Damian O. ELIAS, Andrew C. MASON, Eileen A. HEBETS
Full Text Available The environment can impose strong limitations on the efficacy of signal transmission. In particular, for vibratory communication, the signaling environment is often extremely heterogeneous at very small scales. Nevertheless, natural selection is expected to select for signals well-suited to effective transmission. Here, we test for substrate-dependent signal efficacy in the wolf spider Schizocosa stridulans Stratton 1991. We first explore the transmission characteristics of this important signaling modality by playing recorded substrate-borne signals through three different substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and red clay and measuring the propagated signal. We found that the substrate-borne signal of S. stridulans attenuates the least on leaf litter, the substrate upon which the species is naturally found. Next, by assessing mating success with artificially muted and non-muted males across different signaling substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and sand, we explored the relationship between substrate-borne signaling and substrate for mating success. We found that muted males were unsuccessful in obtaining copulations regardless of substrate, while mating success was dependent on the signaling substrate for non-muted males. For non-muted males, more males copulated on leaf litter than any other substrate. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of substrate-borne signaling in S. stridulans and suggest a match between signal properties and signal efficacy – leaf litter transmits the signal most effectively and males are most successful in obtaining copulations on leaf litter [Current Zoology 56 (3: 370–378, 2010].
Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance
The newly developed Yeh-Stratton (Y-S) Strength Criterion was used to study the failure of composite materials with central holes and normal cracks. To evaluate the interaction parameters for the Y-S failure theory, it is necessary to perform several biaxial loading tests. However, it is indisputable that the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials have made their own contribution to the complication of the biaxial testing problem. To avoid the difficulties of performing many biaxial tests and still consider the effects of the interaction term in the Y-S Criterion, a simple modification of the Y-S Criterion was developed. The preliminary predictions by the modified Y-S Criterion were relatively conservative compared to the testing data. Thus, the modified Y-S Criterion could be used as a design tool. To further understand the composite failure problem, an investigation of the damage zone in front of the crack tip coupled with the Y-S Criterion is imperative.
Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)
The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is
Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu
We present a new method of analyzing borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) survey data based on redatuming of the observed data from receivers distributed over the surface of the earth onto virtual receivers located within the subsurface. The virtual receivers can be placed close to the target...... studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....
Psychology graduate students experience unique stressors resulting from academic tasks and regular exposure to emotional distress (Stratton, Kellaway, & Rottini, 2007). Pervasive stress may eventually lead to burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1986). Burnout impinges on academic…
Full Text Available A review of Laurie Stras (ed., She’s So Fine: Reflections on Whiteness, Femininity, Adolescence and Class in 1960s Music and Andy Bennett and Jon Stratton (eds, Britpop and the English Music Tradition.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2001, developmental abnormalities and low productivity were reported in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from three islands on the Maine coast - Stratton...
Thomson, Rebecca N.; Carlson, John S.
Social-emotional skills are equally as crucial for school success as cognitive and academic skills (Webster-Stratton and Reid in "Infants and Young Children" 17:96-113, 2004), yet many young children lack these skills (Lavigne et al. in "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" 35:204-214, 1996).…
ellipsoidal solutions in the problems of electromagnetism , can be found in the works of Stratton,3 Landau and Lifshitz,4 and Akhiezer et al.5 Fig...applied external electromagnetic fields. Even in the static regimes, they demonstrate a variety of qualitative and quantitative transformations often... problems numerically. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ellipsoidal solutions, equilibrium shapes, Maxwell stress tensor, thermodynamics, variational computational
J A Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1941. . R F Harrington, Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, Mc-Graw Hill,. 1961. . W K H Panofsky and M Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism,. Reading, Addison-Wesley, MA, 1955. . S Ramo, J Whinnery and T Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in ...
Hyle, Tom Fennell, Duane Gilmour, Joyce Jecen, Jim Ryan, Dr. Roy Stratton, Dr. Warren Debany, Dan Fayette, and Chuck Messenger. We also thank typists...Reliability, Wiley (1965). Bazovsky, I., Reliability Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall (1961). Billinton , R. and Allan, R., Reliability Evaluation of
Classen, Audra; Cheatham, Gregory A.
Many children in preschool need support developing appropriate social-emotional competencies. Supportive early educators build confidence in young children to express and regulate emotions, develop solutions to problems, interact with peers, and persist when faced with challenges (Denham, 2006; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2004). This article…
Jacobs, Clinton O.
The report is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 instructional units developed around the use of the Briggs-Stratton Model 80302, 3HP, 8 cu. in. displacement engine having a fuel induction system similar in construction to farm tractor types. The evaluation procedure used was the "one-group Pre-test and Post-test" research method. The…
Davenport, Jody K.
This study sought to corroborate or contest the picture that has been painted detailing the Millennial generation's learning preferences as described in scholarly literature. Millennial students are defined as individuals born between 1982 and 2002 (Elam, Stratton, & Gibson, "Journal of College Admission", 2007). Two student focus groups and 1…
Narita, João Paulo Z; Pédelabat, Marie; De Moraes, Gilberto J
Neocypholaelaps kreiteri n. sp. is described based on the morphology of adult females, males, deutonymphs, protonymphs and larvae collected on inflorescences of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. This is the first species of Neocypholaelaps reported from that island. It is most similar to N. cocos Evans, 1963 and N. stridulans Evans, 1955. A discussion is presented about the presence of cheliceral lobes and the absence of pilus dentilis on the fixed cheliceral digit of ameroseiid species, relating that to what has been reported for the Melicharidae and the Phytoseiidae. A discussion is also presented about the identity of a pore-like structure positioned anteriad of the genital lyrifissures (iv5) in many ameroseiids. These are interpreted as being a pore that in many ameroseiids and in other Gamasina are often indistinctly and located close to the posteromesad margin of coxae IV, on the posterior end of the exopodal shield.
Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1,2 Mena Raouf,3 Erica L Wegrzyn4 1REMITIGATE, LLC, 2Stratton Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Albany, NY, 3Veteran Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Alvin C York Campus, Murfreesboro, TN, 4Stratton Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Albany, NY, USAExtended-release (ER or long-acting (LA opioids are increasingly used for management of chronic pain. Approximately 3.8 million patients receive prescriptions for ER/ LA opioids in the US.1 The number of prescriptions dispensed for ER/LA has more than doubled over the past decade, increasing from 9.3 million in 2000 to 22.9 million in 2009. Consequently, in 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA developed a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for ER/LA opioids.2
Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.
The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.
and Jone Geimer-Flanders1, 2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, 1 Jarrett White Road, Honolulu, HI 96819, USA 2Department...of Cardiology, Tripler Army Medical Center, 1 Jarrett White Road, Honolulu, HI 96819, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Amy Stratton...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Tripler Army Medical Center,Department of Internal Medicine,1 Jarrett White Road,Honolulu,HI,96819 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
8217° r- .no enstiv . tmd mna 4.......o 4de......ous UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered)_ READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT...1982). However, the problem with physical activity is quantification. Physical fitness can be measured through maximal oxygen intake tests but...Diagnosis and Therapy . New York: Grune and Stratton, 1977, pp. 71-78. Gordon, David J., Joseph L. Witztum, Donald Hunninghake, Sherry Gates, and
diabetics are classified as type 2 diabetes, characterised by insulin resistance ... dependent blood flow as a result of oxidative stress(9). Long-term .... and aging. Annw. Rev. Med. 1995; 46:223-234,. Davis M.E.T., Stratton, I.M., Fox, L.C., Holman, R.R.. UKPDS 22. Effect of age at diagnosis on diabetic tissue damage during ...
cross- disciplinary meanderings and reminding me about the relevance of what I was attempting to national security policies and strategies . I would...20 H. Stratton in Arendt Lipjhart,” The Comparable-Cases Strategy in Comparative Research,” Comparative...church may be issued. In 1997, the Coptic publicist Milad Hanna complained that “we live in a fundamentalist country, like Iran or Saudi Arabia,” and
ECE Department 2. Sara Stratton, Undergraduate Student, ECE Department The following Individuals at AFRL were associated with this project but not...subject of a future paper. 6. ACKNOWLEDMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Robert Mack of AFRL/SNJT for collaboration on and continued use of...authors would like to acknowledge Robert Mack of AFRL/SNJT for collaboration on and continued use of the cryogenically cooled camera. J. S. Tyo and J
Abdulqader, E. A. A.
Tubli Bay and shallow areas south of 'Fasht Al-Adhom' are known for their importance to Bahrain penaeid shrimps. The role of these shallow waters in the Bahrain penaeid shrimp life cycle was studied in Tubli Bay. Plankton, beam and otter trawl samples were collected on a biweekly basis from May 1991 to June 1992. Otter trawl sampling was extended to June 1993. Four penaeid species were found in the area. Ranked by decreasing abundance, these species are Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan 1844, Metapenaeus stebbingi Nobili 1904, M. kutchensisGeorge, George & Rao, 1963, and P. latisulcatus Kishinouye 1896. The presence of two egg types in the plankton collection, and mature females of both M. stebbingi and M. kutchensis indicate that both species spawned in these shallow waters. Tubli Bay is an important nursery ground for both P. semisulcatus and M. stebbingi. However, this bay does not support the entire stock of P. semisulcatus. Post-spawning return migration to shallow waters is noted for P. semisulcatus. Tubli Bay is of minor importance as a nursery ground for both P. latisulcatus and M. kutchensis. Other penaeid species found in Bahrain waters are not dependent on Tubli Bay during their life cycles. These species include, Trachypenaeus curvirostris Stimpson (1860), Metapenaeopsis stridulans Alcock (1905), and M. mogiensis Rathbun (1902).
María A. Chemisquy
Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies of the family Lycosidae (Arachnida: Araneae are scarce. Less than 4% of the described species have been analyzed and the male haploid chromosome numbers ranged from 8+X 1 X 2 to 13+X 1 X 2 . Species formerly classified as Lycosa were the most studied ones. Our aim in this work was to perform a comparative analysis of the meiosis in " Lycosa " erythrognatha Lucas, " Lycosa " pampeana Holmberg and Schizocosa malitiosa (Tullgren. We also compared male and female karyotypes and characterized the heterochromatin of " L. " erythrognatha . The males of the three species had 2n = 22, n = 10+X 1 X 2 , all the chromosomes were telocentric and there was generally a single chiasma per bivalent. In " Lycosa " pampeana , which is described cytogenetically for the first time herein, the bivalents and sex chromosomes showed a clustered arrangement at prometaphase I. The comparison of the male/female karyotypes (2n = 22/24 of " Lycosa " erythrognatha revealed that the sex chromosomes were the largest of the complement and that the autosomes decreased gradually in size. The analysis of the amount, composition and distribution of heterochromatin with C-banding and staining with DAPI- and CMA 3 - showed that " Lycosa " erythrognatha had little GC-rich heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. In addition, the actual occurrence of the genus Lycosa in the Southern Hemisphere is discussed.
The wolf spider, Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz), varies foraging patch residence time in the presence of different sensory cues from prey, even without food rewards. This study examines the influence and interaction of hunger state, age and sex on the use of different types of sensory information to determine foraging patch sampling duration. In a series of two-chambered artificial foraging patches, I tested 26 S. ocreata once as immatures, and again as adults, under two hunger states (satiated and 7 days without food). Patches varied in the type of sensory information provided by live prey (crickets) as follows: visual cues alone; vibratory cues alone; combined visual/vibratory cues; and control (no prey). Without feeding in patches, the type of sensory stimuli available from prey strongly affected patch residence time, with spiders using primarily visual rather than vibratory cues. Hunger level as a main effect had no influence on residence time, but hunger state did mediate the importance of visual or vibratory information. Significant age- and sex-related differences in patch residence time in the presence of different sensory cues were found.These data suggest that ontogenetic and sex-specific foraging strategies are influenced by use of prefeeding perceptual cues rather than hunger state in wolf spiders. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
Coller, Barry S
This year we celebrate Blood's 70th year of publication. Created from the partnership of the book publisher Henry M. Stratton and the prominent hematologist Dr William Dameshek of Tufts School of Medicine, Blood has published many papers describing major advances in the science and clinical practice of hematology. Blood's founding antedated that of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) by more than 11 years and Stratton and Dameshek helped galvanize support for the creation of ASH. In this review, I place the birth of Blood in the context of the history of hematology before 1946, emphasizing the American experience from which it emerged, and focusing on research conducted during World War II. I also provide a few milestones along Blood's 70 years of publication, including: the growth in Blood's publications, the evolution of its appearance, the countries of submission of Blood papers, current subscriptions to Blood, and the evolution of topics reported in Blood's papers. The latter provides a snapshot of the evolution of hematology as a scientific and clinical discipline and the introduction of new technology to study blood and bone marrow. Detailed descriptions of the landmark discoveries reported in Blood will appear in later papers celebrating Blood's birthday authored by past Editors-in-Chief. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Ciracì, Cristian; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Smith, David R
Axisymmetric radiating and scattering structures whose rotational invariance is broken by non-axisymmetric excitations present an important class of problems in electromagnetics. For such problems, a cylindrical wave decomposition formalism can be used to efficiently obtain numerical solutions to the full-wave frequency-domain problem. Often, the far-field, or Fraunhofer region is of particular interest in scattering cross-section and radiation pattern calculations; yet, it is usually impractical to compute full-wave solutions for this region. Here, we propose a generalization of the Stratton-Chu far-field integral adapted for 2.5D formalism. The integration over a closed, axially symmetric surface is analytically reduced to a line integral on a meridional plane. We benchmark this computational technique by comparing it with analytical Mie solutions for a plasmonic nanoparticle, and apply it to the design of a three-dimensional polarization-insensitive cloak.
Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael
The method of redatuming the controlled-source electromagnetic data was introduced in Zhdanov and Cai (2012). The approach is based on a Stratton-Chu type integral and the Lorentz lemma to relate observed EM data on the earth’s surface to EM data on some horizontal plane P located underground....... This upward continuation problem is always well posed. By doing this, we can place more virtual receivers at the earth’s surface and within a much larger area. Compared to traditional interpolation and extrapolation techniques such as polynomial fitting or spline approximation, our method takes into account...... the physics of the EM field, which makes the redatuming more accurate than simple mathematical transformation. In this paper, we illustrate this method by redatuming of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data at the Kevin Dome exploration site....
Darling, B. T.; Imbeau, J. A.
For stationary solutions of Maxwell's equations in the interior of a closed surface, two new vectorial integral equations are derived. They consist of integrals over the surface that the values of the fields on the surface must satisfy. These integral equations have two advantages over integral equations with singular kernels obtained by taking the limiting form of the equations of Stratton and Chu as the point of observation approaches the surface. In the present integral equations the kernel is regular, and the point of observation may be taken anywhere inside, outside, or on the surface. The new method of solution of Maxwell's equations for boundary value problems independent of time which is proposed is analogous to that which was proposed previously for the boundary value problem of Helmholtz's equation.
Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1,2,3 Timothy J Atkinson,4 Mena Raouf,4 Michael E Schatman51Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 2Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 3Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate LLC, Delmar, NY, USA; 4VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Murfreesboro, Nashville, TN, USA; 5US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USASnyder et al recently published a review in American Family Physician titled, “Treating Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Update”, which provided an overview of pharmacologic treatment options for providers; however, some of the recommendations made by the authors were concerning.1 Recommendations that caught our attention included statements around pregabalin adjustment for renal impairment, using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, classification of tramadol, tapentadol, and oxycodone in DPN.
Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1 Jacqueline Pratt Cleary,2 Michael E Schatman31Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, 2Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, 3US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USAWith the opioid-misuse and -abuse problem on the rise, pain practitioners and lawmakers are scrambling for strategies to help mitigate opioid risks. Approaches include opioid-treatment agreements, urine drug testing, prescription-monitoring programs, assorted validated risk-assessment tools for abuse/misuse and opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD, biopsychosocial support, and other strategies.1–3 Nonopioid pain therapies should be considered and maximized prior to initiating opioid treatment; however, in some cases opioids are the optimal choice for both noncancer and cancer-related pain syndromes.4
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to compare the health-related effectiveness of various types of physical education lessons on the cardio-respiratory system. The research was carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 in two junior high schools in Poznań. There were four types of classes examined: outdoor athletics, volleyball, basketball and fun games, each type lasting 45 minutes. Heart rates of two randomly selected pupils aged 15–16 were recorded during class, with the use of Polar heart rate monitors. According to the findings of a cross-national study, Polish youth do not have enough moderate-to-vigorous activity on a daily basis (Cabak & Woynarowska, 2004. In our research the most effective in stimulating cardio-respiratory fitness appeared to be outdoor athletics classes in boys and girls, and basketball in boys. Our data support the earlier findings of other studies (Stratton, 1997; Fairclough & Stratton, 2005. Cílem průzkumu bylo srovnání zdravotní účinnosti různých typů hodin tělesné výchovy na kardio-respirační ústrojí. Průzkum byl prováděn v letech 2002 a 2003 na nižším stupni středních škol v Poznani. Zkoumány byly čtyři typy hodin: atletika, volejbal, basketbal a pohybové hry, přičemž každý typ měl trvání 45 minut. V průběhu hodiny byla u dvou náhodně zvolených 15–16letých žáků měřena srdeční frekvence, a to pomocí monitorů srdeční frekvence Polar. Podle výsledků celonárodního výzkumu nemá polská mládež dostatek každodenní střední až intenzivní aktivity (Cabak & Woynarowska, 2004. V našem průzkumu se hodiny atletiky, v případě chlapců a dívek, a basketbalu, v případě chlapců, jevily jako hodiny nejúčinněji stimulující kardio-respirační zdatnost. Naše údaje potvrzují dřívější výsledky jiných průzkumů (Stratton, 1997; Fairclough & Stratton, 2005.
Full Text Available Mena Raouf,1 Timothy J Atkinson,1 Meredith W Crumb,1 Jeffrey Fudin2–5 1VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Murfreesboro, Nashville, TN, 2Stratton VA Medical Center, 3Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, 4Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, 5Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate LLC, Delmar, NY, USA IntroductionRenal dose adjustments for gabapentin and pregabalin are ubiquitously evident in the medical literature. All manufacturers for these branded and generic dosage forms list dosing recommendations relative to creatinine clearance (CrCl for both medications (Table 1.1,2 However, the basis of these recommendations has not been well articulated.
Kaehler, Laura A; Jacobs, Mary; Jones, Deborah J
(IY; (Webster-Stratton in Behav Ther 12:634-642, 1981. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(81)80135-9; Webster-Stratton in J Pediatr Psychol 7:279-294, 1982. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/7.3.279; Webster-Stratton in The incredible years: parents and children series. Leader's guide: preschool version of BASIC (ages 3-6 years, The Incredible Years, Seattle, 2008). Our goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of the evidence base for the Hanf-Model programs, rather our intention is to provide a template of sorts from which agencies and clinicians can make informed choices about how and why they are using one program versus another, as well as how to make inform flexible use one program or combination of practice elements across programs, to best meet the needs of child clients and their families. Clinical implications and directions for future work are discussed.
Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1–4 Mena Raouf,2 Erica L Wegrzyn,2–4 Michael E Schatman5,61Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate, LLC, Delmar, NY, USA; 2Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 3Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, USA; 4Albany College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 5Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USA; 6Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USAMorphine milligram equivalence (MME and other comparable acronyms have been employed in federal pain guidelines and used by policy makers to limit opioid prescribing.1–5 On March 18, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC released its Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain.1 The guidelines provided 12 recommendations for “primary care clinicians prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care”. One of the CDC recommendations states that clinicians “should avoid increasing dosage to ≥90 MME/day or carefully justify a decision to titrate dosage to ≥90 MME/day”.1
Competence to practise in the perioperative environment requires specialist knowledge (Gillespie and Hamlin, 2009). Newly qualified staff in this environment can experience difficulty in making the transition into practice (Stratton, 2011) and often feel overwhelmed by the skills required (Callaghan, 2010). Simulation-based learning techniques are increasingly used by practice educators specifically within these environments (Cato and Murray, 2010) to aid with acquisition of skills, emergency care delivery, general post-registration development and also as a standardised indicator of 'competence' (Bullock et al, 2008; Cato and Murray, 2010). This article will consider the impact of this educational strategy on the learner's lifelong development following registration, and its position in relation to the widely accepted learning paradigms of Benner's 'Novice to Expert' and Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs'. Through discussion of the nature of education in the practice setting, the reader will be prompted to reconsider the actual value of simulation-based learning in the post-registration arena and how this may be used to redefine simulation in the clinical setting.
Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.
On May 25, 2014, a rain-on-snow induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek Valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado. The avalanche traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing 3 people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous U.S. because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and long travel distance. To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we mapped landslide structures, geology, and ponds at 1:1000-scale. We used high-resolution, Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) imagery from July 2014 as a base for our field mapping. Here we present the map data and UAS imagery. The data accompany an interpretive paper published in the journal Geosphere. The full citation for this interpretive journal paper is: Coe, J.A., Baum, R.L., Allstadt, K.E., Kochevar, B.F., Schmitt, R.G., Morgan, M.L., White, J.L., Stratton, B.T., Hayashi, T.A., and Kean, J.W., 2016, Rock avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek Valley, western Colorado: Geosphere, v. 12, no. 2, p. 607-631, doi:10.1130/GES01265.1.
Mendez, Carlos E; Ata, Ashar; Rourke, Joanne M; Stain, Steven C; Umpierrez, Guillermo
Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and overall costs of care in hospitalized patients. At the Stratton VA Medical Center in Albany, New York, a process aimed to improve inpatient glycemic control by remotely assisting primary care teams in the management of hyperglycemia and diabetes was designed. An electronic query comprised of hospitalized patients with glucose values 350 mg/dL is generated daily. Electronic medical records (EMRs) are individually reviewed by diabetes specialist providers, and management recommendations are sent to primary care teams when applicable. Glucose data was retrospectively examined before and after the establishment of the daily inpatient glycemic survey (DINGS) process, and rates of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were compared. Patient-day mean glucose slightly but significantly decreased from 177.6 ± 64.4 to 173.2 ± 59.4 mg/dL (P350 mg/dL also decreased from 9.69 to 7.36% (Pprocess within our facility. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm a causal association.
Novak, Joseph D.
The construction and reconstruction of meanings by learners requires that they actively seek to integrate new knowledge with knowledge already in their cognitive structure. Ausubel's assimilation theory of cognitive learning has been shown to be effective in guiding research and instructional design to facilitate meaningful learning (Ausubel, The psychology of meaningful verbal learning, New York: Grune and Stratton, 1963; Educational psychology: A cognitive view, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968; The acquisition and retention of knowledge, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000). Gowin's Vee heuristic has been employed effectively to aid teachers and students in understanding the constructed nature of knowledge (Gowin, Educating, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981). Situated learning occurs when learning is by rote or at a lower level of meaningful learning. Concept mapping has been used effectively to aid meaningful learning with resulting modification of student's knowledge structures. When these knowledge structures are limited or faulty in some way, they may be referred to as Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies (LIPH's). Conceptual change, or more accurately conceptual reconstrution, requires meaningful learning to modify LIPH's. Collaborative group learning facilitates meaningful learning and new knowledge construction. World-wide economic changes are forcing major changes in business and industry placing a premium on the power and value of knowledge and new knowledge production. These changes require changes in school and university education that centers on the nature and power of meaningful learning. New computer tools are available to facilitate teaching activities targeted at modifying LIPH's, and aiding meaningful learning in general.
Mascio, Jeana; Mace, Gerald G.
Interpretations of remote sensing measurements collected in sample volumes containing ice-phase hydrometeors are very sensitive to assumptions regarding the distributions of mass with ice crystal dimension, otherwise known as mass-dimensional or m-D relationships. How these microphysical characteristics vary in nature is highly uncertain, resulting in significant uncertainty in algorithms that attempt to derive bulk microphysical properties from remote sensing measurements. This uncertainty extends to radar reflectivity factors forward calculated from model output because the statistics of the actual m-D in nature is not known. To investigate the variability in m-D relationships in cirrus clouds, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are combined with particle size distributions (PSDs) collected by coincident in situ aircraft by using an optimal estimation-based (OE) retrieval of the m-D power law. The PSDs were collected by 12 flights of the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet during the Small Particles in Cirrus campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred, and instead, we find that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum-defying simple categorization. With the uncertainties derived from the OE algorithm, the uncertainties in forward-modeled backscatter cross section and, in turn, radar reflectivity is calculated by using a bootstrapping technique, allowing us to infer the uncertainties in forward-modeled radar reflectivity that would be appropriately applied to remote sensing simulator algorithms.
Full Text Available Lisa Lynn Dragic,1 Erica L Wegrzyn,2 Michael E Schatman,3–5 Jeffrey Fudin2,6 1Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Albany Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 3Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USA; 4Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 6Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate, LLC, Delmar, NY, USA Abstract: The use of pharmacogenomics has become more prevalent over the past several years in treating many disease states. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many pain medications including opioids and antidepressants. Noncytochrome P450 enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT also play a role in the explanation of opioid dosage requirements as well as in response to certain antidepressants. We present the case of a patient with reduced COMT and MTHFR expression treated with leucovorin 10 mg daily for the management of chronic pain. The use of leucovorin in this patient decreased pain scores, which were clinically significant and increased functionality. This case demonstrates the importance of pharmacogenetics testing in patients, as this can help direct providers to better therapeutic options for their patients. Keywords: pharmacogenetic, depression, pain, MTHFR, COMT, methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase, catechol-O-methyltransferase
Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi
This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.
Rahm, Jrène; Gorges, Anna
In this review, we explore what educating science teachers for sustainability implies according to the 23 book chapters and many sampled teacher education and science methods courses in the edited book by Susan Stratton, Rita Hagevick, Allan Feldman and Mark Bloom, entitled Educating Science Teachers for Sustainability, published in 2015 by Springer as part of the ASTE Series in Science Education. We situate the review in the current complex landscape of discourses around sustainability education, exploring its grounding in an anthropocentric ideology next to emancipatory practices and a holistic vision of the world. We offer a quick overview of the chapters and themes addressed. We then take up some ideas to think with. We are particularly invested in thinking about the implications of sustainability education as going beyond science teachers and science education, and as implying a serious engagement with and critique of current unsustainable ways of living. We play with the idea of taking sustainability education beyond neoliberal ideals of education and offer some suggestions by bringing in voices of students, youth, land-based learning and the idea of living sustainability. We also explore what indigenous scholars and epistemologies could have contributed to an exploration of sustainability education, a voice that was absent in the book, yet helps desettle the conversation and actions taken, moving the discourse beyond an Eurocentric grounding.
D. B. Muldrew
Full Text Available In this study, ball lightning (BL is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941. It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon – a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.
Muldrew, D. B.
In this study, ball lightning (BL) is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM) field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941). It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon - a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.
Cuestionar las evidencias, educar en la reflexión: Robert H. Ennis, el estudio del pensamiento crítico y su influjo en la pedagogía del deporte. [Questioning the evidence, educate reflection: Robert H. Ennis, the study of critical thinking and its influence on the pedagogy of sport].
Full Text Available Los escenarios sociales modernos demandan a los ciudadanos una mayor preparación para pensar y actuar de manera crítica. En este sentido, uno de los procesos cognitivos de mayor interés para la comunidad científica, desde comienzos del siglo pasado, es el pensamiento crítico. Numerosos estudiosos han establecido teorías en torno a este constructo tratando de dar respuesta a las necesidades sociales que atañen al conjunto de la ciudadanía. Estos trabajos no han dudado en señalar que el pensamiento crítico resulta ser un elemento clave en la toma de decisiones vocacionales y cívicas que contribuyen a la construcción y mantenimiento de los sistemas democráticos.Desde que comenzó a utilizarse el término, muchos autores realizaron grandes esfuerzos por conceptualizar el pensamiento crítico (Dressel y Mayhew, 1954; Siegel, 1989; Stratton, 1999; entre otros. De un modo simple, pensar críticamente fue considerado como un proceso autónomo y racional para decidir qué creer o hacer. Asimismo, se ha observado que el pensamiento crítico se ajusta a un modelo de juicio reflexivo que aumenta con la edad y con las experiencias educativas (Perry, 1970. Sobre la base de este planteamiento, el último logro de la identidad de los sujetos consiste en llegar a pensar de un modo reflexivo, lo que permite determinar si unos juicios son más razonables que otros, con la certeza de que todas las aportaciones deben ser evaluadas y re-evaluadas (Hofer y Pintrich, 1997.
Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B
Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the
The dependence of cirrus gamma size distributions expressed as volumes in N0-λ-μ phase space and bulk cloud properties on environmental conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)
Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel
The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N0, λ, μ) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D > 15 µm collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N0, μ, and λ from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension Dmm as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N0, μ, and λ, bulk extinction, IWC, and Dmm with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 µm, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N0, μ, and λ between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.
Kaehler, Laura A.; Jacobs, Mary; Jones, Deborah J.
There is a shift in evidence-based practice toward an understanding of the treatment elements that characterize empirically-supported interventions in general and the core components of specific approaches in particular. The evidence-base for Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), the standard of care for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder), which frequently co-occur with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is well-established; yet, an ahistorical, program-specific lens tells little regarding how leaders, including Constance Hanf at the University of Oregon, shaped the common practice elements of contemporary evidence-based BPT. Accordingly, this review summarizes the formative work of Hanf, as well as the core elements, evolution, and extensions of her work, represented in Community Parent Education (COPE; Cunningham, Bremner, & Boyle, 1995; Cunningham, Bremner, Secord, & Harrison, 2009), Defiant Children (DC; Barkley 1987; Barkley, 2013), Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC; Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003), Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT; Eyberg, & Robinson, 1982; Eyberg, 1988; Eyberg & Funderburk, 2011), and the Incredible Years (IY; Webster-Stratton, 1981; 1982; 2008). Our goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of the evidence-base for the Hanf-Model programs; rather, our intention is to provide a template of sorts from which agencies and clinicians can make informed choices about how and why they are using one program versus another, as well as how to make inform flexible use one program or combination of practice elements across programs, to best meet the needs of child clients and their families. Clinical implications and directions for future work are discussed. PMID:27389606
The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)
Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel
The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.
Full Text Available Timothy J Atkinson,1 Michael E Schatman,2 Jeffrey Fudin1,3–51PGY2 Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacy Residency, Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, 2Foundation for Ethics in Pain Care, Bellevue, WA, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 4Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, 5Buffalo College of Pharmacy, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USAIn the United States, patterns of opioid use for the management of pain have drastically changed over the past 30 years. In the 1980s, the American pain medicine landscape was characterized by opiophobia, the fear to prescribe opioids. Around the turn of the millennium, however, we witnessed a fairly rapid shift to opiophilia, or the "overprescribing" of opioids. The ubiquitous undertreatment of pain was the catalyst for clinicians and pain societies to successfully lobby for increased use of opioids for all pain types, including non-cancer pain. The approval of new standards for pain management incorporating pain as the "fifth vital sign" by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO1 seemingly fueled this increase in opioid prescription. From 1991–2009, prescriptions for opioid analgesics tripled, with emergency department visits related to non-medical use of prescription opioid overdoses doubling from 2005–2009.2 In 2010, accidental overdose deaths associated with opioids increased for the eleventh consecutive year, highlighting the drastic shift in opioid use.3 The figurative pendulum began to swing toward opiophobia following the publication of data that demonstrated that the risk of addiction associated with chronic opioid use was likely underestimated.4 Guidelines for the use of controlled substances released by the Federation of State Medical Boards of the US in 1998 reflected this change in attitude.5 At present, there is a general consensus that opioids are over-prescribed and education among health
Yaturu, Subhashini; Youngberg, Barbara; Zdunek, Sonya
AIM To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relation to diabetes and kidney disease in Veterans residing in the North East United States (VISN 2). METHODS In this retrospective study, we used data from the computerized patient record system at Stratton Veterans Administration Medical Center at Albany, NY (VHA) for those patients who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and 1,25 (OH) vitamin D levels measured between 2007 and 2010. We collected demographic information including age, sex, body mass index and race; clinical data including diabetes, hypertension and CAD; and laboratory data including calcium, creatinine and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (intact). Vitamin D deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng/mL (50 to 75 nmol/L). RESULTS Data was available for approximately 68000 subjects. We identified 64144 subjects for analysis after exclusion of duplicates. Among them, 27098 had diabetes. The mean age of subjects with diabetes was 68 ± 11 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32 ± 7 and duration of diabetes of 5.6 ± 3.2 years. The mean 25 (OH) vitamin D level among subjects with diabetes was 27 ± 11.6. There was no significant difference in 25 (OH) vitamin D levels between subjects with diabetes and glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) < 60 compared to those with e-GFR ≥ 60. As expected, subjects with e-GFR < 60 had significantly lower 1,25 (OH) vitamin D levels and significantly elevated PTH-intact. Of the 64144 subjects, 580 had end-stage renal disease. Of those, 407 had diabetes and 173 did not. Vitamin D levels in both groups were in the insufficiency range and there was no significant difference irrespective of presence or absence of diabetes. Subjects with vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/mL had a higher BMI and elevated PTH, and higher HbA1C levels compared to those with vitamin D levels more than 20 ng
Wayne D. Pennington
The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off
Wade, Nicholas J
Alfred Yarbus introduced a new dimension of precision in recording how the eyes moved, either when attempts were made to keep them stationary or when scanning pictures. Movements of the eyes had been remarked upon for millennia, but recording how they move is a more recent preoccupation. Emphasis was initially placed on abnormalities of oculomotor function (like strabismus) before normal features were considered. The interest was in where the eyes moved to rather than determining how they got there. The most venerable technique for examining ocular stability involved comparing the relative motion between an afterimage and a real image. In the late 18th century, Wells compared afterimages generated before body rotation with real images observed following it when dizzy; he described both lateral and torsional nystagmus, thereby demonstrating the directional discontinuities in eye velocities. At around the same time Erasmus Darwin used afterimages as a means of demonstrating ocular instability when attempting to fixate steadily. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Thus, the characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare (working in Javal's laboratory) in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening (with tubes placed over the eyelids) to the sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. Eye movements over pictures were examined by Stratton and later by Buswell, who drew attention to the effects of instructions on the pattern of eye movements. In midcentury, attention shifted back to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The suction cap methods developed by Yarbus were applied
Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie
The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into
Wayne D. Pennington
The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we