This research proposal, Low Vision at the Schepens Eye Research Institute, is a collaborative effort on the part of four Investigators at the Institute whose goal is to advance the studies on low vision...
Bietti Eye Foundation, IRCCS Rome, Italy . Word count: 2879 Corresponding author: Reza Dana, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc. Schepens Eye Research...Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 3 Bietti Eye Foundation, IRCCS Rome, Italy . Word count: 2879...with differentiated properties. Exp Eye Res. 62, 155-169. 18. Marneros A.G., Fan J., Yokoyama Y., Gerber H.P., Ferrara N., Crouch R.K., Olsen B.R
Michel, Marije; Smith, Bryan
Though eye-tracking technology has been used in reading research for over 100 years, researchers have only recently begun to use it in studies of computer-assisted language learning (CALL). This chapter provides an overview of eye-tracking research to date, which is relevant to computer-mediated
Gibaldi, Agostino; Vanegas, Mauricio; Bex, Peter J; Maiello, Guido
The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking applications. We review the characteristics of the device for its possible use in scientific research. We develop and evaluate an open source Matlab Toolkit that can be employed to interface with the EyeX device for gaze recording in behavioral experiments. The Toolkit provides calibration procedures tailored to both binocular and monocular experiments, as well as procedures to evaluate other eye tracking devices. The observed performance of the EyeX (i.e. accuracy < 0.6°, precision < 0.25°, latency < 50 ms and sampling frequency ≈55 Hz), is sufficient for some classes of research application. The device can be successfully employed to measure fixation parameters, saccadic, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. However, the relatively low sampling rate and moderate precision limit the suitability of the EyeX for monitoring micro-saccadic eye movements or for real-time gaze-contingent stimulus control. For these applications, research grade, high-cost eye tracking technology may still be necessary. Therefore, despite its limitations with respect to high-end devices, the EyeX has the potential to further the dissemination of eye tracking technology to a broad audience, and could be a valuable asset in consumer and gaming applications as well as a subset of basic and clinical research settings.
Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els
Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W
A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.
Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI
Full Text Available The paper deals with author’s pilot experiments using the eye tracking method for the primary school children examination. This method enables to gain a large amount of research data based on the tested people’s eye movements monitoring. In the paper, there are processed chosen research data of four gifted students’ examination in the context of their mathematical and logical intelligence.
Full Text Available Eye movement behavior in reading can reflect on-line cognitive process. Through the on-line measure of eye movement, under relatively natural reading condition, data of the reader’ s eye movement in the text can be obtained in processing information, and thus help to reveal the internal cognitive mechanisms in reading. With the development of intelligentization, serialization and portable direction in eye tracker, there exist great number of studies on eye movement tracking, but studies on eye movement features in ESL reading are rare. In such circumstances, this paper mainly illustrates eye movement patterns, the relationship between eye movement and perceptual processing, and eye movement control in ESL reading.
Full Text Available John D Rodriguez,1 George W Ousler III,1 Patrick R Johnston,1 Keith Lane,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and duration of extended blinks ≥ 70 msec and their associated interblink intervals in normal subjects and in subjects with mild to moderate dry eye.Methods: This single-center, prospective, double-blind study included 11 subjects with dry eye and eight subjects with normal eyes. Extended blinks were defined as lid closure in at least two successive video frames (≥ 70 msec. Digital video imaging of each subject's eyes was recorded while the subject viewed a 10-minute documentary. The subjects did not know that blink was the outcome being measured. Following capture, the videos were manually analyzed in a masked fashion for the occurrence of extended blinks. The length of the interblink interval (ie, time between blinks before and after these extended blinks (the interblink interval ratio was calculated, as well as differences in lid contact times.Results: The dry eye group had a median extended blink duration which was 2.53 times longer than that of the normal group. For subjects with dry eye, interblink intervals post-extended blink were significantly longer than interblink intervals pre-extended blink (P < 0.001. Interblink intervals did not lengthen significantly in normal subjects. In both groups, the duration of the extended blink was significantly (P = 0.001 and positively correlated with interblink interval ratio (post-extended to pre-extended blink interblink interval, such that for each doubling of extended blink duration, the interblink interval ratio increased by 10%. Blinks longer than one second in duration occurred almost exclusively in subjects with dry eye.Conclusion: This study reports three central findings: blink duration tended to be longer in subjects with dry
Conklin, Kathy; Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana
With eye-tracking technology the eye is thought to give researchers a window into the mind. Importantly, eye-tracking has significant advantages over traditional online processing measures: chiefly that it allows for more "natural" processing as it does not require a secondary task, and that it provides a very rich moment-to-moment data…
utilized to study a diverse number of topics such as the patterns of fixations and saccades while reading text (e.g., Rayner, 1998), the workload of...of their accessibility to our laboratory and because they represent a diverse set of relative price points, from low (Eye Tribe Tracker, Tobii EyeX...see Figure 1 for the layout of those systems). At both workstations, task stimuli were presented to observers on 48.26 cm Samsung SyncMaster 940Bx
Hovey, Richard B; Delormier, Treena; McComber, Alex M; Lévesque, Lucie; Martin, Debbie
The intention of this article is to demonstrate how Indigenous and allied health promotion researchers learned to work together through a process of Two-Eyed Seeing. This process was first introduced as a philosophical hermeneutic research project on diabetes prevention within an Indigenous community in Quebec Canada. We, as a research team, became aware that hermeneutics and the principles of Haudenosaunee decision making were characteristic of Two-Eyed Seeing. This article describes our experiences while working with each other. Our learning from these interactions emphasized the relational aspects needed to ensure that we became a highly functional research team while working together and becoming Two-Eyed Seeing partners.
The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a
Bol, N.; Boerman, S.C.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Antona, M.; Stephanidis, C.
Eye tracking gives communication scholars the opportunity to move beyond self-reported measures by examining more precisely how much visual attention is paid to information. However, we lack insight into how eye-tracking data is used in communication research. This literature review provides an
Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan
On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.
Cheng, HuaQi; Liu, YuJiao; Zhang, ShaoWei; Hou, LinBao; Li, XingLong
This paper has developed the theory research of wide field Angel lobster eye X-ray optical system based on the principle of entirely incidence. Combine the configuration characteristic of lobster eye, recommend the conclusion of beam of light focus on the half of radius whether point or parallel light. Designed the microchannel through the principle of real ray trace and got the relationship among different parameters about it using numerical value emulation. Got pixels and illumination pictures validated the wide field focus characteristic of Angel lobster eye by simulating the optical system.
Saldanha, Ian J; Dickersin, Kay; Hutfless, Susan T; Akpek, Esen K
Dry eye, a common yet underrecognized and evolving field, has few recommended treatment algorithms, mostly based on expert consensus rather than robust research evidence. There are high costs associated with managing dry eye and conducting research to identify effective and safe long-term treatments. To support evidence-based management of dry eye, our purpose was to identify and prioritize important clinical research questions for future clinical research. We translated recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2013 Preferred Practice Patterns for dry eye into answerable clinical research questions about treatment effectiveness. Clinicians around the world who manage patients with dry eye rated each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round online Delphi survey. We considered questions as "important" if ≥75% of respondents assigned a rating of 6 or more in round 2. We mapped the identified important clinical research questions to reliable systematic reviews published up to March 2016. Seventy-five clinicians from at least 21 countries completed both Delphi rounds. Among the 58 questions, 24 met our definition of "important": 9/24 and 7/24 addressed topical and systemic treatments, respectively. All 4 questions with the highest 25th percentiles addressed topical treatments. Although 6/24 "important" questions were associated with 4 existing reliable systematic reviews, none of these reviews came to a definitive conclusion about treatment effectiveness. We identified gaps pertaining to treatment options for dry eye. Future clinical research on the management of dry eye should strongly consider these prioritized questions.
London, Anat; Benhar, Inbal; Schwartz, Michal
Philosophers defined the eye as a window to the soul long before scientists addressed this cliché to determine its scientific basis and clinical relevance. Anatomically and developmentally, the retina is known as an extension of the CNS; it consists of retinal ganglion cells, the axons of which form the optic nerve, whose fibres are, in effect, CNS axons. The eye has unique physical structures and a local array of surface molecules and cytokines, and is host to specialized immune responses similar to those in the brain and spinal cord. Several well-defined neurodegenerative conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord have manifestations in the eye, and ocular symptoms often precede conventional diagnosis of such CNS disorders. Furthermore, various eye-specific pathologies share characteristics of other CNS pathologies. In this Review, we summarize data that support examination of the eye as a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis of select CNS diseases, and the use of the eye as a valuable model to study the CNS. Translation of eye research to CNS disease, and deciphering the role of immune cells in these two systems, could improve our understanding and, potentially, the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
Fedorov, S.N.; Ivashina, A.I.; Anisimov, S.I.; Prokopenko, L.N.; Moskvichev, A.L.
The paper is devoted to analysis of the results of computerized tomography (CT) in 1000 patients examined in te Multibranch Research and Technology Complex ''Eye Microsurgery''. The specific feature of CT in this institution is that 52% of all investigations of ophthalmological patients fall to the share of eyeball abnormality and 40% - to a study of the other parts of the organ of vision. CT indications are extended for low tension glaucoma, complicated high myopia, and for monitoring the position of microsurgical implants. The use of CT is such a highly specialized medical institution as the MRTC ''Eye Microsurgery'' is considered indispensable
Full Text Available The widespread availability of relatively cheap, reliable and easy to use digital camera traps has led to their extensive use for wildlife research, monitoring and public outreach. Users of these units are, however, often frustrated by the limited options for controlling camera functions, the generation of large numbers of images, and the lack of flexibility to suit different research environments and questions. We describe the development of a user-customisable open source camera trap platform named 'WiseEye', designed to provide flexible camera trap technology for wildlife researchers. The novel platform is based on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and compatible peripherals that allow the user to control its functions and performance. We introduce the concept of confirmatory sensing, in which the Passive Infrared triggering is confirmed through other modalities (i.e. radar, pixel change to reduce the occurrence of false positives images. This concept, together with user-definable metadata, aided identification of spurious images and greatly reduced post-collection processing time. When tested against a commercial camera trap, WiseEye was found to reduce the incidence of false positive images and false negatives across a range of test conditions. WiseEye represents a step-change in camera trap functionality, greatly increasing the value of this technology for wildlife research and conservation management.
Liu, Y; Liang, Q F
Topical anti-inflammatory therapy has become the significant way of treating dry eye so far. However, as the long-term use of routine anti-inflammatory medications are restricted from their side effects, it is inevitable to explore safer and more effective alternatives. Essential fatty acids have proven to be anti-inflammatory systemically, which makes it possible to treat dry eye. Clinical trials have demonstrated that supplementation with either ω-3 or ω-6 essential fatty acids or both has multifactorial efficacies including improvement of subjective symptoms, alleviation of inflammation of ocular surface and eyelid margin, prolongation of tear break-up time and increase of tear flow secretion. Besides anti-inflammation effects, several basic researches have revealed that other mechanisms of essential fatty acids treating dry eye might lie in the corneal epithelial healing and tear secretion promotion. This review puts emphasis on the effectiveness, feasibility and mechanism of treating dry eye with essential fatty acids. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 225-229) .
van der Gijp, A.; Ravesloot, C. J.; Jarodzka, H.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; van Schaik, J. P.; ten Cate, Th. J.
Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review of eye-tracking literature in the radiology…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.
The objective of this award was to purchase and install two ISCAN Inc. Eye Tracking Systems and associated equipment to create a unique set-up for research in fully immersive virtual environments (VEs...
Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M
The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N
The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Lin, X; Liu, Z L; Wu, J L; Liu, Z G
Dry eye is one of the most common ocular problems in ophthalmology clinic. With the change of social environment and people's life style, the prevalence of dry eye disease is increasing. Currently, the diagnosis criteria for dry eye is controversial, diagnosis of dry eye mainly rely on the comprehensive assessment of symptoms and the presence of associated ocular surface signs. However, previous studies have shown a poor correlation between dry eye symptoms and objective clinical signs in patients. Recent studies have found that neuropathic pain plays an important role in the occurrence of discordance between symptoms and signs in dry eye disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the conception of pain, the distribution and function of sensory nerves in ocular surface, the prevalence and mechanism of neuropathic pain and analgesic treatment in dry eye disease. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2018, 54: 144-148) .
Chernis, P.J.; Robertson, P.B.
The Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton near Atikokan Ontario has been used as a study area for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management research program. The pluton consists predominately of granite. Fractures formed during cooling of the pluton were filled with a succession of different materials at different times. Measurements of a series of geophysical and geotechnical properties of rock samples are published here in this report, including especially microcrack and pore structures. An indication has been found that a larger proportion of the porosity of Whiteshell and Atikokan samples is contained in connecting pores, compared to other rocks. This may seem surprising in view of the finding that approximately 70% of the effective porosity of Atikokan samples is contained in pockets
Roy, Neeta S; Wei, Yi; Kuklinski, Eric; Asbell, Penny A
Biomarkers with minimally invasive and reproducible objective metrics provide the key to future paradigm shifts in understanding of the underlying causes of dry eye disease (DED) and approaches to treatment of DED. We review biomarkers and their validity in providing objective metrics for DED clinical research and patient care. The English-language literature in PubMed primarily over the last decade was surveyed for studies related to identification of biomarkers of DED: (1) inflammation, (2) point-of-care, (3) ocular imaging, and (4) genetics. Relevant studies in each group were individually evaluated for (1) methodological and analytical details, (2) data and concordance with other similar studies, and (3) potential to serve as validated biomarkers with objective metrics. Significant work has been done to identify biomarkers for DED clinical trials and for patient care. Interstudy variation among studies dealing with the same biomarker type was high. This could be attributed to biologic variations and/or differences in processing, and data analysis. Correlation with other signs and symptoms of DED was not always clear or present. Many of the biomarkers reviewed show the potential to serve as validated and objective metrics for clinical research and patient care in DED. Interstudy variation for a given biomarker emphasizes the need for detailed reporting of study methodology, including information on subject characteristics, quality control, processing, and analysis methods to optimize development of nonsubjective metrics. Biomarker development offers a rich opportunity to significantly move forward clinical research and patient care in DED. DED is an unmet medical need - a chronic pain syndrome associated with variable vision that affects quality of life, is common with advancing age, interferes with the comfortable use of contact lenses, and can diminish results of eye surgeries, such as cataract extraction, LASIK, and glaucoma procedures. It is a worldwide
... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...
Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.
This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)
van der Gijp, A; Ravesloot, C J; Jarodzka, H; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; van Schaik, J P J; ten Cate, Olle
Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review
Hu, Xiaoping; Xie, Ke; Peng, Tao
In the position-based visual servoing control for robot, the hand-eye calibration is very important because it can affect the control precision of the system. According to the robot with eye-to-hand stereovision system, this paper proposes a direct method of hand-eye calibration. The method utilizes the triangle measuring principle to solve the coordinates in the camera coordinate system of scene point. It calculates the estimated coordinates by the hand-eye calibration equation set which indicates the transformational relation from the robot to the camera coordinate system, and then uses the error of actual and estimated coordinates to establish the objective function. Finally the method substitutes the parameters into the function repeatedly until it converged to optimize the result. The related experiment compared the measured coordinates with the actual coordinates, shows the efficiency and the precision of it.
Moser, K.; Harpp, K. S.; Ketchum, J. T.; Espinoza, E.; Penaherrera, C.; Banks, S.; Fornari, D. J.; Geist, D.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; R/v Melville Mv1007 Flamingo Cruise Scientific Party
marine organisms around the seamounts. Ultimately, students develop hypotheses for how the seamounts formed and how they affect the ecosystem around them, with a focus on the sharks that inhabit these waters. One of the learning tools is a virtual flyover movie of the Galápagos seafloor from a shark’s eye view that integrates our new bathymetric data with the recently documented migratory paths of tagged sharks. A primary goal is to develop a blueprint for a versatile educational resource that encourages students to explore new research results and use them as a context for developing critical skills. Equally important, this project serves as a model for collaboration with local scientists and teachers to integrate educational efforts with new research results and for its interdisciplinary focus on issues of both global and local importance.
Science Teacher, 2005
Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...
Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...
Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...
Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...
Full Text Available Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation. Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet – or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training.
EDITORIAL: Special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip Special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip
Hessburg, Philip C.
Once again Journal of Neural Engineering is devoting an issue to the field of visual neuro-prosthetics. These papers were presented at the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the ChipA 13 DVD set of all presentations at The Eye and the Chip 2010 is available from Carolyn Barth PhD, Detroit Institute of Ophthalmology, 15415 E Jefferson, Grosse Pointe Park MI 48230, USA, 313.824.4710, firstname.lastname@example.org, held in Detroit in September 2010. In the last decade this field has metamorphosed from 'in all probability a foolish and impractical dream' to a device approved for implantation in Europe and pending approval in the United States, and from a handful of serious efforts to several dozen on every continent save for Antartica. A recent comprehensive volume, Visual Prosthetics , edited by Gislin Dagnelie of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, focuses closely on this subject and is a tremendous addition to the literature. In his preface Dr Dagnelie notes as follows. 'In the year 2000, the Detroit Institute of Ophthalmology had the inspiration to foster a new collaboration among visual prosthesis researchers, clinicians, and workers in low vision rehabilitation by creating and sponsoring a series of biennial meetings called 'The Eye and the Chip'. Successful beyond expectations, these meetings have become the premier gathering place for researchers from all parts of the world and from very different backgrounds. Invited speakers are scientists who are advancing the field, yet the scale and atmosphere allow all researchers, patients, and the media to come and be updated about progress over the past two years. More perhaps than at other scientific meetings, where investigators tend to gather within disciplines, participants at The Eye and the Chip are challenged to be open-minded, learn about and critique each other's work, and return home with fresh ideas for interdisciplinary approaches. The interdisciplinary character of this book reflects that
van der Gijp, A; Ravesloot, C J; Jarodzka, H; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J
Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review of eye-tracking literature in the radiology domain aims to identify visual search patterns associated with high perceptual performance. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using 'visual perception' OR 'eye tracking' AND 'radiology' and synonyms. Two authors independently screened search results and included eye tracking studies concerning visual skills in radiology published between January 1, 1994 and July 31, 2015. Two authors independently assessed study quality with the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument, and extracted study data with respect to design, participant and task characteristics, and variables. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract and arrange study results, and a textual narrative synthesis was applied for data integration and interpretation. The search resulted in 22 relevant full-text articles. Thematic analysis resulted in six themes that informed the relation between visual search and level of expertise: (1) time on task, (2) eye movement characteristics of experts, (3) differences in visual attention, (4) visual search patterns, (5) search patterns in cross sectional stack imaging, and (6) teaching visual search strategies. Expert search was found to be characterized by a global-focal search pattern, which represents an initial global impression, followed by a detailed, focal search-to-find mode. Specific task-related search patterns, like drilling through CT scans and systematic search in chest X-rays, were found to be related to high expert levels. One study investigated teaching of visual search strategies, and did not find a significant effect on perceptual performance. Eye
Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...
Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a sleep disorder characterized by the disappearance of muscle relaxation and enacting one's dreams during rapid eye movement (REM, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38%-2.01%, but it becomes much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially α - synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of α-synucleinopathies by decades, thus it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the progress on the pathogenesis of RBD and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.003
Shao Jiang; Xue Chengqi; Wang Fang; Wang Haiyan; Tang Wencheng; Chen Mo; Kang Mingwu
The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ ...
Boudry, Christophe; Denion, Eric; Mortemousque, Bruno; Mouriaux, Fréderic
The purpose of this study is to provide a report on scientific production during the period 2010-2014 in order to identify the major topics as well as the predominant actors (journals, countries, continents) involved in the field of eye disease. A PubMed search was carried out to extract articles related to eye diseases during the period 2010-2014. Data were downloaded and processed through developed PHP scripts for further analysis. A total of 62,123 articles were retrieved. A total of 3,368 different journals were found, and 19 journals were identified as "core journals" according to Braford's law. English was by far the predominant language. A total of 853,182 MeSH terms were found, representing an average of 13.73 (SD = 4.98) MeSH terms per article. Among these 853,182 MeSH terms, 14,689 different MeSH terms were identified. Vision Disorders, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy, Macular Degeneration, and Cataract were the most frequent five MeSH terms related to eye diseases. The analysis of the total number of publications showed that Europe and Asia were the most productive continents, and the USA and China the most productive countries. Interestingly, using the mean Five-Year Impact Factor, the two most productive continents were North America and Oceania. After adjustment for population, the overall ranking positions changed in favor of smaller countries (i.e. Iceland, Switzerland, Denmark, and New Zealand), while after adjustment for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the overall ranking positions changed in favor of some developing countries (Malawi, Guatemala, Singapore). Due to the large number of articles included and the numerous parameters analyzed, this study provides a wide view of scientific productivity related to eye diseases during the period 2010-2014 and allows us to better understand this field.
Light, Janice; McNaughton, David
In order to improve outcomes for individuals who require AAC, there is an urgent need for research across the full spectrum--from basic research to investigate fundamental language and communication processes, to applied clinical research to test applications of this new knowledge in the real world. To date, there has been a notable lack of basic research in the AAC field to investigate the underlying cognitive, sensory perceptual, linguistic, and motor processes of individuals with complex communication needs. Eye tracking research technology provides a promising method for researchers to investigate some of the visual cognitive processes that underlie interaction via AAC. The eye tracking research technology automatically records the latency, duration, and sequence of visual fixations, providing key information on what elements attract the individual's attention (and which ones do not), for how long, and in what sequence. As illustrated by the papers in this special issue, this information can be used to improve the design of AAC systems, assessments, and interventions to better meet the needs of individuals with developmental and acquired disabilities who require AAC (e.g., individuals with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities of unknown origin, aphasia).
Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.
The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.
Full Text Available This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of performing different types of secondary task while driving on driver eye movements and to build a safety evaluation model for secondary task driving. Eighteen young drivers were selected and completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks were analyzed. Based on measures which had significant difference between the baseline and secondary tasks driving conditions, the evaluation index system was built. Method of principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyze evaluation indexes data in order to obtain the coefficient weights of indexes and build the safety evaluation model. Based on evaluation scores, the driving safety was grouped into five levels (very high, high, average, low, and very low using K-means clustering algorithm. Results showed that secondary task driving severely distracts the driver and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the...
Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.
Kredel, Ralf; Vater, Christian; Klostermann, André; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim
Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes), while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses). To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed-in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.
Full Text Available Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes, while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses. To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed—in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.
Daniel A. Sierra
Full Text Available A 3D dynamic computer model for the movement of the head-neck complex is presented. It incorporates anatomically correct information about the diverse elements forming the system. The skeleton is considered as a set of interconnected rigid 3D bodies following the Newton-Euler laws of movement. The muscles are modeled using Enderle's linear model, which shows equivalent dynamic characteristics to Loeb's virtual muscle model. The soft tissues, namely, the ligaments, intervertebral disks, and facet joints, are modeled considering their physiological roles and dynamics. In contrast with other head and neck models developed for safety research, the model is aimed to study the neural control of the complex during fast eye and head movements, such as saccades and gaze shifts. In particular, the time-optimal hypothesis and the feedback control ones are discussed.
Small, Leo J.; Wolf, Steven; Spoerke, Erik D.
Introducing students to a multidisciplinary research laboratory presents challenges in terms of learning specific technical skills and concepts but also with respect to integrating different technical elements to form a coherent picture of the research. Here we present a multidisciplinary series of experiments we have developed in the Electronic,…
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Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi
Full Text Available Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations research study conducted at Akpuoga-Nike between February and April 2011. Demographic and ophthalmic clinical data were collected. Health system-, community- and patient-determined challenges were catalogued and analyzed using Epi Info Statistical software for Windows, version 6. Univariate analysis was performed for data distribution testing. Analytical statistics were performed, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results . A total of 481 (males, 144 (29.9%; females, 377(70.1% patients aged 42.3 ± 20.2 SD years (range 4–80 years were seen. The leading eye disorders were refractive error – 28.9%, and cataract – 16.4%. The operations challenges encountered included difficulties with community sensitization/advocacies, inadequate infrastructure and mobile equipment, as well as lack of eye care manpower, consumables and funding deficits. Conclusions . Health system-related issues were the main challenges encountered. Recruitment of an adequate number of rural eye care workforce, provision of needed material resources, adequate funding and engendering community participation in rural eye care delivery through grass roots advocacy and health service public education would overcome the challenges.
The 2010 Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), held in Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of eye and vision research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of OT-440 (Othera Pharmaceuticals Inc) for the potential treatment of glaucoma, an extended-release implant of brimonidine (pSivida Corp) for ocular hypertension, AR-12286 (Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc) for ocular hypertension or glaucoma, AC-8 (Calmune Corp/RiboVax Biotechnologies SA) for ocular diseases following HSV infection, and fidarestat (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd) and the recombinant proteins NOV and NOVCter (INSERM/University Rene Descartes) for corneal neovascularization.
Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation
McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S
Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.
Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo
This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...
Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Driel, Jan H.; Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Verloop, Nico; Visser, Anthonya
Research and teaching are supposed to be closely related in universities. Among academics the belief in a symbiotic relationship is strong. However, it is unclear what form this relationship can take. Several authors have presented categories and dimensions to clarify this relationship and the aim of this project was to contribute to this…
Dubosarsky, Mia D.
How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.
Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...
Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...
... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...
... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...
... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...
Alexandr Yu. Myagkov
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the problem of efficiency of work experience internship in a technical university and its role in the education of future professionals (problem has been investigated in the framework of the research project «Monitoring of social well-being and problems of professional adaptation of ISPEU students».Methods. While carrying out of sociological research, selection of respondents was occurred on the multistage combined (serially-nested model of sample among students I, III and V courses of six faculties of full-time course of ISPEU. The complex of questions (its answers show features of professional identity of the future experts on initial (I course, intermediate (III course and finishing (V course stages of their professional formation has been developed to find out the dynamics of process of professional adaptation of students from the first to the fifth year. The information was processed with application of program and analytical complex SPSS. The comparative analysis to a gender sign of degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction has been undertaken by the work experience internship organization on the side of high school and the accepting enterprises.Results. The level of graduates’ satisfaction with the work experience internship is revealed that works on an estimation by students of quality of preparation in high school, the relation to a received speciality and success in the future profession. The data on a self-estimation of readiness of students to work experience internship is cited. Criteria of successful work experience internship are formulated.Scientific novelty. The given researches carried out by the authors, prove that work experience internship positively influences professional consciousness of students and promote formation of steady positive installations for professional job. However, work experience internship in its institutional forms is functional and appears to be the effective
This article contributes to the understanding of how health care companies may communicate the business models by studying financial analysts' analyst reports. The study examines the differences between the information conveyed in recurrent and fundamental analyst reports as well as whether the characteristics of the analysts and their environment affect their business model analyses. A medium-sized health care company in the medical-technology sector, internationally renowned for its state-of-the-art business reporting, was chosen as the basis for the study. An analysis of 111 fundamental and recurrent analyst reports on this company by each investment bank actively following it was conducted using a content analysis methodology. The study reveals that the recurrent analyses are concerned with evaluating the information disclosed by the health care company itself and not so much with digging up new information. It also indicates that while maintenance work might be focused on evaluating specific details, fundamental research is more concerned with extending the understanding of the general picture, i.e., the sustainability and performance of the overall business model. The amount of financial information disclosed in either type of report is not correlated to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put considerably less weight on social and sustainability, intellectual capital and corporate governance information, and they disclose much less comparable non-financial information. The suggestion made is that looking at the types of information financial analysts consider important and convey to their "customers," the investors and fund managers, constitutes a valuable indication to health care companies regarding the needs of the financial market users of their reports and other communications. There are some limitations to the possibility of applying statistical tests to the data-set as
Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J
For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis.
Meulen, F.F. van der
The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but
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Full Text Available ... Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye ... Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science ...
Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...
Thulasiraj D Ravilla
Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.
... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...
... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...
Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...
Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...
P. Y. Rogov
Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the usage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.
Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti
Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.
Stefánsson, Einar; Zetterström, Charlotta; Ehlers, Niels
Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology......Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology...
Witzner Hansen, Dan; Ji, Qiang
Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications and...
... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...
Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...
Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.
We provide the theory of visual attention and eye-movements that serves as a basis for evaluating eye-tracking research and for discussing salient and emerging issues in visual marketing. Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, we
We know that the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults is eye disease related to poorly managed diabetes. In a prevention research study, telemedicine was shown to increase the number of people getting screened for diabetic eye disease.
... condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your Eyes FEB 20, 2018 By Ari Soglin Researchers at Google say a new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high ...
Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...
Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...
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While literature on research methods abounds, little attention has been given to understanding how qualitative researchers and their approaches to research (i.e., the researcher's stance) shape what we know about global service-learning (GSL) and how we come to know what we know about GSL. Researchers often uncritically adopt a particular research…
... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...
Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...
... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...
Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...
... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...
Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....
Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.
Chinyere Nkemdilim Ezisi; Boniface Ikenna Eze; Obiekwe Okoye; Chimdi Memnofu Chuka-Okosa; Jude Obinna Shiweobi
Background . The provision of population-wide, accessible, affordable, acceptable and evenly distributed qualitative eye care services remains a recurrent challenge to eye care organizations worldwide. Objectives . To report the challenges encountered in setting up eye care service in a pre-existing primary health care facility in rural Nigeria and also audit the common causes of eye disorders in rural setting southeast of Nigeria. Material and methods . The study was an operations ...
Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...
Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...
... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...
Full Text Available The major causes of blindness in children encompass intrauterine and acquired infectious diseases, teratogens and developmental and molecular genetics, nutritional factors, the consequences of preterm birth, and tumors. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore needed. In terms of the major avoidable causes (i.e., those that can be prevented or treated the available evidence shows that these vary in importance from country to country, as well as over time. This is because the underlying causes closely reflect socioeconomic development and the social determinants of health, as well as the provision of preventive and therapeutic programs and services from the community through to tertiary levels of care. The control of blindness in children therefore requires not only strategies that reflect the local epidemiology and the needs and priorities of communities, but also a well functioning, accessible health system which operates within an enabling and conducive policy environment. In this article we use cataract in children as an example and make the case for health financing systems that do not lead to ′catastrophic health expenditure′ for affected families, and the integration of eye health for children into those elements of the health system that work closely with mothers and their children.
Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.
Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...
Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...
Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...
Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...
McCord, David M; Achee, Margaret C; Cannon, Elissa M; Harrop, Tiffany M; Poynter, William D
The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs. This study examined associations between MMPI-2-RF measures of psychopathology and eye-movement metrics. Participants were college students (n = 270) who completed the MMPI-2-RF and then viewed a sequence of 30-s video clips. Results show a pattern of positive correlations between pupil size and emotional/internalizing dysfunction scales when viewing video eliciting negative emotional reactions, reflecting greater arousability in individuals with higher scores on these measures. In contrast, when viewing stimuli depicting angry, threatening material, a clear pattern of negative correlations was found between pupil size and behavioral/externalizing trait measures. These data add to the construct validity of the MMPI-2-RF and support the use of the RDoC matrix as a framework for research on psychopathology.
Cook, Jacqueline Yvonne; Boes, Susan R.
A literature review was conducted to understand how mediators and faculty view a Peer Mediation Program (PMP). The review identified four subgroups: mediators, teachers, administrators, and school counselors as well as their views on the success or lack of success of PMPs. The research also reflects how to best engage stakeholders in the mediation…
Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa
Hundreds of scholarly studies have investigated various aspects of Wikipedia. Although a number of literature reviews have provided overviews of this vast body of research, none has specifically focused on the readers of Wikipedia and issues concerning its readership. In this systematic literatur...
Richter, Jack; McFarland, Lela; Bredfeldt, Christine
Background/Aims Integrating data across systems can be a daunting process. The traditional method of moving data to a common location, mapping fields with different formats and meanings, and performing data cleaning activities to ensure valid and reliable integration across systems can be both expensive and extremely time consuming. As the scope of needed research data increases, the traditional methodology may not be sustainable. Data Virtualization provides an alternative to traditional methods that may reduce the effort required to integrate data across disparate systems. Objective Our goal was to survey new methods in data integration, cloud computing, enterprise data management and virtual data management for opportunities to increase the efficiency of producing VDW and similar data sets. Methods Kaiser Permanente Information Technology (KPIT), in collaboration with the Mid-Atlantic Permanente Research Institute (MAPRI) reviewed methodologies in the burgeoning field of Data Virtualization. We identified potential strengths and weaknesses of new approaches to data integration. For each method, we evaluated its potential application for producing effective research data sets. Results Data Virtualization provides opportunities to reduce the amount of data movement required to integrate data sources on different platforms in order to produce research data sets. Additionally, Data Virtualization also includes methods for managing “fuzzy” matching used to match fields known to have poor reliability such as names, addresses and social security numbers. These methods could improve the efficiency of integrating state and federal data such as patient race, death, and tumors with internal electronic health record data. Discussion The emerging field of Data Virtualization has considerable potential for increasing the efficiency of producing research data sets. An important next step will be to develop a proof of concept project that will help us understand to benefits
Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...
Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...
Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)
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Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...
Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...
... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...
McAloon, Conor G; Macken-Walsh, Áine; Moran, Lisa; Whyte, Paul; More, Simon J; O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease. Internationally, research increasingly recognises that improved understanding of farmers' subjective views and behaviours may inform and enhance disease management strategies and support the identification and implementation of best practice at farm level. The aim of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the values and knowledges of farmers relative to the control of JD at farm level. The Biographical Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM) was used to generate data from both infected and presumed uninfected farms in Ireland. Qualitative analysis revealed that cultural and social capital informed farmers' decisions on whether to introduce control and preventive measures. Cultural capital refers to the pride and esteem farmers associate with particular objects and actions whereas social capital is the value that farmers associate with social relationships with others. On-farm controls were often evaluated by farmers as impractical and were frequently at odds with farmers' knowledge of calf management. Knowledge from farmers of infected herds did not disseminate among peer farmers. Owners of herds believed to be uninfected expressed a view that controls and preventive measures were not worthy of adoption until there was clear evidence of JD in the herd. These findings highlight important barriers and potential aids to prevention and
Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.
Almeida, Marina Storani de; Carvalho, Luis Alberto
Current ophthalmic technology allows the manipulation of eye components, such as anterior cornea and lens, of the human eye with a considerable precision and customization. This technology opens up the possibility of exploiting some characteristics of the eye in order to improve the methods of correcting optical aberrations. Moreover, product development and research for the eye-care professional has reached very high standards, since there is nowadays software available to design and simulat...
Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme
Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer
Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.
Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.
Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.
In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.
Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer
Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...
Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.
During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document
Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael
Review of the etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), and the Cochrane Reviews and Trials in the last 10 years using the key words "dry eye disease," "dry eye syndrome," "dry eye and treatment." Primary sources were used to locate additional resources. Sixty-eight publications were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, book chapters, review articles, original research articles, and product prescribing information for the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of DED. DED is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders. Signs and symptoms of DED vary by patient, but may include ocular irritation, redness, itching, photosensitivity, visual blurring, mucous discharge, and decreased tear meniscus or break-up time. Symptoms improve with treatment, but the condition is not completely curable. Treatment includes reducing environmental causes, discontinuing medications that cause or worsen dry eye, and managing contributing ocular or systemic conditions. Most patients use nonprescription tear substitutes, and if these are not sufficient, other treatment is prescribed. These treatments include the ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine, punctal occlusion, eye side shields, systemic cholinergic agents, and autologous serum tears. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and current therapy for DED.
Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.
Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y
To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P < 0.001 for all). Peripheral reticular pseudodrusen were seen in 15%. Senile reticular pigmentary change was the predominant peripheral change seen in 48% of cases and 16% of controls in zone 2 (P < 0.001). Nonreticular pigment changes were less frequent in the periphery than in the posterior pole (46% vs. 76%) and negligible in controls. Peripheral retinal changes are more prevalent in eyes with AMD than in control eyes. Drusen are seen in a majority of eyes with AMD in both the mid and far periphery, whereas
Benjamin W Tatler
Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.
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Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye health in ilorin, nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... roles that school teachers are expected to play in school eye health programmes, their perceptions ...
Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.
Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...
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... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...
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Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...
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... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...
Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...
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Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.
The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to
Havinga, Paul J.M.; Evers, L.; Wu Jian, W.J.; Karl, H.; Kopke, A.; Handziski, V.; Zorzi, M.
The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It addresses the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to develop
Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła
The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...
Chuang, Lewis; Fisher, Brian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Weiskopf, Daniel
This book discusses research, methods, and recent developments in the interdisciplinary field that spans research in visualization, eye tracking, human-computer interaction, and psychology. It presents extended versions of papers from the First Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization (ETVIS), which was organized as a workshop of the IEEE VIS Conference 2015. Topics include visualization and visual analytics of eye-tracking data, metrics and cognitive models, eye-tracking experiments in the context of visualization interfaces, and eye tracking in 3D and immersive environments. The extended ETVIS papers are complemented by a chapter offering an overview of visualization approaches for analyzing eye-tracking data and a chapter that discusses electrooculography (EOG) as an alternative of acquiring information about eye movements. Covering scientific visualization, information visualization, and visual analytics, this book is a valuable resource for eye-tracking researchers within the visualization community.
Wen, X; Chen, B; Li, Z; Zhou, Z; Tang, X
Chaohu Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in China, however, with the rapid expansion of Hefei, the water environment of Chaohu Lake shows significantly deterioration. In this paper, RapidEye and MODIS imagery were used to monitor the chlorophyll alpha (Chla) distribution in Chaohu Lake. After analyzing the correlation between in-situ measured Chla concentrations and each channel of RapidEye and MODIS imagery, the optimal band combination for the establishment of Chla concentration was determined. For RapidEye imagery, the red edge channel and near infrared channel are relatively more sensitive than other channels. The inversion model using the feature of (B5+B4)/(B2+B1) worked the best with the square value of correlation coefficient reaching up to 0.745. A similar procedure was applied to MODIS imagery. The experiments show that RapidEye with its red edge channel is an effective data source for water environment monitoring, it could provide high spatial resolution of Chla distribution thematic map, MODIS with its higher temporal resolution is also an effective data source in dynamically monitoring water environment. The Chla concentration in the western half of Chao Lake is higher than that in the eastern half
Koenderink, Jan J.
The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists
Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...
Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.
We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.
Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.
Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented
J. J. Gu
Full Text Available Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the control system to drive the artificial eye to move with the natural eye. The second generation model removes the impractical usage of the eye glass frame and uses the human brain EOG (electro-ocular-graph signal picked up by electrodes placed on the sides of a person's temple to carry out the same eye movement detection and control tasks as mentioned above. Theoretical issues on sensor failure detection and recovery, and signal processing techniques used in sensor data fusion, are studied using statistical methods and artificial neural network based techniques. In addition, practical control system design and implementation using micro-controllers are studied and implemented to carry out the natural eye movement detection and artificial robotic eye control tasks. Simulation and experimental studies are performed, and the results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the research project reported in this paper.
Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health
This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...
Mar 14, 2012 ... shown that health workers in some countries can perform neonatal resuscitation ... (wiping the eyes with sterile gauze before applying eye drops and not wiping ..... Sheybani C. Portrait géographique du personnel infirmier à ...
Hirneiß, C; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S
Eye diseases that are relevant regarding their macroeconomic costs and their impact on society include cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related maculopathy, glaucoma and refractive errors. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of direct and indirect costs for major eye disease categories for Germany, based on existing literature and data sources. A semi-structured literature search was performed in the databases Medline and Embase and in the search machine Google for relevant original papers and reviews on costs of eye diseases with relevance for or transferability to Germany (last research date October 2013). In addition, manual searching was performed in important national databases and information sources, such as the Federal Office of Statistics and scientific societies. The direct costs for these diseases add up to approximately 2.6 billion Euros yearly for the Federal Republic of Germany, including out of the pocket payments from patients but excluding optical aids (e.g. glasses). In addition to those direct costs there are also indirect costs which are caused e.g. by loss of employment or productivity or by a reduction in health-related quality of life. These indirect costs can only be roughly estimated. Including the indirect costs for the eye diseases investigated, a total yearly macroeconomic cost ranging between 4 and 12 billion Euros is estimated for Germany. The costs for the eye diseases cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related maculopathy, glaucoma and refractive errors have a macroeconomic relevant dimension. Based on the predicted demographic changes with an ageing society an increase of the prevalence and thus also an increase of costs for eye diseases is expected in the future.
Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda
Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...
Webb, R. H.
The Center of Excellence for Laser Applications in Medicine at the Schepens Eye Research Institute (SERI) is a Center for: A core group of researchers who support each other and their various projects for real-time medical imaging and diagnostics in contiguous space at SERI. Clinical collaborators who participate in the core research at SERI, MEEI, and local ophthalmology practices, and at associated sites around the world. Industrial partners who transfer our technology to commercial products that will reach clinical usage everywhere. Students, post-doctoral associates and medical fellows who work with us and learn how to practice real-time medical imaging and diagnostics.
Bavinger, J Clay; DeLoss, Karen; Mian, Shahzad I
Dry eye syndrome can be difficult to manage in severe or refractory cases. In patients in whom traditional treatments have limited efficacy, alternative treatments may be considered for dry eye syndrome, including scleral lenses. The present review summarizes the evidence regarding scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome. Scleral lenses have become a viable option for severe dry eye syndrome, and have been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated, with most reports citing improved visual acuity and relief of symptoms. Currently, there are 18 manufacturers of scleral lenses, although published reports on scleral lenses primarily focus on the BostonSight PROSE and the Jupiter Lens. Scleral lenses are efficacious and well tolerated for use in severe dry eye syndrome. Further research is needed to compare different sizes and types of lenses, and to standardize outcome measures.
Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng
The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.
Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine
In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex  and Snipper) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE...
Chen, Frances S; Minson, Julia A; Schöne, Maren; Heinrichs, Markus
Popular belief holds that eye contact increases the success of persuasive communication, and prior research suggests that speakers who direct their gaze more toward their listeners are perceived as more persuasive. In contrast, we demonstrate that more eye contact between the listener and speaker during persuasive communication predicts less attitude change in the direction advocated. In Study 1, participants freely watched videos of speakers expressing various views on controversial sociopolitical issues. Greater direct gaze at the speaker's eyes was associated with less attitude change in the direction advocated by the speaker. In Study 2, we instructed participants to look at either the eyes or the mouths of speakers presenting arguments counter to participants' own attitudes. Intentionally maintaining direct eye contact led to less persuasion than did gazing at the mouth. These findings suggest that efforts at increasing eye contact may be counterproductive across a variety of persuasion contexts.
Yeo, Sharon; Tong, Louis
Dry eye is a common problem that affects many people worldwide, reducing quality of life and impacting daily activities. A qualitative approach often used in medicine and other disciplines is used to evaluate how people with dry eye cope with this impact. Six focus group sessions were conducted at the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC), premises of an eye research institute. These focus groups consist of a spectrum of dry eye sufferers (30 women, 8 men, aged 61 ± 11.8 years). Standard methods of coding followed by determination of themes were adhered to. Where classification was difficult, consensus was made between 3 assessors. Audio-recorded transcripts were coded in 10 themes by 3 assessors independently. Four of the themes involved traditional measures such as lid warming, cleansing, lubrication and oral dietary supplements. The other themes discovered were Traditional Chinese Medicine, modification of eye-care habits (e.g. wearing sunglasses), environmental humidity, lifestyle (e.g. sleeping habits), psychological attitude, and lastly sharing and communication. Holistic coping strategies were found to be prominent in dry eye sufferers from these focus groups, and people tend to find personalised ways of coping with the impact of dry eye on daily living.
Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C
Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.
... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...
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In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...
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Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko
We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize
cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...
Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...
Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean
Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...
Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...
... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...
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Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...
Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...
... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...
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Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...
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Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf
implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....
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Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...
Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia
Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.
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... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...
Alves, Júlio Miguel Gomes Rebelo
This thesis reports on research done for the integration of eye tracking technology into virtual reality environments, with the goal of using it in rehabilitation of patients who suffered from stroke. For the last few years, eye tracking has been a focus on medical research, used as an assistive tool to help people with disabilities interact with new technologies and as an assessment tool to track the eye gaze during computer interactions. However, tracking more complex gaze behavio...
Nakamura, Masatsugu; Imanaka, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Asuka
There has been rapid progress in our understanding of dry eye pathogenesis, as well as the development of improved diagnostic clinical tests. Various types of dry eye treatment drugs have been developed. This review summarizes the basic and clinical research carried out in the development of diquafosol for ophthalmic use. Diquafosol is a dinucleotide, purinoreceptor P2Y(2) receptor agonist. Basic pharmacological studies have shown that it acts on P2Y(2) receptors at the ocular surface, to promote tear and mucin secretion via elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Diquafosol also improves tear and mucin secretion in experimental dry eye models. Based on the results of laboratory experiments, the authors conducted a series of clinical studies in patients with dry eye disease. Diquafosol was effective in the treatment of dry eye disease at an optimal dose of 3% six times a day. In comparison to commercially available 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution, 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution showed non-inferiority in improving corneal fluorescein staining scores and superiority in improving keratoconjunctival Rose Bengal staining scores. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution has a novel mechanism of action that is characterized by its stimulatory effects on tear and mucin secretion. This drug has the potential to be effective in patients with tear film instability and short break-up time type of dry eye, which are essential factors in dry eye pathogenesis.
Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen
The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....
Holmqvist, Kenneth; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Weijer, Joost van de
We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuring these movements, with a view to understanding how we attend to and process the visual information we encounter Eye tracking as a research tool is now more accessible than ever, and is growing in popularity amongst researchers from a whole host of different disciplines. Usability analysts, sports scientists, cognitive psychologists, reading researchers, psycholinguists, neurophysiologists, electrical engineers, and others, all have a vested interest in eye tracking for different reasons. The ability to record eye-movements has helped advance our science and led to technological innovations. However, the growth of eye tracking in recent years has also presented a variety of challenges - in particular the issue of how to d...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible....... Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used...
Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch ...
... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...
Full Text Available ... of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams below to ... part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows ...
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... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...
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Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...
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Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...
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Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Inoue, Yuichi; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RWA) is observed in some patients without a clinical history of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). It remains unknown whether these patients meet the refined quantitative electromyographic (EMG) criteria supporting a clinical RBD diagnosis. We quantitatively evaluated EMG activity and investigated its overnight distribution in patients with isolated qualitative RWA. Fifty participants with an incidental polysomnographic finding of RWA (isolated qualitative RWA) were included. Tonic, phasic, and 'any' EMG activity during REM sleep on PSG were quantified retrospectively. Referring to the quantitative cut-off values for a polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD, 7/50 (14%) and 6/50 (12%) of the patients showed phasic and 'any' EMG activity in the mentalis muscle above the respective cut-off values. No patient was above the cut-off value for tonic EMG activity or phasic EMG activity in the anterior tibialis muscles. Patients with RWA above the cut-off value showed higher amounts of RWA during later REM sleep periods. This is the first study showing that some subjects with incidental RWA meet the refined quantitative EMG criteria for a diagnosis of RBD. Future longitudinal studies must investigate whether this subgroup with isolated qualitative RWA is at an increased risk of developing fully expressed RBD and/or neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum. However, little is known about the test’s psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test’s reliance on one’s vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations.
Pulay, Márk Ágoston
Letting children with severe physical disabilities (like Tetraparesis spastica) to get relevant motional experiences of appropriate quality and quantity is now the greatest challenge for us in the field of neurorehabilitation. These motional experiences may establish many cognitive processes, but may also cause additional secondary cognitive dysfunctions such as disorders in body image, figure invariance, visual perception, auditory differentiation, concentration, analytic and synthetic ways of thinking, visual memory etc. Virtual Reality is a technology that provides a sense of presence in a real environment with the help of 3D pictures and animations formed in a computer environment and enable the person to interact with the objects in that environment. One of our biggest challenges is to find a well suited input device (hardware) to let the children with severe physical disabilities to interact with the computer. Based on our own experiences and a thorough literature review we have come to the conclusion that an effective combination of eye-tracking and EMG devices should work well.
Hudec, René; Michalová, S.
Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016
Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena
, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...
In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.
Mulvey, Fiona Bríd
movements can be controlled either by bottom up stimulus properties or by top down cognitive control, studies have compared eye movements in real world tasks and searched for indicators of cognitive load or level of attention when task demands increase. Extracting the effects of cognitive processing on eye......The aim of this research is to investigate the explication of levels of attention through eye movement parameters. Previous research from disparate fields have suggested that eye movements are related to cognitive processing, however, the exact nature of the relationship is unclear. Since eye...... to investigate individual differences in levels of processing within the normal population using existing constructs and tests of cognitive style. Study 4 investigates these stimuli and the eye movements of a clinical group with known interruption to the dorsal stream of processing, and subsequent isolated...
NASA's "Eyes on…" suite of products continues to grow in capability and popularity. The "Eyes on the Earth", "Eyes on the Solar System" and "Eyes on Exoplanets" real-time, 3D interactive visualization products have proven themselves as highly effective demonstration and communication tools for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. This presentation will give a quick look at the latest updates to the "Eyes" suite plus what is being done to make them tools for STEM Education.
Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K
Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included
This paper briefly describes the state health services in general, and eye care in particular for Palestinian Arabs under the British Mandate (1917-1948). The paper will also discuss the environmental and cultural origins of the prevalence of eye diseases among Palestinian Arabs. The second part of the research describes in detail indigenous practices of traditional medicine for healing trachoma and other eye diseases, inflammation that were prevalent in Mandatory Palestine.
Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine
Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.
Arianpour, Ashkan; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Ford, Joseph E; Schanzlin, David J; Lo, Yuhwa
To create an accurate, low-cost optomechanical model eye for investigation of refractive errors in clinical and basic research studies. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with dimensions consistent with the human eye was designed and fabricated. Optical simulations were performed on the optomechanical eye model, and the quantified resolution and refractive errors were compared with the widely used Navarro eye model using the ray-tracing software ZEMAX (Radiant Zemax, Redmond, WA). The resolution of the physical optomechanical eye model was then quantified with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imager using the image resolution software SFR Plus (Imatest, Boulder, CO). Refractive, manufacturing, and assembling errors were also assessed. A refractive intraocular lens (IOL) and a diffractive IOL were added to the optomechanical eye model for tests and analyses of a 1951 U.S. Air Force target chart. Resolution and aberrations of the optomechanical eye model and the Navarro eye model were qualitatively similar in ZEMAX simulations. Experimental testing found that the optomechanical eye model reproduced properties pertinent to human eyes, including resolution better than 20/20 visual acuity and a decrease in resolution as the field of view increased in size. The IOLs were also integrated into the optomechanical eye model to image objects at distances of 15, 10, and 3 feet, and they indicated a resolution of 22.8 cycles per degree at 15 feet. A life-sized optomechanical eye model with the flexibility to be patient-specific was designed and constructed. The model had the resolution of a healthy human eye and recreated normal refractive errors. This model may be useful in the evaluation of IOLs for cataract surgery. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.
cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....
Sep 29, 2017 ... Conclusion: Knowledge gaps existed regarding cord care, eye care, and immunization. Mothers .... umbilical cord should be left clean and dry without applying any .... Disease prevented by vaccine given orally at birth (OPV).
. +Frequencies. Percent. (%). Fever. 12. 60. Fatigue. 8. 40. Vomiting. 8. 40. Diarrhea. 8. 40. Loss of appetite. 7. 35. Headache. 3. 15. Joint Pain. 3. 15. Conjunctivitis. 2. 10. Muscle Pain. 2. 10. Confusion. 1. 5. Eye pain. 1. 5.
Sep 29, 2017 ... Knowledge of postnatal mothers on essential newborn care ... essential newborn care: breastfeeding, cord care, immunisation, eye care .... child from polio. ... showed a direct correlation between maternal attitude and optimal.
King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina
and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...
Full Text Available Peter A Simmons, Cindy Carlisle-Wilcox, Joseph G Vehige Ophthalmology Research and Development, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops.Methods: A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer’s test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments.Results: A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001 and TBUT (P≤0.005. LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events.Conclusion: In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears
Guo, Baobao; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Jiande; Yan, Hua
Eye movement is a new kind of feature for biometrical recognition, it has many advantages compared with other features such as fingerprint, face, and iris. It is not only a sort of static characteristics, but also a combination of brain activity and muscle behavior, which makes it effective to prevent spoofing attack. In addition, eye movements can be incorporated with faces, iris and other features recorded from the face region into multimode systems. In this paper, we do an exploring study on eye movement identification based on the eye movement datasets provided by Komogortsev et al. in 2011 with different classification methods. The time of saccade and fixation are extracted from the eye movement data as the eye movement features. Furthermore, the performance analysis was conducted on different classification methods such as the BP, RBF, ELMAN and SVM in order to provide a reference to the future research in this field.
Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...
... cold helps keep down pain and swelling. If pain continues or your vision is blurry, get to a doctor right away. ! If you get hit in the eye with flying metal, wood, or material from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If ...
Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin
This paper presents a gaze typing system based on consumer hardware. Eye tracking based on consumer hardware is subject to several unknown factors. We propose methods using robust statistical principles to accommodate uncertainties in image data as well as in gaze estimates to improve accuracy. We...
Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...
Full Text Available ... type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear ...
... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...
Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...
Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...
One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.
Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs
The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,
... an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision A tear in the retina A blockage of the small veins that carry ... Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss ... vision If not treated, diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent ...
Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...
Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication firstname.lastname@example.org Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...
... you're wearing? In the United States, the use of color additives is strictly regulated. A number of color ... to color additives that are not approved for use in the area of the eye. Avoid color additives that are not approved for use in ...
Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication email@example.com Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...
Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...
Full Text Available ... the white outer coating of the eye. Vitreous humor (VIT-ree-us HYOO-mer) is the clear ... in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...
Dobeš, M.; Martínek, J.; Skoupil, D.; Dobešová, Z.; Pospíšil, Jaroslav
Roč. 117, - (2006), s. 468-473 ISSN 0030-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : human eye localization * modified Hough transform * eye iris and eyelid shape determination Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2006
Peters, M.J.; Dunajski, Z.; Meijzssen, T.E.M.; Breukink, E.W.; Wevers-Henke, J.J.
A new technique to measure small eye movements is reported. The precise recording of human eye movements is necessary for research on visual fatigue induced by visual display units.1 So far all methods used have disadvantages: especially those which are sensitive or are rather painful.2,3 Our method
Kierkels, J.J.M.; Riani, J.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.
We present a new method to correct eye movement artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. By using an eye tracker, whose data cannot be corrupted by any electrophysiological signals, an accurate method for correction is developed. The eye-tracker data is used in a Kalman filter to estimate which
... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...
Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 121 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception 2005. 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Eye movements * scanning * temperament * TCI-R * Rorschach test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Christoffels, I.; Young, A.W.; Owen, A.M.; Scott, S.K.; Keane, J.; Lawrence, A.D.
S. Baron-Cohen (1997) has suggested that the interpretation of gaze plays an important role in a normal functioning theory of mind (ToM) system. Consistent with this suggestion, functional imaging research has shown that both ToM tasks and eye gaze processing engage a similar region of the posterior
Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B
In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye
Full Text Available To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy.In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value.The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.
Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai
To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.
In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading. Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 10/13/2010.
Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C
Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Perry, Henry D
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the tear film and ocular surface that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and often ocular surface damage. Although recent research has made progress in elucidating DED pathophysiology, currently there are no uniform diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the normal anatomy and physiology of the lacrimal functional unit and the tear film; the pathophysiology of DED; DED etiology, classification, and risk factors; and DED diagnosis, including symptom assessment and the roles of selected diagnostic tests.
In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...
Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others
A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…
... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...
Congdon, N G; West, K P
The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.
Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi
of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...... of creativity at both process and content levels. The benefits, limitations, and possible applications of the method are considered in the broader context of creativity studies....
Abdo, M; Haddad, S; Emam, M
The New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit has been and is right now regularly utilized in ophthalmic surgery evaluation. Inside NZW rabbit eye, the visibility of ocular structures throughout surgical procedure is fantastic. Younger rabbits are used in different ages for the evaluation of ophthalmic surgery. Complete studies of ocular development in the NZW rabbits have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the major landmarks and the time course of the pre- and post-natal development of the complete eye tunics of the NZW rabbit to give a superb model as well as a fruitful area for further ophthalmological investigations. Serial histological sections of NZW rabbit prenatal (E13-E28) and post-natal (P1-P14) stages were examined, respectively. The eye of the NZW rabbit developed in a similar manner to that of the human and domestic animals eyes; the principal differences were at the time of occurrence of certain developmental events, absence of pigmentation which represent an exploited benefit for ophthalmic surgery, remarkable Bowman's membrane at E25, poor developed ciliary stroma and juvenile retinal layer until P9. In human, the basic morphogenetic processes of the development of eye tunics are completed towards the end of the first half of gestation period. However, the latter represents the beginning stage of the development of eye tunics in the rabbit. Thus, allowing various extensive ophthalmic researches to be performed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E
Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.
Feb 25, 2013 ... Refractive error is an optical defect intrinsic to the eye which prevents the light from being brought to a single focus on the retina thus reducing normal vision . Refractive error is a major contributor to visual impairment which is a significant cause of morbidity in children worldwide . Since children do not ...
Nieuwenhuis, S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Ras, P.H.; Berends, F.; Duijs, P.; Samara, Z.; Slagter, H.A.
Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the
Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.
Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…
Wedel, M.; Pieters, R.; Moutinho, L.; Bigné, E.; Manrai (eds.), A.K.
Against the backdrop of the rapid growth of the use eye tracking and facial recognition methodology, this chapter discusses the measurement of eye movements, facial expression of emotions, pupil dilation, eye blinks and head movements. After discussing some of the main research findings in the
Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J
To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.
A method and system for monitoring the motion of one or both eyes, includes capturing a sequence of overlapping images of a subject's face including an eye and the corresponding non-eye region; identifying a plurality of keypoints in each image; mapping corresponding keypoints in two or more images...... of the sequence; assigning the keypoints to the eye and to the corresponding non-eye region; calculating individual velocities of the corresponding keypoints in the eye and the corresponding non-eye region to obtain a distribution of velocities; extracting at least one velocity measured for the eye and at least...... one velocity measured for the corresponding non-eye region; calculating the eye-in-head velocity for the eye based upon the measured velocity for the eye and the measured velocity for the corresponding non-eye region; and calculating the eye-in-head position based upon the eye- in-head velocity....
Dooley, K O; Farmer, A
Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee
and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....
Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony
In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.
Santosa, I.; Romla, L.; Herawati, S.
Cataracts are eye diseases characterized by cloudy or opacity of the lens of the eye by changing the colour of black into grey-white which slowly continues to grow and develop without feeling pain and pain that can cause blindness in human vision. Therefore, researchers make an expert system of cataract eye disease diagnosis by using Fuzzy Mamdani and how to care. The fuzzy method can convert the crisp value to linguistic value by fuzzification and includes in the rule. So this system produces an application program that can help the public in knowing cataract eye disease and how to care based on the symptoms suffered. From the results of the design implementation and testing of expert system applications to diagnose eye disease cataracts, it can be concluded that from a trial of 50 cases of data, obtained test results accuracy between system predictions with expert predictions obtained a value of 78% truth.
Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G
Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (Phuman eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching.
Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas
A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...
Agda M. Andreotti
Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: “eye amputation,” “eye trauma,” “phantom eye syndrome,” “phantom pain,” and “quality of life,” associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach.
Cesarini, J.P.; Sliney, D.H.
Under most conditions, the eye is well adapted to protect itself against ultraviolet radiation encountered in the outdoor environment as a result of the exposure geometry of the sun. Only when snow is on the ground does one experience acute effects of UV sunlight exposure (i.e. snow blindness, or photokeratitis). With regard to artificial sources, there are many occasions where one views bright light sources such as tungsten-halogen lamps, arc lamps and welding arcs. Such viewing is normally only momentary because of the aversion response to bright light and due to discomfort glare. However, such an aversion does not take place for germicidal lamps and other UV lamps which do not contain a strong visible component in their spectrum. The adverse effects from viewing such sources has been studied for decades and during the last two decades guidelines for limiting exposure to protect the eye have been developed. The guidelines were fostered to a large extent by the growing use of lasers and the quickly recognized hazard posed by viewing laser sources. (author)
Ocular scintigraphy can now be carried out with several tracers: 131 I diiodofluorescein and sup(99m)Tc, hypervascularisation indicators; 131 I iodinated chloroquine, melanoma selective. The detector used is an Anger scintillation camera coupled to a multiparameter analysis chain or a computer. The ''pin-hole'' type collimator, which has a stenopaeic opening in front of each eye, is adaptable to any inter-pupil distance. The very simple scintigraphic procedure is described. The results, taken from two statistical studies on 198 and 80 patients respectively, concern the main types of eye disease encountered: malignant melanic tumours, other tumours, metastases, choroiditis, idiopathic detachments of the retina etc... The interpretation of the scintigrams and the problems involved are considered. Finally the main indications of the method are defined with emphasis on the possibilities of double scintigraphy, diiodofluorescein only showing up the hypervascularisation often associated with the tumour whereas iodinated chloroquine, when the result is positive, points to the presence of a malignant melanoma [fr
Shtein, Roni M
Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730
Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian
PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...
Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen G; Glynn, Robert; Rosner, Bernard
To describe and demonstrate appropriate linear regression methods for analyzing correlated continuous eye data. We describe several approaches to regression analysis involving both eyes, including mixed effects and marginal models under various covariance structures to account for inter-eye correlation. We demonstrate, with SAS statistical software, applications in a study comparing baseline refractive error between one eye with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the unaffected fellow eye, and in a study determining factors associated with visual field in the elderly. When refractive error from both eyes were analyzed with standard linear regression without accounting for inter-eye correlation (adjusting for demographic and ocular covariates), the difference between eyes with CNV and fellow eyes was 0.15 diopters (D; 95% confidence interval, CI -0.03 to 0.32D, p = 0.10). Using a mixed effects model or a marginal model, the estimated difference was the same but with narrower 95% CI (0.01 to 0.28D, p = 0.03). Standard regression for visual field data from both eyes provided biased estimates of standard error (generally underestimated) and smaller p-values, while analysis of the worse eye provided larger p-values than mixed effects models and marginal models. In research involving both eyes, ignoring inter-eye correlation can lead to invalid inferences. Analysis using only right or left eyes is valid, but decreases power. Worse-eye analysis can provide less power and biased estimates of effect. Mixed effects or marginal models using the eye as the unit of analysis should be used to appropriately account for inter-eye correlation and maximize power and precision.
Eye movements are now widely used to investigate cognitive processes during reading, scene perception, and visual search. In this article, research on the following topics is reviewed with respect to reading: (a) the perceptual span (or span of effective vision), (b) preview benefit, (c) eye movement control, and (d) models of eye movements. Related issues with respect to eye movements during scene perception and visual search are also reviewed. It is argued that research on eye movements during reading has been somewhat advanced over research on eye movements in scene perception and visual search and that some of the paradigms developed to study reading should be more widely adopted in the study of scene perception and visual search. Research dealing with "real-world" tasks and research utilizing the visual-world paradigm are also briefly discussed.
Roč. 15, č. 4 (2005), s. 430-438 ISSN 0959-437X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/04/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : paxpax * eye development * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.361, year: 2005
Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...
Rozema, Jos J; Rodriguez, Pablo; Ruiz Hidalgo, Irene; Navarro, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Koppen, Carina
To present and validate a stochastic eye model for developing keratoconus to e.g. improve optical corrective strategies. This could be particularly useful for researchers that do not have access to original keratoconic data. The Scheimpflug tomography, ocular biometry and wavefront of 145 keratoconic right eyes were collected. These data were processed using principal component analysis for parameter reduction, followed by a multivariate Gaussian fit that produces a stochastic model for keratoconus (SyntEyes KTC). The output of this model is filtered to remove the occasional incorrect topography patterns by either an automatic or manual procedure. Finally, the output of this keratoconus model is matched to that of the original model for normal eyes using the non-corneal biometry to obtain a description of keratoconus development. The synthetic data generated by the model were found to be significantly equal to the original data (non-parametric Mann-Whitney equivalence test; 145/154 passed). The variability of the synthetic data, however, was often significantly less than that of the original data, especially for the higher order Zernike terms of corneal elevation (non-parametric Levene test; p eyes with incorrect topographies. Interpolation between matched pairs of normal and keratoconic SyntEyes appears to provide an adequate model for keratoconus progression. The synthetic data provided by the proposed keratoconus model closely resembles actual clinical data and may be used for a range of research applications when (sufficient) real data is not available. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.
Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin
Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...
A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)
textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection
Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L
The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.
Full Text Available Clarissa Shu Ming Cheng,1,2 Yi Fang Lee,2 Charles Ong,3 Zhu Li Yap,2 Andrew Tsai,2 Aditi Mohla,2 Monisha E Nongpiur,4 Tin Aung,2,4 Shamira A Perera2,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Singapore National Eye Centre, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Background: To compare retinal vessel oxygenation and vessel caliber in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity.Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. The 159 subjects (PACG, n=39; POAG, n=41; NTG, n=41; normal controls, n=38 underwent retinal oxygen saturation measurements using the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter, optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field testing. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel diameter were compared between the glaucoma groups and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for comparison among different subtypes of glaucoma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the inter-eye differences.Results: Compared to normal controls, arteriolar oxygen saturation was increased in PACG eyes (P=0.048 but not in POAG or NTG eyes. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation in venules or arteriovenous (AV difference in all three glaucoma groups. Venular diameter was significantly reduced in all glaucoma groups compared to normal controls (P<0.001, but no such change was observed in arteriolar diameter (P=0.10. When comparing between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity, arteriolar oxygen saturation (P=0.03 and AV difference (P=0.04 were significantly higher, while arteriolar diameter was significantly lower (P=0.001 in the worse eye in PACG group. There were no significant
... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...
Li, Wen-Chin; Lin, John J. H.; Braithwaite, Graham; Greaves, Matt
Eye tracking device had provided researchers a promising way to investigate what pilot‘s cognitive processes when they see information present on the flight deck. There are 35 participants consisted by pilots and avionics engineers participated in current research. The research apparatus include an eye tracker and a flight simulator divided by five AOIs for data collection. The research aims are to develop cost-efficiency of eye tracking technique in order to facilitate scientific research of...
Christoforou, Christoforos; Christou-Champi, Spyros; Constantinidou, Fofi; Theodorou, Maria
Eye-tracking has been extensively used to quantify audience preferences in the context of marketing and advertising research, primarily in methodologies involving static images or stimuli (i.e., advertising, shelf testing, and website usability). However, these methodologies do not generalize to narrative-based video stimuli where a specific storyline is meant to be communicated to the audience. In this paper, a novel metric based on eye-gaze dispersion (both within and across viewings) that ...
Jee, Donghyun; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul
To compare the antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops. A total of 100 patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into two groups. Fifty patients (group 1) were treated four times with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops in the first month and with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops in the second and third months. Another 50 patients (group 2) were treated with preserved eye drops on the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Treatment with preservative-free eye drops led to significant improvements in symptoms, tear film breakup time, Schirmer I score, and impression cytologic findings compared to treatment with preserved eye drops (P dry eye syndrome. There was a statistically significant decrease in the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α concentrations and a statistically significant increase in the catalase, peroxiredoxin 2, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2), and thioredoxin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of tears in the preservative-free group at 1, 2, and 3 months compared to initial values, respectively (P eye drops is effective against the dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free eye drops seem to be more effective than preserved eye drops in decreasing ocular inflammation and in increasing antioxidant contents in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
... disease,” Miller says. “With current technology, thousands of cells must die before it’s detected.” His team’s new method would allow eye doctors to see the damage earlier. In glaucoma, ...
Full Text Available Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency, a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV, i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.
Deniz, Oscar; Vallez, Noelia; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose L; Rico-Saavedra, Jose M; Parra-Patino, Javier; Bueno, Gloria; Moloney, David; Dehghani, Alireza; Dunne, Aubrey; Pagani, Alain; Krauss, Stephan; Reiser, Ruben; Waeny, Martin; Sorci, Matteo; Llewellynn, Tim; Fedorczak, Christian; Larmoire, Thierry; Herbst, Marco; Seirafi, Andre; Seirafi, Kasra
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence". Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.
Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios
In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.
LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W
Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru
Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.
Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas
Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.
Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...
There was positive history of application of traditional eye medicine and an unsuccessful attempt was made ... in the dry season in the northern parts of Nigeria, ... Hematocrit, serum urea and electrolytes were within normal limits. Treatment.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...
Full Text Available The seven Exchange articles that follow are based on the dissertations of students at the International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who graduated in 2008.
John, Kevin K; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Pokharel, Manusheela; Grossman, Douglas
Eye-tracking technology has been used within a multitude of disciplines to provide data linking eye movements to visual processing of various stimuli (i.e., x-rays, situational positioning, printed information, and warnings). Despite the benefits provided by eye-tracking in allowing for the identification and quantification of visual attention, the discipline of dermatology has yet to see broad application of the technology. Notwithstanding dermatologists' heavy reliance upon visual patterns and cues to discriminate between benign and atypical nevi, literature that applies eye-tracking to the study of dermatology is sparse; and literature specific to patient-initiated behaviors, such as skin self-examination (SSE), is largely non-existent. The current article provides a review of eye-tracking research in various medical fields, culminating in a discussion of current applications and advantages of eye-tracking for dermatology research. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Yospaiboon, Kasem; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij
To assess national eye health as a baseline for improving medical education, services and research. Information on eye illness among out- and in-patients was based on hospital claims from the three national health insurance schemes in 2010. The data were analyzed by age groups. In 2010, 4,982,025 out-patient visits and 187,080 in-patient admissions were reported. The five most common outpatient eye conditions were disorders of the (1) conjunctiva (H10-H13) (2) eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit (H00-H06) (3) lens (H25-28) (4) sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body (H15-H22) and (5) glaucoma (H40-H42). The five most common inpatient eye diseases were (1) disorders of lens (H25-H28) (2) conjunctiva (H10-H13) (3) sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body (H15-H22) (4) choroid and retina (H30-H35) and (5) glaucoma (H40-H42). Information on the most frequent eye diseases-including the types and frequency of high risk conditions, the diseases causing the most impact on vision and resulting in the highest health expenditures-will be used to (a) revise the curricula for medical education (b) to improve eye care services and (c) to improve access to data for research themes tailored to local and national needs.
Shtein, Roni M
Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Methods: Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions – “result quality” and “process quality.” The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011–2016. Results: Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%, discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. Conclusion: These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.
Acharya, Manisha; Biswas, Saurabh; Das, Animesh; Mathur, Umang; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Ashok; Dubey, Suneeta
The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions - "result quality" and "process quality." The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA) program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP) with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011-2016. Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%), discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.
Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten
BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....
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Mayer, Udo; Neumann, Markus D.; Kubbat, Wolfgang; Landau, Kurt
A normal developing child will achieve emmetropia in youth and maintain it. Thereby cornea, lens and axial length of the eye grow astonishingly coordinated. In the last years research has evidenced that this coordinated growing process is a visually controlled closed loop. The mechanism has been studied particularly in animals. It was found that the growth of the axial length of the eyeball is controlled by image focus information from the retina. It was shown that maladjustment can occur by this visually-guided growth control mechanism that result in ametropia. Thereby it has been proven that e.g. short-sightedness is not only caused by heredity, but is acquired under certain visual conditions. It is shown that these conditions are similar to the conditions of viewing stereoscopic displays where the normal accommodation convergence coupling is disjoint. An evaluation is given of the potential of damaging the eyes by viewing stereoscopic displays. Concerning this, different viewing methods for stereoscopic displays are evaluated. Moreover, clues are given how the environment and display conditions shall be set and what users shall be chosen to minimize the risk of eye damages.
Howland, Howard C
A brief history of photorefraction, i.e., the refraction of eyes by photography or computer image capture, is given. The method of photorefraction originated from an optical scheme for secret communication across the Berlin wall. This scheme used a lens whose focus about infinity was modulated by a movable reflecting surface. From this device, it was recognized that the vertebrate eye was such a reflector and that its double-pass pointspread could be used to compute its degree of defocus. Subsequently, a second, totally independent invention, more accurately termed "photoretinoscopy," used an eccentric light source and obtained retinoscopic-like images of the reflex in the pupil of the subject's eyes. Photoretinoscopy has become the preferred method of photorefraction and has been instantiated in a wide variety of devices used in vision screening and research. This has been greatly helped by the parallel development of computer and digital camera technology. It seems likely that photorefractive methods will continue to be refined and may eventually become ubiquitous in clinical practice.
Full Text Available Marguerite B McDonald,1 Hosam Sheha,2–5 Sean Tighe,2,3 Susan B Janik,6 Frank W Bowden,7 Amit R Chokshi,8 Michael A Singer,9 Seema Nanda,10 Mujtaba A Qazi,11 Damon Dierker,12 Adam T Shupe,13 Brittany J McMurren14 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 2Ocular Surface Center and TissueTech, Inc., Miami, FL, USA; 3Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Hofstra University School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 5Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt; 6Solinsky Eye Care, Kensington, CT, USA; 7Bowden Eye & Associates, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 8Florida Eye Specialists, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 9Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA; 10TX Eye Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 11Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO, USA; 12Eye Surgeons of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 13Royo Eye Care, Marysville, CA, USA; 14Gordon and Weiss Vision Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserved amniotic membrane (CAM in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in a large patient population. Methods: A retrospective chart review at 10 clinical sites was done of patients with refractory DED who received CAM and completed at least 3 months of follow-up. Data collected were demographics; medical history including previous and current ocular treatment, diagnosis, clinical presentations, comorbidity, duration and frequency of treatment with CAM; and concomitant medications. The primary outcome was the change in dry eye workshop (DEWS score after treatment. Results: A total of 97 eyes of 84 patients exhibited severe dry eye despite maximal medical treatments including topical artificial tears, cyclosporine-A, serum, antibiotics, and steroids. Patients manifested with superficial punctate keratitis (86%, filamentary keratitis (13%, exposure keratitis (19%, neurotrophic keratitis (2%, and corneal epithelial defect (7%. After CAM
Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...
At the Center for Research Excellence in Business Models (CREBS), we are preparing a series of 2012 research projects on business models for the internationalization of small and medium sized companies. We are also addressing problems of accountability and valuation in new types of business model....
Hammoud, Riad I.; Hansen, Dan Witzner
While existing eye detection and tracking algorithms can work reasonably well in a controlled environment, they tend to perform poorly under real world imaging conditions where the lighting produces shadows and the person's eyes can be occluded by e.g. glasses or makeup. As a result, pixel clusters...... associated with the eyes tend to be grouped together with background-features. This problem occurs both for eye detection and eye tracking. Problems that especially plague eye tracking include head movement, eye blinking and light changes, all of which can cause the eyes to suddenly disappear. The usual...... approach in such cases is to abandon the tracking routine and re-initialize eye detection. Of course this may be a difficult process due to missed data problem. Accordingly, what is needed is an efficient method of reliably tracking a person's eyes between successively produced video image frames, even...
Haitham Y Al-Nashar
Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclosporine 0.05% in the treatment of dry-eye disease. Patients and methods A total of 35 eyes of 20 patients with dry-eye disease were included in the present study. Ten patients (20 eyes) had dry eyes associated with systemic rheumatologic disease (Sjögren′s syndrome), five patients (10 eyes) had dry eyes after undergoing laser in-situ keratomileusis, and five patients (five eyes) had dry eyes after cataract...
de Paiva, Cintia S.
Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314
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A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.
Beckers, Henny Jm; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina Aw; de Crom, Ronald Mpc; Schouten, Jan Sag; Webers, Carroll Ab
To study visual complaints and eye diseases among professional and amateur orchestral musicians in the Netherlands. In this observational study, members from professional and amateur symphony or wind orchestras were asked to complete a questionnaire collecting demographic data, musical, medical, and family history, and data on present visual complaints and/or eye diseases. Questions about playing in the orchestra were also asked. Data from 70 professionals and 48 amateurs showed that most musicians needed glasses or contact lenses for playing in the orchestra (61% of the professionals, 63% of the amateurs). A majority (66% of professionals, 71% of amateurs) had visited an ophthalmologist at least once during their lifetime, and 10% of the professionals and 23% of the amateurs were currently under treatment of an ophthalmologist. Visual complaints while playing in the orchestra were quite common and included poor lighting conditions, problems with reading small notes, blurred vision, tired eyes, and itching or burning eyes. Professional musicians especially reported adverse effects of eye complaints encountered in the orchestra for daily life; 35% got tired earlier and 33% felt that they could not adequately perform their tasks in the orchestra. The results show that visual complaints and eye problems probably are quite common among orchestral musicians and therefore warrant further interest and research.
Graf, Arnulf Ba; Andersen, Richard A
Understanding how the brain computes eye position is essential to unraveling high-level visual functions such as eye movement planning, coordinate transformations and stability of spatial awareness. The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is essential for this process. However, despite decades of research, its contribution to the eye position signal remains controversial. LIP neurons have recently been reported to inaccurately represent eye position during a saccadic eye movement, and to be too slow to support a role in high-level visual functions. We addressed this issue by predicting eye position and saccade direction from the responses of populations of LIP neurons. We found that both signals were accurately predicted before, during and after a saccade. Also, the dynamics of these signals support their contribution to visual functions. These findings provide a principled understanding of the coding of information in populations of neurons within an important node of the cortical network for visual-motor behaviors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02813.001. Copyright © 2014, Graf and Andersen.
Full Text Available Some theoretical and practical considerations about eye movements in visual field are presented in the first part of this paper. These movements are developed into human body to be synergistic and are allowed to obtain the visual perception in 3D space. The theoretical background of the eye movements’ analysis is founded on the establishment of movement equations of the eyeball, as they consider it a solid body with a fixed point. The exterior actions, the order and execution of the movements are ensured by the neural and muscular external system and thus the position, stability and movements of the eye can be quantified through the method of reverse kinematic. The purpose of these researches is the development of a simulation model of human binocular visual system, an acquisition methodology and an experimental setup for data processing and recording regarding the eye movements, presented in the second part of the paper. The modeling system of ocular movements aims to establish the binocular synergy and limits of visual field changes in condition of ocular motor dysfunctions. By biomechanical movements of eyeball is established a modeling strategy for different sort of processes parameters like convergence, fixation and eye lens accommodation to obtain responses from binocular balance. The results of modelling processes and the positions of eye ball and axis in visual field are presented in the final part of the paper.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyzing global experimental data can be tedious and time-consuming. Thus, helping biologists see results as quickly and easily as possible can facilitate biological research, and is the purpose of the software we describe. Results We present BirdsEyeView, a software system for visualizing experimental transcriptomic data using different views that users can switch among and compare. BirdsEyeView graphically maps data to three views: Cellular Map (currently a plant cell, Pathway Tree with dynamic mapping, and Gene Ontology http://www.geneontology.org Biological Processes and Molecular Functions. By displaying color-coded values for transcript levels across different views, BirdsEyeView can assist users in developing hypotheses about their experiment results. Conclusions BirdsEyeView is a software system available as a Java Webstart package for visualizing transcriptomic data in the context of different biological views to assist biologists in investigating experimental results. BirdsEyeView can be obtained from http://metnetdb.org/MetNet_BirdsEyeView.htm.
research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research. This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.
Wang, Rui; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng
Eye tracker is an important instrument for research in psychology, widely used in attention, visual perception, reading and other fields of research. Because of its potential function in human-computer interaction, the eye gaze tracking has already been a topic of research in many fields over the last decades. Nowadays, with the development of technology, non-intrusive methods are more and more welcomed. In this paper, we will present a method based on the shape of pupil image to estimate the gaze point of human eyes without any other intrusive devices such as a hat, a pair of glasses and so on. After using the ellipse fitting algorithm to deal with the pupil image we get, we can determine the direction of the fixation by the shape of the pupil.The innovative aspect of this method is to utilize the new idea of the shape of the pupil so that we can avoid much complicated algorithm. The performance proposed is very helpful for the study of eye gaze tracking, which just needs one camera without infrared light to know the changes in the shape of the pupil to determine the direction of the eye gazing, no additional condition is required.
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both ...
In the 1950s and 1960s it became clear that the nuclear fireball and lasers could cause thermal retinal injury; at that time, the reference of Verhoeff, Bell, and Walker was often cited to argue that solar eclipse blindness (solar retinitis) was also a thermal retinal injury. It was not until 1975 that it became clear that a photochemical mechanism for retinal injury was possible for lengthy exposures in the primate or human eye. The potential for photochemical injury of the retina suggests the possibilities of delayed effects, and a considerable research effort has been underway over the last decade to study the implications for retinal degradation by intense light. The lens can undergo changes leading to cataract following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although acute UVR injury of the cornea (photokeratitis) has been recognized since the early part of this century, the link between UVR and cataract has long been a point of controversy. Today, most scientists studying optical radiation hazards conclude that UVR is a causative factor in some forms of cataract. Differences of opinion arise as to the exact wavelength range that is effective (i.e., UVA: 315-400 nm and/or UVB: 280-315 nm). Pitts and colleagues have shown that only a very narrow band of UVR wavelengths between 295 and 320 nm appear to be effective in causing acute cataract in experimental animals. Epidemiological studies of cataract incidence appear to show that UVR is a causative factor, despite the fact that at least one investigator had concluded that high ambient temperature was a more likely causative factor than UVR. This author has recently completed a study of UVR exposures in the outdoor environment that would support the epidemiologic studies of UVR induction of cataract
Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods: Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results: The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. Keywords: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, dry eye syndromes
Huang, Jinglin; Gharib, Morteza
Drug injection is an important technique in certain treatments of eye diseases. The efficacy of chemical mixing plays an important role in determining pharmacokinetics of injected drugs. In this study, we build a device to study the chemical mixing behavior in a spherical structure. The mixing process is visualized and analyzed qualitatively. We hope to understand the chemical convection and diffusion behaviors in correlation with controlled rapid mechanical movements. The results will have potential applications in treatment of eye diseases. Resnick Institute at Caltech.
... of Our 5-Part Series: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye Making healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect ... discuss each item in detail. Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye Dry eye is a condition that millions of ...
... Antibiotics for eye injections; and Punctal plugs for dry eye . This is the fourth in a series of ... why patients and their ophthalmologists should discuss treating dry eye with punctal plugs only after other treatment options ...
Rasmussen, Marie L R; Prause, Jan U; Toft, Peter B
Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation...... was conducted by a trained interviewer. Results: Of the 173 patients in the study, 39 experienced phantom pain. The median age of patients who had experienced phantom pain was 45 years (range: 19–88). Follow-up time from eye amputation to participation in the investigation was 4 years (range: 2–46). Phantom...... scale, ranging from 0 to 100, was 36 (range: 1–89). One-third of the patients experienced phantom pain every day. Chilliness, windy weather and psychological stress/fatigue were the most commonly reported triggers for pain. Conclusions: Phantom pain after eye amputation is relatively common. The pain...
Tran, Ann Q; Hoppener, Catherine; Venkateswaran, Nandini; Choi, Daniel S; Lee, Wendy W
Introduced in 2008 and subsequently popularized in South Korea, cosmetic eye whitening has been offered as a treatment of chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Patients undergo conjunctivectomy with topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% application to achieve a whitened appearance from bleaching of avascular sclera. Much speculation has arisen from this procedure given the limited available evidence on its efficacy and safety. A literature search was performed to review common complications of cosmetic eye whitening, including chronic conjunctival epithelial defects, scleral thinning, avascular zones in the sclera, dry eye syndrome, and diplopia requiring strabismus surgery. Informing the general public of the risks of this procedure is of great importance for dermatologists and other cosmetic surgeons.
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Turner , Jayson; Alexander , Jason; Bulling , Andreas; Schmidt , Dominik; Gellersen , Hans
Part 4: Gaze-Enabled Interaction Design; International audience; Previous work has validated the eyes and mobile input as a viable approach for pointing at, and selecting out of reach objects. This work presents Eye Pull, Eye Push, a novel interaction concept for content transfer between public and personal devices using gaze and touch. We present three techniques that enable this interaction: Eye Cut & Paste, Eye Drag & Drop, and Eye Summon & Cast. We outline and discuss several scenarios in...
Hao, Qun; Song, Yong
According to the research result in neural biology, human eyes can obtain high resolution only at the center of view of field. In the research of Virtual Reality helmet, we design to detect the gazing direction of human eyes in real time and feed it back to the control system to improve the resolution of the graph at the center of field of view. In the case of current display instruments, this method can both give attention to the view field of virtual scene and resolution, and improve the immersion of virtual system greatly. Therefore, detecting the gazing direction of human eyes rapidly and exactly is the basis of realizing the design scheme of this novel VR helmet. In this paper, the conventional method of gazing direction detection that based on Purklinje spot is introduced firstly. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the method based on Purklinje spot, this paper proposed a method based on image processing to realize the detection and determination of the gazing direction. The locations of pupils and shapes of eye sockets change with the gazing directions. With the aid of these changes, analyzing the images of eyes captured by the cameras, gazing direction of human eyes can be determined finally. In this paper, experiments have been done to validate the efficiency of this method by analyzing the images. The algorithm can carry out the detection of gazing direction base on normal eye image directly, and it eliminates the need of special hardware. Experiment results show that the method is easy to implement and have high precision.
Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods: The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population......-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposure from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews...
Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.
The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.
Koene, Ansgar Roald
The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology
Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun
To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and transwell migration assay. Cell damage was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell viability and median lethal time (LT₅₀) were measured by 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry analysis. Cellular effects after exposure of HCECs to the four anti-inflammatory eye drops were concentration dependent. The differences of cellular toxicity on cell proliferation became significant at lower concentrations (Eye Drops showed significant increasing effects on cell damage and viability when compared with the other three solutions. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops inhibited the migration of HCECs significantly. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops showed the quickest effect on cell viability: the LT₅₀ was 3.28, 9.23, 10.38, and 23.80 min for Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, and Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, respectively. However, the comparisons of cellular toxicity revealed significant differences between the eye drops and their active components under the same concentration. The corneal epithelial toxicity differences among the active components of the four eye drops became significant as higher concentration (>0.020%). The four anti-inflammatory eye drops showed different cellular effects on HCECs, and the toxicity was not related with their active components, which provides new reference for the clinical application and drug
Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Asonuma, Sanae; Mitamura, Hayato; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nishida, Kohji
To evaluate ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye. Thirty-five eyes in 35 patients with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The 35 dry eyes were classified into two groups according to whether superficial punctate keratopathy in the central 6-mm corneal zone (cSPK) was present or not. Ocular forward light scattering was quantified with a straylight meter. Corneal backward light scattering from the anterior, middle, and posterior corneal parts was assessed with a corneal densitometry program using the Scheimpflug imaging system. Both dry eye groups had significantly higher intraocular forward light scattering than the control group (both Pdry eye group with cSPK had significantly higher values in anterior and total corneal backward light scattering than the other two groups. Moderate positive correlations were observed between the cSPK score and corneal backward light scattering from the anterior cornea (R=0.60, Pdry eyes than in normal eyes. Increased corneal backward light scattering in dry eye at least partially results from cSPK overlying the optical zone. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...
supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...
Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...
Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir
This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.
Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.
Pathman, Thanujeni; Ghetti, Simona
The ability to recognise past events along with the contexts in which they occurred is a hallmark of episodic memory, a critical capacity. Eye movements have been shown to track veridical memory for the associations between events and their contexts (relational binding). Such eye-movement effects emerge several seconds before, or in the absence of, explicit response, and are linked to the integrity and function of the hippocampus. Drawing from research from infancy through late childhood, and by comparing to investigations from typical adults, patient populations, and animal models, it seems increasingly clear that eye movements reflect item-item, item-temporal, and item-spatial associations in developmental populations. We analyse this line of work, identify missing pieces in the literature and outline future avenues of research, in order to help elucidate the development of episodic memory.
Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.
Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Shabestari, Lorraine; Angus, Walter; Muggenburg, B.A.
This report presents some features of the radium induced eye syndrome observed in beagles, including the prominence of intraocular pigmentary lesions and compares these with the results of rodent studies (Onychomys leucogaster) featuring a heavily pigmented uvea, and with the radiation syndrome reported in humans. (author)
Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...
Full Text Available Eye care services are people intensive. They require the right people (competence, in the right numbers (capacity, in the right mix (team with the right resources and processes (enabling conditions to ensure effective and sustainable delivery of patient care.
... Vea esta página en español The Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery Share This Page Facebook Twitter Linked- ... Surgery Surgical Alternatives to LASIK For More Information LASIK Basics If you wear glasses or contact lenses, ...
WHEN SCIENCE CATCHES THE EYE · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Concept Overview · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Accommodation: Biomechanics · Accommodative IOL: Crystalens · Slide 11 · Enhanced Single Optic Designs · A Dual Optic Accommodating IOL · Slide 14 · A-IOL Implantation being done by Dr. Virender ...
Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.
The radiation damage (X-ray, UV light) of the most important components of the vertebrate eye (crystallins and other proteins, hyaluronic acid, vitreous, aqueous humour, ascorbic acid) has been investigated by various methods of physical chemistry. UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as circular dichroism unveiled changes of the chromophores/fluorophores of the constituent biopolymers and low-molecular components, together with alterations of helix content and the occurrence of aggregation. Size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, densimetry, viscometry and light scattering experiments monitored changes of the global structure of proteins and polysaccharides involved. Electrophoreses allowed conclusions on fragmentation, unfolding and crosslinking. Analytical methods provided information regarding the integrity of groups of special concern (SH, SS) and revealed the existence of stable noxious species (H 2 O 2 ). By means of various measures and additives, manifold modifications of the impact of both ionizing and nonionizing radiation may be achieved. Caused by differences in the primary reactions, eye polymers are protected efficaciously by typical OH radical scavengers against X-irradiation, whereas compounds which exhibit absorption behavior in the UV range turn out to act as potent protectives ('chemical filters') against UV light. A few substances, such as ascorbate, are able to provide protection against both sorts of radiation and are even able to exhibit a slight chemical repair of already damaged particles. The results obtained are of importance for understanding pathological alterations of the eye (loss of transparency, cataractogenesis) and for developing new strategies for protection and repair of eye components. (author)
Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico
Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dorota Raczyńska, Leopold Glasner, Ewelina Serkies-Minuth, Magdalena A Wujtewicz, Kamila Mitrosz Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Abstract: Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. Keywords: eye surgery, eye aging, anesthesiology in ophthalmology, cataract, glaucoma, vitrectomy, age-related macular degeneration
Roč. 60, č. 7 (2015), s. 345-350 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hereditary * eye * disease * dog Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2015
Full Text Available One of the conspicuous features of the twentieth-century West was silence. This idea could be supported by examining reflections of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Fritz Mauthner, John Cage, Samuel Beckett, Ihab Hassan, Franz Kafka, Wassily Kandinsky, Jean-Paul Sartre, Virginia Woolf, Wolfgang Iser, Jacques Derrida, and Pierre Macherey. To me, silence is not a mere theory, but rather a phenomenon from which we can get practical benefits. I believe silence is an eye, eye of knowledge. We can broaden our knowledge of the world through silence. To convey the idea that silence is an eye, I have concocted the word slence, where has replaced the letter i and stands for the eye. This means knowledge can enable us to see, thereby acquiring knowledge of, what used to be invisible, and accordingly unknowable. In other words, through silence, we can achieve a certain type of literacy. I substantiate this claim by exploring the Horus myth, Ojo de Dios, John Cage’s 4' 33", the nature of Expressionist paintings, Hinduism, thoughts of Hermes Trismegistus and Ibn al-Arabi, and practices of Mohammad, the prophet of Islam.
This thesis describes the involvement of the eye in haematological malignancies and focuses on two topics; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). The aim of this thesis is first: to compare the efficacy of diverse treatment options of PVRL with regard to
Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease . In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas . At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro  and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy . Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation . This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol . This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease . In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global
Mastroberardino, S.; Vredeveldt, A.
Research shows that closing the eyes during retrieval can help both adults and children to remember more about witnessed events. In this study, we investigated whether the eye-closure effect in children is explained by general cognitive load, modality-specific interference, or a combination. 120
Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing
This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…
This study explored differences in eye movement on a Web page between members of two different cultures to provide insight and guidelines for implementation of global Web site development. More specifically, the research examines whether differences of eye movement exist between the two cultures (American vs. Korean) when viewing a Web page, and…
Roebel, Amanda M.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Previous research indicates that abnormal stereotyped movements are associated with central dopamine dysfunction and that eye-blink rate is a noninvasive, in vivo measure of dopamine function. We measured the spontaneous eye-blinking and stereotyped behavior of older adults with severe/profound mental retardation living in a state mental…
Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast  that breast self-examination may cause.
Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.
Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.
The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.
Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al  ...
Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance
Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.
Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal
(available upon request) can provide a useful tutorial for the general scientist and serve as a quantitative tool for researchers in eye growth and myopia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Cour, Morten la
Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5......, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure...... and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling...
Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the ...
Christophersen, Mogens Teken
Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....
... Battery Safety Facts (Prevent Blindness America) - PDF Eye Health in Sports and Recreation (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in Spanish Eye Safety at Work (Prevent Blindness America) Four Fantastic Foods to Keep ...
Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer
Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...
Theeuwes, J.; Belopolsky, A.V.; Olivers, C.N.L.
This paper reviews the recent findings on working memory, attention and eye movements. We discuss the research that shows that many phenomena related to visual attention taking place when selecting relevant information from the environment are similar to processes needed to keep information active
Ribbers, J.; Keuten, M.G.A.; van Rompay, T.
The basis of this study lies in hygiene of swimming pools, where it is argued that taking a pre-swim shower would lead to a decrease in release of pollutants in the swimming pool, which in the end would lead to the decrease of health issues as red eyes and asthma. However, previous research
Yang, Ju Yin; Che, Pei-Chun
This paper investigates college students' English language learning through use of Dr. Eye Android handheld mobile Internet device (MID). Compared to related studies, students' English learning using MIDs has not been evaluated and fully understood in the field of higher education. Quantitatively, the researchers used TOEIC pretest and posttest to…
Roč. 75, 2-4 (2008), s. 335-339 ISSN 0361-9230 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520604; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : eye * Pax * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2008
Editorial: Looking at Shakespeare with new eyes. Chris Thurman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sisa.v28i1.1 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Kleiman, Norman J.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Hall, Eric J.
World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors. For more than 70 years, animal models of radiation cataract have been utilized to test the short and long-term efficacy of various radiation countermeasures. While some compounds, most notably the Walter Reed (WR) class of radioprotectors, have reported limited effectiveness when given before exposure to low-LET radiation, the human toxicity of these molecules at effective doses limits their usefulness. Furthermore, while there has been considerable testing of eye responses to X- and gamma irradiation, there is limited information about using such models to limit the injurious effects of heavy ions and neutrons on eye tissue. A new class of radioprotector molecules, including the sulfhydryl compound PrC-210, are reported to be effective at much lower doses and with far less side effects. Their ability to modify ocular radiation damage has not yet been examined. The ability to non-invasively measure sensitive, radiation-induced ocular changes over long periods of time makes eye models an attractive option to test the radioprotective and radiation mitigating abilities of new novel compounds.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.
Saleh A. Al-Akily; Mutahar Y. Al-Shaer; Mahfouth A. Bamashmus; Abdulmoghni O. Al-Barrag; Tawfik K. Alkhatib; Hisham A. Al-Akhlee
Purpose: The objective of this study was to undertake an analysis of the eye care services situation in Yemen and to assess ophthalmic human resources, eye units’ ownership and ophthalmic equipments. Methods: Eye care providers were surveyed by a standardized questionnaire which was sent to the 184 eye units in governmental, university, military, private and charity clinics and hospitals in Yemen and covered the period between 01 January to 31 December 2012. The questionnaire determined l...
Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life
Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to
Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna
This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…
This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight
Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.
... eye: First aid Foreign object in the eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff If you get a foreign object in your eye Wash your hands ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random ...
Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…
Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.
We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is...
... from your doctor If you're seeing a new eye doctor or if you're having your first ... over your eye. This helps reveal any damaged cells on the front of your eye. Your tears wash the dye from the surface ...
Damien Constantine Rompapas
Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR superimposes computer graphics (CG onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated a display that improves coherence by measuring the user’s eye state and continuously adapting CG accordingly. Our tabletop prototype emulates an Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display, a common AR display device. In our evaluation, participants observed three pillars at different depths. We then challenged them to identify a virtual pillar among the three while freely refocusing their eyes. Results show that our design significantly improved realism. Compared to Light Field Displays, our design aims to simplify display-optics while providing similar quality. We could only partially achieve this goal. We discuss the lessons we learned and how we plan to overcome the remaining challenges. The experimental protocol from our evaluation is useful for display developers as it can be used to measure the coherence of a display.
El Haj, Mohamad; Lenoble, Quentin
We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p thinking seems to be accompanied by an increased number of fixations and saccades. Fixations and saccades in past thinking can be interpreted as an attempt by the visual system to find (through saccades) and activate (through fixations) stored memory representations. The same interpretation can be applied to future thinking as this ability requires activation of past experiences. However, future thinking triggers fewer fixations and saccades than past thinking: this may be due to its decreased demand on visual imagery, but could also be related to a potentially deleterious effect of eye movements on spatial imagery required for future thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, C.J.; Magee, J.S.; Sandblom; Almen, A.; Lundh, C.
Doses to the eyes of interventional clinicians can exceed 20 mSv. Various protective devices can afford protection to the eyes with the final barrier being protective eye wear. The protection provided by lead glasses is difficult to quantify, and the majority of dosimeters are not designed to be worn under lead glasses. This study has measured dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no protection, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Glasses have been tested in X-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician. DRFs for X-rays incident from the front vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations reminiscent of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Results suggest that a DRF of two is a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosimeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by most types of lead glasses. (authors)
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However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...
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Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.
Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.
Full Text Available A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.
Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.
Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection
Full Text Available The perception of eye gaze is crucial for social interaction, providing essential information about another person’s goals, intentions, and focus of attention. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in eye gaze perception. For instance, patients have shown an increased bias to misjudge averted gaze as being directed toward them. In this study we probed early unconscious mechanisms of gaze processing in schizophrenia using a technique known as continuous flash suppression. Previous research using this technique to render faces with direct and averted gaze initially invisible reveals that direct eye contact gains privileged access to conscious awareness in healthy adults. We found that patients, as with healthy control subjects, showed the same effect: faces with direct eye gaze became visible significantly faster than faces with averted gaze. This suggests that early unconscious processing of eye gaze is intact in schizophrenia and implies that any misjudgments of gaze direction must manifest at a later conscious stage of gaze processing where deficits and/or biases in attributing mental states to gaze and/or beliefs about being watched may play a role.
Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng
Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.
Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.
Popa, Livia; Selejan, Ovidiu; Scott, Allan; Mureşanu, Dafin F; Balea, Maria; Rafila, Alexandru
From an interdisciplinary approach, the neurosciences (NSs) represent the junction of many fields (biology, chemistry, medicine, computer science, and psychology) and aim to explore the structural and functional aspects of the nervous system. Among modern neurophysiological methods that "measure" different processes of the human brain to salience stimuli, a special place belongs to eye tracking (ET). By detecting eye position, gaze direction, sequence of eye movement and visual adaptation during cognitive activities, ET is an effective tool for experimental psychology and neurological research. It provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the gaze, which is very useful in understanding choice behavior and perceptual decision making. In the high tech era, ET has several applications related to the interaction between humans and computers. Herein, ET is used to evaluate the spatial orienting of attention, the performance in visual tasks, the reactions to information on websites, the customer response to advertising, and the emotional and cognitive impact of various spurs to the brain.
Andersen, S. Ry
Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...
Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.
Bartalena, Luigi; Tanda, Maria Laura; Marcocci, Claudio; Pinchera, Aldo
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The choice of treatment relies on the assessment of both TED severity and activity. Removal of controllable risk factors, especially cigarette smoking, is important to improve the course and the therapeutic outcome. A coordinated approach to the treatment of hyperthyroidism and TED is also required. Novel promising treatments, to be verified in large series of patients, include somatostatin analogues and cytokine antagonists. (orig.)
Full Text Available IntroductionThe global initiative VISION 2020: The Right to Sight, estimates that only 25 per cent of existing infrastructure is used for eye care, while the target utilisation is set at 90 per cent. This requires a complete reorganisation. Many providers have the potential to significantly enhance their service by adopting professional management practice and new technologies in clinical services. This article addresses this opportunity from a professional management perspective.The responsibilities of a hospital administrator could be broadly classified as managing patient care, functional areas, support services, and developmental work. Eye care providers need to focus on four key areas. Strategic management to enhance the efficiency of their organisations requires: human resources management; quality management; marketing; and financial sustainability.
Bartalena, Luigi; Tanda, Maria Laura [Department of Endocrinology, University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Viale Borri, 57, 21100 Varese (Italy); Marcocci, Claudio; Pinchera, Aldo [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The choice of treatment relies on the assessment of both TED severity and activity. Removal of controllable risk factors, especially cigarette smoking, is important to improve the course and the therapeutic outcome. A coordinated approach to the treatment of hyperthyroidism and TED is also required. Novel promising treatments, to be verified in large series of patients, include somatostatin analogues and cytokine antagonists. (orig.)
Jin-Lan Wan; Ming-Chang Zhang
AIM: To observe the efficacy of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops in treatment of dry eye.METHODS: A randomized, parallel-control approach was adopted, 100 cases of dry eye patients were divided into treatment group and control group equally, observation on the treatment of 3 months. The treatment group was applied Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops combined with oral Qiming granule, simply Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for control group. Before and after tr...
J. J. Gu; M. Meng; A. Cook; P. X. Liu
Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the contro...
Vora, Gargi K; Gupta, Preeya K
Evaporative dry eye disease is one of the most common types of dry eye. It is often the result of chronic meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and associated ocular rosacea. Evaporative dry eye and MGD significantly reduce patient's quality of life. Traditional treatments, such as artificial tears, warm compresses, and medications, such as topical cyclosporine, azithromycin, and oral doxycycline, provide some relief; however, many patients still suffer from dry eye symptoms. Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, which has been used extensively in dermatology to treat chronic skin conditions, is a relatively new treatment in ophthalmology for patients with evaporative dry eye disease. There are very few studies published on the use of IPL in patients with dry eye disease. The present review describes the theoretical mechanisms of IPL treatment of MGD and ocular rosacea. Personal clinical experience and recently presented data are reported as well. IPL therapy has promising results for evaporative dry eye patients. There are statistically significant improvements in clinical exam findings of dry eye disease. More importantly, patients report subjective improvement in their symptoms. More research is needed in this area to help understand the mechanism of dry eye disease and how it can be effectively treated.
Full Text Available A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm.
Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A
Background Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40–69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:24179335
Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A
Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008-2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months' supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies.