled odds ratio estimate using 18 CRP genetic instruments was 0.90 (random effects 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .005) per 2-fold increment in CRP levels; consistent results were obtained using different mendelian randomization methods and a more conservative set of instruments. The odds ratio for sIL-6R was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P = .02

  2. An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Nan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20–30 Hz in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13.5 hours. The results showed that her alpha/beta2 increased over sessions, and her behavior performance including short-term memory, mood, and speech pattern was improved at the end of neurofeedback training. Importantly, a 22-month follow-up found a dramatic improvement in both positive and negative symptoms. These positive outcomes suggest that such intensive neurofeedback training may provide new insight into the treatment of schizophrenia and thus deserves further study to fully examine its scope.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ripke, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10(-11)) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).

  4. Dopamine Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area: An Autopsy Case of Disorganized Type of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ikemoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic dopamine (DA system has been associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we examined DA-containing neuronal structures of the ventral tegmental area (VTA of an autopsy case of disorganized type of schizophrenia (75-year-old female, using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunohistochemistry. A free floating method using 50-μm cryostat sections and three-dimensional imaging analyzer AxioVision were applied to observe the wide range structures of TH-immunoreactive (-ir neurons. TH-ir neuronal cell bodies in the VTA of the present case had irregular shape and various size, and TH-ir neuronal processes had irregular thickness and straightened shape or curved shape having many corners, when compared to a control autopsy case with no detectable neurological and psychiatric diseases (64-year-old male. The mechanisms underlying the morphological characteristics of DA neurons of the brains with schizophrenia should be elucidated epigenetically as well as genetically.

  5. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-06-01

    Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007-October 2014. Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40-15.36, P Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Neuropsychological deficits in the prodromal phase and course of an early-onset schizophrenia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, Vanessa; Günther, Thomas; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    Although clear advances have been achieved in the study of early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), little is known to date about premorbid and prodromal neuropsychological functioning in EOS. Here, we report on a case of an adolescent male with EOS who underwent neuropsychological testing before and after illness onset. Marked cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, set-shifting, and verbal memory were present both pre-onset and during the course of schizophrenia, though only deficits in verbal memory persisted after illness-onset and antipsychotic treatment. The findings of this case study suggest that impairments in the verbal memory domain are particularly prominent symptoms of cognitive impairment in prodromal EOS and persist in the course of the disorder, which further demonstrates the difficult clinical situation of adequate schooling opportunities for adolescent patients with EOS.

  8. Preliminary study of visual perspective in mental time travel in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Qing; Cui, Ji-Fang; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Chan, Raymond Ck

    2017-10-01

    This study explored specificity and visual perspective of mental time travel in schizophrenia. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 18 controls were recruited. Participants were asked to recall or imagine specific events according to cue words. Results showed that schizophrenia patients generated fewer specific events than controls, the recalled events were more specific than imagined events. Schizophrenia adopted less field perspective and more observer perspective than controls. These results suggested that patients with schizophrenia were impaired in mental time travel both in specificity and visual perspective. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the communicative impairments in schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Angeleri, Romina; Vallana, Marianna; Sacco, Katiuscia; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pragmatic abilities of patients with schizophrenia in a variety of pragmatic phenomena expressed through different communicative means (language, gestures, and paralinguistic modality). For this purpose we used the Assessment Battery of Communication (ABaCo; Sacco et al., 2008). The ABaCo is a validated clinical tool for assessing pragmatic skills, which comprises five evaluation scales-linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic, context, and conversational-investigating both comprehension and production of the main pragmatic phenomena involved in a communicative exchange, such as direct and indirect speech acts, irony, deceit, the violation of Grice's maxims, topic management, and turn-taking. The battery was administered to a group of seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and matched healthy controls. We expected the clinical group to perform widely worse than the control group in the different pragmatic dimensions investigated. Results showed that patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls on all the five scales of the battery, both in comprehension and production tasks. Moreover, the results within each scale showed a differentiated performance in the clinical group among the pragmatic phenomena, with irony assessed as the most difficult task. The implications of these results for research and treatment in schizophrenia are discussed. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize thepreliminary assessment of pragmatic impairments in patients with schizophrenia; (2) describea variegated communicative profile regarding different pragmatic phenomena; and (3) discuss the planning and evaluating specific rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and lung function in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; De Herdt, Amber; De Hert, Marc

    2014-12-15

    This pilot study aimed to explore relationships between metabolic and lung functions in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty patients with schizophrenia (55 ♂; 36.8±10.0 years) underwent a spirometry, were screened for metabolic syndrome (MetS), performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT), and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Psychosis evaluation tool for common use by caregivers. Patients with MetS (according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria) (n=28; 35%) had a reduced predicted forced expiratory volume for 1 second (77.4±13.2% versus 87.3±12.1%) and predicted forced vital capacity (75.3±11.1% versus 85.4±11.4%). Significantly more patients with MetS were diagnosed with restrictive lung dysfunction (RLD) (according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria) (13 versus 8). Schizophrenia patients with RLD (n=21; 26.2%) had a significantly larger waist circumference (90.7±12.5 versus 105.6±14.7 cm), were less physically active (653.6±777.9 versus 1517.9±1248.7 metabolic equivalent min/week) and walked less on the 6MWT (502.6±92.3 versus 612.4±101.2 m) than patients without RLD. The present data suggest that in patients with schizophrenia RLD might be associated with metabolic dysfunctions. Further prospective analyses are required to elucidate the complex interrelationships between lung and metabolic functions in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultural considerations in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia: A case example from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Saranya; Loganathan, Santosh; Dahale, Ajit; Varghese, Mathew

    2017-06-01

    Culture plays an important role in the presentation, help seeking, treatment and outcomes of psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia. We report a case of paranoid schizophrenia in a 35-year-old lady, from South India, whose clinical presentation was influenced by various sociocultural factors. These cultural constructs were taken into consideration to formulate an acceptable and effective management plan. A detailed case description using a cultural formulation to highlight the etic and emic perspectives and challenges in treatment and management are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in a patient with confirmed Huntington's disease: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Bartosz; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Banaszkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a patient with a mutation in the gene responsible for the development of Huntington's disease (HD) who presented schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. A case report. A 35-year old man with genetically-confirmed HD who developed significant behavioural changes that occurred many years prior to the outbreak of choreic movements. There was a close temporal relationship between an onset of discrete involuntary movements and schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms (delusions of persecution, reference and bodily change, as well as auditory pseudohallucinations of threatening and commanding voices). At admission (subsequently to a suicidal attempt) he was ambivalent, ambitendent and--periodically--agitated. Pharmacotherapeutic regime of olanzapine (20 mg qd) and amisulpride (400 mg qd) led to a gradual improvement of the patient's mental status. HD should always be included in the differential diagnosis of psychotic disorders. Patients with HD can exhibit various psychopathological symptoms (including psychotic ones) prior to the outbreak of movement symptoms. Both neurologists and psychiatrists should take part in the therapeutic process. Atypical antipsychotics seem to be effective in the discussed group of patients (although the evidence body consists mainly of scarce, low-quality data).

  13. The Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation Abilities in Cannabis-Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cannabis abuse/dependence is paradoxically associated with better cognition in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of visuospatial abilities in 14 schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (DD, 14 nonabusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ, and 21 healthy controls (HCs. Participants performed a mental rotation task while being scanned. There were no significant differences in the number of mistakes between schizophrenia groups, and both made more mistakes on the mental rotation task than HC. Relative to HC, SCZ had increased activations in the left thalamus, while DD patients had increased activations in the right supramarginal gyrus. In both cases, hyper-activations are likely to reflect compensatory efforts. In addition, SCZ patients had decreased activations in the left superior parietal gyrus compared to both HC and DD patients. This latter result tentatively suggests that the neurophysiologic processes underlying visuospatial abilities are partially preserved in DD, relative to SCZ patients, consistently with the findings showing that cannabis abuse in schizophrenia is associated with better cognitive functioning. Further fMRI studies are required to examine the neural correlates of other cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid cannabis use disorder.

  14. Identifying Rare Variation in Cases of Schizophrenia in the Isolated Population of the Faroe Islands using Whole-genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Lescai, Francesco; Dahl, Hans

    The allelic architecture of schizophrenia (SZ) is likely to be underlined by a combination of multiple common and rare variants. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale consortia meta-analysis of GWAS have successfully been applied in the search for common variants affecting the risk...... influencing susceptibility to schizophrenia using whole genome sequencing of Faroese case-control samples. We will conduct association testing based on IBD information (IBD association testing) by analysing genome-wide association of shared IBD segments identified by the method implemented in GERMLINE...... and clustered using the DASH algorithm. Genomic regions with evidence for shared ancestral polymorphisms and/or genetic linkage co-segregation will thus be prioritized. We hypothesize greater degree of IBD sharing of rare haplotypes in cases compared to controls for regions harbouring disease susceptibility...

  15. Homoeopathic management of Schizophrenia: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Oberai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in Schizophrenia, in untreated cases and antipsychotic treatment resistant cases, to verify indications of medicines, and to assess relapse, if any. Materials and Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study was carried out from October 2005-September 2010 by CCRH at Central Research Institute (H, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Patients between 20 and 60 years of age, presenting with symptoms of Schizophrenia were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients who were on antipsychotic drugs were allowed to continue the same along with homoeopathic medicine, the dose of antipsychotics was monitored by the Psychiatrist. The symptoms of each patient were repertorized, and medicine was initially prescribed in 30C potency after consulting Materia Medica. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Outcome of treatment was assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales (BPRS. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences  SPSS Version 20.0. Results: Out of 188 enrolled patients, 17 cases did not complete the baseline information. Total 171 patients were analysed as per modified Intention to Treat Principle. Significant difference (P = 0.0001, P < 0.05 in the mean scores of BPRS, using paired t test was observed at end of the study. Sulphur, Lycopodium, Natrum muriaticum, Pulsatilla and Phosphorus were found to be the most useful medicines in treating schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The study reflects the positive role of homoeopathic medicines in the management of patients suffering from schizophrenia as measured by BPRS.

  16. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  17. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S] and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]. Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of

  18. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish lon...... first admitted for epilepsy at later ages. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between epilepsy and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. The two conditions may share common genetic or environmental causes.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...... longitudinal registers. SUBJECTS: The cohort comprised 2.27 million people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epilepsy, psychosis, personal birth data. RESULTS: We found an increased risk of schizophrenia (relative risk 2.48, 95% confidence interval 2.20 to 2.80) and schizophrenia-like psychosis (2.93, 2.69 to 3...

  19. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  20. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Adamczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH outpatients (n = 20, and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20. The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral – complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41 in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9 in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24 in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9 and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24. Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension

  1. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Daren, Artur; Cepuch, Kamil; Błądziński, Piotr; Cechnicki, Andrzej; Marek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH) outpatients (n = 20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20). The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral - complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension processing

  2. [Support of the family with schizophrenia in case of home hospice care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Kayo; Watanabe, Miyako; Kawagoe, Koh

    2013-08-01

    There are various types of families of terminally-ill cancer patients, and care for the family should therefore be individualized. In cases where the primary caregivers have schizophrenia, caring for the patients at home might cause a serious burden to a family. From this aspect, two patients who were cared for by family with schizophrenia were reviewed. Four important factors were obtained. First, assessment of psychiatric conditions of the family collaborating with the psychiatrist or public health nurse; second, confirmation of the patients'/family's wills concerning living through death at home; third, death education given to a family; and fourth, efficient collaboration with social services by an other organization. It was considered that these factors would constitute a model for providing home hospice care to a family with schizophrenia.

  3. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  4. Studying and treating schizophrenia using virtual reality: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Understanding schizophrenia requires consideration of patients' interactions in the social world. Misinterpretation of other peoples' behavior is a key feature of persecutory ideation. The occurrence and intensity of hallucinations is affected by the social context. Negative symptoms such as anhedonia, asociality, and blunted affect reflect difficulties in social interactions. Withdrawal and avoidance of other people is frequent in schizophrenia, leading to isolation and rumination. The use of virtual reality (VR)--interactive immersive computer environments--allows one of the key variables in understanding psychosis, social environments, to be controlled, providing exciting applications to research and treatment. Seven applications of virtual social environments to schizophrenia are set out: symptom assessment, identification of symptom markers, establishment of predictive factors, tests of putative causal factors, investigation of the differential prediction of symptoms, determination of toxic elements in the environment, and development of treatment. The initial VR studies of persecutory ideation, which illustrate the ascription of personalities and mental states to virtual people, are highlighted. VR, suitably applied, holds great promise in furthering the understanding and treatment of psychosis.

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripke, Stephan; Sanders, Alan R; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).......We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis...... an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism...

  6. Association study between the rs165599 catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Cordeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with frequent recurrent psychotic relapses and progressive functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs165599 (A/G polymorphism has been shown to be associated with alteration of COMT gene expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and this polymorphism. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes of this polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 245 patients and 834 controls. The genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed according to gender or schizophrenia subtypes. There was also no difference in homozygosis between cases and controls. Thus, in the sample studied, there was no evidence of any association between schizophrenia and rs165599 (A/G polymorphism in the non-coding region 3' of the COMT gene.

  7. [Assessing beliefs and attitudes of relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a study in a Tunisian sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; Ben Haouala, S; Klibi, A; Ghaouar, M; Chennoufi, L; Melki, W; El-Hechmi, Z

    2013-06-01

    Investigating and understanding family member's causal beliefs and attitudes about schizophrenia is an important step in the management of the illness. They likely influence the family's help-seeking decisions and affect both adherence with biomedical interventions and social integration of the patients. The aim of this study was to describe Tunisian families' beliefs about the causes, the symptoms and the treatments of schizophrenia. We led a transversal study including 91 relatives of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV). We excluded patients with mental retardation or neurological diseases. For family members, we excluded participants with a history of mental disorders or cognitive impairments. We collected basic socio-demographic data for both patients and relatives. We asked relatives to respond by "yes/no/I am not certain" to a three-part questionnaire including 27 items dealing with causal explanations, symptoms and optimal cures for schizophrenia. The mean age of the relatives was 49.8 (±13.7) years; 54.9% were men; 49.4% were parents, 8.8% spouses, 39.6% brothers or sisters; 25.3% had not attended school, 24.2% had attended primary school, 37.4% junior high school or high school and 13.2% had a university degree; 63.7% lived in an urban area; 33% had low economic status and 41.8% reported having another family member with mental disorder. Only 46.2% of participants had asked psychiatrists about the diagnosis of their sick relatives and only 16.5% were able to label the term "schizophrenia". Among the cited etiologies of schizophrenia, religious causes were found in 76.9% of cases, they first cited God's will or fate and secondly God's punishment. Magical explanations such as witchcraft and possession by "djinns" were found in 47.3% of cases. The biological causes were cited by 59.3% of participants. The majority of participants (95.6%) proved the need for drugs and 81.3% the utility of psychotherapies. However, 30.8% believed

  8. Meta-analyses of Blood Homocysteine Levels for Gender and Genetic Association Studies of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akira; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that elevated blood homocysteine levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism are risk factors for schizophrenia. However, the effects of gender and MTHFR C677T genotypes on blood homocysteine levels in schizophrenia have not been consistent. We first investigated whether plasma total homocysteine levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls with stratification by gender and by the MTHFR C677T genotypes in a large cohort (N = 1379). Second, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies between blood homocysteine levels and schizophrenia separately by gender (N = 4714). Third, we performed a case-control association study between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia (N = 4998) and conducted a meta-analysis of genetic association studies based on Japanese subjects (N = 10 378). Finally, we assessed the effect of plasma total homocysteine levels on schizophrenia by a mendelian randomization approach. The ANCOVA after adjustment for age demonstrated a significant effect of diagnosis on the plasma total homocysteine levels in all strata, and the subsequent meta-analysis for gender demonstrated elevated blood homocysteine levels in both male and female patients with schizophrenia although antipsychotic medication might influence the outcome. The meta-analysis of the Japanese genetic association studies demonstrated a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia. The mendelian randomization analysis in the Japanese populations yielded an OR of 1.15 for schizophrenia per 1-SD increase in plasma total homocysteine. Our study suggests that increased plasma total homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:24535549

  9. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Eila

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  10. Incidence of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands : A four-year first-contact study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Veen, Natalie; Laan, Winfried; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.

    There is only one previous report on the first-contact incidence of schizophrenia among immigrants in the Netherlands, which was based on a small number of cases, particularly for second generation immigrants. We conducted another two-year first-contact incidence study in the same geographical area,

  11. Schizophrenia and induced abortions: A national register-based follow-up study among Finnish women born between 1965-1980 with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina

    2017-06-11

    The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 1965-1980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.12.2013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 2.28; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of DNA Methylation Differences With Schizophrenia in an Epigenome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Carolina; Taub, Margaret A; Jaffe, Andrew; Briem, Eirikur; Feinberg, Jason I; Trygvadottir, Rakel; Idrizi, Adrian; Runarsson, Arni; Berndsen, Birna; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Perry, Rodney T; Fugman, Doug; Sabunciyan, Sarven; Yolken, Robert H; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Sobell, Janet L; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Go, Rodney C; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Weinberger, Daniel R; Braff, David; Gur, Raquel E; Fallin, Margaret Daniele; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation may play an important role in schizophrenia (SZ), either directly as a mechanism of pathogenesis or as a biomarker of risk. To scan genome-wide DNA methylation data to identify differentially methylated CpGs between SZ cases and controls. Epigenome-wide association study begun in 2008 using DNA methylation levels of 456 513 CpG loci measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array (Illumina) in a consortium of case-control studies for initial discovery and in an independent replication set. Primary analyses used general linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, batch, and cell type heterogeneity. The discovery set contained 689 SZ cases and 645 controls (n = 1334), from 3 multisite consortia: the Consortium on the Genetics of Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia, the Project among African-Americans To Explore Risks for Schizophrenia, and the Multiplex Multigenerational Family Study of Schizophrenia. The replication set contained 247 SZ cases and 250 controls (n = 497) from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort. Identification of differentially methylated positions across the genome in SZ cases compared with controls. Of the 689 case participants in the discovery set, 477 (69%) were men and 258 (37%) were non-African American; of the 645 controls, 273 (42%) were men and 419 (65%) were non-African American. In our replication set, cases/controls were 76% male and 100% non-African American. We identified SZ-associated methylation differences at 923 CpGs in the discovery set (false discovery rate, <0.2). Of these, 625 showed changes in the same direction including 172 with P < .05 in the replication set. Some replicated differentially methylated positions are located in a top-ranked SZ region from genome-wide association study analyses. This analysis identified 172 replicated new associations with SZ after careful correction for cell type heterogeneity and other potential confounders. The overlap with previous genome

  13. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...... and unrelated controls, and in a Scottish case-control sample comprising 200 schizophrenics, 200 bipolar patients and 200 controls. None of the investigated SNPs have so far showed strong evidence of association to either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia....

  14. Hippocampus in schizophrenia, depression, and suicide: a postmortem stereological study of hippocampal volume and cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Rosenberg, Raben; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Robust data from studies of incidence rates in schizophrenia have yielded evidence for a peak in onset at age 22 years in both males and females. An early age of illness onset has been discussed as a more severe (Table Presented) subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by a worse...... illness course. These observations indicate that age at onset might be a distinct liability marker of schizophrenia possibly linked to the genetic underpinnings of the illness. Studying twin data, we wanted to see whether if an early onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the first diagnosed twin (...

  15. The MATISSE study: a randomised trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mike J; Killaspy, Helen; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Patterson, Sue; Soteriou, Tony; O'Neill, Francis A; Clayton, Katie; Maratos, Anna; Barnes, Thomas R; Osborn, David; Johnson, Tony; King, Michael; Tyrer, Peter; Waller, Diana

    2010-08-27

    Art Therapy has been promoted as a means of helping people who may find it difficult to express themselves verbally engage in psychological treatment. Group Art Therapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia. The MATISSE study is a three-arm, parallel group, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial of referral to group Art Therapy plus standard care, referral to an attention control 'activity' group plus standard care, or standard care alone. Study participants were recruited from inpatient and community-based mental health and social care services at four centres in England and Northern Ireland. Participants were aged over 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, confirmed by an examination of case notes using operationalised criteria. Participants were then randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted stacked blocks, stratified by site. Art Therapy and activity groups were made available to participants once a week for up to 12 months. Outcome measures were assessed by researchers masked to allocation status at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. Participants and care givers were aware which arm of the trial participants were allocated to. The primary outcomes for the study are global functioning (measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale) and mental health symptoms (measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessed at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were assessed at 12 and 24 months and comprise levels of group attendance, social function, satisfaction with care, mental wellbeing, and costs. We believe that this is the first large scale pragmatic trial of Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia. Current Controlled

  16. Cotard's Syndrome in a Patient with Schizophrenia: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarcaya-Victoria, Jeff; Ledesma-Gastañadui, Mario; Huete-Cordova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Jules Cotard described, in 1880, the case of a patient characterized by delusions of negation, immortality, and guilt as well as melancholic anxiety among other clinical features. Later this constellation of symptoms was given the eponym Cotard's syndrome, going through a series of theoretical vicissitudes, considering itself currently as just the presence of nihilistic delusions. The presentation of the complete clinical features described by Cotard is a rare occurrence, especially in the context of schizophrenia. Here we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with schizophrenia who developed Cotard's syndrome. The patient was treated with aripiprazole, showing improvement after two weeks of treatment. A review of the literature is performed about this case.

  17. Cotard’s Syndrome in a Patient with Schizophrenia: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Huarcaya-Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jules Cotard described, in 1880, the case of a patient characterized by delusions of negation, immortality, and guilt as well as melancholic anxiety among other clinical features. Later this constellation of symptoms was given the eponym Cotard’s syndrome, going through a series of theoretical vicissitudes, considering itself currently as just the presence of nihilistic delusions. The presentation of the complete clinical features described by Cotard is a rare occurrence, especially in the context of schizophrenia. Here we present the case of a 50-year-old male patient with schizophrenia who developed Cotard’s syndrome. The patient was treated with aripiprazole, showing improvement after two weeks of treatment. A review of the literature is performed about this case.

  18. Relative Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in People with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-I; Chen, Su-Chiu; Liu, Shen-Ing; Sun, Fang-Ju; Juang, Jimmy J M; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Kao, Kai-Liang; Dewey, Michael E; Prince, Martin; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Despite high mortality associated with serious mental illness, risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear, especially for patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective was to investigate the relative risk of AMI associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in a national sample. Using nationwide administrative data, an 11-year historic cohort study was assembled, comprised of cases aged 18 and above who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, compared to a random sample of all other adults excluding those with diagnoses of serious mental illness. Incident AMI as a primary diagnosis was ascertained. Hazard ratios stratified by age and gender were calculated and Cox regression models were used to adjust for other covariates. A total of 70,225 people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 207,592 people without serious mental illness were compared. Hazard ratios in men adjusted for age, income and urbanization were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01~1.32) for schizophrenia and 1.37 (1.08~1.73)for bipolar disorder, and in women, 1.85 (1.58~2.18) and 1.88(1.47~2.41) respectively. Further adjustment for treated hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia attenuated the hazard ratio for men with schizophrenia but not the other comparison groups. Hazard ratios were significantly stronger in women than men and were stronger in younger compared to older age groups for both disorders; however, gender modification was only significant in people with schizophrenia, and age modification only significant in people with bipolar disorder. In this large national sample, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were associated with raised risk of AMI in women and in the younger age groups although showed differences in potential confounding and modifying factors.

  19. Relative Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in People with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-I Wu

    Full Text Available Despite high mortality associated with serious mental illness, risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI remains unclear, especially for patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective was to investigate the relative risk of AMI associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in a national sample.Using nationwide administrative data, an 11-year historic cohort study was assembled, comprised of cases aged 18 and above who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, compared to a random sample of all other adults excluding those with diagnoses of serious mental illness. Incident AMI as a primary diagnosis was ascertained. Hazard ratios stratified by age and gender were calculated and Cox regression models were used to adjust for other covariates.A total of 70,225 people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 207,592 people without serious mental illness were compared. Hazard ratios in men adjusted for age, income and urbanization were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01~1.32 for schizophrenia and 1.37 (1.08~1.73for bipolar disorder, and in women, 1.85 (1.58~2.18 and 1.88(1.47~2.41 respectively. Further adjustment for treated hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia attenuated the hazard ratio for men with schizophrenia but not the other comparison groups. Hazard ratios were significantly stronger in women than men and were stronger in younger compared to older age groups for both disorders; however, gender modification was only significant in people with schizophrenia, and age modification only significant in people with bipolar disorder.In this large national sample, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were associated with raised risk of AMI in women and in the younger age groups although showed differences in potential confounding and modifying factors.

  20. Autism and perplexity: a qualitative and theoretical study of basic subjective experiences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Mads G; Skodlar, Borut; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Autistic traits and perplexity are considered core features of schizophrenia in phenomenological psychiatry. They express a fundamental disturbance of the self-world relation (including disturbances of self and intersubjectivity). The aim of our study was to examine this disturbance by exploring in detail how autism and perplexity are experienced subjectively. It is a qualitative single-case study. In order to fully examine our patient's experiences within the context of his experiential world and not only as isolated or decontextualized symptoms, we applied a heideggerian framework, i.e. Heidegger's exhaustive account of the self-world relation (care). Through the framework of care, we discovered a profound disturbance of the self-world relation in our patient, characterized by subtle experiences of estrangement, anxiety and exposure. We found these experiences to be enduring, pervasive and generative for the development of other symptoms. We argue that these experiences can be seen as experiential correlates of schizotypy and of vulnerability to schizophrenia, and furthermore that an understanding of these experiences can play a role in diagnostic and differential diagnostic procedures, e.g. in early detection or in the search for high-risk individuals, as well as in the psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Influence of obstetric complication severity on brain morphology in schizophrenia: an MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersani, G.; Quartini, A.; Manuali, G.; Iannitelli, A. [University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Department of Psychiatric Sciences and Psychological Medicine, Rome (Italy); Pucci, D. [University of Rome, Department of Public Health ' ' G. Sanarelli' ' , Rome (Italy); Conforti, F. [University of Rome, I Medical Clinic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unit, Rome (Italy); Di Biasi, C.; Gualdi, G.

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a causal relationship exists between obstetric complications (OCs) severity and linear magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brain atrophy in patients with schizophrenia. Linear measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and bicaudate ratio) and hippocampal atrophy (interuncal distance) were completed on MR images obtained in 47 patients with schizophrenia. Regression analysis was used to look at association with OCs severity, assessed by the ''Midwife protocol'' of Parnas and colleagues. The relationship between MR measurements and phenomenologic variables such as age at onset, illness duration, and exposure to antipsychotic medications was explored. The relationship between MR measurements, OCs severity, and symptom presentation was also investigated. OCs severity was significantly associated with MR measurements of ventricular enlargement (bifrontal span, Evans ratio). As the severity of OCs increased, bifrontal span and Evans ratio increased. This effect was independent of age at onset, illness duration, or even antipsychotic treatment. Interestingly, bifrontal span, Evans ratio, and OCs severity score all showed a significant positive correlation with hallucinatory symptomatology. Although confirmatory studies are needed, our findings would support the idea that environmental factors, in this case severe OCs, might partly contribute to ventricular abnormalities in schizophrenia. (orig.)

  2. The gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is associated with schizophrenia in a Danish case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Nyegaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The MCHR1 gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is located on chromosome 22q13.2 and has previously been associated with schizophrenia in a study of cases and controls from the Faroe Islands and Scotland. Herein we report an association between variations in the MCHR...

  3. Looking at the Schizophrenia Spectrum Through the Prism of Self-disorders: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Sæbye, Ditte; Parnas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    spectrum has been explicitly acknowledged, mainly as a consequence of the increasing focus on early detection and prevention of psychosis. The current study tested the hypothesis of a specific aggregation of self-disorders (SDs, various anomalies of self-awareness) in schizophrenia-spectrum conditions......Nonpsychotic anomalies of subjective experience were emphasized in both classic literature and phenomenological psychiatry as essential clinical features of schizophrenia. However, only in recent years, their topicality with respect to the construct validity of the concept of the schizophrenia...... of the schizophrenia spectrum and suggest their incorporation to strengthen its construct validity, with potential benefit for both early detection and pathogenetic research....

  4. Validation study of the early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Staal, Nina

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess (1) the concordance and validity of schizophrenia register diagnoses among children and adolescents (early onset schizophrenia = EOS) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR), and (2) the validity of clinical record schizophrenia diagnoses...... in inpatient settings, EOS diagnoses are reliable and valid for register-based research. Schizophrenia diagnosed in children and adolescents in outpatient settings were found to have a high number of false-positives, both due to registration errors and diagnostic practice. Utilizing this knowledge......, it is possible to reduce the number of false-positives in register-based research of EOS....

  5. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  6. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Cognitive Adaptation Training Provided to Chronically Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia in The Netherlands: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr J. Quee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive adaptation training (CAT improves functional outcome in outpatients with schizophrenia living in the United States of America. The efficacy of CAT has never been demonstrated for patients living in a residential facility. We describe how CAT was delivered to two chronically hospitalized patients with schizophrenia living in The Netherlands. CAT was delivered for 8 months, and consisted of weekly home visits by a psychiatric nurse. Both patients improved on measures of functional outcome used in the US studies. These results indicate that CAT may improve outcomes, even in patients that have been hospitalized for several years.

  8. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  9. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-10-26

    Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  10. Depersonalisation and schizophrenia: Comparative study of initial and multiple episodes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Luque, Rogelio; Chauca-Chauca, Geli Marie; Alonso-Lobato, Pablo; Jaen-Moreno, M Jose

    2016-01-01

    The phenomena of depersonalisation/derealisation have classically been associated with the initial phases of psychosis, and it is assumed that they would precede (even by years) the onset of clinical psychosis, being much more common in the prodromal and acute phases of the illness. The aims of the present study are to analyse the differences in depersonalisation/derealisation between patients with initial and multiple episodes and the factors that could influence this. A descriptive, controlled and cross-sectional study of 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (20 with an initial episode and 28 with multiple episodes). These patients were assessed using scales such as the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Participants with initial episodes score higher on both the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale, and the subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that evaluates such experiences. There were no associations between these types of experience and the positive symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Depersonalisation/derealisation experiences appear with greater frequency, duration and intensity in patients in the early stages of the illnesses, gradually decreasing as they become chronic. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Prefrontal Grey Matter Volumes and Working Memory Performance in Schizophrenia: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; MacDonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex have been reported in both schizophrenia patients and their nonpsychotic biological relatives. Additionally, working memory difficulties have long been documented in schizophrenia patients and have been associated with the genetic liability for the disorder. The present analysis investigated the relationship between prefrontal regional grey matter volumes and two facets of working memory in schizophrenia using a family study. Structural neuroimaging scans provided measurements of rostral middle, superior, and inferior prefrontal cortical grey matter volumes. Participants also completed a spatial working memory task that measured both short-term maintenance and manipulation of material in memory. Both schizophrenia patients and relatives had reduced superior and inferior frontal grey matter volumes. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated a spatial working memory deficit compared to both controls and relatives, with no greater impairment when required to manipulate material. Smaller prefrontal volumes in schizophrenia patients were associated with worse working memory performance. These relationships were absent in the nonpsychotic relatives and controls. Despite normative behavioural performance, nonpsychotic relatives demonstrated abnormalities in brain structure similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. Manipulation abilities were not more impaired than maintenance in schizophrenia patients. Consistent with other neuroimaging research, our results suggest that direct measures of the underlying biology may be more sensitive to the effects of the genetic liability for schizophrenia than behavioural measures. PMID:24529364

  12. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giezendanner

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  13. The association between cannabis abuse and subsequent schizophrenia: a Swedish national co-relative control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G N; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J; Kendler, K S

    2015-01-01

    Although cannabis abuse (CA) is known to be associated with schizophrenia, the causal nature of this association is unclear, with prodromal effects complicating its interpretation. From Swedish national registry databases, we used a co-relative case-control design with full-sibling, half-sibling and first-cousin comparisons, alongside a general Swedish population sample. Using ICD codes, 5456 individuals with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia (2000-2010) were matched with five schizophrenia-free controls. We further identified first-cousin, half-sibling and full-sibling pairs discordant for CA and statistically extrapolated results for discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Within the general Swedish population, CA was strongly associated with later schizophrenia [odds ratio (OR) 10.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.99-12.11]. This association was substantially attenuated both by increasing temporal delays between CA exposure and schizophrenia diagnosis and by controlling for increasing degrees of familial confounding. Extrapolated discordant MZ pairs suggested that fully controlling for confounding familial factors reduced the association between CA and later schizophrenia to more modest levels (ORs of approximately 3.3 and 1.6 with 3- and 7-year temporal delays respectively). Opiate, sedative, cocaine/stimulant and hallucinogen abuse were also strongly associated with subsequent schizophrenia in the general population. After controlling for familial confounding, only cocaine/stimulant exposure remained associated. CA has an appreciable causal impact on future risk for schizophrenia. However, population-based estimates of cannabis-schizophrenia co-morbidity substantially overestimate their causal association. Predictions of the cases of schizophrenia that might be prevented by reduced cannabis consumption based on population associations are therefore likely to be considerably overestimated.

  14. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  15. Physical Health, Medication, and Healthcare Utilization among 70-Year-Old People with Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Danish Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Maria; Green, Anders; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Lamberti, J Steven; Conwell, Yeates; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-05-01

    In light of the excess early mortality in schizophrenia, mainly due to physical illnesses, we investigated medical comorbidity, use of medication, and healthcare utilization among individuals with schizophrenia who survived into older ages to uncover potential factors contributing to their longevity. A nationwide register-based case-control study comparing 70-year-olds with and without schizophrenia. Cases were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Age- and sex-matched controls were drawn from the general population via the Civil Registration System. All Danish inhabitants who were diagnosed and registered with early onset schizophrenia in 1970-1979 and still alive at age 70 years. Controls alive at age 70 years. Chronic medical comorbidity, medications, and inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilization extracted from Danish healthcare registers. Older adults with schizophrenia did not differ from controls with regard to registered chronic medical illnesses, but were significantly less likely to receive medication for cardiovascular diseases (OR: 0.65; 99.29% CI: 0.50, 0.83) and more likely to be treated with analgesics (OR: 1.46; 99.29% CI: 1.04, 2.05). Overall, hospital admissions and number of days hospitalized were equal to controls, but with significantly fewer general medical outpatient contacts (RR: 0.37; 98.75% CI: 0.24, 0.55). Because the literature suggests that excess mortality continues into old age, it is possible that medical diseases were under-registered and/or under-treated. Focus on adequate medical treatment, in particular for cardiovascular disease, is needed. Future integration of psychiatric and general medical healthcare, especially outpatient care, might further optimize health outcomes for older adults with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Jimenez, Amy M; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Green, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to the painful sounds (to create regions of interest). The observing videos component incorporated experimental manipulations of perspective taking (instructions to imagine 'Self' vs 'Other' experiencing pain) and cognitive appraisal (information about whether treatment was 'Effective' vs 'Not Effective'). When considering activation across experimental conditions, both groups showed similar dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) activation while merely observing others in pain. However, there were group differences associated with perspective taking: controls showed relatively greater dACC and AI activation for the Self vs Other contrast whereas patients showed relatively greater activation in these and additional regions for the Other vs Self contrast. Although patients demonstrated grossly intact neural activity while observing others in pain, they showed more subtle abnormalities when required to toggle between imagining themselves vs others experiencing pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Case Report on Management of Father Daughter Incest with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soron, Tanjir Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Incest is a neglected and hidden public health problem. This case is about a patient who was victim of sexual abuse, suffered from schizophrenia and abused his biological daughter. He was physically and sexually abused by seniors and classmates, developed paranoid delusion and auditory hallucination. During the course of the illness, he was hospitalized several times as a case of schizophrenia and sexual dysfunction was his main concern. The patient's illness followed a waxing and waning course. He took medication on on-and-off basis. He abused his biological daughter sexually at the later stage of the illness. Ultimately, the patient attempted suicide after an indecent sexual act with another relative and he was admitted to the hospital. He was treated with risperidone that was titrated to 10 mg per day. After continuing the medication for 2 years he regained a functioning life and remained stable with medication. This case shows the importance of exploring the sexual behavior of the patients and sharing the experience may help in the treatment of schizophrenia patients with incest.

  18. A Case Report on Management of Father Daughter Incest with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjir Rashid Soron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incest is a neglected and hidden public health problem. This case is about a patient who was victim of sexual abuse, suffered from schizophrenia and abused his biological daughter. He was physically and sexually abused by seniors and classmates, developed paranoid delusion and auditory hallucination. During the course of the illness, he was hospitalized several times as a case of schizophrenia and sexual dysfunction was his main concern. The patient’s illness followed a waxing and waning course. He took medication on on-and-off basis. He abused his biological daughter sexually at the later stage of the illness. Ultimately, the patient attempted suicide after an indecent sexual act with another relative and he was admitted to the hospital. He was treated with risperidone that was titrated to 10 mg per day. After continuing the medication for 2 years he regained a functioning life and remained stable with medication. This case shows the importance of exploring the sexual behavior of the patients and sharing the experience may help in the treatment of schizophrenia patients with incest.

  19. [Clinical experience with clozapine in 55 cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Tetsuro; Ito, Toshihiko; Sekine, Keisuke; Yasui, Reiko; Ashizawa, Yuko; Uju, Yoriyasu; Hayakawa, Tatsuro; Tsukada, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    Up until October 2012, Kohnodai Hospital had introduced clozapine treatment for 55 cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. In all cases, previous antipsychotic medication was discontinued the day before clozapine administration began. Of the 55 cases, 45(85%)are continuing clozapine administration, and 40 cases (73%) are receiving outpatient treatment. The average dose of clozapine was 373.1 mg/day (SD : 160.5). Clozapine was administered for a month or more in 51 cases (93%). BPRS scores improved 20% or more in a month's administration of clozapine in 18 of the cases (35%). The average clozapine dose in the improvement cases was 176 mg/day. The average BPRS score had significantly decreased from the baseline at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after the start of clozapine administration. Of the 33 cases receiving clozapine treatment for 12 months or more, BPRS improved 20% or more in 27 (82%). BPRS improved 20% or more for the first time after clozapine administration within a month in 12 cases (44%), 3 months in 8 cases (30%), 6 months in 5 cases (19%), and 12 months in 2 cases (7%). These results suggest that clozapine should be administered continuously for over 6 months at the least and 12 months if possible to evaluate the efficacy of clozapine treatment. Of the 43 cases receiving outpatient clozapine therapy, the average GAF score improved significantly from the time of ward admission to discharge (20.6 and 42.0, respectively). Clozapine had to be discontinued in 2 cases of leukopenia, 2 cases of neutropenia, 1 case of reduced left ventricular ejection due to pericardial effusion, 1 case of drug eruption, and 1 case of marked hunger. When introducing clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, it is important to administer it as a monotherapy, slowly increase the dosage to reduce side effects, and achieve a treatment effect at the minimum required dosage.

  20. Antithetical asymmetry in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder: a line bisection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Naren P; Arasappa, Rashmi; Reddy, Nalini N; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2010-05-01

    Evolutionary theories link the pathogenesis of psychosis with anomalous brain asymmetry. Research shows that aberrant lateralization is linked to schizophrenia with elevated rates of left-handedness and reversal of normal cerebral asymmetries. However, lateralization is underexamined in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and the available literature suggests the possibility of greater lateralization, which is diametrically opposite to what is observed in schizophrenia. For the first time, we report concurrent analyses of asymmetry in BPAD and schizophrenia using a line bisection task. We examined 164 subjects (31 patients with BPAD in remission, 30 patients with schizophrenia, and 103 healthy controls) using a two-hand line bisection task with established methodology. Raters with good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.8) measured deviation from the center. Task performance was compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, and education as covariates. Study groups did not differ significantly on age, sex, and handedness (p > 0.06). Patients (both schizophrenia and BPAD) had significantly more errors in identifying the center than controls (p < 0.001). Patients with schizophrenia bisected fewer lines at center than controls and BPAD subjects (p < 0.001). Using their right hand, schizophrenia patients had significant rightward deviation and BPAD patients had leftward deviation (p = 0.001). A significant interaction between diagnosis and direction of deviation (p = 0.01) was noted, with significant rightward deviation in schizophrenia and a trend toward leftward deviation in BPAD. Study findings suggest attenuation of normal pseudoneglect in schizophrenia and accentuation of normal pseudoneglect in BPAD, indicating lesser lateralization in schizophrenia and possibly greater lateralization in BPAD. From an evolutionary perspective, schizophrenia and BPAD might have antithetical origins.

  1. Association analysis of PALB2 and BRCA2 in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in a scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesli, Martin; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Mattingsdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) found significant association between the PALB2 SNP rs420259 and bipolar disorder (BD). The intracellular functions of the expressed proteins from the breast cancer risk genes PALB2 and BRCA2 are closely related. Therefore, we investigated the relation...... between genetic variants in PALB2 and BRCA2 and BD. Due to increasing evidence of genetic overlap between BD and schizophrenia (SCZ), we also investigated association with SCZ. In a Scandinavian case-control sample (n¿=¿686/2,538) we found the BRCA2 SNP rs9567552 to be significantly associated with BD...

  2. GWA study data mining and independent replication identify cardiomyopathy-associated 5 (CMYA5) as a risk gene for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Lee, G.; Maher, B. S.; Fanous, A. H.; Chen, J.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, A.; van den Oord, E.; Sullivan, P. F.; Shi, J.; Levinson, D. F.; Gejman, P. V.; Sanders, A.; Duan, J.; Owen, M. J.; Craddock, N. J.; O'Donovan, M. C.; Blackman, J.; Lewis, D.; Kirov, G. K.; Qin, W.; Schwab, S.; Wildenauer, D.; Chowdari, K.; Nimgaonkar, V.; Straub, R. E.; Weinberger, D. R.; O'Neill, F. A.; Walsh, D.; Bronstein, M.; Darvasi, A.; Lencz, T.; Malhotra, A. K.; Rujescu, D.; Giegling, I.; Werge, T.; Hansen, T.; Ingason, A.; Nöethen, M. M.; Rietschel, M.; Cichon, S.; Djurovic, S.; Andreassen, O. A.; Cantor, R. M.; Ophoff, R.; Corvin, A.; Morris, D. W.; Gill, M.; Pato, C. N.; Pato, M. T.; Macedo, A.; Gurling, H. M. D.; McQuillin, A.; Pimm, J.; Hultman, C.; Lichtenstein, P.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, S. M.; Scolnick, E.; St Clair, D.; Blackwood, D. H. R.; Kendler, K. S.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Kirov, George K.; Craddock, Nick J.; Holmans, Peter A.; Williams, Nigel M.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Nikolov, Ivan; Norton, N.; Williams, H.; Toncheva, Draga; Milanova, Vihra; Owen, Michael J.; Hultman, Christina M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Thelander, Emma F.; Sullivan, Patrick; Morris, Derek W.; O'Dushlaine, Colm T.; Kenny, Elaine; Quinn, Emma M.; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; McQuillin, Andrew; Choudhury, Khalid; Datta, Susmita; Pimm, Jonathan; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Puri, Vinay; Krasucki, Robert; Lawrence, Jacob; Quested, Digby; Bass, Nicholas; Gurling, Hugh; Crombie, Caroline; Fraser, Gillian; Kuan, Soh Leh; Walker, Nicholas; St Clair, David; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Muir, Walter J.; McGhee, Kevin A.; Pickard, Ben; Malloy, Pat; Maclean, Alan W.; van Beck, Margaret; Wray, Naomi R.; Macgregor, Stuart; Visscher, Peter M.; Pato, Michele T.; Medeiros, Helena; Middleton, Frank; Carvalho, Celia; Morley, Christopher; Fanous, Ayman; Conti, David; Knowles, James A.; Ferreira, Carlos Paz; Macedo, Antonio; Azevedo, M. Helena; Pato, Carlos N.; Stone, Jennifer L.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Kirby, Andrew N.; Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Daly, Mark J.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; Chambert, Kimberly; Kuruvilla, Finny; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ardlie, Kristin; Moran, Jennifer L.; Scolnick, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed

  3. Therapeutic alliance in early schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Ragnhild; Iversen, Valentina Cabral; Melle, Ingrid; Hestad, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Background The therapeutic alliance is related to better course and outcome of treatment in schizophrenia. This study explores predictors and characteristics of the therapeutic alliance in recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders including the agreement between patient and therapist alliance ratings. Methods Forty-two patients were assessed with demographic, neurocognitive, and clinical measures ...

  4. The Effect of Long-Term Outcome Studies on the Therapy of Schizophrenia: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leonard I.

    1989-01-01

    Comments on Haley's paper "The Effect of Long-Term Outcome Studies on the Therapy of Schizophrenia." Criticizes Haley for making gratuitous, demeaning remarks about psychiatry; concluding that schizophrenia is a psychological and social problem; recommending ineffective treatments for the psychotic phase; and recommending psychotherapy without…

  5. Effect of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia in male patients: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Daniel; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Hijman, Ron; Kahn, René S.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Findings on the impact of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia are inconsistent and not conclusive. Aims: To study the effect of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia taking into account the effects of the quantity of cannabis use and important confounders. Methods:

  6. Working memory in schizophrenia : A systematic study of specific modalities and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J.; Eling, Paul A. T. M.; van der Heijden, Frank M. M. A.; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers agree that working memory (WM) impairments are a core symptom of schizophrenia, it remains unclear how the disturbances on specific WM components relate to one another. In this study, we presented a Delayed-Matching-To-Sample task to 24 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy

  7. Working memory in schizophrenia: A systematic study of specific modalities and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Hildebrandt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers agree that working memory (WM) impairments are a core symptom of schizophrenia, it remains unclear how the disturbances on specific WM components relate to one another. In this study, we presented a Delayed-Matching-To-Sample task to 24 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy

  8. The revised dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: evidence from pharmacological MRI studies with atypical antipsychotic medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Figee, Martijn; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Veltman, Dick; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2008-01-01

    The revised dopamine (DA) hypothesis states that clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by an imbalance of the DA system. In this article, we aim to review evidence for this hypothesis by evaluating functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia. Because atypical drugs are

  9. Prenatal infection and schizophrenia: a review of epidemiologic and translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Derkits, Elena J

    2010-03-01

    An emerging literature from epidemiologic, clinical, and preclinical investigations has provided evidence that gestational exposure to infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia. In recent years, these studies have moved from ecologic designs, which ascertain infection based on epidemics in populations, to investigations that have capitalized on reliable biomarkers in individual pregnancies. These studies have documented specific candidate infections that appear to be associated with an elevated risk of schizophrenia. Animal models of maternal immune activation inspired by this work have revealed intriguing findings indicating behavioral, neurochemical, and neurophysiologic abnormalities consistent with observations in schizophrenia. In parallel studies in humans and animals, investigators are working to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which in utero exposure to infection contributes to schizophrenia risk. In this review, the authors discuss and critically evaluate the epidemiologic literature on in utero exposure to infection and schizophrenia, summarize emerging animal models of maternal immune activation, and discuss putative unique and common mechanisms by which in utero exposure to infection alters neurodevelopment, potentially increasing susceptibility to schizophrenia. The promise of this work for facilitating the identification of susceptibility loci in genetic studies of schizophrenia is illustrated by examples of interaction between in utero exposure to infection and genetic variants. The authors then elaborate on possible implications of this work, including the use of preventive measures for reducing the incidence of schizophrenia. Finally, they discuss new approaches aimed at addressing current challenges in this area of research.

  10. Prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with psoriasis: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Tu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified, the finding that psoriatic patients with comorbid cerebrovascular disease or chronic pulmonary disease have higher odds for schizophrenia may imply psoriatic patients with those comorbidities are likely to have higher inflammatory burden, which would contribute to the development of schizophrenia if a disruption of the blood–brain barrier is present. Further investigations are indicated to validate the hypothesis explaining the association between known comorbidies of psoriasis and schizophrenia.

  11. An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenya Nan; Feng Wan; Lanshin Chang; Sio Hang Pun; Mang I. Vai; Agostinho Rosa

    2017-01-01

    .... Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia...

  12. SoCIAL - training cognition in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Davide; Mucci, Armida; Piegari, Giuseppe; D'Alise, Valentina; Mazza, Annapaola; Galderisi, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a new social cognition (SC) remediation intervention, the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab (SoCIAL), for subjects with schizophrenia. The training includes a module for emotion recognition and one for theory of mind. A comparison with a validated cognitive remediation intervention, the Social Skills And Neurocognitive Individualized Training (SSANIT), was conducted to verify the efficacy of the SoCIAL in improving SC. Ten stabilized patients with schizophrenia accepted to participate. Five patients were randomized to SoCIAL and five to SSANIT. The SoCIAL intervention includes individual sessions of neurocognitive individualized training (NIT) and group sessions of SC training. SSANIT includes individual sessions of NIT and group sessions of social skills individualized training. The interventions were matched for the overall treatment duration (20 weeks) and for the frequency of the sessions (two times a week, one for SoCIAL or social skills individualized training and one for NIT, with a duration of 80 minutes for each session). Results showed a significant treatment effect (effect size: Cohen's d 0.32) on the primary outcome; in fact, only the SoCIAL intervention improved theory of mind. Patients receiving the SoCIAL intervention also showed an improvement of avolition. These preliminary findings support further development of the SoCIAL and suggest that cognitive remediation should include an SC module.

  13. Chronic non-fatal Datura abuse in a patient of paranoid schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Sourav; Khess, C R J; Srivastava, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    A range of psychoactive substances used by patients suffering from schizophrenia varies and may include those which are fatal and may cause serious toxicity leading to death. We here present a case report of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, who was abusing Datura stramonium over a prolonged period. A 32 year old male presented with aggressive behaviour, irritability for 6 years and regular intake of Datura seeds for 3 years. After taking detailed history and mental status examination (MSE), diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorder due to use of hallucinogen were made. He had shown improvement on standard treatment with antipsychotics. D. stramonium is recognized among emerging new psychoactive substances being used across the world. Among various theories we discuss self-medication hypothesis as a mediating factor for this case. Though D. stramonium is notorious for its life threatening sequelae, clinicians should be aware of its chronic abuse as self-medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cotard Delusion in the Context of Schizophrenia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cotard delusion (CD is one of a variety of narrowly defined monothematic delusions characterized by nihilistic beliefs about the body’s existence or life itself. The presence of CD within the context of schizophrenia is rare (<1%, and remains understudied.Case: ‘Mr. C’ is a 58-year-old veteran with a prior diagnosis of schizophrenia, who presented with CD in the context of significant depression, suicidal ideation (SI, violence, and self-harm behavior. He perseverated in his belief that he was physically dead and possessed by demons for several weeks. This delusion was reinforced by his religious belief that life was an attribute of God, and by inference, he as a human, was dead. His condition gradually improved over the course of treatment with Divalproex and quetiapine with discussions about the rationale for his belief. Upon discharge, Mr. C. demonstrated awareness of his fixation on death and an ability to redirect himself.Discussion: This case highlights the need to better understand the co-occurrence of CD in schizophrenia, their differentiation, the increased risk of violence and self-harm behavior in this presentation, and how specific events and religious factors can influence delusional themes of CD. Pharmacotherapy and aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT may be effective in ameliorating these symptoms in CD.

  15. Cotard Delusion in the Context of Schizophrenia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Nicholas; Keller, Corey; Kuppuswamy, Malathy; Spelber, David; Zeier, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Cotard delusion (CD) is one of a variety of narrowly defined monothematic delusions characterized by nihilistic beliefs about the body's existence or life itself. The presence of CD within the context of schizophrenia is rare (delusion was reinforced by his religious belief that life was an attribute of God, and by inference, he as a human, was dead. His condition gradually improved over the course of treatment with Divalproex and quetiapine with discussions about the rationale for his belief. Upon discharge, Mr. C. demonstrated awareness of his fixation on death and an ability to redirect himself. This case highlights the need to better understand the co-occurrence of CD in schizophrenia, their differentiation, the increased risk of violence and self-harm behavior in this presentation, and how specific events and religious factors can influence delusional themes of CD. Pharmacotherapy and aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy may be effective in ameliorating these symptoms in CD.

  16. Fluvoxamine for blonanserin-associated akathisia in patients with schizophrenia: report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-04-24

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been reported to cause fewer incidences of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) than typical antipsychotic drugs, but adverse events such as akathisia have been observed even with atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although understanding of the pathophysiology of akathisia remains limited, it seems that a complex interaction of several neurotransmitter systems plays a role in its pathophysiology. The endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors have been shown to regulate a number of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. We report on five cases in which monotherapy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine was effective in ameliorating the akathisia of patients with schizophrenia treated with the new atypical antipsychotic drug blonanserin. The global score on the Barnes Akathisia Scale in five patients with schizophrenia treated with blonanserin rapidly decreased after fluvoxamine treatment. Doctors should consider that fluvoxamine may be an alternative approach in treating akathisia associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  17. Fluvoxamine for blonanserin-associated akathisia in patients with schizophrenia: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been reported to cause fewer incidences of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS than typical antipsychotic drugs, but adverse events such as akathisia have been observed even with atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although understanding of the pathophysiology of akathisia remains limited, it seems that a complex interaction of several neurotransmitter systems plays a role in its pathophysiology. The endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors have been shown to regulate a number of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Methods We report on five cases in which monotherapy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine was effective in ameliorating the akathisia of patients with schizophrenia treated with the new atypical antipsychotic drug blonanserin. Results The global score on the Barnes Akathisia Scale in five patients with schizophrenia treated with blonanserin rapidly decreased after fluvoxamine treatment. Conclusion Doctors should consider that fluvoxamine may be an alternative approach in treating akathisia associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  18. The Course of Schizophrenia: E. Kraepelin's View and Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Müller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox and Bleuler's concept of the group of schizophrenias differ mainly under the aspect of course of the disorder. Follow-up studies play an important role for research regarding course, outcome and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, especially in terms of validation of psychiatric diagnosis and other psychiatric concepts, such as the concept of schizophrenic negative symptoms. Long-term studies also have their place in the description and evaluation of first treatment procedures. This paper will describe some general aspects of the long-term course and outcome of schizophrenic psychoses. The problem of relapses and relapse prevention will then be discussed. Especially data from recent studies will be considered in this overview.

  19. Reporting a Case of Injecting Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Tablets, Intensified Symptoms of Schizoph-renia or Induce Separate Mental Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffarinejad, Alireza; Kheradmand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate is one of the classic amphetamines which can cause or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Case Report: In this paper, a young man is presented with injection of methylphenidate tablets with acute cellulitis due to this injection and the related symptoms. In the first hospitalization and after recovery from psychotic disorder due to tablet injections, he was under treatment with anti-psychotics because of other symptoms related to schizophrenia....

  20. Association study of monoamine oxidase A/B genes and schizophrenia in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sheng-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoamine oxidases (MAOs catalyze the metabolism of dopaminergic neurotransmitters. Polymorphisms of isoforms MAOA and MAOB have been implicated in the etiology of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Association studies detected these polymorphisms in several populations, however the data have not been conclusive to date. Here, we investigated the association of MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. Methods Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6323 of MAOA and rs1799836 of MAOB, were selected for association analysis in 537 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 536 healthy controls. Single-locus and Haplotype associations were calculated. Results No differences were found in the allelic distribution of rs6323. The G allele of rs1799836 was identified as a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia (P = 0.00001. The risk haplotype rs6323T-rs1799836G was associated with schizophrenia in female patients (P = 0.0002, but the frequency difference was not significant among male groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that MAOB is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. In contrast, no significant associations were observed for the MAOA functional polymorphism with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. These data support further investigation of the role of MAO genes in schizophrenia.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenia relapse prevention : an economic evaluation of the ZEUS (Ziprasidone-Extended-Use-In-Schizophrenia) study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Ramón Azanza, Jose; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos; Rejas, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of schizophrenia relapse prevention in Spain using data from the ZEUS (Ziprasidone-Extended-Use-in-Schizophrenia) study. Treatment of schizophrenia was modeled over 1 year using a retrospective deterministic model from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective (year 2005). The primary outcome was the probability of relapse occurring within a 52-week period of treatment with daily doses of ziprasidone 40-160mg versus placebo. Data were obtained from a randomised, double-blind clinical trial (n = 218 patients). Antipsychotic cost, concomitant medications to treat adverse events (for example extrapyramidal symptoms) and medical costs associated with adverse events were derived from the clinical trial results and a Spanish health cost database. The average cost of a relapse admitted to hospital in Spain (3421 euro) was obtained from a retrospective study. The probability of psychosis relapse was 0.77 with placebo, and 0.43, 0.35, 0.36 and 0.38 with ziprasidone daily doses of 40, 80, 160mg and average dose, respectively (p < 0.01 vs placebo in all cases). The average annual incremental cost per relapse avoided was 186 euro for the average dose, ranging from a saving of 557 euro (80 mg/day) to an incremental cost of 1015 euro (160 mg/day), and was lower in all cases than the minimum cost of a relapse (2830 euro). According to this evaluation, psychosis relapse prevention with ziprasidone is cost effective compared with no treatment from the Spanish NHS perspective. Ziprasidone therapy avoids a considerable number of relapses at a reasonable cost, producing cost savings.

  2. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  3. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BY TOXOPLASMOSIS. CASE STUDY. Christine Katusiime1, MB ChB, PGDPPM. Ponsiano Ocama2, MB ChB, MMed. Andrew Kambugu1, MB ChB, MMed. 1Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 2Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Department of ...

  4. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    AIDS Control Programme, Sri Lanka. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old male security supervisor was admitted to hospital with recurrent chest infections. He was found to be HIV positive with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl, and was.

  5. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  6. Family association study of Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Paweł; Skibińska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Zaremba, Dorota; Jasiak, Maria; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning. An etiopathological role for immunologic abnormalities in schizophrenia was hypothesized. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Several studies have investigated the possible effects of antipsychotics on inflammation and neurogenesis. Additionally, antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy has been under investigation as a treatment option for schizophrenia. Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFB1) signaling is critical for many biological processes, including proliferation, development, differentiation and regeneration. Multiple members of the TGFB1 superfamily play a role in the developing nervous system and are regulated by neuronal activity. We conducted family-based study to assess whether TGFB1 gene is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia in Polish population. Two functional polymorphisms: rs1800469 (C-509T) and rs1800470 (T869C) of TGFB1 gene were analyzed within a group of 147 trios (patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their healthy parents) using Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). No association of these polymorphisms with schizophrenia was found in Polish population. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed.

  7. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative” language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.

  8. Compulsory admission and treatment in schizophrenia: a study of ethical attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Lepping, Peter; Baranyai, Réka; Hoffmann, Markus; Leherr, Herbert

    2005-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare attitudes of psychiatrists, other professionals, and laypeople towards compulsory admission and treatment of patients with schizophrenia in different European countries. Three case reports of patients with schizophrenia were presented to N=1,737 persons: 235 in England, 622 in Germany, 319 in Hungary, and 561 in Switzerland; 298 were psychiatrists, 687 other psychiatric or medical professionals, and 752 laypeople. The case reports presented typical clinical situations with refusal of consent to treatment (first episode and social withdrawal, recurrent episode and moderate danger to others and patient with multiple episodes and severe self-neglect). The participants were asked whether they would agree with compulsory admission and compulsory neuroleptic treatment. The rates of agreement varied between 50.8 and 92.1% across countries and between 41.1 and 93.6% across the different professional groups. In all countries, psychologists and social workers supported compulsory procedures significantly less than the psychiatrists who were in tune with laypeople and nurses. Country differences were highly significant showing more agreement with compulsion in Hungary and England and less in Germany and Switzerland (odds ratios up to 4.33). Own history of mental illness and having mentally ill relatives had no major impact on the decisions. Evidence suggests that compulsory procedures are based on traditions and personal attitudes to a considerable degree. Further research should provide empirical data and more definite criteria for indications of compulsive measures to achieve a common ethical framework for those critical decisions across Europe.

  9. A review of molecular genetic studies of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Gwyneth; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J; Kennedy, James L

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and debilitating illness with strong genetic loading. In line with its heterogeneous symptomatology, evidence suggests genetic etiologies for the phenotypes in schizophrenia. A search across endophenotypes has pointed towards consistent findings in its neurocognitive deficits. Extensive literature has demonstrated impaired cognition including executive function, attention, and memory in schizophrenia patients when compared to healthy subjects. This review (1) provides an overview of recent studies and (2) develops an up-to-date conceptualization of genetic variations influencing neurocognitive functions in schizophrenia patients. Several neurotransmitter system genes have been examined given knowledge of their role in brain functions and their reported genetic associations with schizophrenia and cognition. Several genetic variations have emerged as having preliminary effects on neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. These include genes in the neurotrophic, serotonin, cell adhesion, and sodium channel systems. Limited evidence also suggests the dopaminergic system genes, with the most studied catechol-o-methytransferase (COMT) gene showing inconsistent findings. Further investigations with larger samples and replications are required to elucidate genetic risk for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does consanguinity increase the risk of schizophrenia? Study based on primary health care centre visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Consanguinity has been suggested as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring in some Middle Eastern countries. Aim The purpose of this study was to review the frequency, pattern of parental consanguinity, and family history of schizophrenia among schizophrenia patients in Qatar, and to determine their impact on the associated risk factors. Design This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted between January 2009 and December 2010, in the setting of primary health care (PHC) centres of the Supreme Council of Health, State of Qatar. Subjects A total of 1491 patients aged 18–55 years were approached, of whom 1184 individuals agreed to participate in the study, giving a response rate of 79.4%. Methods The study was based on face-to-face interviews using a specially designed questionnaire that covered sociodemographic characteristics and genetic and other biological factors (e.g. obstetric complications), and a diagnostic screening questionnaire which consisted of six questions about the symptoms of schizophrenia. The diagnostic screening questionnaire was reviewed and used to calculate the final score, which determined a provisional diagnosis. The psychiatrists discussed the psychiatric diagnosis and confirmed it using DSM-IV criteria. The degree of consanguinity between the patient's parents was recorded. Consanguinity was evaluated based on the coefficient of inbreeding (F), which is the probability of homozygosity. Results More than half of the schizophrenia patients were female (57.1%) and over 45 years of age (62.5%). A family history of schizophrenia was significantly more common in parents of schizophrenia patients than in the Arab population without schizophrenia (24.6% vs. 17.1%; P = 0.038). Parental consanguinity was elevated among the patients with schizophrenia (41.3%) with a higher mean coefficient of inbreeding (0.04356 ± 0.028) than in non-schizophrenic subjects (28.7%) with a lower mean coefficient of

  11. Differences between subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taiju; Fujii, Chiyo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Takeshi, Kiyoaki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In cases of untreated schizophrenia, the patients' entourage often does not recognize the psychotic symptoms of the patient and the possibility that the patient may attempt suicide. The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancies between the subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia. A semi-structured interview was carried out with seven near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia to examine the subjective experiences at the time of the suicide attempt. The families of the patients were also interviewed to determine their recognition of the patients' psychotic symptoms and the suicidal ideation. The interview data were analyzed qualitatively. Six subjects were undergoing exacerbation of the psychotic symptoms at the time of exhibiting the suicide-related ideation. One subject had been in a prolonged depressive state before attempting suicide. Although all the patients experienced severe distress due to psychotic symptoms and depressive mood, they all exhibited only low level or no help-seeking behavior, and six of seven families had not recognized the change in the patient's mental condition. Appropriate information about schizophrenia should be provided to the general public so that any help-seeking by the patients with this disease is not overlooked. In addition, accessible early intervention services for psychosis should be established.

  12. The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia - a 15 year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse M.; Hesse, Morten; Lykke, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Background This follow-up study compared patients with schizophrenia with co-occurring substance use disorder to patients with schizophrenia and no substance use disorder. Aims To investigate the prognostic significance of the effects of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia...... disorders have a substantial impact on the hospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia, as well as on life expectancy. Patients with co-morbid substance abuse are more likely to be admitted for treatment during a given year although they have briefer contact with treatment. Keywords: Schizophrenia...

  13. Blonanserin-induced Mood Alteration in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Aran; Kim, Daeho

    2013-12-01

    We report two outpatients, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder, who developed manic or hypomanic episodes following the initiation of blonanserin during the course of treatment. Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic that acts as a 5-HT and D2 receptor antagonist. Both patients developed hypomanic episodes within 2 weeks of receiving a small dose (6-8 mg) of blonanserin, and one patient later developed full-blown mania; both episodes ended within 1 month of discontinuing blonanserin. The mood alteration observed in these cases suggests a possible antidepressant effect of blonanserin; thus, clinicians should monitor mood changes when administering this antipsychotic.

  14. NIACIN SKIN FLUSH TEST: A RESEARCH TOOL FOR STUDYING SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nadalin, Sergej; Buretić-Tomljanović, Alena; Rubeša, Gordana; Tomljanović, Draško; Gudelj, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Background: A body of biochemical evidence suggests that abnormal phospholipid metabolism may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and possibly, other psychiatric and neurological diseases. Niacin, a B-complex vitamin, induces prostaglandin synthesis, vasodilatation, and skin flushing when applied as a solution on the skin or taken orally. In schizophrenia, diminished or absent skin response to niacin represents a robust finding. Results: Attenuated niacin skin-flush respons...

  15. A comprehensive family-based replication study of schizophrenia genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Liu, Youfang; Bukszár, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating psychiatric condition. Identifying the specific genetic variants and pathways that increase susceptibility to SCZ is critical to improve disease understanding and address the urgent need for new drug targets.......Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating psychiatric condition. Identifying the specific genetic variants and pathways that increase susceptibility to SCZ is critical to improve disease understanding and address the urgent need for new drug targets....

  16. Studying and Treating Schizophrenia Using Virtual Reality: A New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Understanding schizophrenia requires consideration of patients? interactions in the social world. Misinterpretation of other peoples? behavior is a key feature of persecutory ideation. The occurrence and intensity of hallucinations is affected by the social context. Negative symptoms such as anhedonia, asociality, and blunted affect reflect difficulties in social interactions. Withdrawal and avoidance of other people is frequent in schizophrenia, leading to isolation and rumination. The use o...

  17. Quality and Predictors of Diabetes Care Among Patients With Schizophrenia: A Danish Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Carinci, Fabrizio; Thomsen, Reimar W; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a high prevalence of diabetes, but data on diabetes care quality for these patients are limited. This nationwide study compared the quality of diabetes care among individuals with and without schizophrenia and identified predictors of care quality. In a population-based cohort study, 83,813 individuals with diabetes seen at hospital outpatient clinics between 2005 and 2013, including 669 with comorbid schizophrenia, were identified from Danish registries. High-quality diabetes care was defined as having received ≥80% of guideline-recommended process performance measures. Variables assessed as predictors of diabetes care included patient-specific (sex, age, smoking, substance abuse, Global Assessment of Functioning score, and duration of schizophrenia), provider-specific (quality of schizophrenia care), and system-specific (annual patient contact volume of the diabetes clinic) factors. Compared with individuals with diabetes only, those with diabetes and schizophrenia were less likely to receive high-quality diabetes care (relative risk [RR]=.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.88-.95) and less likely to receive several individual process performance measures of diabetes care, including blood pressure monitoring (RR=.98, CI=.96-.99), treatment with antihypertensive drugs (RR=.83, CI=.70-.97) and angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II receptor inhibitors (RR=.72, CI=.55-.93), screening for albuminuria (RR=.96, CI=.93-.99), eye examination at least once every second year (RR=.97, CI=.94-.99), and foot examination (RR=.96, CI=.93-.99). Predictors of poor diabetes care among individuals with schizophrenia included documented drug abuse and low contact volume of the diabetes clinic. Individuals with schizophrenia received lower-quality diabetes care compared with those without schizophrenia. However, absolute differences in care were modest.

  18. A magnetic resonance imaging study of adhesio interthalamica in clinical subtypes of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Haghir, Hossein; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud-Reza; Haghighi, Mehri Baghban; Radmard, Mahla

    2013-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have suggested subtle anatomical brain differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. However, the results are inconsistent and there is no study investigating the various subtypes of this mental disorder separately. Aim: This study was conducted to compare the rate of absence of adhesio interthalamica (AI), a midline brain structure, between 3 subtypes of schizophrenia (paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual) and healthy control grou...

  19. GWA study data mining and independent replication identify cardiomyopathy-associated 5 (CMYA5) as a risk gene for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X; Lee, G; Maher, B S

    2011-01-01

    We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed...... bioinformatic prioritization for all the markers with P-values ¿0.05 in both data sets. In this process, we found that in the CMYA5 gene, there were two non-synonymous markers, rs3828611 and rs10043986, showing nominal significance in both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples. In a combined analysis of both the CATIE...... in our Irish samples and was dropped out without further investigation. The other two markers were verified in 23 other independent data sets. In a meta-analysis of all 23 replication samples (family samples, 912 families with 4160 subjects; case-control samples, 11¿380 cases and 15¿021 controls), we...

  20. Views of persons with schizophrenia on their own disorder: an Italian participatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Fiorillo, Andrea; Malangone, Claudio; Del Vecchio, Heidegret; Maj, Mario

    2008-07-01

    This study explored the views of 241 patients with schizophrenia about their own disorder. Patients' knowledge of their diagnosis, confidence that they will be well again, and perception of limitations in their own life as a result of the disorder were explored in relation to patients' opinions about the social consequences of schizophrenia. Study results were presented to participants, and suggestions were collected regarding how these study results should be used. Seventy-two respondents (30%) reported that a psychiatrist told them that they have schizophrenia. Respondents who were confident that they would be well again had a lower duration of contact with psychiatric services and a less pronounced perception of affective and social difficulties related to schizophrenia. Respondents who did not feel limited in their life by the disorder reported less social distance and more optimism about the usefulness of treatments. Participatory studies may provide ideas for a more constructive interaction between patients and professionals.

  1. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H

    2012-01-01

    of the Psychiatric GWAS consortium (PGC) yielded five novel loci for schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to highlight additional schizophrenia susceptibility loci from the PGC study by combining the top association findings from the discovery stage (9394 schizophrenia cases and 12 462 controls) with expression QTLs...

  2. Schizophrenia and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Sutton, Lesley; Sinclair, Julia; Deeks, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a strong predictor of suicide in schizophrenia. The aim of this review was to identify risk factors for DSH in schizophrenia. This systematic review of the international literature examined cohort and case-control studies of patients with schizophrenia or related diagnoses that reported DSH as an outcome. Studies were…

  3. No relationship between 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an expression study and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP, one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the oligodendrocyte function and in myelination. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between CNP and schizophrenia in the Chinese population and the effect of different factors on the expression level of CNP in schizophrenia. Methods Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = 180 using direct sequencing. The results were included in the following meta-analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted to examine CNP expression levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Factors including gender, genotype, sub-diagnosis and antipsychotics-treatment were found not to contribute to the expression regulation of the CNP gene in schizophrenia. Our meta-analysis produced similar negative results. Conclusion The results suggest that the CNP gene may not be involved in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  4. Blonanserin, a novel antipsychotic, is suitable for treating schizophrenia associated with hyperprolactinemia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, atypical antipsychotic agents have primarily been used in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia because of the fewer associated adverse effects. Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic recently introduced to treat patients with schizophrenia in Japan and South Korea. In this study, we examined the efficacy of switching antipsychotic medications to blonanserin monotherapy in patients with chronic schizophrenia with associated hyperprolactinemia. Ten schizophrenic patients (5 males and 5 females) with hyperprolactinemia were recruited. Clinical data before (baseline) and 12 weeks after (end point) switching to blonanserin monotherapy were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, and serum prolactin levels. The mean (SD) blonanserin dosage was 14.8 (3.8) mg/d. After switching to blonanserin, there were significant improvements in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in the patients from both sexes. Moreover, serum prolactin levels in the female patients significantly decreased to within reference range. There were no additional adverse effects observed with the blonanserin treatment. Switching to blonanserin can reverse medication-induced prolactin elevations found in female patients- and blonanserin is a suitable antipsychotic for schizophrenic patients.

  5. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  6. Real-world premorbid functioning in schizophrenia and affective disorders during the early teenage years: a population-based study of school grades and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Vardit Zerem; Levine, Stephen Z; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Population-based studies of cognitive and behavioral premorbid functioning in psychotic disorders generally focus on late adolescence in schizophrenia and most are based on IQ test scores. To examine differences in school grades at the ages of 13-14 between persons hospitalized during adulthood for schizophrenia or affective disorders and their peers. Ten years of school report data were ascertained on 8th grade children (n=21,448) in the city of Jerusalem (1978-1988). During adulthood cases with schizophrenia (n=194, 0.9%) or an affective disorder (n=41, 0.19%) were identified based on psychiatric hospitalizations in the National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry of the State of Israel. School assessments of academic performance, nonacademic topics, and teacher ratings of classroom behavior were compared between peers without illness and cases, and their association with illness was examined. Children subsequently hospitalized with schizophrenia had significantly lower nonacademic performance (ES=.20, p=.007) and teacher ratings on behavior (ES=.18, p=.02) than controls and numerically lower teacher behavior ratings than people subsequently hospitalized for an affective disorder (ES=.25, p=.19). Cox regression modeling showed that poorer nonacademic and lower behavioral ratings were significantly associated with earlier age of onset of schizophrenia. Premorbid behavior and nonacademic deficits are evident in early adolescence among persons subsequently hospitalized with schizophrenia and different from those hospitalized with affective disorders. This suggests that these ratings may have diagnostic specificity between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. May Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level Be a Useful Tool for Assessment of the Severity of Schizophrenia and Evaluation of Therapy? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Ieda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies suggested dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in schizophrenia patients, but the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has been considered a useful tool for evaluating ANS, especially the sympathoadrenal medullary system. Furthermore, there was a report that patients with schizophrenia showed much higher sAA level than normal controls. Methods. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia. She needed the treatment of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. We evaluated her sAA level and her psychiatric symptoms during the treatment. Results. Before ECT treatment, she showed high sAA level. Her sAA level decreased during the course of ECT, and this attenuation was accompanied by improvement of schizophrenic symptoms. Conclusion. We consider that measurement of the sAA level may be one of the useful biological markers for assessment of psychotic state and efficacy of treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. A magnetic resonance imaging study of adhesio interthalamica in clinical subtypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghir, Hossein; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud-Reza; Haghighi, Mehri Baghban; Radmard, Mahla

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested subtle anatomical brain differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. However, the results are inconsistent and there is no study investigating the various subtypes of this mental disorder separately. This study was conducted to compare the rate of absence of adhesio interthalamica (AI), a midline brain structure, between 3 subtypes of schizophrenia (paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual) and healthy control group, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 29 schizophrenia patients (21 men, 8 women) of three subtypes (paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual) were compared with 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent 3-D brain MRI of full coronal series, 1.5-mm slices without interslice gaps. If the grey matter band connecting the thalami could not be identified on two or more coronal adjacent slices, the AI was considered as absent. The results were statistically analyzed. The incidence rate of AI absence in patients with heterogenous subtypes of schizophrenia was was similar to control group, even when patients and controls of each gender were compared separately (P>0.05). In residual subtype, patients showed a significant priority in AI absence in comparison with the control group (P=0.041), which was not seen in paranoid and undifferentiated subtypes (P>0.05). Residual subtype of schizophrenia is associated with higher rate of AI absence in this study. Subsequent studies are required to determine if the absence of AI is a cause of residual schizophrenia or an effect.

  9. Stability of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenia: a 6-year follow-up study of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    and is regarded as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, reports on the stability of PPI over a longer period of time are lacking, both for patients with schizophrenia and for healthy subjects. The current study examined 25 initially drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy matched...

  10. [Illness Concepts of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Triangulation Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Reichhardt, Lea; Lang, Fabian U; Krumm, Silvia; Jäger, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Objective Therapists' and patients' concepts of illness often show severe discrepancies. This study explores the illness concepts of patients with schizophrenic disorders (n = 40). Methods Two German scales were used, the "Causal Belief Questionnaire" and the "Illness Concept Scale for Schizophrenic Patients". We compared our data with data published previously. A semi structured interview was performed in a convenience sample (n = 7). Results The domains "trust in medication" and "trust in the treating physician" yielded high scores, yet in comparison with data published 30 years ago, trust in medication is unaltered, while trust in psychiatrists is even slightly lower. Recent psychosocial factors scored high as a possible cause of mental illness. Several patients felt responsible for being mentally ill. No patient in the interview mentioned the neurotransmitter hypothesis of schizophrenia. Conclusion Illness concepts of patients with schizophrenic disorders are a complex phenomenon. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods proves to be a promising approach for future studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Risk of schizophrenia in second-generation immigrants: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...

  12. Magico-religious Beliefs in Schizophrenia: A study from Eastern part of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidesh Sapkota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders which require immediate interventions. Magico-Religious beliefs may affect the expression of psychopathology as beliefs are entrenched into human psyche. Local and community beliefs in such phenomena appeared to be a factor in influencing the decision to seek magico-religious treatment. This study aimed (1 to determine attitude of patients and relatives with respect to magico-religious beliefs and its influence on psychopathology, and (2 to examine the relationship between psychopathology and major sociodemographic variables.Materials & Methods: All 50 consecutive cases of schizophrenia attending psychiatric services during study period were thoroughly evaluated. All the cases were diagnosed as per ICD 10 DCR criteria. The supernatural attitude questionnaire was applied.Results: Fifty cases were studied. Among them, 48% belonged to the age-group of 25 to 34 years, the majority of them were male (62%, 82% were Hindus, and 64% married. Majority of the patients had undergone magico-religious treatment (n = 35. Among the sample, 68% consulted faith healer and 42% performed religious treatment during the illness period; 60% acknowledged personal belief in sorcery, 58% in ghosts, and 52% in spirit intrusion. Among them, 20% believed there was a link between sorcery and mental illness, and 20% believe spirit could cause mental illness. Among the samples, 38% found the link between sorcery and abnormal behaviour, 38% with evil spirit, and 22% due to planetary influences. Statistically significant association was noted in the belief that rituals can improve patient behaviour and local belief in supernatural influences.Conclusion: There is a common belief in the relationship between supernatural influences and mental illness among the relatives of the patients. Such beliefs and magicoreligious treatment do occur during the course of the illness.

  13. Influence of Polygenic Risk Scores on the Association Between Infections and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Trabjerg, Betina; Meier, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an important role of infections in the etiology of schizophrenia; however, shared genetic liability toward infections and schizophrenia could influence the association. We therefore investigated the possible effect of polygenic risk scores (PRSs......) for schizophrenia on the association between infections and the risk of schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study on a Danish population-based sample born after 1981 comprising of 1692 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia between 1994 and 2008 and 1724 matched controls. All individuals were...... hospital contact with infection had occurred in 41% of the individuals with schizophrenia and increased the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of schizophrenia by 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.67). Adding PRS, which was robustly associated with schizophrenia (by an IRR of 1.46 [95% CI = 1...

  14. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning......) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  15. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  16. Multiple physical healthcare needs among outpatients with schizophrenia: findings from a health examination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Koskela, Tuomas H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Despite the abundant literature on physical comorbidity, the full range of the concurrent somatic healthcare needs among individuals with schizophrenia has rarely been studied. This observational study aimed to assess the distressing somatic symptoms and needs for physical health interventions in outpatients with schizophrenia, and factors predicting those needs. A structured, comprehensive health examination was carried out, including a visit to a nurse and a general practitioner on 275 outpatients with schizophrenia. The required interventions were classified by type of disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, functional limitations, factors related to psychiatric disorder, and healthcare use on the need for interventions. In total, 44.9% of the patients (mean age 44.9 years) reported somatic symptoms affecting daily life; 87.6% needed specific interventions for a disease or condition, most commonly for cardiovascular, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological, and gastrointestinal conditions, and for altered glucose homeostasis. Smoking and obesity predicted significantly a need of any intervention, but the predictors varied in each disease category. Strikingly, use of general practitioner services during the previous year did not reduce the need for interventions. Health examinations for outpatients with schizophrenia revealed numerous physical healthcare needs. The health examinations for patients with schizophrenia should contain a medical history taking and a physical examination, in addition to basic measurements and laboratory tests. Prevention and treatment of obesity and smoking should be given priority in order to diminish somatic comorbidities in schizophrenia.

  17. Flexibility and variability in lexicon usage among Yoruba-speaking Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiola O; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2008-01-01

    The studies on language dysfunction in schizophrenia are few, inconclusive and have all been done in the western culture. There may be cross-cultural and cross-lingual differences in problems with speeches of patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to examine the flexibility or variability in the use of words among a group of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. The spoken samples of 48 outpatients with schizophrenia and 48 matched controls were assessed using the mean segmental type-token ratio (MSTTR). The sociodemographic and clinical variables of the patients with schizophrenia were also compared with their MSTTR scores. The MSTTR score for the patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower compared with that of healthy controls (p < 0.001). The factors independently associated with a lower MSTTR in patients with schizophrenia include younger age at onset of illness, presence of negative formal thought disorder and simple or hebephrenic subtype of schizophrenia. The problem with flexibility and variability in lexicon usage among patients with schizophrenia is a cross-cultural phenomenon. The MSTTR may have value in predicting clinical judgements of thought disorder or in identifying deviant language. These may have broad potentials for application in longitudinal and pathogenetic studies of schizophrenia. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Analysis of gut microbiota diversity and auxiliary diagnosis as a biomarker in patients with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Xu, Jintian; Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Yichen; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Jixiang; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Songnian; Liang, Ying

    2018-01-15

    With the advent of sequencing technology, characterization of schizophrenia with underlying probing of gut microbiome can provide abundant clues for diagnosis and prognosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we first compared the difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls by 16S rRNA sequencing. We further explored whether gut microbiota can be used as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We restricted inclusion criteria strictly to control confounding bias. Finally, we investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 64 schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls. At the phylum level, we found that the abundance of Proteobacteria in the schizophrenia patients was significantly increased. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Succinivibrio, Megasphaera, Collinsella, Clostridium, Klebsiella and Methanobrevibacter was significantly higher whereas the abundance of Blautia, Coprococcus, Roseburia was decreased compared to health controls. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that 12 significant microbiota biomarkers were capable of being used as diagnostic factors for distinguishing the schizophrenia cohort from those in the control cohort (AUC = 0.837). We performed PICRUSt analysis and found that several metabolic pathways differed significantly between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients, including vitamin B6 and fatty acid. In conclusion, there are some difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls and the insights from this study could be used to develop microbiota-based diagnosis for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes:large-scale proof of concept

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; Mcintosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain...

  20. Experiences, perspectives and priorities of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders regarding sleep disturbance and its treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sophie; Bee, Penny

    2017-05-02

    Sleep problems are very common in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and impact negatively on functioning and wellbeing. Research regarding interventions to improve sleep in this population has been lacking. Little is known regarding these patient's perspectives on sleep problems and their treatment, providing very little foundation on which to develop acceptable and patient-centred treatments. This study aims to explore perspectives and priorities of participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders regarding sleep and sleep disturbance, and their perspectives on existing treatments. An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study was conducted; data were gathered through in depth interviews with 15 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and varying degrees of self-reported sleep disturbance, each case was analysed individually before cross-case comparisons were made. Sleep maintenance and sleep quality were universally valued. Changes to sleep were interpreted as part of a perceived loss of normality relating to diagnosis. Participants differed in the extent of any hopes that sleep would improve. Sleep disturbances were linked to a reduced ability or opportunity to participate in valued activities, and were entangled with self-image due to a wish to be perceived as alert and in control. During difficult times, sleep could be seen as an escape. Concerns were expressed regarding the negative effects of using hypnotics or anti-psychotics to aid sleep, although typically antipsychotics were deemed more acceptable than hypnotics. Concerns regarding barriers to adherence and effectiveness of self-help approaches were common. Non-pharmacological interventions were noted to require a personalised whole-lifestyle approach. This is the first study to explore sleep perspectives in participants with established schizophrenia spectrum disorders, recruited from a population receiving usual care. Findings re-enforce the importance of considering sleep

  1. Differential gene expression profiles in neurons generated from lymphoblastoid B-cell line-derived iPS cells from monozygotic twin cases with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and discordant responses to clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takanobu; Kikuchi, Masataka; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimoto, Michiko; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujiwara, Mikiya; Okada, Shota; Matsumura, Kensuke; Kasai, Atsushi; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Shintani, Norihito; Numata, Shusuke; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakaya, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with complex genetic and environmental origins. While many antipsychotics have been demonstrated as effective in the treatment of schizophrenia, a substantial number of schizophrenia patients are partially or fully unresponsive to the treatment. Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia; however, clozapine has rare but serious side-effects. Furthermore, there is inter-individual variability in the drug response to clozapine treatment. Therefore, the identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of clozapine and drug response predictors is imperative. In the present study, we focused on a pair of monozygotic twin cases with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, in which one twin responded well to clozapine treatment and the other twin did not. Using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-based technology, we generated neurons from iPS cells derived from these patients and subsequently performed RNA-sequencing to compare the transcriptome profiles of the mock or clozapine-treated neurons. Although, these iPS cells similarly differentiated into neurons, several genes encoding homophilic cell adhesion molecules, such as protocadherin genes, showed differential expression patterns between these two patients. These results, which contribute to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of clozapine action, establish a new strategy for the use of monozygotic twin studies in schizophrenia research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticipated and experienced discrimination amongst people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a cross sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrelly, Simone; Clement, Sarah; Gabbidon, Jheanell; Jeffery, Debra; Dockery, Lisa; Lassman, Francesca; Brohan, Elaine; Henderson, R Claire; Williams, Paul; Howard, Louise M; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to establish the levels and clinical and socio-demographic associations of anticipated and experienced discrimination amongst those diagnosed with a schizophrenia and comparator...

  3. Reporting a Case of Injecting Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Tablets, Intensified Symptoms of Schizoph-renia or Induce Separate Mental Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarinejad, Alireza; Kheradmand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate is one of the classic amphetamines which can cause or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In this paper, a young man is presented with injection of methylphenidate tablets with acute cellulitis due to this injection and the related symptoms. In the first hospitalization and after recovery from psychotic disorder due to tablet injections, he was under treatment with anti-psychotics because of other symptoms related to schizophrenia. Although the patient was regularly under schizophrenic medication after discharge, he was hospitalized twice more due to psychotic symptoms that appeared after injecting methylphenidate. This report shows psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after injecting methylphenidate. These symptoms cannot be prevented even by anti-psychotic medication of background disease. This case shows the existence of two kinds of psychoses, functional (due to schizophrenia) and organic psychoses (due to methylphenidate use) in the same patient.

  4. Self-experience in the early phases of schizophrenia: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Raballo, Andrea; Handest, Peter

    2011-01-01

    admission patients in putative state of beginning psychosis (N=151) with a follow-up length of 60 months. At follow-up, the rate of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was 37%, whereas the conversion rate from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia was 25%. High levels of perplexity and self......Despite the avalanche of empirical data on prodromal/"at risk" conditions, the essential aspects of the vulnerability to the schizophrenia spectrum remain largely unaddressed. We report here the results of the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Prodromal Study, a prospective, observational study of first......-disorders baseline scores yielded the best prediction of the subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Escalating transitions within the spectrum (i.e., from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia) were not associated to any candidate psychopathological predictor....

  5. Efficacy of social skill training in patient with chronic schizophrenia: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with schizophrenia often have social skills deficits. Social skill training (SST is a structured learning oriented approach for patient with schizophrenia. Effectiveness of SST improves communication, which achieves patient′s goals in social situations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of SST in patient with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 65 patients with chronic schizophrenia participated in the study, 34 in experimental and 31 as a control group. This was cross-sectional interventional study. The patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (all types disorders using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10, classification of mental and behavioral disorders, ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research criteria. Patient with more than 2 years duration of illness were included in the study groups. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to rule out predominant positive symptoms. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and social adaptive functioning evaluation (SAFE were used to measure the efficacy of SST in schizophrenia patient. All participants were examined on SANS, and SAFE on pre- and post-test design. Data were analyzed using Statistical pakage for social sciences SPSS 17 version. P < 0.005 was considered as statistically significance. Results: The pre-and post-intervention score of SAFE of the control group did not show significant differences (P = 0.053. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-intervention SAFE scores in the experimental group were noted (P < 0.002. The result indicated no significant decrease in SANS score in the experimental group compared to the control group (P = 0.072. However, results indicated significant improvement in alogia, apathy, and anhedonia (P = 0.007, P = 0.030, P = 0.025. Conclusion: SST is effective in improving social skills of patients with schizophrenia. SST is effective in alogia, apathy

  6. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis during treatment of schizophrenia with clozapine versus other antipsychotics: an observational study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsson, Oddur; MacCabe, James H; Haraldsson, Magnús; Jónsdóttir, Halldóra; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2016-12-12

    Data on the haematological outcomes of patients who continue clozapine treatment following neutropenia are very rare as even mild neutropenia results in mandatory discontinuation of clozapine in most countries. However, in Iceland where clozapine monitoring is less stringent allows an observational study to be done on the risk of agranulocytosis and neutropenia during treatment with clozapine compared with other antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia. The present study is a part of a wider ongoing longitudinal study of schizophrenia in Iceland. We identified 201 patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and 410 patients with schizophrenia who had never been on clozapine by searching the electronic health records of Landspitali, the National University Hospital. Neutrophil counts were searched in electronic databases to identify patients who developed neutropenia/agranulocytosis and the frequency of neutrophil measurements was examined as well. The median number of days between neutrophil measurements during the first 18 weeks of clozapine treatment was 25 days but after the first 18 weeks on the drug the median became 124 days. Thirty four cases of neutropenia were identified during clozapine treatment with an average follow up time of 9.2 years. The majority, 24 individuals developed mild neutropenia (1500-1900 neutrophils/mm3). None of these progressed to agranulocytosis. The remaining 10 patients developed neutropenia in the range 500-1400 /mm3 of whom one developed agranulocytosis, three stopped clozapine use and 6 patients continued on clozapine for at least a year without developing agranulocytosis. Unexpectedly, schizophrenia patients on other antipsychotics had an equal risk of developing neutropenia as those on clozapine. Neutropenia is common both in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment and in those never on clozapine. Therefore a large part of neutropenia during clozapine treatment is probably not caused by clozapine

  7. Two four-marker haplotypes on 7q36.1 region indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1) is related to schizophrenia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Fatmahan; Acuner, Tufan Tevfik; Cine, Naci; Oncu, Fatih; Yesilbursa, Dogan; Ozbek, Ugur; Turkcan, Solmaz

    2010-05-28

    The pathobiology of schizophrenia is still unclear. Its current treatment mainly depends on antipsychotic drugs. A leading adverse effect of these medications is the acquired long QT syndrome, which results from the blockade of cardiac HERG1 channels (human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels 1) by antipsychotic agents. The HERG1 channel is encoded by HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1) gene and is most highly expressed in heart and brain. Genetic variations in HERG1 predispose to acquired long QT syndrome. We hypothesized that the blockade of HERG1 channels by antipsychotics might also be significant for their therapeutic mode of action, indicating a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7q36.1 region (two SNPs, rs1805123 and rs3800779, located on HERG1, and two SNPs, rs885684 and rs956642, at the 3'-downstream intergenic region) and then performed single SNP and haplotype association analyses in 84 patients with schizophrenia and 74 healthy controls after the exclusion of individuals having prolonged or shortened QT interval on electrocardiogram. Our analyses revealed that both genotype and allele frequencies of rs3800779 (c.307+585G>T) were significantly different between populations (P = 0.023 and P = 0.018, respectively). We also identified that two previously undescribed four-marker haplotypes which are nearly allelic opposite of each other and located in chr7:150225599-150302147bp position encompassing HERG1 were either overrepresented (A-A-A-T, the at-risk haplotype, P = 0.0007) or underrepresented (C-A-C-G, the protective haplotype, P = 0.005) in patients compared to controls. Our results indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 is related to schizophrenia. Our findings may also implicate the whole family of HERG channels (HERG1, HERG2 and HERG3) in the pathogenesis of psychosis and its treatment.

  8. Basic Self-Disturbances beyond Schizophrenia: Discrepancies and Affinities in Panic Disorder - An Empirical Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Luís; Carmenates, Sergio; Costa, Cristina; Linhares, Ludgero; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sass, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs), presumably involving alterations in "core" or "minimal self," have been studied as manifest in schizophrenia and its spectrum, in contrast with mood disorder and personality disorder samples. This is the first study to examine ASEs in panic disorder (PD), beginning the exploration of these disturbances of subjectivity in anxiety disorders. We aimed to clarify what might, or might not, be specific to the schizophrenia spectrum domain - which, in turn, could be useful for developing pathogenetic models for various disorders. 47 hospital outpatients with PD and no other medical and psychiatric comorbidity and 47 healthy control (HC) subjects were assessed with the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences (EASE) and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS). All our PD patients had overall ASE and EASE scores significantly higher than our HCs (mean ± SD 17.94 ± 11.88 vs. HC 1.00 ± 1.81), approaching levels found in previous schizophrenia spectrum samples. The distribution of particular EASE items and subitems in the PD sample was heterogeneous, varying from rare (schizophrenia spectrum: 29 items) to being present in >50% of subjects ("affinities" with schizophrenia spectrum: 7 items). EASE and CDS scores were highly correlated (r = 0.756, 95% CI 0.665-0.840). PD patients scored higher on items suggesting common forms of derealization and depersonalization, perhaps suggesting "secondary" and defensive psychological processes, while lacking indicators of more profound ipseity disturbance. Our study supports the basic-self-disturbance model of schizophrenia, while suggesting the possibility of transnosological "schizophrenia-like phenomena," which might require careful phenomenological exploration to be distinguished from those of true psychotic or schizophrenic conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Smoking restores impaired LTD-like plasticity in schizophrenia: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Wolfgang; Bunse, Tilmann; Nitsche, Michael A; Wobrock, Thomas; Aborowa, Richard; Misewitsch, Kristina; Herrmann, Maximiliane; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-03-01

    Impaired neuroplastic responses following noninvasive brain stimulation have been reported repeatedly in schizophrenia patients. These findings have been associated with deficits in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission. Although various neurophysiological studies have indicated a relationship between nicotine and neuroplasticity in healthy individuals, the present study is the first investigation into the impact of nicotine on LTD-like plasticity in patients with schizophrenia. Cortical excitability and cortical plasticity were explored in 30 schizophrenia patients (17 smoker, 13 nonsmoker) and 45 healthy controls (13 smoker, 32 nonsmoker) by using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and following cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left primary motor cortex. Our analysis revealed abolished LTD-like plasticity in nonsmoking schizophrenia patients. However, these plasticity deficits were not present in smoking schizophrenia patients. In healthy controls, significant MEP reductions following cathodal tDCS were observed in nonsmoking individuals, but only trend-level reductions in smokers. In smoking schizophrenia patients, the severity of negative symptoms correlated positively with reduced neuroplasticity, whereas nonsmoking patients displayed the opposite effect. Taken together, the data of our study support the notion of an association between chronic smoking and the restitution of impaired LTD-like plasticity in schizophrenia patients. Although replication and further research are needed to better understand this relationship, our findings indicate that nicotine intake might stabilize the impaired inhibition-facilitation balance in the schizophrenic brain through a complex interaction between cortical plasticity, and GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, and might explain the reduced prevalence of negative symptoms in this population.

  10. “Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Gater; Diana Rofail; Chloe Tolley; Chris Marshall; Linda Abetz-Webb; Zarit, Steven H.; Carmen Galani Berardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers’ lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at...

  11. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  12. Studies of Speech Disorders in Schizophrenia. History and State-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shedovskiy E. F.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews studies of speech disorders in schizophrenia. The authors paid attention to a historical course and characterization of studies of areas: the actual psychopathological (speech disorders as a psychopathological symptoms, their description and taxonomy, psychological (isolated neurons and pathopsychological perspective analysis separately analyzed some modern foreign works, covering a variety of approaches to the study of speech disorders in the endogenous mental disorders. Disorders and features of speech are among the most striking manifestations of schizophrenia along with impaired thinking (Savitskaya A. V., Mikirtumov B. E.. With all the variety of symptoms, speech disorders in schizophrenia could be classified and organized. The few clinical psychological studies of speech activity in schizophrenia presented work on the study of generation and standard speech utterance; features verbal associative process, speed parameters of speech utterances. Special attention is given to integrated research in the mainstream of biological psychiatry and genetic trends. It is shown that the topic for more than a half-century history of originality of speech pathology in schizophrenia has received some coverage in the psychiatric and psychological literature and continues to generate interest in the modern integrated multidisciplinary approach

  13. Using virtual reality to evaluate executive functioning among persons with schizophrenia: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Schenirderman, Anat Elbaz; Klinger, Evelyne; Shevil, Eynat

    2009-12-01

    Persons with Schizophrenia experience difficulties with Executive Functioning (EF) that affect independence and participation in activities. Specifically, EF impacts performance in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) that require flexible thinking and accommodation to complex environments. However, less is known how schizophrenia affects EF and individuals' performance in activities. IADL performance can be tested using a virtual reality (VR) environment that simulates real life activities. The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine the feasibility and validity of the Virtual Action Planning-Supermarket (VAP-S) to assess EF in persons with schizophrenia as compared to a standardized EF measure (the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome, BADS); 2) to compare performance of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the VAP-S; 3) to assess the ability of the VAP-S to differentiate between different levels of EF within schizophrenia; 4) to explore the relationships between negative and positive symptoms and performance on the tests. Thirty persons with schizophrenia were matched with 30 healthy controls. Significant differences in performance between research and control groups were detected on the VAP-S and BADS, with the research group performing worse. Large variations in number of purchases within the VAP-S by the research group point to level of task completion thus secondary analysis was conducted. There was a significant negative correlation between level of the negative signs and overall performance on the BADS and on most measures of the VAP-S. Results of this study support the use the VAP-S to assess EF among persons with Schizophrenia.

  14. Targeting treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia with fMRI-based neurofeedback – exploring different cases of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Dyck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS.All patients yielded significant up-regulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged 3-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history.NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  15. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  16. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  17. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  18. Risk factors in the development of schizophrenia: contributions from a study of children of schizophrenic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, J

    1986-06-01

    The development of and the results from a prospective longitudinal study of children of schizophrenic mothers are presented. The presented studies have been guided by a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology and data analyses relied on the paradigm that schizophrenics and schizotypes share genetic liability to schizophrenia, but that the former, in addition, suffer from environmental insult. This paradigm, hypothetically formulated by Paul Meehl (21) proved especially fruitful in the etiological inferences made in this study. The results indicate that schizophrenia is, to some degree, genetically transmitted and that schizotypes share this genetic vulnerability with schizophrenics. Schizophrenia may be conceptualized as an environmentally complicated schizotypal personality disorder. Deleterious environmental influences identified in this study are obstetric complications probably resulting in central brain atrophy as measured by the CT-scans. In addition, future schizophrenics experienced disrupted childhood conditions as measured here by the amount of institutional rearing during the first five years of life. Fathers of the high risk children were more frequently mentally disturbed than fathers of the low risk children. The presence of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the father significantly increased a risk for such disorder in the high risk offspring. Continuity of psychopathological deviance in the form of subtle formal thought disorder and defective emotional contact was demonstrated for the schizophrenics and schizotypes from childhood into adulthood. This suggests that such symptoms are central to schizophrenic psychopathology and that schizophrenia is a development and not a disease which affects people without forewarning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A comparative study of quality of life and disability among schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Prasanna Swain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons with long-term psychiatric disorders have greater deficits in living skills as well as greater problems in employment and relationship to their social environment. Thus, chronic psychiatric illnesses have psychosocial consequences such as disability and impaired quality of life (QOL due to their symptomatology and chronic course. Objectives: Assessment and comparison of disability and QOL of patients suffering from schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in remission phase. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in the psychiatry outpatient Department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College and Neuropsychiatric Consultation Centre, Cuttack. The study sample consisted of fifty cases of each groups (schizophrenia and OCD, which included both males and females. All of them were assessed through the World Health Organization-QOL BREF and Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Results: Results revealed that schizophrenics have poor QOL and greater disability burden than patients of OCD. Conclusion: These psychiatric illnesses, i.e. schizophrenia and OCD, affect all areas of daily functioning leading to greater disability, and thus increasing the burden on the family, imposing greater challenges for the rehabilitation of these patients and their inclusion in the mainstream of the family and society.

  20. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  1. Electrophysiological basis of reading related phonological impairment in Chinese speakers with schizophrenia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuju; Liu, Qi; Wydell, Taeko N; Liao, Jinmin; Wang, Fang; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wang, Pengfei; Liu, Jin; Dong, Wentian

    2017-03-30

    It has been reported in alphabetic languages that individuals with schizophrenia showed language-related cognitive impairments including phonological deficits, which were in turn associated with clinical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and thought disorders. To date, however, the phonological deficits involved in schizophrenia in Chinese and its neural basis have not been well established. In order to establish such a relationship we conducted a behavioral study using lexical tone judgment and digit span tasks as well as an event-related potential (ERP) study with an auditory oddball paradigm, in particular, for P300 effects, the event-related brain potential (ERP) index of discrimination. Chinese patients with schizophrenia and Chinese healthy controls in China participated in the current study. Compared to the healthy controls, the patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in phonological processing skills, which in turn significantly correlated with smaller P300 effects. Thus these behavioral and electrophysiological findings in Chinese patients with schizophrenia were critically evaluated in terms of their phonological processing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual faces as a tool to study emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Miriam; Winbeck, Maren; Leiberg, Susanne; Chen, Yuhan; Mathiak, Klaus

    2010-10-30

    Studies investigating emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia predominantly presented photographs of facial expressions. Better control and higher flexibility of emotion displays could be afforded by virtual reality (VR). VR allows the manipulation of facial expression and can simulate social interactions in a controlled and yet more naturalistic environment. However, to our knowledge, there is no study that systematically investigated whether patients with schizophrenia show the same emotion recognition deficits when emotions are expressed by virtual as compared to natural faces. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 controls rated pictures of natural and virtual faces with respect to the basic emotion expressed (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and neutrality). Consistent with our hypothesis, the results revealed that emotion recognition impairments also emerged for emotions expressed by virtual characters. As virtual in contrast to natural expressions only contain major emotional features, schizophrenia patients already seem to be impaired in the recognition of basic emotional features. This finding has practical implication as it supports the use of virtual emotional expressions for psychiatric research: the ease of changing facial features, animating avatar faces, and creating therapeutic simulations makes validated artificial expressions perfectly suited to study and treat emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotion Recognition Deficits in Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Reilly, James L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Daros, Alex R.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Hill, S. Kristian; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Gur, Ruben C.; Sweeney, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Difficulty recognizing facial emotions is an important social-cognitive deficit associated with psychotic disorders. It also may reflect a familial risk for psychosis in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder. Objective The objectives of this study from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were to: 1) compare emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder with psychosis, 2) determine the familiality of emotion recognition deficits across these disorders, and 3) evaluate emotion recognition deficits in nonpsychotic relatives with and without elevated Cluster A and Cluster B personality disorder traits. Method Participants included probands with schizophrenia (n=297), schizoaffective disorder (depressed type, n=61; bipolar type, n=69), bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=248), their first-degree relatives (n=332, n=69, n=154, and n=286, respectively) and healthy controls (n=380). All participants completed the Penn Emotion Recognition Test, a standardized measure of facial emotion recognition assessing four basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger and fear) and neutral expressions (no emotion). Results Compared to controls, emotion recognition deficits among probands increased progressively from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder to schizophrenia. Proband and relative groups showed similar deficits perceiving angry and neutral faces, whereas deficits on fearful, happy and sad faces were primarily isolated to schizophrenia probands. Even non-psychotic relatives without elevated Cluster A or Cluster B personality disorder traits showed deficits on neutral and angry faces. Emotion recognition ability was moderately familial only in schizophrenia families. Conclusions Emotion recognition deficits are prominent but somewhat different across psychotic disorders. These deficits are reflected to a lesser extent in relatives, particularly on angry and

  4. Emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and psychotic bipolar disorder: Findings from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Reilly, James L; Rubin, Leah H; Daros, Alex R; Gershon, Elliot S; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Hill, S Kristian; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Gur, Ruben C; Sweeney, John A

    2014-09-01

    Difficulty recognizing facial emotions is an important social-cognitive deficit associated with psychotic disorders. It also may reflect a familial risk for psychosis in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder. The objectives of this study from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were to: 1) compare emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder with psychosis, 2) determine the familiality of emotion recognition deficits across these disorders, and 3) evaluate emotion recognition deficits in nonpsychotic relatives with and without elevated Cluster A and Cluster B personality disorder traits. Participants included probands with schizophrenia (n=297), schizoaffective disorder (depressed type, n=61; bipolar type, n=69), bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=248), their first-degree relatives (n=332, n=69, n=154, and n=286, respectively) and healthy controls (n=380). All participants completed the Penn Emotion Recognition Test, a standardized measure of facial emotion recognition assessing four basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger and fear) and neutral expressions (no emotion). Compared to controls, emotion recognition deficits among probands increased progressively from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder to schizophrenia. Proband and relative groups showed similar deficits perceiving angry and neutral faces, whereas deficits on fearful, happy and sad faces were primarily isolated to schizophrenia probands. Even non-psychotic relatives without elevated Cluster A or Cluster B personality disorder traits showed deficits on neutral and angry faces. Emotion recognition ability was moderately familial only in schizophrenia families. Emotion recognition deficits are prominent but somewhat different across psychotic disorders. These deficits are reflected to a lesser extent in relatives, particularly on angry and neutral faces. Deficits were evident in non

  5. Loneliness and related factors among people with schizophrenia in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, A; Tadaka, E; Okochi, A

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: Loneliness among people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a serious problem. Recent studies have focused on the loneliness; however, no study has examined the relationships between loneliness and both individual and environmental factors comprehensively. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The main results indicated that the community-dwelling people diagnosed with schizophrenia in Japan as well as in other countries experienced higher levels of loneliness. Both individual and environmental factors were related to loneliness. Increasing the self-efficacy for community life and self-esteem of individual factors, and not being socially isolated and increasing community integration of environmental factors would improve their loneliness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Health practitioners, in particular, public health nurses in mental health care, should work to develop a partnership with people diagnosed with schizophrenia, their family members, friends and other community-dwelling people in order to decrease and prevent loneliness. For individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, interventions by cooperating with community resources and using the technique of nurses to assist them with continuous community activity could be useful. For environmental interventions, population approach such as developing daily programmes which family members can participate in, and cooperating with educational institutions and community events could have a positive effects. Introduction Loneliness among people diagnosed with schizophrenia living in communities can decrease quality of life and may contribute to suicide. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the levels of loneliness among Japanese people diagnosed with schizophrenia and to identify individual and environmental factors related to their loneliness. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 264 people diagnosed with schizophrenia who use local activity support

  6. Loneliness in schizophrenia and its possible correlates. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Malaspina, Dolores; Goff, Donald C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-12-30

    Social attachment is a biological and affective need. When this need is not met, people experience loneliness. Loneliness is associated with impaired social cognition, and is a risk factor for broad based morbidity across the adult lifespan even after controlling for multiple factors. However, little is known about loneliness in schizophrenia. Eighty-seven non-depressed individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (including 51 inpatients) and 58 control subjects completed the revised UCLA Loneliness scale. Social cognition was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and a performance-based task. Social trait perception was assessed with a facial task. Comorbid medical diagnoses were available for all inpatients. Patients reported greater loneliness levels than controls, while in- and out-patients did not significantly differ. In patients, loneliness was associated with self-report measures of social cognition. Patients' loneliness scores predicted a diagnosis of drug abuse/dependence, number of drugs used, hypertension and abnormal hemoglobin A1c levels. Patients experienced higher levels of loneliness than controls, independently of their objective social isolation. Loneliness did not rely on the same psychological processes in patients than in controls. Loneliness in schizophrenia is a symptom that deserves more scrutiny, particularly as it relates to the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cannabis abuse is associated with better emotional memory in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Durand, Myriam; Lakis, Nadia; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Potvin, Stéphane

    2013-10-30

    In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD). Participants comprised 14 DD patients, 14 non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) who had to recognize positive and negative pictures while being scanned. Recognition of positive and negative emotions was prominently impaired in SCZ patients, relative to HC, while differences between DD and HC were smaller. For positive and negative stimuli, we observed significant activations in frontal, limbic, temporal and occipital regions in HC; in frontal, limbic and temporal regions in DD; and in temporal, parietal, limbic and occipital regions in the SCZ group. Our results suggest that emotional memory and prefrontal lobe functioning are preserved in DD relative to SCZ patients. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that cannabis abuse is associated with fewer negative symptoms and better cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies will need to determine whether the relative preservation of emotional memory is primary or secondary to cannabis abuse in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis use, gender and age of onset of schizophrenia: data from the ÆSOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Kim; Doody, Gillian A; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Hart, Jozella; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Maccabe, James H

    2014-03-30

    An earlier age of onset of schizophrenia has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator. The current study examines the interaction effect of gender and cannabis use on age of onset of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This research forms part of a two-centre epidemiological study of first-episode psychosis and included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and an age of onset between age 16 and 45. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare the effects of cannabis use and gender on age of first symptom of schizophrenia. Akaike's information criteria were used to find the model with the best fit to the data. Cannabis users had an earlier age of first symptom than non-users. There was an interaction with gender; the gender difference in age of onset was diminished in cannabis smokers compared with non-cannabis smokers. The model including cannabis use interacting with gender was the most parsimonious model, followed by cannabis use alone. The addition of other illegal drug use did not improve the model. Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, and the gender difference in age of onset is reduced among cannabis smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia in male patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Daniel; Koeter, Maarten W J; Hijman, Ron; Kahn, René S; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-05-01

    Findings on the impact of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia are inconsistent and not conclusive. To study the effect of cannabis use on the course of schizophrenia taking into account the effects of the quantity of cannabis use and important confounders. Prospective cohort study with assessments of symptoms, confounders and hospitalizations at baseline, 6 month and 12 month follow up. In a representative cohort of 145 male patients with schizophrenia, 68 (46.9%) used cannabis. Mean age at onset of schizophrenia in cannabis using patients was significantly lower than in non-cannabis using patients. No other cross-sectional demographic or clinical differences were observed between users and non-users. In a series of longitudinal analyses, cannabis use was not associated with differences in psychopathology, but relapse in terms of the number of hospitalizations was significantly higher in cannabis using patients compared to non-cannabis using patients. Patients with schizophrenia using cannabis are more frequently hospitalized than non-cannabis using patients but do not differ with respect to psychopathology. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Language lateralization in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia. A functional MRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniel, Filip; Tintera, Jaroslav; Hajek, Tomas; Horacek, Jiri; Dezortova, Monika; Hajek, Milan; Dockery, Colleen; Kozeny, Jiri; Höschl, Cyril

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested altered structural and functional asymmetry of the brain in schizophrenia. Functional MRI was used to assess differences in cortical activation during a verbal task in Broca's area and its contralateral homologue in four pairs of right-handed monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia with low and high familial loading for the illness and four healthy control MZ twin pairs. Pooled data from all subjects with schizophrenia showed increased activation in the right homologue of Broca's area in contrast to healthy individuals. Concordant twins (i.e. high familial loading group) showed prominent between co-twin differences in lateralization index within given region of interest. Intra-pair differences in lateralization index were significantly higher in concordant twins compared to the controls (0.69+/-0.4 vs. 0.13+/-0.13, P<0.03), albeit no significant differences in the variable were shown between the discordant and control groups. This study provides evidence of reduced cerebral dominance for language processing in patients with schizophrenia. The findings further suggest the need for additional research on relative proportion of genetic and environmental factors underlying deviations of functional asymmetry in schizophrenia.

  11. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  12. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Picado

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia.Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects.Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group.Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  13. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'. Crown Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Variance in neurocognitive performance is associated with dysbindin-1 in schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek W; Clarke, Sarah; McGhee, Kevin A; Schwaiger, Siobhan; Nangle, Jeanne-Marie; Garavan, Hugh; Robertson, Ian H; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden

    2007-01-28

    Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been hypothesised to mediate liability for the disorder at least partly by influencing cognitive performance. We investigated the association between genotype and cognitive performance for a Dysbindin risk haplotype which is associated with schizophrenia in our sample. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (24 risk haplotypes carriers versus 28 non-risk haplotype carriers) were assessed in areas of cognition showing evidence of familial deficits in schizophrenia. Verbal and spatial memory, working memory, and attentional control was assessed using selected measures from the Weschler memory scale (WMS), Cambridge automated test battery (CANTAB), continuous performance test (CPT), and a simple go/no-go task. Pre-morbid IQ was also assessed using the Weschler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Patients carrying the Dysbindin risk haplotype showed significantly lower spatial working memory performance than patients who were non-risk carriers, with genotype explaining 12% of variance in performance. Our study suggests that the increased risk for schizophrenia associated with dysbindin may be partly mediated by its influence on pre-frontal function.

  15. Evaluation of trait adjectives and ego pathology in schizophrenia: an N400 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Sibylle; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Müller, Mario; Obermann, Caitriona; Kawohl, Wolfram; Heekeren, Karsten

    2014-03-30

    The N400, an event-related brain potential (ERP), can be triggered by semantic or arithmetic violations in visual or auditory stimulus material. Schizophrenia patients exhibit an altered N400 presumably resulting from impaired semantic memory associative networks. The present study investigates, whether an altered N400 can also be found in semantic violations of the own self-concept. We use simple descriptive sentences to combine semantics with the self-concept in order to explore differences and possible deficits in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia patients and controls were shown trait adjectives in reference to themselves. Participants had to decide if the presented trait adjective was congruent or incongruent with their own self-concept. Only in controls, the N400 was significantly more negative in the incongruent compared to the congruent condition. Controls seemed to profit from a stable self-concept as they were faster in judging if a given trait was descriptive for the self than for someone else, which might result from processes related to the self-reference effect. Interestingly, in schizophrenia patients, the higher the scores for ego pathology were, the smaller the N400 effect turned out to be. The diminished N400 effect is probably associated with a disturbed self-concept in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk for schizophrenia in intercountry adoptees: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-11-01

    Increasing numbers of intercountry adoptees are reaching adulthood, the age of onset for most serious mental disorders. Little is known about the development of schizophrenia in intercountry adoptees, a group with potentially increased vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of developing schizophrenia in adoptees and in non-adoptees. Utilising data from the Danish Civil Registration System, we established a population-based cohort of 1.06 million persons resident in Denmark before the age of 15, whose legal mother lived in Denmark at the child's birth. Intercountry adoptees were identified as children born abroad. Record linkage provided information on psychiatric admissions. Intercountry adoptees had an increased relative risk (RR) (RR = 2.90, 95% CI 2.41-3.50) of developing schizophrenia compared to native Danes. The increased risk was independent of age at onset and age at, or region of, adoption, and was not attributable to mental illness in a foster parent, the foster parent's age, or to urbanisation. The foster mother's own biological offspring had also an increased risk of developing schizophrenia (1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.02). Young adult intercountry adoptees are at increased risk for schizophrenia. Although the underlying cause is unknown, a complex interplay of factors presumably may be involved, including heredity, adversity prior to adoption, and post-adoption adjustment difficulties during upbringing.

  17. Two four-marker haplotypes on 7q36.1 region indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1 is related to schizophrenia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbek Ugur

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathobiology of schizophrenia is still unclear. Its current treatment mainly depends on antipsychotic drugs. A leading adverse effect of these medications is the acquired long QT syndrome, which results from the blockade of cardiac HERG1 channels (human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels 1 by antipsychotic agents. The HERG1 channel is encoded by HERG1 (KCNH2, Kv11.1 gene and is most highly expressed in heart and brain. Genetic variations in HERG1 predispose to acquired long QT syndrome. We hypothesized that the blockade of HERG1 channels by antipsychotics might also be significant for their therapeutic mode of action, indicating a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 7q36.1 region (two SNPs, rs1805123 and rs3800779, located on HERG1, and two SNPs, rs885684 and rs956642, at the 3'-downstream intergenic region and then performed single SNP and haplotype association analyses in 84 patients with schizophrenia and 74 healthy controls after the exclusion of individuals having prolonged or shortened QT interval on electrocardiogram. Results Our analyses revealed that both genotype and allele frequencies of rs3800779 (c.307+585G>T were significantly different between populations (P = 0.023 and P = 0.018, respectively. We also identified that two previously undescribed four-marker haplotypes which are nearly allelic opposite of each other and located in chr7:150225599-150302147bp position encompassing HERG1 were either overrepresented (A-A-A-T, the at-risk haplotype, P = 0.0007 or underrepresented (C-A-C-G, the protective haplotype, P = 0.005 in patients compared to controls. Conclusions Our results indicate that the potassium channel gene HERG1 is related to schizophrenia. Our findings may also implicate the whole family of HERG channels (HERG1, HERG2 and HERG3 in the pathogenesis of psychosis and its treatment.

  18. Self-experience in the early phases of schizophrenia: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Raballo, Andrea; Handest, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite the avalanche of empirical data on prodromal/"at risk" conditions, the essential aspects of the vulnerability to the schizophrenia spectrum remain largely unaddressed. We report here the results of the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Prodromal Study, a prospective, observational study of first...

  19. Mortality and Its Determinants in Late-Life Schizophrenia: A 5-Year Prospective Study in a Dutch Catchment Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Paul D.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Smit, Johannes H.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Haan, Lieuwe; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Stek, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    It is uncertain if the raised mortality in schizophrenia persists in later life. Register-based studies suggest that excess mortality continues, although at a lower level than in younger age groups. However, prospective follow-up studies of older schizophrenia samples are lacking. A cohort of 157

  20. A Follow-up Study of Early Onset Psychosis: Comparison between Outcome Diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…

  1. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo

  2. Pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia - A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...

  3. GWA study data mining and independent replication identify cardiomyopathy-associated 5 (CMYA5) as a risk gene for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, X

    2011-11-01

    We conducted data-mining analyses using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and molecular genetics of schizophrenia genome-wide association study supported by the genetic association information network (MGS-GAIN) schizophrenia data sets and performed bioinformatic prioritization for all the markers with P-values ≤0.05 in both data sets. In this process, we found that in the CMYA5 gene, there were two non-synonymous markers, rs3828611 and rs10043986, showing nominal significance in both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples. In a combined analysis of both the CATIE and MGS-GAIN samples, rs4704591 was identified as the most significant marker in the gene. Linkage disequilibrium analyses indicated that these markers were in low LD (3 828 611-rs10043986, r(2)=0.008; rs10043986-rs4704591, r(2)=0.204). In addition, CMYA5 was reported to be physically interacting with the DTNBP1 gene, a promising candidate for schizophrenia, suggesting that CMYA5 may be involved in the same biological pathway and process. On the basis of this information, we performed replication studies for these three single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The rs3828611 was found to have conflicting results in our Irish samples and was dropped out without further investigation. The other two markers were verified in 23 other independent data sets. In a meta-analysis of all 23 replication samples (family samples, 912 families with 4160 subjects; case-control samples, 11 380 cases and 15 021 controls), we found that both markers are significantly associated with schizophrenia (rs10043986, odds ratio (OR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.18, P=8.2 × 10(-4) and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.03-1.11, P=3.0 × 10(-4)). The results were also significant for the 22 Caucasian replication samples (rs10043986, OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.03-1.17, P=0.0026 and rs4704591, OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.02-1.11, P=0.0015). Furthermore, haplotype conditioned analyses indicated that the association

  4. The self-assessment scale of cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: a validation study in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-10-08

    Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life.

  5. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Yasmine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria. Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS. Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction

  6. [Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, R; Wagner, G; Köhler, S; Sauer, H

    2005-02-01

    Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of "cognitive dysmetria" in schizophrenia.

  7. Decreased Interhemispheric Coordination in Schizophrenia: A Resting State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; D’Angelo, Debra; Mauro, Cristina J.; Butler, Pamela D.; Milham, Michael P.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of brain connectivity, in large part due to findings emerging from white matter and functional connectivity (FC) studies. This work has focused primarily on within-hemispheric connectivity, however some evidence has suggested abnormalities in callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. Here we examined functional connectivity between homotopic points in the brain using a technique called voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). We performed VMHC analyses on resting state fMRI data from 23 healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We found highly significant reductions in VMHC in patients for a number of regions, particularly the occipital lobe, the thalamus, and the cerebellum. No regions of increased VMHC were detected in patients. VMHC in the postcentral gyrus extending into the precentral gyrus was correlated with PANSS Total scores. These results show substantial impairment of interhemispheric coordination in schizophrenia. PMID:22910401

  8. Brain structure in schizophrenia vs. psychotic bipolar I disorder: A VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Maitra, Raka; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Lorenz, Carsten; Smesny, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2015-07-01

    While schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been assumed to share phenotypic and genotypic features, there is also evidence for overlapping brain structural correlates, although it is unclear whether these relate to shared psychotic features. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) in 34 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients (with a history of psychotic symptoms), and 34 healthy controls. Our results indicate that compared to healthy controls schizophrenia patients show grey matter deficits (pschizophrenia vs. bipolar I patients (pschizophrenia patients in the (posterior) hippocampus bilaterally, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left cerebellum. Compared to healthy controls, the deficits in bipolar I patients only reached significance at pschizophrenia and bipolar disorder might not be related to mere appearance of psychotic symptoms at some stage of the disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: a morphometric study; Ressonancia magnetica na esquizofrenia: um estudo morfometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Claudio Campi de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Secao de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mail: campi@uol.com.br

    2001-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 normal subjects were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging studies using a 1.5 T scanner. Axial and coronal T 2-weighted images were obtained. The volumes of the brain, intracranial, supratentorial, infratentorial and the total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometric methods. The volumes of the amygdala-hippocampus complex, para hippocampal gyrus cortex, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe, gray and white matter of temporal lobe were also measured. These volumes were normalized using the intracranial volume as reference. The most relevant findings observed were reduced brain volume and increased total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the controls. Patients with schizophrenia had also smaller amygdala-hippocampus complexes, temporal lobes and temporal lobe white matter than the controls, as well as increased putamen volumes. (author)

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated...

  11. C-reactive protein levels and treatment resistance in schizophrenia - A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Wimberley, Theresa; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory markers are associated with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based follow-up study among individuals with a first-time schizo...

  12. Theory of mind and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yamada, Makiko; Namiki, Chihiro; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    Impaired ability to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind; ToM) is considered to be a key contributor to the poor social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. Although neuroimaging and lesion studies have provided empirical evidence for the neural basis of ToM ability, including the involvement of several prefrontal and temporal structures, the association between pathology of these structures and ToM impairment in schizophrenia patients is less well understood. To address this issue, we investigated structural brain abnormalities and ToM impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and examined the relationship between them. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were examined for ToM ability based on the revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (or Eyes) test [Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., Plumb, I., 2001. The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 241-251]. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula. The patients performed poorly on the Eyes test. Importantly, poor performance on the Eyes test was found to be associated with gray matter reduction in the left VLPFC in the patient group. These results suggest that prefrontal cortical reduction, especially in the left VLPFC, is a key pathology underlying the difficulties faced by schizophrenia patients in inferring the mental states of others.

  13. Marriage and outcomes of people with schizophrenia in rural China: 14-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Yang, Shu-Yan; Ho, Petula S Y; Mao, Wen-Jun; Li, Jie; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2017-04-01

    The influence of marriage on the long-term outcomes of schizophrenia is largely unknown. This study was to examine the impact of marriage on the 14-year outcomes and identify the correlates of marriage among persons with schizophrenia in rural community. All study participants with schizophrenia (n=510) were identified in 1994 in an epidemiological investigation of 123,572 people aged 15years and older and followed up in 2004 and 2008 in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. The Patients Follow-up Schedule (PFS) was used in 2004 and 2008. The rate of follow-up in 2008 was 95.9%. Unmarried individuals in 1994 had higher rates of homelessness and suicide, and lower rate of survival in 2004 and 2008 than those married. In 14-year follow-up, unmarried individuals were more likely to be male, to have higher level of psychiatric symptoms and lower rate of full remission of illness, and to report lower level of work functioning, as well as with fewer family members and caregiver, and lower family economic status. The predictors of being married in 2008 included being married in 1994, shorter duration of illness, being female, and lower level of education. Being married is predictive of more favorable 14-year outcomes of persons with schizophrenia in the rural community. Given that marriage can be instrumental for enhancing family-based support and caregiving, as well as improving the community tenure of persons with schizophrenia, it is important to develop programs to enhance opportunity for persons with schizophrenia to get and stay married. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of magnocellular pathway abnormalities in schizophrenia: a frequency doubling technology study and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Benites Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing deficits have been reported for patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated differences in early-stage processing of schizophrenics, although the nature, extent, and localization of the disturbance are unknown. The magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathways are associated with transient and sustained channels, but their respective contributions to schizophrenia-related visual deficits remains controversial. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate magnocellular dysfunction in schizophrenia using frequency doubling technology. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy volunteers were examined. Frequency doubling technology testing was performed in one session, consisting of a 15-minute screening strategy followed by the C-20 program for frequency doubling technology. RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients showed lower global mean sensitivity (30,97 ± 2,25 dB compared with controls (32,17 ± 3,08 dB, p<0.009. Although there was no difference in the delta sensitivity of hemispheres, there was a difference in sensitivity analysis of the fibers crossing the optic chiasm, with lower mean sensitivity in the patient group (28,80 dB versus controls (30,66 dB. The difference was higher in fibers that do not cross the optic chiasm, with lower mean sensitivity in patients (27,61 dB versus controls (30,26 dB, p<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there are differences between global sensitivity and fiber sensitivity measured by frequency doubling technology. The different sensitivity of fibers that do not cross the optic chiasm is consistent with most current etiological hypotheses for schizophrenia. The decreased sensitivity responses in the optic radiations may significantly contribute to research assessing early-stage visual processing deficits for patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Generation of the Acute Phencyclidine Rat Model for Proteomic Studies of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Administration of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents has been used as the gold standard preclinical model for schizophrenia. PCP treatment induces hyperlocomotion and stereotypic behaviour, which resemble the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, proteomic studies have identified changes in proteins associated with energy metabolism and neurotransmission which are typical hallmarks of the disease. This chapter presents a protocol for the generation of this model, behavioural assessment and preparation of key bio-samples to provide the raw materials for proteomic analyses.

  16. P03-34 - First European studies on acupuncture and schizophrenia: first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Ronan, P.; Quinton, N.; Harbinson, D.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objectives - This presentation will compare preliminary results from the first two European studies being carried out on acupuncture and schizophrenia, one in the UK and one in Germany. Statistical comment will be made on comparable study outcomes and there will be discussion on the methodological

  17. A novel, online social cognitive training program for young adults with schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Nahum

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.

  18. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  19. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Reavley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma. Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma.Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%, or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%. The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29% or reported on research findings (22%. Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65% or neutral (27%. A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%. Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7% or personal experience of stigma (0.1%. More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%. The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42% or neutral (43%. Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes

  20. A prospective study of health care resource utilisation and selected costs of schizophrenia in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlon, Emmanuelle; Heider, Dirk; Millier, Aurélie; Azorin, Jean-Michel; König, Hans-Helmut; Hansen, Karina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2012-08-21

    Schizophrenia is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. To estimate the cost of schizophrenia in France, a longitudinal study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. The main objective of this study was to describe and update the cost of schizophrenia in a longitudinal, representative sample of French patients. The second objective was to identify cost drivers in the treatment of schizophrenia. Based on a cohort of 288 French schizophrenic patients during 2 years of prospective follow-up, this study collected clinical, patient reported outcomes, quality of life, functioning, patient management, care giver involvement and resource utilisation data every 6 months. For each service, information was collected on the type of service, the frequency of attendance and type of intervention provided to the patient. Unit costs were based on available French databases. Mean service use and costs over the five time points were estimated using between-effects regression models. In the total sample of 288 patients aged 18-64 years, the mean total cost (€ 3 534) was mainly accounted for by the cost of inpatient treatment (€ 1 390) and day care (€ 1 331). The estimate of the annual cost for direct medical health care for all French schizophrenic patients was € 1 581 million, including € 621 million for inpatient treatment and € 595 million for day care (77%). The costs for medication accounted for 16.1% of total annual costs. The remaining costs (6.9%) included visits to psychiatrists, general practitioners, other physicians and psychologists. The direct resource allocation showed inpatient treatment as the main direct cost. Unemployment was identified as a major indirect cost of schizophrenia treatment. Positive and depressive schizophrenia symptoms at baseline and relapse occurrence during the follow-up period were associated with a higher cost of treatment. Health satisfaction or negative symptoms of schizophrenia at baseline were associated

  1. A prospective study of health care resource utilisation and selected costs of schizophrenia in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarlon Emmanuelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. To estimate the cost of schizophrenia in France, a longitudinal study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. The main objective of this study was to describe and update the cost of schizophrenia in a longitudinal, representative sample of French patients. The second objective was to identify cost drivers in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Based on a cohort of 288 French schizophrenic patients during 2 years of prospective follow-up, this study collected clinical, patient reported outcomes, quality of life, functioning, patient management, care giver involvement and resource utilisation data every 6 months. For each service, information was collected on the type of service, the frequency of attendance and type of intervention provided to the patient. Unit costs were based on available French databases. Mean service use and costs over the five time points were estimated using between-effects regression models. Results In the total sample of 288 patients aged 18-64 years, the mean total cost (€ 3 534 was mainly accounted for by the cost of inpatient treatment (€ 1 390 and day care (€ 1 331. The estimate of the annual cost for direct medical health care for all French schizophrenic patients was € 1 581 million, including € 621 million for inpatient treatment and € 595 million for day care (77%. The costs for medication accounted for 16.1% of total annual costs. The remaining costs (6.9% included visits to psychiatrists, general practitioners, other physicians and psychologists. The direct resource allocation showed inpatient treatment as the main direct cost. Unemployment was identified as a major indirect cost of schizophrenia treatment. Positive and depressive schizophrenia symptoms at baseline and relapse occurrence during the follow-up period were associated with a higher cost of treatment. Health satisfaction or negative

  2. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagar Tadmor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  3. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  4. Shyness and emotional face processing in schizophrenia: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Michelle K; Zheng, Xin; Goldberg, Joel O; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2013-12-01

    Shyness in healthy controls has been related to early event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotional faces. Patients with schizophrenia typically demonstrate increased shyness that is stable and related to reduced social functioning. We indexed early ERP responses to emotional faces in relation to shyness in 40 outpatients with schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls. Patients with low-to-medium shyness showed reductions in P100 amplitude to emotional compared to neutral faces as shyness increased. Patients reporting medium-to-high shyness demonstrated the opposite pattern; P100 amplitude sharply increased as shyness increased, possibly reflecting heightened vigilance. When a restricted range of shyness scores was used to equalize scores between groups, patients showed increased N170 amplitude to emotional faces as shyness increased, whereas controls demonstrated the opposite pattern. The implications of the findings are discussed with respect to informing vulnerability to social functioning impairment and psychosocial stress in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Communicative-Pragmatic Treatment in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Gastaldo, Luigi; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to verify the efficacy of Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), a new remediation training for the improvement of the communicative-pragmatic abilities, in patients with schizophrenia. The CPT program is made up of 20 group sessions, focused on a number of communication modalities, i.e., linguistic, extralinguistic and paralinguistic, theory of mind (ToM) and other cognitive functions able to play a role on the communicative performance, such as awareness and planning. A group of 17 patients with schizophrenia took part in the training program. They were evaluated before and after training, through the equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for testing, both in comprehension and in production, a wide range of pragmatic phenomena such as direct and indirect speech acts, irony and deceit, and a series of neuropsychological and ToM tests. The results showed a significant improvement in patients' performance on both production and comprehension tasks following the program, and in all the communication modalities evaluated through the ABaCo, i.e., linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic, and social appropriateness. This improvement persisted after 3 months from the end of the training program, as shown by the follow-up tests. These preliminary findings provide evidence of the efficacy of the CPT program in improving communicative-pragmatic abilities in schizophrenic individuals.

  6. Linkage studies on chromosome 22 in familial schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallada, H.P.; Gill, M.; Sham, P. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    As part of a systematic search for a major genetic locus for schizophrenia we have examined chromosome 22 using 14 highly polymorphic markers in 23 disease pedigrees. The markers were distributed at an average distance of 6.6 cM, covering 70-80% of the chromosome. We analyzed the data by the lod score method using five plausible genetic models ranging from dominant to recessive, after testing the power of our sample under the same genetic parameters. The most positive lod score found was 1.51 under a recessive model for the marker D22S278, which is insufficient to conclude linkage. However, an excess of shared alleles in affected siblings (P < .01) was found for both D22S278 and D22S283. For D22S278, the A statistic was equal to the lod score (1.51) and therefore did not provide additional evidence for linkage allowing for heterogeneity, but the Liang statistic was more significant (P = .002). Our results suggest the possibility that the region around D22S278 and D22S283 contains a gene which contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia. 60 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Comparative study of cost of care of outpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaiya, Mansi; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the average annual the cost of illness of outpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Cost of illness in 75 out-patients with bipolar disorder and 53 out-patients with schizophrenia was assessed over a 9-month period by using bottom-up approach. The cost of 9 months was annualized by dividing the 9 months cost by 3 and then multiplying the obtained figure with 4. Total average annual costs of care of bipolar disorder was Indian rupees 32,759 (US $ 655.18) and that of schizophrenia was Indian rupees 48,059 (US $ 961.18) and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In both the groups, indirect costs (bipolar disorder-64.0%; Schizophrenia-77.6%) were higher than direct costs (bipolar disorder-36%; Schizophrenia-22.4%). Cost of medications was high. Patient and their families bore the main brunt of financial burden (95.4-96% of the total cost). In Bipolar disorder total treatment costs were significantly higher in those who had lower level of functioning. In bipolar disorder group number of visits to the hospital correlated with total cost, indirect cost and provider's cost, whereas in schizophrenia group total number of visits correlated with provider's cost only. Only a small proportion (13.7%) of the total cost of bipolar disorder was predicted by presence or absence of alcohol dependence and number of visits. In the schizophrenia group, only positive symptom score as per the rating on PANSS appeared as a significant predictor of total cost, explaining 15.6% of the total cost. Costs for outpatients with bipolar disorder are similar to the cost of outpatients with schizophrenia. Costs are higher in patients of bipolar disorder with lower level of functioning. Findings of the study suggests that reducing the number of visits to the hospital by providing care at the doorsteps, focusing on reduction of substance use and improving the level of functioning of the patients can reduce the cost of care of bipolar disorder

  8. Is there any role of latent toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Nuran; Bilgiç, Serkan; Gürok, Mehmet Gürkan; Karaboğa, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    A large number of studies have hypothesized that Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially relevant etiological factor in some cases of schizophrenia. By contrast, some studies have disproved this association. The aim of this study was to investigate whether latent toxoplasmosis has any role in schizophrenia disease. Additionally, the association between T. gondii and subtypes of schizophrenia, and the impacts of toxoplasmosis on psychopathology were examined in the study. A total of 85 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to T. gondii was examined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay method. Seropositivity rates were 43.5% for the patients with schizophrenia and 43.3% for the healthy controls (odds ratio: 1.008, 95% confidence interval: 0.517-1.964, p = 0.981).There was no significant difference in T. gondii IgG positivity between the schizophrenia and control groups with respect to sex and age. The difference in seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies among the schizophrenia subtypes was not statistically significant (p = 0.934). No significant difference was found in Positive and Negative Syndrome Subscales between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free patients. In the study area with a high prevalence of T. gondii, no association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia was detected. These findings showed that toxoplasmosis has no role in the risk of schizophrenia disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. [Schizophrenia and pain reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Medical practitioners do not for a long time pay enough attention to patient's pain. This approach is in the line of society feelings. Pain was long consider to be a contingency to withstand as showed in Christian's bible or Stoicism's principle. Changes in mentality appear in present times. It Seems obvious that for sociological and scientific reasons pain's care in medical and psychiatric disorders is now an important subject. Recent research in autistic disorders suggest that insensitivity observed in autism is not and analgesic phenomenon but a different behavioural reactivity to pain. Prevalence of schizophrenic disorder is from 0.5 to 1%. It is also a complex disorder that has defied decades of concerted efforts to uncover its origins and attenuate its symptoms. The most promising hypotheses suggest that neurodevelopmental impairment increases the risk of later schizophrenia. Most of recent researches in this topic did focus to trait or state markers. According to the vulnerability models of schizophrenia, trait marker are clinical, psychological, physiological, anatomical or cognitive impairments found in patients with schizophrenia during all the course of the illness and even before the onset. Several lines of evidence (case report, epidemiological studies, experimental studies) suggest that patients with schizophrenia shows a relative insensitivity to physical pain. We will review and critic the scientific literature in this specific topic. We will see if datas are relevant with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and vulnerability models. An OLDMEDLINE/MEDLINE query was performed to identify 50 articles relevant to our subject. 9 were case report or case series, 21 were clinical or epidemiological studies, 15 were experimental studies and we also found 5 previous review. Clinical and experimental data strongly suggest a decrease of Behavioural Reactivity to Pain (BRP) but there is a lack of argument to prove a real analgesia. Because schizophrenia is a

  10. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Liskov, Ellen; Grilo, Carlos M; Tek, Cenk

    2012-10-01

    With the rate of obesity on the rise worldwide, individuals with schizophrenia represent a particularly vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to dietary and physical activity habits compared with healthy controls. Dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared with 250 body mass index-, age-, and sex-matched and racially matched controls from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using a 24-hour diet recall and a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Individuals with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin compared with matched controls. In addition, these individuals had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group. Daily energy intake was not different between groups; however, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat. Individuals with schizophrenia reported engaging in moderate physical activity less frequently compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys group, but there was no difference in reported vigorous physical activity. These findings suggest that the dietary and physical activity habits of individuals with schizophrenia contribute to an adverse metabolic profile. Increased opportunities for physical activity and access to healthy foods for individuals with schizophrenia may ease the burden of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Autism and perplexity: a qualitative and theoretical study of basic subjective experiences in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads G; Skodlar, Borut; Sass, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    Autistic traits and perplexity are considered core features of schizophrenia in phenomenological psychiatry. They express a fundamental disturbance of the self-world relation (including disturbances of self and intersubjectivity). The aim of our study was to examine this disturbance by exploring ...... in detail how autism and perplexity are experienced subjectively....

  12. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study re-evaluated, after a period of 20 years, a cohort of patients with schizophrenia who had been considered to be at high risk for suicide. The outcome and social factors associated with their suicide risk were investigated over the two decades. Method. Subjects were contacted and interviewed face to face ...

  13. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study followed up, after a period of 20 years, a group of patients with schizophrenia who were considered to be at high risk for suicide. In Part 1 we reported on outcome and associated social factors, and in this paper we discuss re-evaluated suicide risk in these patients and investigate symptomatology and ...

  14. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-03

    Oct 3, 2009 ... Depression Inventory or the Scale for Suicide Ideation.18. The CDSS was added because it is the most validated and reliable measure of depression in schizophrenia.17. For subjects who had died since the original study, particulars surrounding their symptoms and social circumstances at the time of death ...

  15. [Onset and course of schizophrenia (the results of a statistical study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, J; Baastrup, P C; Grof, P; Hippius, H; Peldinger, V

    1975-01-01

    The report contains the results of an examination of 709 patients with catatonia, paranoid, schizoaffective forms of schizophrenia. The study involved an investigation of the form, sex, general amount of psychotic episodes depending upon the time of observation, duration of productive episodes and the intervals between them. The achieved results indicate to a close correlation between the productive manifestations in schixophrenia and affective psychosis.

  16. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993-2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A

    2017-09-18

    We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  17. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993–2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. METHODS: In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. RESULTS: We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06–3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. INTERPRETATION: Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. PMID:28923795

  18. [Functional neuroimaging in the study of aggressive behaviour in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciá-Martí, Gracián; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel; Bonmatí, Ana; Sanjuán, Julio

    2013-02-16

    Although aggressive behaviours are not always very highly prevalent in schizophrenia, their occurrence does represent a significant problem for patients and those around them. Although neuroimaging studies have made it possible to further our knowledge of the biology of these behaviours, there is still a notable degree of clinical heterogeneity in the study samples that makes it difficult to obtain conclusive results that can be compared with each other. To determine whether there are variations in the brain activity, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, of a homogenous group of patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. The sample consisted of 32 patients with refractory schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations selected for the study. The subjects were submitted to a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination using an auditory paradigm with emotional stimulation, while the degree of aggressiveness was measured by means of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Significant correlations were found between functional activation and the degree of aggressiveness, which show focal hyperactivations in patients with a greater association to violent behaviours. The areas identified were located in the left hippocampus (p aggressiveness and certain regions in the brain that are responsible for cognitive and emotional processing in a phenotypically very homogenous group of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations and schizophrenia. This alteration of the neuronal circuits can favour loss in the processes involved in empathy and sensitivity, thus favouring the appearance of aggressive behaviours.

  19. Schizophrenia and work: aspects related to job acquisition in a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Martini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Work is considered one of the main forms of social organization; however, few individuals with schizophrenia find work opportunities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between schizophrenia symptoms and job acquisition. Method: Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia from an outpatient treatment facility were included in an 18-month follow-up study. After enrollment, they participated in a prevocational training group. At the end of training (baseline and 18 months later, sociodemographic, clinical data and occupational history were collected. Positive and negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – PANSS, depression (Calgary Depression Scale, disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – CGI, functionality (Global Assessment of Functioning – GAF, personal and social performance (Personal and Social Performance – PSP and cognitive functions (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia – MATRICS battery were applied at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Those with some previous work experience (n=19 presented lower scores on the PANSS, Calgary, GAF, CGI and PSP scales (p < 0.05 than those who did not work. Among those who worked, there was a slight worsening in positive symptoms (positive PANSS. Conclusions: Individuals with less severe symptoms were more able to find employment. Positive symptom changes do not seem to affect participation at work; however, this calls for discussion about the importance of employment support.

  20. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Reduced total antioxidant level and increased oxidative stress in patients with deficit schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ünsal, Cüneyt; Beyazyüz, Murat; Ünal, Ahmet; Kuloğlu, Murat

    2013-08-01

    Deficit schizophrenia (DS) is defined for identifying a relatively homogeneous subgroup of patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia, characterized by the presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms. There have been several studies which investigated the status of oxidative stress and total antioxidant level in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is not any study which researched differences between DS and nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS) in terms of status of oxidative stress and antioxidant level. We hypothesized that patients with DS would have different status of oxidative stress and antioxidant levels compared with patients with NDS. Twenty-three patients with DS, 42 patients with NDS and 31 age, sex and smoking status matched healthy controls (HC) were included to study. Five milliliters of blood was drawn from control subjects and patients for assessing total antioxidant potential (TAOP) and total peroxide levels (TPEROX). The ratio of TPEROX to TAOP is referred as oxidative stress index (OSI). We noticed that serum TAOP level was significantly lower in DS group compared with NDS and HC groups. The OSI was also found to be higher in DS group compared with NDS and HC groups. Furthermore, serum TAOP level and status of OSI were similar between NDS and HC groups. Our study is the first to demonstrate differences between DS and NDS in terms of status of oxidative stress and serum total antioxidant level. We suggest that our study represents novel and important results in terms of supporting provides and hypothesis which considered DS as a different disease entity with respect to NDS. Further studies are needed for investigating the status of antioxidants and oxidative stress and their clinical implications in deficit schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between a disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) single nucleotide polymorphism and schizophrenia in a combined Scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Agartz, Ingrid; De Franciscis, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), located on chromosome 1q42.1, is linked to rare familial schizophrenia in a large Scottish family. The chromosomal translocation that segregates with the disease results in a truncated protein that impairs neurite outgrowth and proper development of the cereb......Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), located on chromosome 1q42.1, is linked to rare familial schizophrenia in a large Scottish family. The chromosomal translocation that segregates with the disease results in a truncated protein that impairs neurite outgrowth and proper development...

  3. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  4. Hypothalamus and pituitary volume in schizophrenia: a structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; Haren, Neeltje E M Van

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric differences of the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland tend to support involvement of the HPA axis in psychotic disorders. These structures were manually outlined in 154 schizophrenia patients and 156 matched healthy comparison subjects by MRI brain images. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate differences in volume between groups. Moreover, the effects of illness duration and type of medication were investigated. No significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in volumes of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. In addition, there were no differences in volumes between patients with short and long illness duration. There was a trend towards patients receiving typical antipsychotic medication at the time of scanning having larger pituitary volumes than patients receiving atypical medication. These findings indicate that volume decreases in brain structures important for the normal functioning of the HPA axis are not present, either in recent-onset or chronically ill patients.

  5. Quality indicators in the treatment of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miquel; de Dios, Consuelo; Pérez, Víctor; Ignacio, Emilio; Serrano, Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Mira, José Joaquín; Guilabert, Mercedes; Roca, Miquel

    2018-01-06

    To define a set of indicators for mental health care, monitoring quality assurance in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders in Spain. Qualitative research. Consensus-based study involving 6 psychiatrists on the steering committee and a panel of 43 psychiatrists working in several health services in Spain. An initial proposal of 44 indicators for depression, 42 for schizophrenia and 58 for bipolar disorder was elaborated after reviewing the literature. This proposal was analysed by experts using the Delphi technique. The valuation of these indicators in successive rounds allowed those with less degree of consensus to be discarded. Feasibility, sensitivity and clinical relevance were considered. The study was carried out between July 2015 and March 2016. Seventy indicators were defined by consensus: 17 for major depression, 16 for schizophrenia, 17 for bipolar disorder and 20 common to all three pathologies. These indicators included measures related to adequacy, patient safety, exacerbation, mechanical restraint, suicidal behaviour, psychoeducation, adherence, mortality and physical health. This set of indicators allows quality monitoring in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder. Mental health care authorities and professionals can use this proposal for developing a balanced scorecard adjusted to their priorities and welfare objectives. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hazari, Nandita; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) among patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Records of patients who had received ECT were reviewed to identify patients with TRS who were administered ECT in combination with clozapine. Socio-demographic, clinical data and ECT details were extracted. The most common diagnosis was of paranoid schizophrenia (49%) followed by undifferentiated schizophrenia (36%). A-fifth (22%) of the patients were judged to have poor response to clozapine. The mean number of ECTs given were 13.97 (SD-7.67) and mean clozapine dose was 287.5mgs/day (SD-100.1). About two-thirds (63%) of the patients showed >30% reduction in scores on different symptom-rating scales with combined use of clozapine and ECT. Among clozapine non-responders, approximately 69% responded to the combination. Post-ECT rise in blood pressure was the most common side effect (16.9%) followed by prolonged seizures (7%). Long-term follow-up data was available for 47 out of the 59 patients. More than two-third (N=34; 72%) followed-up for an average of 30 months (SD 32.3; range: 1-120), maintained well with continued clozapine treatment. To conclude, results of this study further endorse the effectiveness, safety and long-term benefits of the clozapine-ECT combination in TRS and clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  8. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Catherine, Faget-Agius; Boyer, Laurent; Wirsich, Jonathan; Jonathan, Wirsich; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Jean-Philippe, Ranjeva; Richieri, Raphaelle; Raphaelle, Richieri; Soulier, Elisabeth; Elisabeth, Soulier; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Sylviane, Confort-Gouny; Auquier, Pascal; Pascal, Auquier; Guye, Maxime; Maxime, Guye; Lançon, Christophe; Christophe, Lançon

    2015-12-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had grey matter (GM) decreased MTR values in the temporal lobe (BA21, BA37 and BA38), the bilateral insula, the occipital lobe (BA17, BA18 and BA19) and the cerebellum. Patients with impaired QoL had lower GM MTR values relative to patients with preserved QoL in the bilateral temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the secondary visual cortex (BA18), the vermis and the cerebellum. Significant correlations between MTR values and QoL scores (p < 0.005) were observed in the GM of patients in the right temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the vermis and the right cerebellum. Our study shows that QoL impairment in patients with schizophrenia is related to the microstructural changes in an extensive network, suggesting that QoL is a bio-psychosocial marker.

  9. VIRTUAL AVATAR FOR EMOTION RECOGNITION IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marcos Pablos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing emotions in others’ facial expressions, which affects their capabilities for social interaction and hinders their social integration. Photographic images have traditionally been used to explore emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia patients, which lack of the dynamism that is inherent to face to face social interactions. In order to overcome those inconveniences, in the present work the use of an animated, virtual face is approached. The avatar has the appearance of a highly realistic human face and is able to express different emotions dynamically, introducing some advantages over photograph-based approaches such as its dynamic appearance.We present the results of a pilot study in order to assess the validity of the interface as a tool for clinical psychiatrists. 20 subjects who suffer from schizophrenia of long evolution and 20 control subjects were invited to recognize a set of facial emotions showed by a virtual avatar and images. The objective of the study is to explore the possibilities of using a realistic-looking avatar for the assessment of emotion recognition deficits in patients who suffer schizophrenia. Our results suggest that the proposed avatar may be a suitable tool for the diagnosis and treatment of deficits in the facial recognition of emotions.

  10. Courtesy stigma--a focus group study of relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra

    2003-10-01

    Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which relatives encounter stigmatization: structural discrimination and public images of mental illness. Furthermore, psychiatry has been identified as one important source of stigma. Relatives also suggested numerous anti-stigma interventions. These can be grouped into five main categories: communication measures, support for the ill and their relatives, changes in mental health care, education and training, and control and supervision. Based on our findings,ways of how relatives of schizophrenia patients and mental health professionals can fight against stigma are discussed.

  11. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Schizotypical Disorder or Schizophrenia? Assessment of Penal Responsibility in a Patricide Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Ruy Justo C; Forte Stuchi, Luísa; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    Patricide is the murder of one of the parents. We report a case of a man who had committed two homicides, at different times, one of them being considered a parricide. He was referred for forensic psychiatric evaluation and later evaluated in a psychiatric assistance service. Psychiatric interview was carried out and the final psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and retrospective analysis of forensic and clinical records. The court appointed forensic experts concluded that the patient suffered from schizotypical disorder, presenting cognitive and volitive impairment. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity. Later, in a second assessment, being in a psychiatric assistance service, the patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. The determination of criminal responsibility is essential to the proper disposition of convicted persons in any system of criminal law that protects human rights. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide Risk in Schizophrenia, a 20 Year Cohort Study, Part 1: Outcome and associated social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lippi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study prospectively followed up, after a period of 20 years, a group of patients with schizophrenia who were considered to be at high risk for suicide. In Part 1, we reported on outcome and associated social factors, and in this paper we discuss re-evaluated suicide risk in these patients and investigated symptomology and pharmacotherapy over the last 2 decades. Method: The subjects were interviewed, and a questionnaire evaluating suicide risk was completed. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was administered and ratings were compared to those from the original study. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS was also administered. Cross tabulations were then performed to identify factors associated with increased suicide risk. For those subjects who committed suicide since the original study, a psychological autopsy was performed. Results: Fourteen of the original 33 high suicide risk schizophrenia patients were found. Three subjects committed suicide during the 20 year period. Among the living subjects, risks for suicide were found to be lower than 20 years ago. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms correlated with independently evaluated suicide risk. Social withdrawal, blunting of affect and delusions were also associated with elevated risk. Good insight into illness and a history of previous suicide attempts correlate with high suicide risk. Cannabis abuse, poor or periodic adherence to treatment, as well as weight gain, akathisia and parkinsonian adverse effects were also associated with an increase in risk for suicide. Formal thought disorder, avolition and cognitive impairment were associated with lower risk of suicide. Conclusion: Hopelessness, depression, certain positive symptoms and adverse effects of medication, found in this study to be congruent with suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia, coincide with those mentioned in the literature. Despite current knowledge about this subject, suicide remains

  14. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. Methods: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student′s tests. Results: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05. Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05, these differences were not significant in females. Conclusions: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia.

  15. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritani Makiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Methods Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p Results No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57 was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39. Conclusion The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  16. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  17. Multiple self-inserted pins and nails in pericardium in a patient of schizophrenia: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is the case of multiple self-inserted pins and nails in chest and pericardial cavity in a young male suffering from schizophrenia. This act of self-mutilation was done to get relief from burning sensation in chest and palpitations. Review of the relevant literature revealed that self-inflicted intra-cardiac needle injuries occur mainly in young and middle-aged adults suffering from psychiatric disorders, commonly depression, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. In one-fourth of the patients, it is due to deliberate self-harm. About 70% use a single needle but 30% may use multiple needles. Second attempts are rare. Majority of the patients (85% are managed by surgery and recover from the injury. The condition has a low mortality rate of 5%.

  18. Abnormal N400 Semantic Priming Effect May Reflect Psychopathological Processes in Schizophrenia: A Twin Study

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    Anuradha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. Methods. We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs performing a lexical decision task. Moreover, we examined the correlation between Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS score and the N400 effect and the influence of medication status on this effect. Results. Regression yielded a significant main effect of group on the N400 effect only in the direct priming condition (p=0.003. Indirect condition and behavioral priming effect showed no significant effect of group. Planned contrasts with the control group as a reference group revealed that affected concordant twins had significantly reduced N400 effect compared to controls, and discordant affected twins had a statistical trend for reduced N400 effect compared to controls. The unaffected twins did not differ significantly from the controls. There was a trend for correlation between reduced N400 effect and higher BPRS scores, and the N400 effect did not differ significantly between medicated and unmedicated patients. Conclusions. Reduced N400 effect may reflect disease-specific processes in schizophrenia implicating frontotemporal brain network in schizophrenia pathology.

  19. Irish study of high-density Schizophrenia families: Field methods and power to detect linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendler, K.S.; Straub, R.E.; MacLean, C.J. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    Large samples of multiplex pedigrees will probably be needed to detect susceptibility loci for schizophrenia by linkage analysis. Standardized ascertainment of such pedigrees from culturally and ethnically homogeneous populations may improve the probability of detection and replication of linkage. The Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) was formed from standardized ascertainment of multiplex schizophrenia families in 39 psychiatric facilities covering over 90% of the population in Ireland and Northern Ireland. We here describe a phenotypic sample and a subset thereof, the linkage sample. Individuals were included in the phenotypic sample if adequate diagnostic information, based on personal interview and/or hospital record, was available. Only individuals with available DNA were included in the linkage sample. Inclusion of a pedigree into the phenotypic sample required at least two first, second, or third degree relatives with non-affective psychosis (NAP), one of whom had schizophrenia (S) or poor-outcome schizoaffective disorder (PO-SAD). Entry into the linkage sample required DNA samples on at least two individuals with NAP, of whom at least one had S or PO-SAD. Affection was defined by narrow, intermediate, and broad criteria. 75 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

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    Lâle Battal Merlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

  1. Working Memory Training in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

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    Martina Hubacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence that patients with schizophrenia suffer from decline in working memory performance with consequences for psychosocial outcome. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized working memory training program (BrainStim in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods. Twenty-nine inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were assigned to either the intervention group receiving working memory training (N=15 or the control group without intervention (N=14. Training was performed four times a week for 45 minutes during four weeks under neuropsychological supervision. At baseline and followup all participants underwent neuropsychological testing. Results. Pre-post comparisons of neuropsychological measures showed improvements in visual and verbal working memories and visual short-term memory with small and large effect sizes in the intervention group. In contrast, the control group showed decreased performance in verbal working memory and only slight changes in visual working memory and visual and verbal short-term memories after 4 weeks. Analyses of training profiles during application of BrainStim revealed increased performance over the 4-week training period. Conclusions. The applied training tool BrainStim improved working memory and short-term memory in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The present study implies that chronic schizophrenic patients can benefit from computerized cognitive remediation training of working memory in a clinical setting.

  2. 18FDG PET study of amygdalar activity during facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Parellada, Eduard; Lomeña, Francisco; Falcon, Carles; Pavia, Javier; Mane, Anna; Horga, Guillermo; Bernardo, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    The role of the amygdala during facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks as well as its clinical implications in schizophrenia patients remains unclear. While most of authors have reported hypoactivation, recently it has been suggested that patients may also exhibit hyperactivation. We studied amygdalar response during a previously validated FER task using (18)[F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) technique in ten right-handed healthy volunteers and 11 right-handed non acute patients with schizophrenia. Both groups underwent two scans on different days in a random order; each consisted of 17 1/2 min of continuous emotional and control tasks. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) 2 analysis with a region of interest approach was carried out. Left amygdalar hyperactivation among the schizophrenia group was shown in both emotional and control tasks when compared to healthy subjects. The right amygdala showed no differential activation in any of the tasks. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia exhibit a non-task specific amygdalar hyperactivation during a continuous emotional and non-emotional task when compared to matched healthy controls.

  3. A Placebo-Controlled Study of Raloxifene Added to Risperidone in Men with Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Khosravi, Mohsen; Zarinfard, Razieh; Nejati, Somayeh; Mohsenian, Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene have already shown beneficial effects on negative, positive and general psychopathology symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of raloxifene as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of men with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, forty-six male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), were randomized to either raloxifene (120 mg/day) or placebo in addition to risperidone (6 mg/day) for eight weeks. The assessment was performed using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS) at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) at baseline and week 8 were also used to assess extrapyramidal symptoms and depression simultaneously. Forty-two patients completed the trial. The raloxifene group showed significantly greater improvement on the negative subscale (Praloxifene as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia in men.

  4. Association between two distinct executive tasks in schizophrenia: a functional transcranial Doppler sonography study

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    Theodoridou Anastasia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving impairments in executive functioning, which are important cognitive processes that can be assessed by planning tasks such as the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC, and tasks of rule learning/abstraction such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. We undertook this study to investigate the association between performance during separate phases of SOC and WCST, including mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV measurements in chronic schizophrenia. Methods Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD was used to assess bilateral MFV changes in the middle (MCA and anterior (ACA cerebral arteries. Twenty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics performed SOC and WCST during fTCD measurements of the MCA and the ACA. The SOC was varied in terms of easy and difficult problems, and also in terms of separate phases, namely mental planning and movement execution. The WCST performance was assessed separately for maintaining set and set shifting. This allowed us to examine the impact of problem difficulty and the impact of separate phases of a planning task on distinct intervals of WCST. Simultaneous registration of MFV was carried out to investigate the linkage of brain perfusion during the tasks. Results In patients, slowing of movement execution during easy problems (SOC was associated with slowing during maintaining set (WCST (P Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate performance and brain perfusion abnormalities in the association pattern of two different tasks of executive functioning in schizophrenia, and they support the notion that executive functions have a pathological functional correlate predominantly in the lateral hemispheres of the brain. This study also underpins the scientific potential of fTCD in assessing brain perfusion in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. The role of schizotypy in the study of the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Grant, Phillip; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Schizotypy provides a useful construct for understanding the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As research on the epidemiology of psychotic symptoms and clinical risk for psychosis has expanded, conceptual challenges have emerged to comprehend the nature and borders of the space comprised between personality variation and psychosis. Schizotypy is considered in light of these more recent constructs. It is suggested that rather than being superseded by them due to their higher specificity and predictive power for transition to psychosis, schizotypy integrates them as it constitutes a dynamic continuum ranging from personality to psychosis. The advantages of schizotypy for studying schizophrenia etiology are discussed (eg, it facilitates a developmental approach and the identification of causal, resilience, and compensating factors and offers a multidimensional structure that captures etiological heterogeneity). An overview of putative genetic, biological, and psychosocial risk factors is presented, focusing on communalities and differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The found notable overlap supports etiological continuity, and, simultaneously, differential findings appear that are critical to understanding resilience to schizophrenia. For example, discrepant findings in genetic studies might be interpreted as suggestive of sets of independent genetic factors playing a differential role in schizotypy and schizophrenia: some would influence variation specifically on schizotypy dimensions (ie, high vs low schizotypy, thereby increasing proneness to psychosis), some would confer unspecific liability to disease by impacting neural properties and susceptibility to environmental factors (ie, high vs low resilience to disorder) and some might contribute to disease-specific characteristics. Finally, schizotypy's promise for studying gene-environment interactions is considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  6. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Light

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1 associated with schizophrenia, 2 stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3 free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS. Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. METHODS: Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205 completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade, neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II. In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF. 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58 returned for retesting after 1 year. RESULTS: Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of neurophysiological and

  7. Tailoring the definition of the clinical schizophrenia phenotype in linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Verena; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Coleman, Michael J; Bodkin, J Alexander; Lerbinger, Jan; Boling, Lenore; Johnson, Fred; Gibbs, Anne; Cole, Jonathan O; Huang, Zhuying; Mendell, Nancy R; Levy, Deborah L

    2010-02-01

    The delineation of schizophrenia-related symptomatology is critical to informative clinical phenotyping in linkage studies. A minority of first-degree relatives of schizophrenia and schizoaffective probands (RelSZSA) qualifies for a clinical diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum. Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a key component of this spectrum, largely because of its relatively specific familial aggregation in relatives. The criteria for SPD were not developed for the purpose of identifying RelSZSA, however, and SPD is not a homogeneous clinical disorder, potentially introducing false positives and false negatives into affectedness classifications. In this study we used logistic regression (LR) to identify the combination of clinical signs and symptoms that maximized the discrimination between nonpsychotic first-degree RelSZSA (n=241) and controls (n=161). Three variables contributed significantly to optimizing this distinction: no close friends or confidants other than family members, social isolation and irritability. The combination of deviant LR scores and schizophrenia-spectrum psychotic disorders had greater sensitivity for identifying RelSZSA, 23.7%, than SPD and schizophrenia-spectrum psychotic disorders, 16%. Importantly, the diagnosis of SPD and deviant LR scores were not significantly correlated. Most individuals with deviant LR scores did not meet criteria for a diagnosis of SPD and only a minority of those who were diagnosed with SPD had deviant LR scores. Since misclassification of gene carriers as non-gene carriers in linkage analyses increases the risk of false negatives, it may be advantageous to tailor the definition of the clinical phenotype to those aspects of social-interpersonal dysfunction that optimize the discrimination of RelSZSA from controls. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. COMT (Val158Met and BDNF (Val66Met Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ramin saravani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF Val66Met (G>A and the human Catechol-O-methylTransferase (COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphisms on Schizophrenia (SCZ risk were evaluated.Methods: This case control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs. Genotyping of both variants were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR.Results: The findings showed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR=2.008 95%CI=1.008-4.00, P=0.047, GA vs. GG, OR=3.876 95%CI=1.001-14.925, P=0.049. AA vs. GG, OR=2.272. 95%CI=1.204-4.347, P=0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR=2.22 95%CI=1.29-3.82. P=0.005, A vs. G. COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ.Conclusion: The results proposed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development and did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  9. Relapse and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getnet; Duko, Bereket

    2017-01-01

    Relapse and hospital admission are common among, and carry a heavy burden in, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of relapse and hospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 521 (260 schizophrenia cases and 261 bipolar disorder cases) study participants. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained psychiatry professionals. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV (SCID) were used. The risk of relapse and hospitalizations was slightly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in patients with schizophrenia. A majority of schizophrenic (213 [81.92%]) and bipolar (215 [82.37%]) patients had a history of hospital admission, and 228 (87.69%) schizophrenic and 230 (88.12%) bipolar patients had a history of relapse. Patients who had a history of hospitalizations also had co-occurring substance use disorders compared to those who had no history of hospitalizations for schizophrenia (81.5% vs 37.9%) and bipolar disorder (82.56% vs 38.2%), respectively. Similarly, those patients who had a history of relapse had high comorbid substance use disorders than those who had no history of relapse for both schizophrenia (87.88% vs 47.37%) and bipolar disorder (88.37% vs 47.19%), respectively. It is vital that, in the local context, mental health professionals strengthen their therapeutic relationships with patients and their caregivers. This might enable patients and their caregivers to express their needs and concerns to them, as well as help to plan proper interventions for patients. Attention needs to be given to screening for comorbid substance use disorders in patients with

  10. Task-Related Functional Connectivity Analysis of Emotion Discrimination in a Family Study of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sanford, Nicole; Spilka, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S

    2017-10-21

    Poor emotion recognition is a core deficit in schizophrenia and is associated with poor functional outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) multivariate analysis methods were used to elucidate the neural underpinnings of face and emotion processing associated with both genetic liability and disease-specific effects. Schizophrenia patients, relatives, and controls completed a task that included 4 facial emotion discrimination conditions and an age discrimination condition during fMRI. Three functional networks were derived from the data: the first involved in visual attention and response generation, the second a default mode network (DMN), and a third involved in face and emotion processing. No differences in activation were found between groups for the visual attention and response generation network, suggesting that basic processes were intact. Both schizophrenia patients and relatives showed evidence for hyperdeactivation in the DMN compared to controls, with relatives being intermediate, suggesting a genetic liability effect. Both disease-specific and genetic liability effects were found for the face processing network, which included the amygdala. Patients exhibited lower coordinated network activity compared to controls and relatives across all facial discrimination conditions. Additionally, in relation to the other emotion discrimination conditions, a heightened coordinated response during fear and anger discrimination was observed in schizophrenia compared to other conditions, whereas relatives demonstrated heightened coordinated activity for anger discrimination only relative to other emotion conditions. With regards to brain functioning, this study found that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal processing of threat-related information, and that in part may be associated with the genetic risk for the disorder, suggesting that the facial and emotion processing network could be targeted for intervention. © The Author 2017. Published by

  11. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Michael F.; Leitman, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke’s...

  12. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental hospitals over 2 decades. Predictors were in- or outpatient diagnoses of ASR or PTSD. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Persons with a traumatic stress disorder had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR 3.80, CI 2.33-5.80), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (IRR 2.34, CI 1.46-3.53), and bipolar disorder (IRR 4.22, CI 2.25-7.13). Risks were highest in the first year after diagnosis of the traumatic stress disorder and remained significantly elevated after more than 5 years. Mental illness in a parent could not explain the association. Our findings support an association between diagnosed traumatic stress disorders and subsequent schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder. If replicated, this may increase clinical focus on patients with traumatic stress disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Precentral and inferior prefrontal hypoactivation during facial emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Toshio; Matsuo, Koji; Egashira, Kazuteru; Nakashima, Mami; Harada, Kenichiro; Nakano, Masayuki; Matsubara, Toshio; Takahashi, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormal processing of emotional face recognition, the neural substrates underlying this process remain unclear. We previously showed abnormal fronto-temporal function during facial expression of emotions, and cognitive inhibition in patients with schizophrenia using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The aim of the current study was to use fNIRS to identify which brain regions involved in recognizing emotional faces are impaired in patients with schizophrenia, and to determine the neural substrates underlying the response to emotional facial expressions per se, and to facial expressions with cognitive inhibition. We recruited 19 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls, statistically matched on age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Brain function was measured by fNIRS during emotional face assessment and face identification tasks. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower activation of the right precentral and inferior frontal areas during the emotional face task compared to controls. Further, patients with schizophrenia were slower and less accurate in completing tasks compared to healthy participants. Decreasing performance was associated with increasing severity of the disease. Our present and prior studies suggest that the impaired behavioral performance in schizophrenia is associated with different mechanisms for processing emotional facial expressions versus facial expressions combined with cognitive inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association study of polymorphisms in synaptic vesicle-associated genes, SYN2 and CPLX2, with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Joo-Ho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of aberrant functional connectivity in the neuronal circuit is one of the integrative theories of the etiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that the protein and mRNA levels of the synapsin 2 (SYN2 and complexin 2 (CPLX2 genes were decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Synapsin 2 and complexin 2 are involved in synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release. This report presents a study of the association of polymorphisms of SYN2 and CPLX2 with schizophrenia in the Korean population. Methods Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one 5-bp insertion/deletion in SYN2 and five SNPs in CPLX2 were genotyped in 154 Korean patients with schizophrenia and 133 control patients using direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. An intermarker linkage disequilibrium map was constructed for each gene. Results Although there was no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of either SYN2 or CPLX2 polymorphisms between the schizophrenia and control groups, the two-way haplotype analyses revealed significant associations with the disease (P SYN2 with schizophrenia (P Conclusion These results suggest that both SYN2 and CPLX2 may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Korean population.

  15. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  16. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  17. Twin studies of schizophrenia: from bow-and-arrow concordances to star wars Mx and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, A G; Gottesman, I I

    2000-01-01

    Twin studies have been vital for establishing an important genetic contribution to the etiology of schizophrenia. The five newest studies since 1995 from Europe and Japan have confirmed earlier findings. They yielded probandwise concordance rates of 41-65% in monozygotic (MZ) pairs and 0-28% in dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and heritability estimates of approximately 80-85%. Twin studies are also valuable for investigating the etiological relationships between schizophrenia and other disorders, and the genetic basis of clinical heterogeneity within schizophrenia. Studies of discordant MZ pairs provide further insights into non-inherited factors that contribute to the multifactorial etiology of this disorder. More recently, twin studies have begun to be used to directly investigate molecular genetic and epigenetic processes underlying schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L; Finucane, Hilary K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kennedy, James L; Knight, Jo

    2016-09-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been interpreted as strong genetic evidence supporting the immune hypothesis. However, global pathway analyses provide inconsistent evidence of immune involvement in schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether genetic data support an immune etiology per se. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that variation in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated with schizophrenia, we identify 6 immune candidates (DPP4, HSPD1, EGR1, CLU, ESAM, NFATC3) encoding proteins with alternative, nonimmune roles in the brain. While our findings do not refute evidence that has accumulated in support of the immune hypothesis, they suggest that genetically mediated alterations in immune function may not play a major role in schizophrenia susceptibility. Instead, there may be a role for pleiotropic effects of a small number of immune genes that also regulate brain development and plasticity. Whether immune alterations drive schizophrenia progression is an important question to be addressed by future research, especially in light of the growing interest in applying immunotherapies in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  19. Functional disorganization of representations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Pachoud, B; Claudel, B; Granger, B

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this article describes a model of disorganization of representations in schizophrenia. We assume that subjects with schizophrenia have some interfering activity in memory. Such an interfering activity induces a functional decontextualization of information and the reciprocal is true. This model accounts for different classes of cognitive troubles that have been observed in schizophrenia. In the second part, we describe a text-comprehension experiment that studies two paradigmatic cases of episodic and semantic contextualization of information: the "compartmentalization" and the "thematization" of fictional narratives. Compartmentalization refers to the way in which representations of different narratives are separated in memory; thematization refers to the way in which representations of one narrative are structured in function of a theme. In our experiment, compartmentalization and thematization are assessed by a method of priming in word recognition. In agreement with our model, the results show that subjects with schizophrenia are impaired in compartmentalization and thematization when compared with anxious-depressed subjects.

  20. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  1. Working memory and processing speed training in schizophrenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Briana D; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-01-26

    In most domains of cognition, individuals with schizophrenia are generally found to be one standard deviation below the mean of the controls. As a result, examining the impact of cognitive remediation in individuals with schizophrenia has been a burgeoning area of research. However, the state of the literature remains unclear as to which domains of cognition should be targeted to produce the most widespread and durable benefits for individuals with schizophrenia. One suggestion is that targeting lower-level cognitive processes that are important for higher-level and more complex aspects of cognition may produce the most widespread benefits in cognition and everyday functioning. Relatively few studies have examined the effects of working memory or processing speed training in schizophrenia, as most studies examine broad-based remediation programs. Thus, a need exists for targeted working memory and processing speed training studies to better understand the mechanisms of cognitive enhancement in patients. This study aims to 1) investigate near-transfer gains (that is, the transfer of learning to related contexts) associated with working memory and processing speed training in schizophrenia patients; 2) investigate far-transfer gains (that is, the transfer of learning to new contexts) associated with working memory and processing speed training (that is, gains in other neurocognitive domains and social cognition); and 3) investigate real-world gains associated with training (that is, gains in daily functioning). A double-blind randomized controlled trial with a three parallel group design will be conducted. A random sample of 81 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder will be recruited through outpatient clinics at Foothills Hospital and community support programs in Calgary, Alberta. Participants will be randomly assigned using a computer-generated program in a 1:1:1 ratio to a working memory-training group, a processing speed-training group, or a no

  2. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine) oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Linnea; Andre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz...

  3. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia : A quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Costafreda, Sergi G.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre; Allen, Paul

    Introduction: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies demonstrate grey matter volume (GMV) deficits in schizophrenia. This method is also applied for detecting associations between specific psychotic symptoms and brain structure, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). However, due to differing

  4. A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Kings Healthcare NHS Trust, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Ng, V. [Department of Neuroimaging, Maudsley Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McDonald, C.; Schulze, K.; Morgan, K.; Dazzan, P.; Murray, R.M. [Division of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Hippocampal shape anomaly (HSA), characterised by a rounded hippocampus, has been documented in congenital malformations and epileptic patients. Subtle structural hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that HSA is more frequent in schizophrenia, particularly in patients from families multiply affected by schizophrenia, and that HSA is transmitted within these families. We also aimed to define the anatomical features of the hippocampus and other cerebral structures in the HSA spectrum and to determine the prevalence of HSA in a control group. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging of a large number of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, many of who came from multiply affected families, relatives of the affected probands, and controls. Quantitative measures of hippocampal shape and position and other qualitative anatomical measures were performed (including depth of dominant sulcus cortical cap, angle of dominant sulcus and hippocampal fissure, bulk of collateral white matter, prominence of temporal horn lateral recess and blurring of internal hippocampal architecture) on subjects with HSA. A spectrum of mild, moderate and severe HSA was defined. The prevalence of HSA was, 7.8% for the controls (n=218), 9.3% for all schizophrenic subjects (n=151) and 12.3% for familial schizophrenic subjects (n=57). There was a greater prevalence of moderate or severe forms of HSA in familial schizophrenics than controls. However, there was no increase in the prevalence of HSA in the unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients or in patients with familial bipolar disorder. HSA was rarely transmitted in families. HSA was frequently associated with a deep, vertical collateral/occipito-temporal sulcus and a steep hippocampal fissure. Our data raise the possibility that HSA is linked to disturbances of certain neurodevelopmental genes associated with schizophrenia. However, the lack of

  5. Is there change in intelligence quotient in chronically ill schizophrenia patients? A longitudinal study in twins discordant for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, A M; van Haren, N E M; van Baal, G C M; Brans, R G H; Hijman, R; Kahn, R S; Hulshoff Pol, H E

    2012-12-01

    Intellectual deficits are commonly found in schizophrenia patients. These intellectual deficits have been found to be heritable. However, whether the intellectual deficits change over time and, if so, whether the change is related with an increased genetic risk for the disease are not known. We investigated change of intelligence quotient (IQ) in a twin sample of chronically ill schizophrenia patients, the discordant co-twins and healthy controls during a follow-up period of 5 years. A total of 52 twins completed two IQ assessments: nine patients [three monozygotic (MZ) and six dizygotic (DZ)], 10 unaffected co-twins (three MZ and seven DZ) and 33 healthy control twins (21 MZ and 12 DZ). A significant interaction effect over time was found between IQ measurement and illness (F=4.22, df=1, p<0.05), indicating that change in IQ over time is significantly different between the groups. A stable course in IQ over time was found in the patients with schizophrenia (mean IQ from 109.78 at baseline to 108.44 at follow-up) relative to both the healthy control twins who showed a small increase (from 114.61 at baseline to 119.18 at follow-up) (t=2.06, p<0.05) and the unaffected co-twins (from 111.60 to 117.60, t=-2.32, p<0.05). IQ change in the unaffected co-twins of schizophrenia patients was comparable with that in healthy control twins (t=-0.49, p=0.63). Patients with schizophrenia in the chronic phase of the disease, but not the discordant co-twins, show a lack of increase in IQ, which is probably due to environmental (non-genetic) factors related to the disease.

  6. Dopamine, psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesby, J P; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

    2018-01-01

    The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic...... dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function...... in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed. Furthermore, subjects deemed at high risk of developing schizophrenia show similar presynaptic dopamine abnormalities in the associative striatum. Thus, our view of subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia continues to evolve...

  7. A magnetic resonance imaging study in first-episode disorganized-type patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Kimura, Michihiro; Takahashi, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Norihiko; Arai, Heii [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Although a number of radiological studies have suggested that brains of patients suffering from schizophrenia have morphological abnormalities, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, in order to examine the brain, morphological features of homogeneous schizophrenics` brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) were taken, before neuroleptic treatment, from subjects suffering from disorganized-type schizophrenia, (DOS) during their first episodes. Results showed that DOS had significantly smaller indices for bilateral frontal gray matter (GM), left hippocampal formation (HF), left parahippocampal gray matter (PHGM) and left cingulate gyrus gray matter (CGM) than normal controls. These findings support the previous computed tomography (CT) and MRI studies on schizophrenic brains, although the subjects were not defined as disorganized-type, and may suggest the involvement of a neurocircuit between the bilateral frontal lobe and the left side of limbic system in the first-episode DOS group. (author). 54 refs.

  8. Exome sequencing in 53 sporadic cases of schizophrenia identifies 18 putative candidate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guipponi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a severe, debilitating mental illness which has a significant genetic component. The identification of genetic factors related to SCZ has been challenging and these factors remain largely unknown. To evaluate the contribution of de novo variants (DNVs to SCZ, we sequenced the exomes of 53 individuals with sporadic SCZ and of their non-affected parents. We identified 49 DNVs, 18 of which were predicted to alter gene function, including 13 damaging missense mutations, 2 conserved splice site mutations, 2 nonsense mutations, and 1 frameshift deletion. The average number of exonic DNV per proband was 0.88, which corresponds to an exonic point mutation rate of 1.7×10(-8 per nucleotide per generation. The non-synonymous-to-synonymous mutation ratio of 2.06 did not differ from neutral expectations. Overall, this study provides a list of 18 putative candidate genes for sporadic SCZ, and when combined with the results of similar reports, identifies a second proband carrying a non-synonymous DNV in the RGS12 gene.

  9. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. The application of bifrontal electrotherapy in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia – case series description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Nowakowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrotherapy is considered a very effective and safe therapeutic method. Its most frequently described adverse effect is the impairment of cognitive functions. Currently, the most commonly applied form of electrotherapy are bitemporal procedures and the most frequent and best-studied indication for its application are depressive disorders. A method combining high effectiveness with satisfactory safety is the bifrontal application of the electrodes, although study results are often inconsistent. An issue which should also be noted is the lack of studies comparing the effectiveness of bifrontal and bitemporal procedures in the reduction of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and assessing the safety of these methods in terms of the influence on cognitive functions. The present paper presents a clinical description of four patients with schizophrenia who have undergone electrotherapy procedures performed applying the bifrontal method. The decisive indication for applying the bifrontal procedures were the memory disturbances the persistence of which was reported by the patients during the application of bitemporal procedures. The analysed clinical cases indicate the effectiveness of the bifrontal electrotherapy procedures which was comparable with the effectiveness of bitemporal procedures with the simultaneous better toleration of the former. Improvement was observed in terms of paranoid, catatonic and negative schizophrenia symptoms. At the same time the patients reported subjectively better tolerance of the procedures, as well as improvement in the recalling of facts and events.

  11. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine) oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Andre AD

    2015-01-01

    Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz™ using the Versacloz oral suspension kit and instructions for use (IFU).Materials and methods: This was a prospective, open-label, simulated-use validation study of 61 people with schizophrenia who were stabilized on clozapine or were clozapine-naive and stabilized on another antipsy...

  12. Pineal gland volume in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Inci, Mehmet Fatih; Gökçe, Mustafa; Fındıklı, Hüseyin Avni; Altun, Hatice; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-06-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders have disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythm. Melatonin, which is secreted by the human pineal gland, plays an important role in sleep and circadian rhythm. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare pineal gland volumes in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. We retrospectively evaluated the pineal gland volumes of 80 cases, including 16 cases of unipolar depression, 17 cases of bipolar disorder, 17 cases of schizophrenia, and 30 controls. The total pineal gland volume of all cases was measured via magnetic resonance images, and the total mean pineal volume of each group was compared. The mean pineal volumes of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, and the controls were 83.55±10.11 mm(3), 93.62±11.00 mm(3), 95.19±11.61 mm(3) and 99.73±12.03 mm(3), respectively. The mean pineal gland volume of the patients with schizophrenia was significantly smaller than those of the other groups. Our data show that patients with schizophrenia have smaller pineal gland volumes, and this deviation in pineal gland morphology is not seen in those with mood disorders. We hypothesize that volumetric changes in the pineal gland of patients with schizophrenia may be involved in the pathophysiology of this illness.

  13. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  14. The Danish schizophrenia registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  15. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  16. Integration of SNPs-FMRI-methylation data with sparse multi-CCA for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenxing Hu; Dongdong Lin; Calhoun, Vince D; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study. We show the advantage of sMCCA over sparse CCA (sCCA) through the simulation testing, and further apply it to the analysis of real data (SNPs, fMRI and methylation) from schizophrenia study. Some new genes and brain regions related to SZ disease are discovered by sMCCA and the relationships among these biomarkers are further discussed.

  17. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in patients with schizophrenia in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Citrome, Leslie; Van Dorn, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behavior can be a dangerous complication of schizophrenia. Hostility is related to aggression. This study aimed to compare the effects of olanzapine, perphenazine, risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on hostility in schizophrenia. We used the data that were acquired in the 18-month Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. We analyzed the scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) hostility item in a subset of 614 patients who showed at least minimal hostility (a score ≥ 2) at baseline. The primary analysis of hostility indicated an effect of difference between treatments (F(4,1487) = 7.78, P schizophrenia enrolled in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) trial, where olanzapine demonstrated advantages compared with haloperidol, quetiapine, and amisulpride. Olanzapine demonstrated advantages in terms of a specific antihostility effect over the other antipsychotics tested in Phase 1 of the CATIE trial.

  18. Association Study between Auditory P3a/P3b Event-Related Potentials and Thought Disorder in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Kenji; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Uetsuki, Miki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Hata, Akinobu; Rogers, Mark A; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2009-09-01

    Thought disorder is considered as one of the core features of schizophrenia and several research groups previously reported an association between P300 (P3b) amplitude and thought disorder in schizophrenia. However, previous studies have not evaluated two P300 subcomponents (P3a and P3b) to investigate whether the relationship with thought disorder was specific to P3b. In this study, we measured P3b and thought disorder of 60 patients with schizophrenia. We also measured P3a of 36 patients out of this sample. We replicated correlation between P3b amplitude and thought disorder and extended this finding by observing that this correlation was not present for the P3a subcomponent. These results suggest that specific electrophysiological abnormalities associated with context updating may underlie thought disorder in schizophrenia.

  19. Schizophrenia or Atypical Lupus Erythematosus with Predominant Psychiatric Manifestations over 25 Years: Case Analysis and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mack

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We observed a case over 25 years of relapsing–remitting schizophrenic spectrum disorder, varying regarding the main symptomatology between more depressive or more schizoaffective or rather typical schizophrenic syndrome. Diseased phases were repeatedly accompanied by minor skin lesions, which were initially classified as mixed tissue disorder. Psychotic phases were waxing–waning over years. During one later relapse, skin involvement was severe, classified to likely represent an allergic reaction to psychopharmaca; this generalized exanthema remitted rapidly with cortisone treatment and azathioprine. Under continued azathioprine and low dose neuroleptics, the patient remitted completely, appearing psychiatrically healthy for 16 years. When azathioprine was set off due to pregnancy, an extraordinary severe relapse of schizophrenia like psychosis accompanied by most severe skin lesions developed within a few weeks, then requiring 2 years of psychiatric inpatient treatment. Finally, a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematodes plus neuropsychiatric lupus was made. A single CSF sample in 2013 showed suspicious biomarkers, matching with CSF cytokine profiling in schizophrenic and affective spectrum disorder patients and indicated mild neuroinflammation. Complex immune suppressive treatment was reinitiated short after relapse, but was only partially successful. However, surprisingly the psychosis and skin lesions remitted (in parallel when belimumab was given (add-on. The very details of this complicated, long-term disease course are discussed also with regard to general ideas, in particular with respect to the question if this case of seemingly comorbid schizophrenia with minor autoimmunity signs represented a case of one emerging autoimmune disorder with variant manifestations systemically and within the CNS, though atypically with predominant appearance as a schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

  20. Dental prosthetic treatment needs of inpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The need to obtain information on the dental prosthetic treatment needs (DPTNs) of inpatients with schizophrenia is unrecognized. This study aims to assess the DPTNs of this population and investigate the association between these needs and related factors. Methods The results of an oral health survey involving 1,103 schizophrenic adult inpatients in a long-term care institution in Taiwan were used. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic analyses were used to measure the i...

  1. Increased serum levels of apoptosis in deficit syndrome schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyazyüz M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Murat Beyazyüz,1 Tarkan Küfeciler,2 Leyla Bulut,3 Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Yakup Albayrak,1 Esra Soydaş Akyol,4 Saliha Baykal,1 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto61Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Çekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey; 3Department of Biochemistry, Okmeydani Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, the etiology of which remains unclear. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that might be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum levels of apoptosis among deficit schizophrenia (DS syndrome patients, nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS patients, and healthy controls (HCs.Patients and methods: After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 23 DS patients, 46 NDS patients, and 33 HCs were included in the study. The serum apoptosis levels were measured using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay with human monoclonal antibodies directed against DNA and histones.Results: There was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of the levels of apoptosis (F2,96=16.58; P<0.001. The serum apoptosis levels in the DS and NDS groups were significantly higher than those in the HC group. Furthermore, the serum apoptosis levels in the DS group were significantly higher than the levels in the NDS group.Conclusion: This study suggests that increased levels of apoptosis may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DS syndrome. However, further studies are needed to support the role of apoptosis in DS.Keywords: apoptosis

  2. SoCIAL – training cognition in schizophrenia: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo D.; Mucci A; Piegari G; D'Alise V; Mazza A; Galderisi S

    2017-01-01

    Davide Palumbo,* Armida Mucci,* Giuseppe Piegari, Valentina D’Alise, Annapaola Mazza, Silvana Galderisi Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a new social cognition (SC) remediation intervention, the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab (SoCIAL), for subjects with schizophrenia. The training includes a module for ...

  3. SoCIAL – training cognition in schizophrenia: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, Davide; Mucci, Armida; Piegari, Giuseppe; D?Alise, Valentina; Mazza, Annapaola; GALDERISI, SILVANA

    2017-01-01

    Davide Palumbo,* Armida Mucci,* Giuseppe Piegari, Valentina D’Alise, Annapaola Mazza, Silvana Galderisi Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a new social cognition (SC) remediation intervention, the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab (SoCIAL), for subjects with schizophrenia. The training includes a module ...

  4. Personalized smoking environment cue reactivity in smokers with schizophrenia and controls: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to smoking cues increases craving to smoke and negatively changes mood in smokers with schizophrenia (SWS). This pilot study compared reactivity to real-world smoking environments versus neutral environments in SWS (n = 10) and non-psychiatric control smokers (CON; n = 10). Results indicate that both SWS and CON experienced increases in smoking urges when viewing images of their smoking environments and that SWS tended to report greater increases in withdrawal-related negative mood t...

  5. [Descriptive approach to latent forms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, B; Bougerol, T; Cura, B; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Scotto, J C

    1994-01-01

    The computerized medical file, used in routine work in an Adult Psychiatry University-Hospital Unit enabled us to select 113 cases among 1,000 consecutive hospitalizations, the diagnosis of which could possibly lead to schizophrenia. These cases which we named "paraschizophrenic states" are linked to DSM III-R criteria of borderline (27 cases), schizoid (40 cases) or schizotypical (15 cases) personalities, schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble (17 cases), brief reactional psychosis (14 cases). We selected 196 cases of schizophrenia in the same cohort of hospitalized patients. As it is now usually admitted, we marked out two subgroups in this second group: the positive schizophrenia which gather together the paranoid and undifferentiated patterns and the negative schizophrenia which correspond to disorganized, catatonic and residual models, according to DSM III-R criterion. We compared the "paraschizophrenic states'" group and its five subgroups (we indeed joined schizophreniform trouble and unspecified psychotic trouble under the name of "other psychotic trouble" by reason of their relative nosographic lacks of precision and of their too small sizes) with the schizophrenia's group and its two subgroups. Each group is matched for sex (1.51 men for 1 woman in the first group and 1.45 men for 1 woman in the second group). We evaluated statistics for markers usually studied in schizophrenia in each subgroup. These markers are of three classes: biographical: age during the study, age of troubles' onset, season of birth; socioeconomic: socioeconomic level of family and patient's student status; psychiatric: family (history affective trouble, psychotic trouble, alcoholism), treatment response and short- and middle-term prognosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A comprehensive family-based replication study of schizophrenia genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Liu, Youfang; Bukszár, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    (P = 9.01 × 10-7), CNNM2 (P = 6.07 × 10-7), and NT5C2 (P = 4.09 × 10-7). To explore the many small effects, we performed pathway analyses. The most significant pathways involved neuronal function (axonal guidance, neuronal systems, and L1 cell adhesion molecule interaction) and the immune system...... genes. DESIGN We integrated results from a meta-analysis of 18 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving 1 085 772 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 6 databases that showed significant informativeness for SCZ. The 9380 most promising SNPs were then specifically genotyped...... in an independent family-based replication study that, after quality control, consisted of 8107 SNPs. SETTING Linkage meta-analysis, brain transcriptome meta-analysis, candidate gene database, OMIM, relevant mouse studies, and expression quantitative trait locus databases. PATIENTS We included 11 185 cases and 10...

  7. Patterns of regional gray matter loss at different stages of schizophrenia: A multisite, cross-sectional VBM study in first-episode and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ulysses S; Duran, Fabio L S; Schaufelberger, Maristela S; Crippa, José A S; Louzã, Mario R; Sallet, Paulo C; Kanegusuku, Caroline Y O; Elkis, Helio; Gattaz, Wagner F; Bassitt, Débora P; Zuardi, Antonio W; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C; Leite, Claudia C; Castro, Claudio C; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Murray, Robin M; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been repeatedly demonstrated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, but it remains unclear whether these are static or progressive in nature. While longitudinal MRI studies have been traditionally used to assess the issue of progression of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, information from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies directly comparing first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients to healthy controls may also be useful to further clarify this issue. With the recent interest in multisite mega-analyses combining structural MRI data from multiple centers aiming at increased statistical power, the present multisite voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study was carried out to examine patterns of brain structural changes according to the different stages of illness and to ascertain which (if any) of such structural abnormalities would be specifically correlated to potential clinical moderators, including cumulative exposure to antipsychotics, age of onset, illness duration and overall illness severity. We gathered a large sample of schizophrenia patients (161, being 99 chronic and 62 first-episode) and controls (151) from four previous morphometric MRI studies (1.5 T) carried out in the same geographical region of Brazil. Image processing and analyses were conducted using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Group effects on regional gray matter (GM) volumes were investigated through whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons using General Linear Model Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA), always including total GM volume, scan protocol, age and gender as nuisance variables. Finally, correlation analyses were performed between the aforementioned clinical moderators and regional and global brain volumes. First-episode schizophrenia subjects displayed subtle volumetric deficits relative to controls in a

  8. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  9. Counseling and exercise intervention for smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Paquito Philippe Noel; Esseul, Elodie Christine; Raymond, Laurent; Dandonneau, Loic; Xambo, Jean-Jacques; Carayol, Marion Sara; Ninot, Gregory Jean-Marie Guilyn

    2013-02-01

    Smoking cessation is possible for individuals with schizophrenia but the relapse rate is high. It is necessary to develop more flexible approaches to help these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of an intervention approach that integrates counseling and exercise for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A single group prospective design was used in this study. A sample of inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a program called "oxygen group", a program combining five sessions of smoking reduction counseling and three sessions of moderate intensity exercise over an 8-week period. Tobacco consumption, motivation, carbon monoxide level, anxiety and depression, smoking self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and waist circumference were measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported their satisfaction with the study characteristics after completion of the intervention. Smoking consumption and CO level were assessed at 6-week post-intervention follow-up. Twelve individuals (mean age 45.7±10.8years) were recruited. Participant attendance was 81.3%. There were no dropouts. Significant decreases were found for tobacco consumption (P=.04) and CO rate (P=.003) at the end of the intervention and were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Compared to baseline levels, there were no changes in depression and anxiety. Smoking cessation motivation increased significantly. This intervention appears feasible and acceptable to patients with schizophrenia and there were promising findings regarding smoking reduction. Larger trials to test the intervention are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance use, suicidality, and adolescent-onset schizophrenia: an Israeli 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Gal; Sever, Jonathan; Sher, Leo; Diller, Robyne; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between the use of specific types of substances and suicidality in adolescent inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We performed a 10-year naturalistic retrospective study of 178 adolescent inpatients diagnosed as suffering from either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A comparison was made between the suicide-attempting adolescent inpatients and the non-attempting subjects, by the use of specific types of substances, measurements of psychotic, depressive, and aggressive symptoms, and clinical data reported during their hospitalization. The suicide attempters reported considerably greater usage of inhalants and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Alcohol and methylene-dioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA) were also used significantly more by this group. However, no differences were found in the usage of cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates. The suicide-attempting patients were found to have had more previous psychiatric admissions, a greater level of deliberate self-harm behavior, and a higher level of suicide ideation, but a decreased severity of psychotic symptoms. This study is the first report of the association between specific types of substances and suicidality in the high-risk population of adolescent psychotic inpatients. The strong association between inhalants, LSD, alcohol, and MDMA with suicidality is relevant to suicide prevention and intervention programs in adolescent-onset schizophrenia.

  11. Clinical determinants of life satisfaction in chronic schizophrenia: data from the CATIE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Quality of life is seen as an important outcome variable for patients with schizophrenia. However, the precise definition of this construct varies and has often been used to define health-related domains. The present study sought to focus on global life satisfaction as a key subjective domain and determine its relationship with clinical variables. The study sample included 1437 patients with chronic schizophrenia who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of assessments capturing symptoms, cognition and medication side effects, among other variables. Life satisfaction was evaluated with a global self-report item. Greater depressive symptoms were the most robust indicator of worse life satisfaction. Lower life satisfaction was also associated with poorer psychosocial functioning, greater symptoms of anxiety, apathy and more negative attitudes toward medication. Taken together, these variables explained 20% of the variance in life satisfaction scores. Positive symptoms and other medication side effects also negatively influenced life satisfaction scores. These results affirm that clinical variables have an adverse effect on the overall subjective well-being of patients with schizophrenia. The relatively small amount of variance explained, though, argues for a better understanding of those other variables that contribute to life satisfaction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through....... 1.8%; P language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective...

  13. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through....... 1.8%; P language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective spectrum...

  14. Implicit Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in Schizophrenia: A Study of the Skin Conductance Response in Familiarity Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ameller, Aurely; Picard, Aline; D’Hondt, Fabien; Vaiva, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Pins, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Objective Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may c...

  15. [Good general cognitive skills on irony understanding in schizophrenia - an fMRi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Eszter; Herold, Róbert; Schnell, Zsuzsanna; Simon, Mária; Hajnal, András; Járai, Róbert; Fekete, Sándor; Tényi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have examined a group of schizophrenia patients during the understanding of irony tasks, who had normal IQ. 14 patients and 14 healthy control subjects were included, 15 irony and 15 control tasks were invertigated during an fMRI investigation. During the contextual phase patients had shown a higher activitation in different brain regions. The healthy controls had shown deactivitation during this phase, while this couldn't be seen in the patiens group. During the irony phase healthy subjects activated brain regions known as mentalisation areas, while patients didn't. Our results can support the view, that behind schizophrenia patients mentalisation deficit the contextual phase can play the central role.

  16. Occupational engagement and cognitive functioning among persons with schizophrenia: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexén, Annika; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2017-02-09

    Cognitive functioning may have implications for engagement in daily occupations among people with schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study explores relationships between time use assessed occupational engagement and cognitive functioning among persons with schizophrenia. Thirty-nine participants from four mental health care services in Sweden participated. The Profile of Occupational Engagement among persons with Severe mental illness (POES) and a cognitive test battery was used. Higher attention and psychomotor speed and higher scores in information processing speed, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and immediate and delayed visual recall were significantly correlated with higher scores in occupational engagement. Regression analyzes revealed that information processing speed and delayed visual recall best explained the variance in occupational engagement (R2 = 0.36). Cognitive functioning has implications for occupational engagement, and thus the ability to perform daily occupations in a balanced rhythm within various social and physical environments.

  17. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on social cognition in schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Dunn, Walter; Wynn, Jonathan; Wu, Allan D; Iacoboni, Marco; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognition in 36 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants received a baseline assessment and one week later received either anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS, with 12 participants randomized to each condition. A single 20-minute session tDCS was administered bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (centered at positions Fp1 and Fp2) at 2 mA. Among the 4 social cognitive tasks, participants showed a significant improvement on one of them, emotion identification, following anodal stimulation. Findings demonstrate the safety of this procedure and suggest potential therapeutic effects on one aspect of social cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the prevention of relapse of schizophrenia in the longitudinal study Ziprasidone Extended Use in Schizophrenia (ZEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, M; Azanza, J R; Rubio-Terrés, C; Rejas, J

    2007-01-01

    Estimate the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of relapse of schizophrenia in the ZEUS (Ziprasidone Extended Use in Schizophrenia Study) longitudinal study that compares ziprasidone with the option of not treating. One year of treatment was analyzed using the randomized clinical trial data (ZEUS study) with a deterministic model, having cost-effectiveness analysis type, conducted from the perspective of the National Health Care System (NHCS). Additional mean yearly cost for worsening avoided with ziprasidone was 186 Pounds for the mean dose, ranging from -556 Pounds (savings) with the 80 mg/day dose and 1,014 Pounds with 160 mg/day, which was always lower than the minimum cost of a relapse (2,830 Pounds), considered as threshold value to establish cost-effectiveness of treatment with ziprasidone. Prevention of relapse of schizophrenia with long-term ziprasidone is cost-effective in comparison with the option of not treating. Treatment with ziprasidone avoids relapse episodes at a reasonable cost, generating savings for the NHCS.

  20. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westman Eric C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the unexpected resolution of longstanding schizophrenic symptoms after starting a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet. After a review of the literature, possible reasons for this include the metabolic consequences from the elimination of gluten from the diet, and the modulation of the disease of schizophrenia at the cellular level.

  1. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Effect of the adapted Virtual Reality cognitive training program among Chinese older adults with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher L F; Ngai, Elena K Y; Leung, Paul K H; Wong, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    To examine the effect of the adapted virtual reality cognitive training program in older adults with chronic schizophrenia. Older adults with chronic schizophrenia were recruited from a long-stay care setting and were randomly assigned into intervention (n = 12) and control group (n = 15). The intervention group received 10-session of VR program that consisted of 2 VR activities using IREX. The control group attended the usual programs in the setting. After the 10-session intervention, older adults with chronic schizophrenia preformed significantly better than control in overall cognitive function (p .000), and in two cognitive subscales: repetition (p .001) and memory (p .040). These participants engaged in the VR activities volitionally. No problem of cybersickness was observed. The results of the current study indicate that engaging in the adapted virtual reality cognitive training program offers the potential for significant gains in cognitive function of the older adults with chronic schizophrenia.

  3. A Placebo-Controlled Study of Raloxifene Added to Risperidone in Men with Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Khodaie-Ardakani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs such as raloxifene have already shown beneficial effects on negative, positive and general psychopathology symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of raloxifene as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of men with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, forty-six male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR, were randomized to either raloxifene (120 mg/day or placebo in addition to risperidone (6 mg/day for eight weeks. The assessment was performed using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS at baseline and week 8 were also used to assess extrapyramidal symptoms and depression simultaneously. Forty-two patients completed the trial. The raloxifene group showed significantly greater improvement on the negative subscale (P<0.001, the general psychopathology subscale (P=0.002 and total PANSS score (P<0.001 in comparison to the placebo group at the endpoint. There was no significant difference in the reduction of positive symptoms score between the two group (P=0.525. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale and Hamilton depression rating scale and frequency of other adverse effects were comparable between two groups.This study indicates raloxifene as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia in men.

  4. Using human brain imaging studies as a guide towards animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOLKAN, Scott S.; DE CARVALHO, Fernanda D.; KELLENDONK, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and poorly understood mental disorder that is presently defined solely by its behavioral symptoms. Advances in genetic, epidemiological and brain imaging techniques in the past half century, however, have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder. In spite of these advances clinical research remains limited in its power to establish the causal relationships that link etiology with pathophysiology and symptoms. In this context, animal models provide an important tool for causally testing hypotheses about biological processes postulated to be disrupted in the disorder. While animal models can exploit a variety of entry points towards the study of schizophrenia, here we describe an approach that seeks to closely approximate functional alterations observed with brain imaging techniques in patients. By modeling these intermediate pathophysiological alterations in animals, this approach offers an opportunity to (1) tightly link a single functional brain abnormality with its behavioral consequences, and (2) to determine whether a single pathophysiology can causally produce alterations in other brain areas that have been described in patients. In this review we first summarize a selection of well-replicated biological abnormalities described in the schizophrenia literature. We then provide examples of animal models that were studied in the context of patient imaging findings describing enhanced striatal dopamine D2 receptor function, alterations in thalamo-prefrontal circuit function, and metabolic hyperfunction of the hippocampus. Lastly, we discuss the implications of findings from these animal models for our present understanding of schizophrenia, and consider key unanswered questions for future research in animal models and human patients. PMID:26037801

  5. Self-esteem and relapse in schizophrenia: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Joanne C; Tarrier, Nicholas; Gregg, Lynsey; Barrowclough, Christine

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the association between an interview-based measure of self-esteem and subsequent clinical outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia. A cohort 5-year follow-up design with retrospective chart assessment of clinical outcomes was used. Relapse rates during 5 years were very high, with 92% of the sample relapsing. Self-esteem consisted of two dimensions, negative evaluation of self (NES) and positive evaluation of self (PES). Survival analysis indicated that high NES was significantly associated with shorter time to relapse; and PES, with longer survival time. The participants with high PES were three times more likely to have delayed relapse; no other covariates were significant. PES seemed to buffer the adverse effects of NES. The results indicate that social cognition in the form of self-evaluation may be implicated in clinical outcome and symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia.This study investigated the association between an interview-based measure of self-esteem and subsequent clinical outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia. A cohort 5-year follow-up design with retrospective chart assessment of clinical outcomes was used. Relapse rates during 5 years were very high, with 92% of the sample relapsing. Self-esteem consisted of two dimensions, negative evaluation of self (NES) and positive evaluation of self (PES). Survival analysis indicated that high NES was significantly associated with shorter time to relapse; and PES, with longer survival time. The participants with high PES were three times more likely to have delayed relapse; no other covariates were significant. PES seemed to buffer the adverse effects of NES. The results indicate that social cognition in the form of self-evaluation may be implicated in clinical outcome and symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia.

  6. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%), unemployed (70.3%) and male (65.1%). Nearly all participants (97.4%) expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p stigma score. Almost half of those who discontinued their treatment reported that they had done so because of perceived stigma. Those who had attempted suicide (45.3%) were more likely to have a high stigma score (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.11; p = 0.006). Over 60% of the variation in the experience of stigma was explained by four factors: social withdrawal (16.7%), perceived discrimination (14.1%), alienation (13.9%) and stereotype endorsement (12.7%). Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process. PMID:23272796

  7. PINEAL GLAND VOLUME IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Fatih Inci, Mehmet; Gökçe, Mustafa; Avni Fındıklı, Hüseyin; ALTUN, Hatice; Fatih Karaaslan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders have disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythm. Melatonin, which is secreted by the human pineal gland, plays an important role in sleep and circadian rhythm. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare pineal gland volumes in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively evaluated the pineal gland volumes of 80 cases, including 16 cases of unipolar de...

  8. Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Lahti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.

  9. Psychoeducation and compliance in the treatment of schizophrenia: results of the Munich Psychosis Information Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschel-Walz, Gabriele; Bäuml, Josef; Bender, Wolfram; Engel, Rolf R; Wagner, Michael; Kissling, Werner

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined whether psychoeducational groups for patients with schizophrenic disorders and for their families can reduce rehospitalization rates and improve compliance. 236 inpatients who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and who had regular contact with at least 1 relative or other key person were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions. In the intervention condition, patients and their relatives were encouraged to attend psychoeducational groups over a period of 4 to 5 months. The patients' and relatives' psychoeducational programs were separate, and each consisted of 8 sessions. Patients in the other treatment condition received routine care. Outcomes were compared over 12-month and 24-month follow-up periods. The study was conducted from 1990 to 1994. It was possible to significantly reduce the rehospitalization rate after 12 and 24 months in patients who attended psychoeducational groups compared with those receiving routine care (p psychoeducational groups showed better compliance than patients under routine care without psycho-education. The results suggest that a relatively brief intervention of 8 psychoeducational sessions with systematic family involvement in simultaneous groups can considerably improve the treatment of schizophrenia. Psychoeducation should be routinely offered to all patients with schizophrenia and their families.

  10. Adherence predicts symptomatic and psychosocial remission in schizophrenia: Naturalistic study of patient integration in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Herrera, Berta; García Dorado, Marta

    Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia attended in daily practice is an understudied aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between symptomatic and psychosocial remission and adherence to treatment in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study assessed symptomatic and psychosocial remission and community integration of 1,787 outpatients with schizophrenia attended in Spanish mental health services. Adherence to antipsychotic medication in the previous year was categorized as≥80% vs.<80%. Symptomatic remission was achieved in 28.5% of patients, and psychosocial remission in 26.1%. A total of 60.5% of patients were classified as adherent to antipsychotic treatment and 41% as adherent to non-pharmacological treatment. During the index visit, treatment was changed in 28.4% of patients, in 31.1% of them because of low adherence (8.8% of the total population). Adherent patients showed higher percentages of symptomatic and psychosocial remission than non-adherent patients (30.5 vs. 25.4%, P<.05; and 32 vs. 17%, P<.001, respectively). Only 3.5% of the patients showed an adequate level of community integration, which was also higher among adherent patients (73.0 vs. 60.1%, P<.05). Adherence to antipsychotic medication was associated with symptomatic and psychosocial remission as well as with community integration. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Using molecular imaging to understand early schizophrenia-related psychosis neurochemistry: a review of human studies.

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    Schifani, Christin; Hafizi, Sina; Da Silva, Tania; Watts, Jeremy Joseph; Khan, M Saad; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder generally preceded by a so-called prodromal phase, which is characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Advances in clinical research have enabled prospective identification of those individuals who are at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, with the power to predict psychosis onset within the near future. Changes in several brain neurochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the psychosis spectrum, including the dopaminergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic, glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and immunologic (i.e. glial activation) system and other promising future directions such as synaptic density, which are possible to quantify in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET). This paper aims to review in vivo PET studies in the mentioned systems in the early course of psychosis (i.e. CHR and first-episode psychosis (FEP)). The results of reviewed studies are promising; however, the current understanding of the underlying pathology of psychosis is still limited. Importantly, promising efforts involve the development of novel PET radiotracers targeting systems with growing interest in schizophrenia, like the nociceptive system and synaptic density.

  12. Clinical and neuropsychological features of violence in schizophrenia: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Ferrari, Clarissa; Picchioni, Marco; Candini, Valentina; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37). We then established the association between the clinical and neuropsychological factors that predicted violence over a 1year follow-up period. The results revealed that vSZ patients living in RFs were characterized by greater compulsory hospital admissions, higher anger and less negative symptoms as compared to nvSZ patients. vSZ patients performed better on executive and motor tasks than nvSZ; however, these differences appeared to be explained by the lower negative psychotic symptom in the vSZ group. Both groups were involved in episodes of violence during the follow-up period; among the two, the vSZ patients were more likely to be violent. Negative symptoms predicted less verbal aggression at 1year follow-up. Overall, these findings support a key role of negative rather than positive symptoms in driving violence risk among SZ patients living in RFs, in a manner that negative symptoms are linked to a lower risk of violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzodiazepine use and risk of mortality among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Phillips, Gary S; Hiance-Steelesmith, Danielle L; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Tam, Kwok; Lehrer, Douglas; Klein, Robert; Hurst, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association between benzodiazepine use alone or in combination with antipsychotics and risk of mortality in patients with schizophrenia. A retrospective longitudinal analysis was performed using Medicaid claims data merged with death certificate data for 18,953 patients (aged 18-58 years) with ICD-9-diagnosed schizophrenia followed from July 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality associated with benzodiazepine use; adjustment was made for a wide array of fixed and time-varying confounders, including demographics, psychiatric and medical comorbidities, and other psychotropic medications. Of the 18,953 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, 13,741 (72.5%) were not prescribed a benzodiazepine, 3,476 (18.3%) were prescribed benzodiazepines in the absence of antipsychotic medication, and 1,736 (9.2%) were prescribed benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics. Controlling for a wide array of demographic and clinical variables, the hazard of mortality was 208% higher for patients prescribed benzodiazepines without an antipsychotic (HR = 3.08; 95% CI, 2.63-3.61; P benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics (HR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15-1.91; P = .002). Benzodiazepine-prescribed patients were at greater risk of death by suicide and accidental poisoning as well as from natural causes. Benzodiazepine use is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with schizophrenia after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. Given unproven efficacy, physicians should exercise caution in prescribing benzodiazepines to schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. The association between Darier disease, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia revisited: a population-based family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Bergen, Sarah E; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Craddock, Nick; Östberg, Per; Lundström, Sebastian; Sjölander, Arvid; Nordlind, Klas; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 (ATP2A2) gene and previously reported to cosegregate with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in occasional pedigrees. It is, however, unknown whether these associations exist also in the general population, and the objective of this study was to examine this question. We compared a national sample of individuals with Darier disease and their first-degree relatives with matched unexposed individuals from the general population and their first-degree relatives, respectively. To examine risks for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. Individuals with Darier disease had a 4.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (95% CI: 2.6-7.3) and a 2.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia (95% CI: 1.1-5.2) than matched individuals from the general population. Relatives of individuals with Darier disease had a 1.6 times higher risk of having bipolar disorder (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) than relatives of matched individuals from the general population, but no increased risk of schizophrenia (risk ratio = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8). The association between Darier disease and bipolar disorder is manifest also in the population, and our data suggest that genetic variability within the ATP2A2 gene that causes Darier disease also confers susceptibility for bipolar disorder. The Darier-causing mutations merit additional attention in molecular genetic research on bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prediction of Quality of Life in Asian Patients with Schizophrenia: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study

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    Carol C. Choo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere has been a shift in mental health services from an emphasis on treatment focused on reducing symptoms to a more holistic approach involving quality of life (QOL and overall well-being. Many psychosocial variables are associated with QOL but a parsimonious framework is needed to deepen our understanding about the contribution of psychosocial factors in influencing the QOL of Asian patients with schizophrenia in Singapore. The study aimed to address the current gap in literature by analysis of QOL using available predictors in Asian patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.Methods43 Singaporean patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited at a large teaching hospital in Singapore from January to May 2010 and were invited to complete questionnaires. Of the sample, 65.1% were females, ages ranged from 18 to 65 (M = 44.60, SD = 12.19. Available variables were subjected to regression analysis.FindingsThe data were analyzed using SPSS Version 23 with the alpha level set at 0.05. The final model with five predictors was significant in predicting QOL. Positive Re-appraisal, Social Support, Avoidant Coping, Duration of Hospitalization, and Education accounted for 47.2% of the variance (Adjusted R2 = 40.0% in QOL, F (5, 37 = 6.60, p < 0.001. Those with post-secondary or higher education had higher QOL than those with secondary or lower education. Duration of hospitalization negatively predicted QOL.ConclusionThe findings were discussed in regards to clinical implications for informing interventions to enhance QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. A Serious Game to Improve Cognitive Functions in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabelle; Brénugat-Herné, Lindsay; Orriols, Eric; Desombre, Colombe; Dos Santos, Maxine; Prost, Zelda; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia impair everyday functioning and instrumental daily living activities. These disabilities can be partly responsible for chronicity and institutionalization. We present here a virtual reality (VR) tool in which patients with schizophrenia performed a virtual game in an imaginary town during a 3-month program. In a pilot study, seven patients with schizophrenia (DSM-5), institutionalized for many years, attended weekly 1-h-and-a-half sessions organized by two clinicians. During the first sessions, they listed together the difficulties they experienced in everyday organization and planning. After being familiarized with the joystick and the VR environment, they navigated in the town, and planned actions that were difficult for them to carry out in their usual life (e.g., shopping, memorizing the way to the supermarket or being on time at a meeting point). They had to look for alternative routes and practice a switch from a 2D Map to the 3D Map. They also gathered their efforts to share strategies for each action, or discussed the action plan they could generate to solve concrete problems. The pre/post-neuropsychological evaluations showed attention, working memory, prospective, and retrospective memory benefits, but no improvement in planning as assessed by the Zoo map test and the action program subtest of Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. Patients also clinically and functionally improved, gaining autonomy. Pragmatically, they reported a strong energy to elaborate concrete plans to search for jobs, or return to activities in the community. Qualitative assessments showed a benefit in sparing time, planning better, enriched relatedness, and better management of their housework. This VR game opens avenue to rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia experiencing chronicity in their life, less attendance in daycare units, and a better community living. This program might reduce neurocognitive difficulties and

  17. Disorganization at the stage of schizophrenia clinical outcome: Clinical-biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestsiarovich, A; Obyedkov, V; Kandratsenka, H; Siniauskaya, M; Goloenko, I; Waszkiewicz, N

    2017-05-01

    According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality. Neuropsychological tests included Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color-Word test. Neurophysiological examination included registration of P300 wave of the evoked cognitive auditory potentials. Environmental factors related to patient's education, family, surrounding and nicotine use, as well as subjectively significant traumatic events in childhood and adolescence were assessed. Using PCR we detected SNP of genes related to the systems of neurotransmission (COMT, SLC6A4 and DRD2), inflammatory response (IL6, TNF), cellular detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1), DNA methylation (MTHFR, DNMT3b, DNMT1). Disorganization is associated with early schizophrenia onset and history of psychosis in family, low level of insight and compliance, high risk of committing delicts, distraction errors in WCST, lengthened P300 latency of evoked cognitive auditory potentials, low-functional alleles of genes MTHFR (rs1801133) and DNMT3b (rs2424913), high level of urbanicity and psychotraumatic events at early age. Severe disorganization at the stage of schizophrenia clinical outcome is associated with the set of specific biological and social-psychological characteristics that indicate its epigenetic nature and maladaptive social significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A serious game to improve cognitive functions in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eAmado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia impair everyday functioning and instrumental daily living activities. These disabilities can be partly responsible for chronicity and institutionalization. We present here a virtual reality (VR tool in which patients with schizophrenia performed a virtual game in an imaginary town during a three-month program. In a pilot study, 7 patients with schizophrenia (DSM 5, institutionalized for many years, attended weekly one-hour- and-a-half sessions organized by two clinicians. During the first sessions they listed together the difficulties they experienced in everyday organization and planning. After being familiarized with the joystick and the VR environment, they navigated in the town, and planned actions that were difficult for them to carry out in their usual life (e.g., shopping, memorizing the way to the supermarket or being on time at a meeting point. They had to look for alternative routes and practice a switch from a 2D-Map to the 3D-Map. They also gathered their efforts to share strategies for each action, or discussed the action plan they could generate to solve concrete problems. The pre/post-neuropsychological evaluations showed attention, working memory, prospective and retrospective memory benefits, but no improvement in planning as assessed by the Zoo map test and the action program subtest of BADS. Patients also clinically and functionally improved, gaining autonomy. Pragmatically, they reported a strong energy to elaborate concrete plans to search for jobs, or return to activities in the community. Qualitative assessments showed a benefit in sparing time, planning better, enriched relatedness, better management of their housework. This VR game opens avenue to rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia experiencing chronicity in their life, less attendance in daycare units and a better community living. This program might reduce neurocognitive difficulties and might evolve into a true method

  19. Mirror neuron dysfunction and ego-boundary disturbances in schizophrenia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-01-01

    Ego-boundary disturbance (EBD) is a unique symptom cluster characterized by passivity experiences (involving thoughts, actions, emotions and sensations) attributed by patients to some external agency. The neurobiology of these "first rank" symptoms is poorly understood. Aberrant mirror neuron activation may explain impaired self-monitoring and agency attribution underlying these symptoms. We aim to study mirror neuron activity (MNA) in schizophrenia patients with and without EBD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). 50 right-handed schizophrenia patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were evaluated using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. They completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. Motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) with (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke MEP of motor threshold 1 mV amplitude (MT1), (c) two paired pulse paradigms (short- and long interval intra-cortical inhibition). These were done in three states: Actual observation of an action using the FDI, virtual-observation (video) of this action and resting state. The percent change of MEP from resting to action-observation states formed the measure of putative MNA. MNA measured using MT1 and 120% RMT paradigms was significantly lower in the 18 patients with EBD (thought-broadcast/withdrawal/insertion, made-act/impulse/affect and somatic passivity) than the 32 patients without EBD (t = 2.431, P = 0.020; t = 2.051, P = 0.04 respectively for the two paradigms). The two groups did not differ on age, gender, education and total symptom scores. Schizophrenia patients with EBD have lower premotor MNA. This highlights the role of MNA dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this unique and intriguing symptom cluster in schizophrenia.

  20. Predictors of family caregiver burden in schizophrenia: Study from an in-patient tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Aarti; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Hamza, Ameer; Nagendra, H R; Gangadhar, B N

    2014-04-01

    Family caregivers experience significant burden in taking care of their patients with schizophrenia. Research on predictors of caregiver burden in India, where families are the primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients, is lacking. To study the predictors of burden experienced by the family caregivers of first admission in-patient schizophrenia patients in India. Family caregivers of 137 schizophrenia patients admitted to an in-patient facility of a hospital in south India were interviewed using the Burden Assessment Schedule. The coping, knowledge about schizophrenia, perceived social support of the caregivers and illness severity, psychopathology and disability experienced by the patients were also assessed. Bivariate correlation and multivariate regression analysis were used to study the association of different factors on burden. Duration of illness and levels of psychopathology and disability had significant direct correlation with total burden score; perceived social support had significant inverse correlation with total burden score. There was a high correlation between psychopathology and disability (pburden in addition to psychopathology and disability. During the first hospitalization, in addition to symptom reduction and disability limitation, focus should be on enhancing social support in order to reduce caregiver burden among family members of schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Yokukansan (TJ-54) for treatment of very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Tsuyoshi; Wake, Rei; Furuya, Motohide; Liaury, Kristian; Ieda, Masa; Kawakami, Kazunori; Tsuchie, Keiko; Fukushima, Michiyo; Ishihara, Kotomi; Araki, Tomoko; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Horiguchi, Jun

    2013-05-15

    Although schizophrenia affects all age groups, late or very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis has not been well studied, and various treatment issues remain unresolved. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of yokukansan (TJ-54), Japanese herbal medicine, monotherapy in a diagnostically homogenous group of elderly patients without cognitive impairment suffering from very-late-onset schizophrenia. Forty patients of mean age 73.1±4.8 years, fulfilling both the recent consensus criteria for very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, were assessed by the brief psychiatric rating scale, the clinical global impression scale-severity, and positive and negative syndrome scale at baseline and after 4 weeks administration of TJ-54 (2.5-7.5 g/day). In addition, abnormal movements were evaluated with the Simpson-Angus scale, Barnes Akathisia scale, and abnormal involuntary movement scale. A highly significant (p54 was very well tolerated by the patients, and no clinically significant adverse effects were observed. Scores on all abnormal movement scales did not differ significantly prior to and after TJ-54 treatment. Preliminary results indicate that TJ-54 appears to be an efficacious and safe herbal medicine for treatment of very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Schizophrenia and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Akarsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors play an important role in the development of schizophrenia that the etiology is clearly not known. However, specific inheritance mechanism of this disorder is still unclear. Inheritance of schizophrenia is thought to be polygenic or multifactorial. In the recent studies, mitochondrial function and cerebral energy metabolism abnormalities have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits and behavioral abnormalities evident as typically found in the clinical course of schizophrenia may develop due to the affection of neuronal plasticity and brain circuits by impaired function of mitochondria. Some changes were found in patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects in the researches examining both brain and peripheral tissues. Also, it was seen that antipsychotics used in the treatment of schizophrenia might lead to a progressive reduction in oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria by inhibition of respiratory chain. Especially the findings of the peripheral tissues in patients with schizophrenia were considered to be used as a biological marker for schizophrenia in these studies. Changes in the mitochondria of platelets are considered as a peripheral model for the neurons because of the lack of the platelets' own DNA. These changes reflect the findings of the brain in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. At the present time, making the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on only clinical criteria reveal the necessity of finding peripheral biological marker for schizophrenia. Thus further systematic studies investigating the relationship between schizophrenia and changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain are required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 340-354

  3. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  4. Therapeutic alliance in early schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The therapeutic alliance is related to better course and outcome of treatment in schizophrenia. This study explores predictors and characteristics of the therapeutic alliance in recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders including the agreement between patient and therapist alliance ratings. Methods Forty-two patients were assessed with demographic, neurocognitive, and clinical measures including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The therapeutic alliance was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory - Short Form (WAI-S). Results Patient WAI-S total scores were predicted by age and PANSS excitative symptoms. Therapist WAI-S total scores were predicted by PANSS insight. Patient and therapist WAI-S total scores were moderately associated. Neurocognition was not associated with working alliance. Conclusion Working alliance is associated with specific demographic and symptom characteristics in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. There is moderate agreement between patients and therapists on the total quality of their working alliance. Findings highlight aspects that may increase therapists’ specificity in the use of alliance-enhancing strategies. PMID:23656747

  5. Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Annelien; Hansen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify consistent themes among the qualitative literature on stigma as experienced by patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care. With the treatment focus of schizophrenia nowadays shifting more and more towards community-based mental health care, professionals need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of their clients in their social environment as a result of stigma towards their disease. In-depth knowledge on stigma is critical in order to offer a dignifying community mental health care. A systematic search of the qualitative literature in Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and Francis was performed to review the subjective experiences and ideas on stigma in outpatients with schizophrenia. Three major themes were identified in 18 studies and need to be taken into consideration when implementing an adequate community mental health care: (i) the continuing existence of stigma inherent in the health care setting, (ii) the importance of relational aspects of stigma encounters in daily life and (iii) the significance of the behavioural aspects related to previous stigma experiences and beliefs among patients. Despite much effort in community treatment, patients still experience stigma and discrimination. Community mental health care professionals should not only be aware of structural problems in mental health care, but should also pay considerable attention towards the relational and behavioural aspects in their clients' life concerning stigma. Furthermore, they have the crucial role in the community to raise awareness about stigma in order to increase their clients' acceptance in society.

  6. Altered phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia: a phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Englisch, Susanne; Esser, Andrea; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ende, Gabriele; Zink, Mathias

    2013-12-30

    Phospholipid (PL) metabolism is investigated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Inconsistent alterations of phosphocholine (PC), phosphoethanolamine (PE), glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) have been described in schizophrenia, which might be overcome by specific editing techniques. The selective refocused insensitive nuclei-enhanced polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique was applied in a cross-sectional study involving 11 schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients (SZP) on stable antipsychotic monotherapy and 15 matched control subjects. Metabolite signals were found to be modulated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) content and gray matter/brain matter ratio. Corrected metabolite concentrations of PC, GPC and PE differed between patients and controls in both subcortical and cortical regions, whereas antipsychotic medication exerted only small effects. Significant correlations were found between the severity of clinical symptoms and the assessed signals. In particular, psychotic symptoms correlated with PC levels in the cerebral cortex, depression with PC levels in the cerebellum and executive functioning with GPC in the insular and temporal cortices. In conclusion, after controlling for age and tissue composition, this investigation revealed alterations of metabolite levels in SZP and correlations with clinical properties. RINEPT 31P MRS should also be applied to at-risk-mental-state patients as well as drug-naïve and chronically treated schizophrenic patients in order to enhance the understanding of longitudinal alterations of PL metabolism in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What can the study of first impressions tell us about attitudinal ambivalence and paranoia in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-04-30

    Although social cognition deficits have been associated with schizophrenia, social trait judgments - or first impressions - have rarely been studied. These first impressions, formed immediately after looking at a person's face, have significant social consequences. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects rated 30 neutral faces on 10 positive or negative traits: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. Compared to controls, patients gave higher ratings for positive traits as well as for negative traits. Patients also demonstrated more ambivalence in their ratings. Patients who were exhibiting paranoid symptoms assigned higher intensity ratings for positive social traits than non-paranoid patients. Social trait ratings were negatively correlated with everyday problem solving skills in patients. Although patients appeared to form impressions of others in a manner similar to controls, they tended to assign higher scores for both positive and negative traits. This may help explain the social deficits observed in schizophrenia: first impressions of higher degree are harder to correct, and ambivalent attitudes may impair the motivation to interact with others. Consistent with research on paranoia and self-esteem, actively-paranoid patients' positive social traits judgments were of higher intensity than non-paranoid patients'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maladaptive connectivity of Broca's area in schizophrenia during audiovisual speech perception: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, G R; Ye, Z; Mohammadi, B; Dillo, W; Te Wildt, B T; Samii, A; Frieling, H; Bleich, S; Münte, T F

    2013-12-03

    Speech comprehension relies on auditory as well as visual information, and is enhanced in healthy subjects, when audiovisual (AV) information is present. Patients with schizophrenia have been reported to have problems regarding this AV integration process, but little is known about which underlying neural processes are altered. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 15 schizophrenia patients (SP) and 15 healthy controls (HC) to study functional connectivity of Broca's area by means of a beta series correlation method during perception of audiovisually presented bisyllabic German nouns, in which audio and video either matched or did not match. Broca's area of SP showed stronger connectivity with supplementary motor cortex for incongruent trials whereas HC connectivity was stronger for congruent trials. The right posterior superior temporal sulcus (RpSTS) area showed differences in connectivity for congruent and incongruent trials in HC in contrast to SP where the connectivity was similar for both conditions. These smaller differences in connectivity in SP suggest a less adaptive processing of audiovisually congruent and incongruent speech. The findings imply that AV integration problems in schizophrenia are associated with maladaptive connectivity of Broca's and RpSTS area in particular when confronted with incongruent stimuli. Results are discussed in light of recent AV speech perception models. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral glucose utilization and platelet mitochondrial complex I activity in schizophrenia: A FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Bonne, Omer; Chisin, Roland; Klein, Ehud; Lester, Hava; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Yona, Ilan; Freedman, Nanette

    2007-05-09

    Altered cerebral energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in periphery and in brain are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study investigated whether cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) abnormalities are linked to altered mitochondrial complex I activity in the periphery, in schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 8 with total positive PANSS score >or=20 (high positive schizophrenics; HPS), and 8 with total positive score schizophrenia, could be a pathological factor that is differentially expressed in subgroups of schizophrenic patients.

  10. REAL NECESSITIES OF A CONTRACEPTION ALGORITHM IN CASES OF WOMEN SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA. SPECIAL NEEDS FOR FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Ciuhodaru

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has a devastating effect on patient lives all together with their families, changing dramatically the day by day life, affecting thinking, feelings, knowledge and modifying the patient’s ability to adapt to society – establishing “boundaries” and “stigma” cause of desasperation, confusion or other symptoms. Objectives: This study wanted to the established an algorithm that concerns contraceptive methods specifically made for schizophrenic female patients according to their needs and to reality in which they live. Material and method: the study included 6200 patients at reproductive age that had been hospitalized in Socola Psychiatric unit during 2005 - 2010 and have been investigated by inquiry about age, provenience, marital status, education, number of children, knowledge and attitudes towards methods of contraception failure. Results The majority of the ones that knew about the contraception were from the urban area, age 30-35 having medium education, in a relationship or married. Unfortunately the help providers tend to neglect this “delicate subject” the fertility of schizophrenic patients being a real problem not only for the health care specialist but also costing highly the social assistance, their families, and their own children. Conclusions. While the Royal College of Obstetricians from Great Britain affirms that as a criteria for medical eligibility in using contraception in female schizophrenic patients it can be used any method as there are no longer contraindications for each specific case and under a correct counseling the best way is to solve ethical problems offering those patients the right access to family planning

  11. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Sukhtej; Chavan, B S; Sidana, Ajeet; Kalra, Priyanka; Kaur, Gurjit

    2016-11-01

    Clozapine may be more useful in treatment-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia for better symptoms control and improving quality of life. The current study was carried out to compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode patients of schizophrenia. This was a comparative, open-label, six months prospective study of treatment-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia between the age group of 18 and 40 yr diagnosed as per the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria. A total of 63 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to clozapine group or risperidone group using computer-generated random number tables. Eight patients were lost to follow up. The dosages of the respective drugs were kept in therapeutic range of 200-600 mg/day and 4-8 mg/day orally for clozapine and risperidone, respectively. On general psychopathology score, after six months of intervention, clozapine led to 60.32 per cent mean reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia total score while risperidone led to 56.35 per cent mean reduction in PANSS total score, which meant more improvement with clozapine. Clozapine group was found to have significant improvement in quality of life (P = 0.04339). On Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effect Scale, clozapine was superior to risperidone. The most common side effects observed in clozapine group were oversedation (78.96%) and dizziness (55.23%), and in risperidone group, common side effects were rigidity (62.36%), sedation (38.69%), tremors (65.69%) and menstrual irregularities in 80.25 per cent of female patients. The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  12. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features...... of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations...... in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology...

  13. Schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in a patient with confirmed Huntington’s disease: A case report [Objawy psychotyczne sugerujące schizofrenię u pacjenta z potwierdzonym rozpoznaniem choroby Huntingtona – opis przypadku

    OpenAIRE

    Grabski, Bartosz; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Banaszkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a patient with a mutation in the gene responsible for the development of Huntington’s disease (HD) who presented schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Method. A case report. Results. A 35-year old man with genetically-confirmed HD who developed significant behavioural changes that occurred many years prior to the outbreak of choreic movements. There was a close temporal relationship between an onset of discrete...

  14. Glutamatergic and Neuronal Dysfunction in Gray and White Matter: A Spectroscopic Imaging Study in a Large Schizophrenia Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Juan R; Jones, Thomas; Chen, Hongji; Lemke, Nicholas; Abbott, Christopher; Qualls, Clifford; Stromberg, Shannon; Canive, Jose; Gasparovic, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), as well as N-acetylaspartate compounds (NAAc, N-acetylaspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate), a marker of neuronal viability, can be quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We used 1H-MRS imaging to assess Glx and NAAc, as well as total-choline (glycerophospho-choline plus phospho-choline), myo-inositol and total-creatine (creatine plus phosphocreatine) from an axial supraventricular slab of gray matter (GM, medial-frontal and medial-parietal) and white matter (WM, bilateral-frontal and bilateral-parietal) voxels. Schizophrenia subjects (N = 104) and healthy controls (N = 97) with a broad age range (16 to 65) were studied. In schizophrenia, Glx was increased in GM (P schizophrenia. In patients, total creatine decreased with age in WM (P schizophrenia group (NAAc, P schizophrenia. Later in the illness, disease progression is suggested by increased cortical compaction without neuronal loss (elevated NAAc) and reduced axonal integrity (lower NAAc). Furthermore, this process is associated with fundamentally altered relationships between neurometabolite concentrations and cognitive function in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. "Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Adam; Rofail, Diana; Tolley, Chloe; Marshall, Chris; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H; Berardo, Carmen Galani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding "caregiver burden" in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden.

  16. “Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life”: Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofail, Diana; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Zarit, Steven H.; Berardo, Carmen Galani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. As a disease typified by early onset and chronic disease course, caring for a person with schizophrenia may have a significant impact on caregivers' lives. This study aimed to investigate the subjective experiences of caregivers of people with schizophrenia as a means of understanding “caregiver burden” in this population. Methods. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 19 US-English speaking caregivers of people with schizophrenia (who were at least moderately ill). Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods and findings used to inform the development of a preliminary conceptual model outlining caregivers' experiences. Results. Findings support assertions that people with schizophrenia were largely dependent upon caregivers for the provision of care and caregivers subsequently reported lacking time for themselves and their other responsibilities (e.g., family and work). Caregiver burden frequently manifested as detriments in physical (e.g., fatigue, sickness) and emotional well-being (e.g., depression and anxiety). Conclusions. Caring for a person with schizophrenia has a significant impact on the lives of informal (unpaid) caregivers and alleviating caregiver burden is critical for managing individual and societal costs. Future research should concentrate on establishing reliable and valid means of assessing burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia to inform the development and evaluation of interventions for reducing this burden. PMID:24864209

  17. Mortality gap for people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: UK-based cohort study 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph F; Marston, Louise; Walters, Kate; King, Michael B; Osborn, David P J

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundBipolar disorder and schizophrenia are associated with increased mortality relative to the general population. There is an international emphasis on decreasing this excess mortality.AimsTo determine whether the mortality gap between individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and the general population has decreased.MethodA nationally representative cohort study using primary care electronic health records from 2000 to 2014, comparing all patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia and the general population. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality.ResultsIndividuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia had elevated mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.79, 95% CI 1.67-1.88 and 2.08, 95% CI 1.98-2.19 respectively). Adjusted HRs for bipolar disorder increased by 0.14/year (95% CI 0.10-0.19) from 2006 to 2014. The adjusted HRs for schizophrenia increased gradually from 2004 to 2010 (0.11/year, 95% CI 0.04-0.17) and rapidly after 2010 (0.34/year, 95% CI 0.18-0.49).ConclusionsThe mortality gap between individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and the general population is widening. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  18. A cross-sectional study on perception of stigma by Chinese schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren ZB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhibin Ren, Heqiu Wang, Bin Feng, Chenyu Gu, Yongchun Ma, Hong Chen, Bingling Li, Lanying LiuDepartment of Psychiatry, Tongde Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: In this cross-sectional study, we sought to assess the extent of internalized stigma among inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China and to investigate whether education level correlated with the experience of stigma.Methods: Schizophrenia patients were evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S scale and the Stigma Scale for Mental Illness (SSMI-C. Patients were categorized into high education and low education groups, according to their educational levels.Results: One hundred thirty-three subjects were included in the study. Their mean course of illness was 4.32±6.14 years (range: 1 month to 15 years. Their mean BPRS score was 19.87±5.46, their mean PANSS score was 44.11±13.1, and their mean CGI-S score was 2.22±0.81. In addition, their mean SSMI-C score was 6.49±0.9. The mean SSMI-C score of patients who have received high school education or above was 7.15±0.98, which was markedly higher than that of patients who have received middle school education or below, which was 5.75±0.79 (P<0.05. Before the study most patients (92.5%, 123/133 took atypical drugs.Conclusion: Education level impacts on the perception of stigma by schizophrenia patients, and more psychoeducation should be undertaken to improve patients' knowledge about schizophrenia.Keywords: schizophrenia, stigma, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S scale, Stigma Scale for Mental Illness (SSMI-C

  19. Characterizing Smartphone Engagement for Schizophrenia: Results of a Naturalist Mobile Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Staples, Patrick; Slaters, Linda; Adams, Jared; Sandoval, Luis; Onnela, J P; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2017-08-04

    Despite growing interest in smartphone apps for schizophrenia, little is known about how these apps are utilized in the real world. Understanding how app users are engaging with these tools outside of the confines of traditional clinical studies offers an important information on who is most likely to use apps and what type of data they are willing to share. The Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America, in partnership with Self Care Catalyst, has created a smartphone app for schizophrenia that is free and publically available on both Apple iTunes and Google Android Play stores. We analyzed user engagement data from this app across its medication tracking, mood tracking, and symptom tracking features from August 16(th) 2015 to January 1(st) 2017 using the R programming language. We included all registered app users in our analysis with reported ages less than 100. We analyzed a total of 43,451 mood, medication and symptom entries from 622 registered users, and excluded a single patient with a reported age of 114. Seventy one percent of the 622 users tried the mood-tracking feature at least once, 49% the symptom tracking feature, and 36% the medication-tracking feature. The mean number of uses of the mood feature was two, the symptom feature 10, and the medication feature 14. However, a small subset of users were very engaged with the app and the top 10 users for each feature accounted for 35% or greater of all entries for that feature. We find that user engagement follows a power law distribution for each feature, and this fit was largely invariant when stratifying for age or gender. Engagement with this app for schizophrenia was overall low, but similar to prior naturalistic studies for mental health app use in other diseases. The low rate of engagement in naturalistic settings, compared to higher rates of use in clinical studies, suggests the importance of clinical involvement as one factor in driving engagement for mental health apps. Power law

  20. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Benros, Michael Erickson; Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    ...: Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician's monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse...

  1. White matter changes in early phase schizophrenia and cannabis use: an update and systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookey, Jacob; Bernier, Denise; Tibbo, Philip G

    2014-07-01

    The impact of cannabis use on the brain tissue is still unclear, both in the healthy developing brain and in people with schizophrenia. The focus of this review is on white matter, the primary connective infrastructure of the brain. We systematically reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of early phase schizophrenia (illness effect), of cannabis use in otherwise healthy brains (drug effect), and of early phase schizophrenia with cannabis use (combined effects). Studies had to include a healthy, non-cannabis using, control group as well as report on fractional anisotropy as it is the most commonly used DTI index. We excluded cohorts with heavy alcohol or illicit drug use and studies with a sample size of less than 20 in the clinical group. We retained 17 studies of early phase schizophrenia, which together indicate deficits in white matter integrity observed in all fiber tract families, but most frequently in association, callosal and projection fibers. In otherwise healthy cannabis users (2 studies), deficits in white matter tracts were reported mainly in callosal fibers, but also in projection and limbic fibers. In cannabis users with early phase schizophrenia (1 study), deficits in white matter integrity were also observed in all fiber tract families, except for limbic fibers. The current literature points to several families of white matter tracts being differentially affected in early phase schizophrenia. Further work is required to reveal the impact of cannabis use in otherwise healthy people as well as those with schizophrenia. Paucity of available studies as well as restricting analysis to FA values represent the main limitations of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Windows to the soul: vision science as a tool for studying biological mechanisms of information processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A

    2013-10-31

    Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.

  3. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  4. Genome-wide association study of borderline personality disorder reveals genetic overlap with bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, S H; Streit, F; Jungkunz, M

    2017-01-01

    overlap between BIP, major depression (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and a high comorbidity of BOR and MDD, we also analyzed the genetic overlap of BOR with SCZ and MDD. GWAS, gene-based tests and gene-set analyses were performed in 998 BOR patients and 1545 controls. Linkage disequilibrium score......Borderline personality disorder (BOR) is determined by environmental and genetic factors, and characterized by affective instability and impulsivity, diagnostic symptoms also observed in manic phases of bipolar disorder (BIP). Up to 20% of BIP patients show comorbidity with BOR. This report...... describes the first case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BOR, performed in one of the largest BOR patient samples worldwide. The focus of our analysis was (i) to detect genes and gene sets involved in BOR and (ii) to investigate the genetic overlap with BIP. As there is considerable genetic...

  5. Cracking the Case (Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Sabrina

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how technical communicators can get their clients to participate in case studies (for use in marketing the technical communicator's services) by analyzing the case study strategy, selecting appropriate clients, understanding their concerns, and developing a professional presentation. (RS)

  6. Psychopathology of the bodily self and the brain: the case of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Ferri, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we review the recent empirical evidence on the neurobiological basis of a minimal notion of the self, the bodily self. We show the relationship between the body, its motor potentialities and the notion of minimal self. We argue that this approach can shed new light onto self-disturbances and social deficits characterizing schizophrenia. We discuss our approach with other views on the neural correlates of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and propose that cognitive neuroscience can today address the classical topics of psychopathology by adding a new level of description, finally enabling the correlation between the first-person experiential aspects of psychiatric diseases and their neurobiological roots. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Schizophrenia-like psychosis and dandy-walker variant comorbidity: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt Zincir, Selma; Kıvılcım, Yiğit; Izci, Filiz; Semiz, Umit Basar

    2014-01-01

    Dandy-Walker variant is a developmental malformation consisting of cerebellar hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Previous research has proposed a possible role for the cerebellum in cognition and in schizophrenia. In this paper we report a schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder in a 30 year-old woman with Dandy-Walker variant. The patient was treated with risperidone 6 mg/day, biperiden 4 mg/day and risperidone depot 50 mg injections fortnightly, and most of the symptoms were ameliorated within 2 months. The similar cognitive profile to populations with cerebellar pathology and rarity of the condition strongly suggests that there may be direct relationship between cerebellar pathology and appearence of psychotic symptoms.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Clinical and Biological Contributions to a Relation Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapopart, Judith; Chavez, Alex; Greenstein, Deanna; Addington, Anjene; Gogtay, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Clinical, demographic, and brain development data on childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and family, imaging and genetic data from studies of autism were reviewed. It is found that COS is preceded by and comorbid with autism/pervasive developmental disorder and schizophrenia in 30 to 50 percent of cases based on two large studies.

  9. Blonanserin-induced Mood Alteration in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Aran; Kim, Daeho

    2013-01-01

    We report two outpatients, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder, who developed manic or hypomanic episodes following the initiation of blonanserin during the course of treatment. Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic that acts as a 5-HT and D2 receptor antagonist. Both patients developed hypomanic episodes within 2 weeks of receiving a small dose (6-8 mg) of blonanserin, and one patient later developed full-blown mania; both episodes ended within 1 month of discontinuin...

  10. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  11. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  12. Polygenic dissection of diagnosis and clinical dimensions of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ripke, Stephan; McQuillin, Andrew; Amdur, Richard L.; Gejman, Pablo V.; O’Donovan, Michael C; Andreassen, Ole A; Djurovic, Srdjan; Hultman, Christina M.; Kelsoe, John R; Jamain, Stephane; Landén, Mikael; Leboyer, Marion; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are two often severe disorders with high heritabilities. Recent studies have demonstrated a large overlap of genetic risk loci between these disorders but diagnostic and molecular distinctions still remain. Here, we perform a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 19 779 bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SCZ) cases versus 19 423 controls, in addition to a direct comparison GWAS of 7129 SCZ cases versus 9252 BP cases. In our case...

  13. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual