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Sample records for scheme programming language

  1. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...

  2. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    makes it possible to carry out systematic modifications and transformations of MIDI contents with use of pure functional programming. Side by side with the XML-inspired MIDI language, the paper describes an Emacs-based, textual programming environment that supports the MIDI programming process....... The programming environment also supports a variety of interactive features - similar to MIDI sequencers - but restricted to a textual representation of the music. The main contributions of the work are considered to be (1) An accumulated MIDI function library, which can transform MIDI files in many non......-trivial ways; (2) A proposed working process alternating between creative mode and programmatic editing mode within a MIDI programming environment; and (3) A textual MIDI programming environment with embedded support of many interactive, MIDI-related functionalities....

  3. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...... of a denotational semantics in continuation-passing style.  We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  4. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We present a context-sensitive reduction semantics for a lambmda-calculus with explicit substitutions and we show that the functional implementation of this small-step semantics mechanically corresponds to that of the abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98, including first-class...... continuations.  Starting from this reduction semantics, (1) we refocus it into a small-step abstract machine; (2) we fuse the transition function of this abstract machine with its driver loop, obtaining a big-step abstract machine which is staged; (3) we compress its corridor transitions, obtaining an eval....../continue abstract machine; and (4) we unfold its ground closures, which yields an abstract machine that essentially coincides with Clinger's machine.  This lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions therefore aptly accounts for Core Scheme, including Clinger's permutations and unpermutations....

  5. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  6. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  7. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  8. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  9. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  10. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  11. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  12. Programming Languages RESONAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we will briefly review various programming lan- ... notation should also match the type of algorithm. For example, programming languages to solve science and engineering problems should support arithmetic using wide ranging, high .... programs using a library of reusable 'components' was imperative.

  13. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...... to present the very best work at the intersection of dataase and programming language research. The proceedings include a paper based on the invited talk by Wenfie Fan and the 16 contributed papers that were selected by at least three members of the program committee. In addition, the program commitee sought...

  14. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2008-01-01

    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  15. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  16. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  17. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  18. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...... to present the very best work at the intersection of dataase and programming language research. The proceedings include a paper based on the invited talk by Wenfie Fan and the 16 contributed papers that were selected by at least three members of the program committee. In addition, the program commitee sought...... the opinions of additional referees selected becauce of their expertise on particular topics. The final selection of papers was made during last week of July. We would like to thank all of the aurhors who submitted papers to the conference, and the members of the program committee  for their excellent work...

  19. Mathematical picture language program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur M; Liu, Zhengwei

    2018-01-02

    We give an overview of our philosophy of pictures in mathematics. We emphasize a bidirectional process between picture language and mathematical concepts: abstraction and simulation. This motivates a program to understand different subjects, using virtual and real mathematical concepts simulated by pictures. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. The programming language EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  1. C programming language essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Ernest C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. C Programming Language discusses fundamental notions, data types and objects, expressions, statements, declarations, function and program structure, the preprocessor, and the standar

  2. Java Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  3. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  4. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...

  5. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  6. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  7. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  8. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  9. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  10. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  11. A scheme for training effective English Second Language medium of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective second language medium of instruction refers to an instructional approach that differs from that of regular, first language content instruction or a language across the curriculum approach. This approach uses language teaching strategies in subjects other than the formal language classes, to promote both ...

  12. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...

  13. Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    modules that the pro- grammer specifies using purely classical data, but calls with appropriately sized quantum registers as inputs. Tools within our...set of gates. Then line 2 is where the main module begins. Every free -standing program must contain 5 Gate Prototypes Module (classical/quantum code...definitions and example usages, and emphasizes the distinctions between classical and quantum data and operations. We discuss the context of the

  14. Multi-Language Programs. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio-Papadaki, Evienia; Matsalia, Joan; Bowie, Paula; Wardle, Francis; Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles on multi-language programs in early childhood education: "Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Language Acquisition Theories" (Evienia Papadaki-D'Onofrio); "Training and Supporting Caregivers Who Speak a Language Different from Those in Their Community" (Joan Matsalia and Paula Bowie); "Language Immersion Programs for Young…

  15. A survey of functional programming language principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  16. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  17. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  18. Adding Wildcards to the Java Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads; Hansen, Christian Plesner; Ernst, Erik

    2004-01-01

    of the reference implementation of the Java compiler javac available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. By providing a richer type system, wildcards allow for an improved type inference scheme for polymorphic method calls. Moreover, by means of a novel notion of wildcard capture, polymorphic methods can be used to give......, by using ‘?’ to denote unspecified type arguments. Thus they essentially unify the distinct families of classes that parametric polymorphism introduces. Wildcards are implemented as part of the addition of generics to the JavaTM programming language, and is thus deployed world-wide as part...... symbolic names to unspecified types, in a manner similar to the “open� construct known from existential types. Wildcards show up in numerous places in the Java Platform APIs of the newest release, and some of the examples in this paper are taken from these APIs....

  19. Adding Wildcards to the Java Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads; Hansen, Christian Plesner; Ernst, Erik

    2004-01-01

    of the reference implementation of the Java compiler javac available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. By providing a richer type system, wildcards allow for an improved type inference scheme for polymorphic method calls. Moreover, by means of a novel notion of wildcard capture, polymorphic methods can be used to give......, by using '?' to denote unspecified type arguments. Thus they essentially unify the distinct families of classes often introduced by parametric polymorphism. Wildcards are implemented as part of the upcoming addition of generics to the Java™ programming language, and will thus be deployed world-wide as part...... symbolic names to unspecified types, in a manner similar to the "open" construct known from existential types. Wildcards show up in numerous places in the Java Platform APIs of the upcoming release, and some of the examples in this paper are taken from these APIs....

  20. Object-Oriented Programming in the Beta Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger; Nygaard, Kristen

    This is a book on object-oriented programming and the BETA programming language. Object-oriented programming originated with the Simula languages developed at the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, in the 1960s. The first Simula language, Simula I, was intended for writing simulation programs....... Simula I was later used as a basis for defining a general purpose programming language, Simula 67. In addition to being a programming language, Simula1 was also designed as a language for describing and communicating about systems in general. Simula has been used by a relatively small community for many...... years, although it has had a major impact on research in computer science. The real breakthrough for object-oriented programming came with the development of Smalltalk. Since then, a large number of programming languages based on Simula concepts have appeared. C++ is the language that has had...

  1. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  2. Towards Situation-Oriented Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, Erkan; Akman, Varol; Ersan, Murat

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been some attempts towards developing programming languages based on situation theory. These languages employ situation-theoretic constructs with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. In this paper, we review three of these programming languages.

  3. Phrasal schemes with the base component-preposition in the Russian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbaeva Olga Viktorovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on parametization of phrasal and syntactic schemes of modern Russian language with the base component-preposition: «На то и + N1! и «N1 + не в + N4». These schemes relate to the construction of a class of syntactic phraseological units and form the core of expressive syntax of the Russian language. They have obligatory and optional components. Phrasal schemes with base component-preposition have integrated and differentiated properties. Phrasal schemes are polysemic, derivative and possess phraseological signs of reproducibility, structural and semantic integrity and stability, idiomatic, colloquial expressivity. Implication of these phrasal schemes in colloquial speech increases the efficiency of the communication process and allows the speaker to realize a variety of authorial intention.

  4. TEACHING ALGORITHMIZATION AND PROGRAMMING USING PYTHON LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lvov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes requirements to educational programming languages and considers the use of Python as the first programming language. The issues of introduction of this programming language into teaching and replacing Pascal by Python are examined. The advantages of such approach are regarded. The comparison of popular programming languages is represented from the point of view of their convenience of use for teaching algorithmization and programming. Python supports lots of programming paradigms: structural, object-oriented, functional, imperative and aspect-oriented, and learning can be started without any preparation. There is one more advantage of the language: all algorithms are written easily and structurally in Python. Therefore, due to all mentioned above, it is possible to affirm that Python pretends to become a decent replacement for educational programming language PASCAL both at schools and on the first courses of higher education establishments.

  5. Language Teaching Models in Teacher Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Any language teacher who has gone through some kind of training program for the teaching of English should be familiar with various specific language teaching models that constitute the core of the training process. A language teaching model is a guide that helps the trainee to sequence the activities designed for the expectations and needs of learners in a lesson. This paper reviews the common language teaching models in teacher training programs (PPP, OHE, III, TTT, TBLT, ESA, ARC) and disc...

  6. Fixed phrase schemes with the compulsory component wh-word in the English, Russian and Spanish languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikyan Vadim Jurievich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the description of fixed phrase schemes (phraseosyntactic schemes, phrase schemes with the compulsory component expressed by the interrogative word in three languages of different systems: English, Russian, Spanish. Fixed phrase schemes are described in structural, semantic, etymological, paradigmatic, syntagmatic, phraseoligical, expressive, stylistic and comparative aspects.

  7. Semantic Language Extensions for Implicit Parallel Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    81], Cyclone [87] Parallel Manual Manual Manual × × Parallel X10 [52], DPJ [37] Programming Intel TBB [162], TPL [131] C++0x [29], Erlang [21] Atomos ...another within WEAKC (see Chapter 5). 44 Several solutions have been proposed that support transactional memory at the language level. Atomos [47] is...Olukotun. The Atomos transactional programming language. In Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGPLAN conference on Programming language design and imple

  8. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    Many mainstream programming languages are dynamically typed. This allows for rapid software development and programming flexibility because it gives programmers the freedom to use powerful programming patterns that are not allowed in statically typed programming languages. Nevertheless......, this freedom does not come without drawbacks: static bugs detection, IDE support, and compiler optimization techniques are harder to implement. In the last decades, the research literature and mainstream programming languages have been aiming to reach a trade-off between statically typed and dynamically typed...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...

  9. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program national indexing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Stoker, Jason M.; Eldridge, Diane F.

    2017-11-02

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquires high-resolution elevation data for the Nation. This program has been operating under an opportunity-oriented approach, acquiring light detection and ranging (lidar) projects of varying sizes scattered across the United States. As a result, the national 3DEP elevation layer is subject to data gaps or unnecessary overlap between adjacent collections. To mitigate this problem, 3DEP is adopting a strategic, systematic approach to national data acquisition that will create efficiencies in efforts to achieve nationwide elevation data coverage and help capture additional Federal and non-Federal investments resulting from advance awareness of proposed acquisitions and partnership opportunities. The 3DEP Working Group, an interagency group managed by the USGS, has agreed that all future 3DEP collections within the lower 48 States should be coordinated by using a 1-kilometer by 1-kilometer tiling scheme for the conterminous United States. Fiscal Year 2018 is being considered a transition year, and in Fiscal Year 2019 the national indexing scheme will be fully implemented, so that all 3DEP-supported projects will be acquired and delivered in the national indexing scheme and projected into the Albers Equal Area projection. 

  11. School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming" serves as a starting point to plan for and implement language programming. It provides a general overview; suggests practical strategies for working with students, parents, teachers and the surrounding community; and includes details on areas to address in selecting…

  12. Stan: A Probabilistic Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Carpenter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stan is a probabilistic programming language for specifying statistical models. A Stan program imperatively defines a log probability function over parameters conditioned on specified data and constants. As of version 2.14.0, Stan provides full Bayesian inference for continuous-variable models through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods such as the No-U-Turn sampler, an adaptive form of Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling. Penalized maximum likelihood estimates are calculated using optimization methods such as the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. Stan is also a platform for computing log densities and their gradients and Hessians, which can be used in alternative algorithms such as variational Bayes, expectation propagation, and marginal inference using approximate integration. To this end, Stan is set up so that the densities, gradients, and Hessians, along with intermediate quantities of the algorithm such as acceptance probabilities, are easily accessible. Stan can be called from the command line using the cmdstan package, through R using the rstan package, and through Python using the pystan package. All three interfaces support sampling and optimization-based inference with diagnostics and posterior analysis. rstan and pystan also provide access to log probabilities, gradients, Hessians, parameter transforms, and specialized plotting.

  13. The robot programming language interpreter written in the Logo language

    OpenAIRE

    K. Foit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to elaborate a simple system used to visualize the trajectory of the robot manipulator, using the interpreter written in the Logo programming language. The interpreter should be able to run on the older PC class hardware with limited RAM and CPU computing power.Design/methodology/approach: Compared to the other programming languages, the Logo is a convenient tool for use in the field of robotics, due to simple syntax, derived from LISP, direct support for mapping the...

  14. Programming languages for MIS concepts and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computers Computer Programming Languages     Role of Computer Programming Language      Software Systems     Taxonomies of Computer Programming LanguagesComputing Architecture in the Internet Environment Key Characteristics Shared by All Procedural Programming Languages      Syntax, Sentence, and Word     Variable     Arithmetic Operation     Execution Sequence      If-Then-Else Logic      Loop      Module C++ Introduction to Function-Oriented and Object-Oriented Programming A Tour of C Language      C and C++ Keyword and User-Defined Word      Comment Statements      Preprocessor

  15. Productive High Performance Parallel Programming with Auto-tuned Domain-Specific Embedded Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    http://dl.acm. org/citation.cfm?id=645980.674267. [93] Inc. PLT Scheme. The Racket Language. 2012. URL: http://racket-lang.org. [94] Sebastian Pop...URL: http://pypi.python.org/pypi. [100] Python Programming Language - Offical Website. 2012. URL: http://www.python.org. [101] Gabriel Rivera and Chau

  16. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement... teachers who work in language instruction educational programs or serve ELs. Grants awarded under this... involved, to meet certification or licensing requirements for teachers who work in language instruction...

  17. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  18. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs....... It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast...

  19. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  20. Principles of a reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible......The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....

  1. PR and the Language Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbach, Nancy

    The yearly task of the foreign language department is to seek new students and to retain current students by convincing them of the value of foreign language study. Therefore, a continuing public relations campaign directed at incoming and continuing students, parents, and administrators is of vital importance. A subtle change in methodology to…

  2. Programming languages: Time for a change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. J.

    1987-08-01

    Must computer programs read like, well, computer programs? An overview of the software needs of the high-energy physics community and how modern languages can meet these needs is given. Using ADA as an example, the production of readable, efficient and maintainable code is shown to be directly supported by the language, integrating concepts such as top-down design, object-oriented programming and data encapsulation as a natural part of the language rather than as foreign ideas imposed on the language. Particular attention is paid to non-traditional aspects of a language and how these can help by providing an integrated support environment for all phases of the lifetime of the software.

  3. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  4. Simple Metrics for Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    langauge design. 2.ASgevr l oed *gTC~ e~1 hn ah aluation of progranmming lan- * guages are introduced. The objective is to formalize notions such as ’size... domain equations that describe, for instance, the data types provided by a language. It is then often possible to rank the complexity of the data...structuring methods provided by several languages by comparing the complexity of the associated domain equations. To convert this into a quantitative

  5. A Transcription Scheme for Languages Employing the Arabic Script Motivated by Speech Processing Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganjavi, Shadi; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-01-01

    ... (The DARPA Babylon Program; Narayanan, 2003). In this paper, we discuss transcription systems needed for automated spoken language processing applications in Persian that uses the Arabic script for writing...

  6. Introducing Programming Languages Through Data Acquisition Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kocijancic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating students at low and upper secondary schools to learn programming languages is not an easy task for a teacher. Namely, programming is not and easy job to do and the results of first “programs” seem to be very poor compared even to free software available on the web. So why learn programming languages? To overcome the trouble of motivation in teaching programming languages, we have developed a course to introduce Delphi, Visual basic, C++, LabView, … based on practical examples supported by self developed, low-cost data acquisition modules. In-service teachers at secondary schools who attended the workshops accepted this concept positively, most of them reported about positive change of students’ attitude regarding programming classes.

  7. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The Programming Language as Human Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractProgramming languages are mostly not designed for humans, but for computers. As a result, programming time is increased by the necessity for programmers to translate problem description into a step-wise method of solving the problem. This demonstration shows a step towards producing

  9. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  10. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  11. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...

  12. QPEL: Quantum Program and Effect Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the syntax and rules of deduction of QPEL (Quantum Program and Effect Language, a language for describing both quantum programs, and properties of quantum programs - effects on the appropriate Hilbert space. We show how semantics may be given in terms of state-and-effect triangles, a categorical setting that allows semantics in terms of Hilbert spaces, C*-algebras, and other categories. We prove soundness and completeness results that show the derivable judgements are exactly those provable in all state-and-effect triangles.

  13. The BLAZE language - A parallel language for scientific programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Van Rosendale, John

    1987-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, BLAZE, is described. BLAZE contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus BLAZE should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with conceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of BLAZE is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in BLAZE code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of BLAZE are described and it is shown how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  14. The BLAZE language: A parallel language for scientific programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, Blaze, is described. Blaze contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus Blaze should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with onceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of Blaze is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in Blaze code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of Blaze are described and shows how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  15. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.

    1975-01-01

    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  16. Swift vs. Objective-C: A New Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian González García; Jordán Pascual-Espada; Cristina Pelayo G-Bustelo; Juan Manuel Cueva-Lovelle

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of a new programming language gives the necessity to contrast its contribution with the existing programming languages to evaluate the novelties and improvements that the new programming language offers for developers. These kind of studies can show us the efficiency, improvements and useful or uselessness of the new programming languages. Also these studies can show us the good or bad properties of the existing programming languages. For these reasons, these studies allow us t...

  17. A survey of object oriented languages in programming environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haakonsen, Harald

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages; and a restrictive definition of object oriented programming languages is presented and defended. Differences between programming languages are discussed and related to interactive integrated programming environments. Topics related to user friendly interface to the computer system and modem programming practice are discussed. The thesis especially addresses features in ...

  18. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  19. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  20. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  1. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  2. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.

    PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…

  3. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  4. Characteristics of Academic Language Register Occurring in Caretaker-Child Interaction: Development and Validation of a Coding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Rian; Demir, Serpil; Vallen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at validating a coding scheme designed to investigate the precursors of academic language occurring in early caretaker-child interactions. Exposure to the academic dimensions of language is an important asset for children to be successful in academic settings. The proposed analytical framework, based on systemic functional…

  5. Swift: Compiled Inference for Probabilistic Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; Li, Lei; Russell, Stuart; Bodik, Rastislav

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic program defines a probability measure over its semantic structures. One common goal of probabilistic programming languages (PPLs) is to compute posterior probabilities for arbitrary models and queries, given observed evidence, using a generic inference engine. Most PPL inference engines---even the compiled ones---incur significant runtime interpretation overhead, especially for contingent and open-universe models. This paper describes Swift, a compiler for the BLOG PPL. Swift-...

  6. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  7. Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractContext-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages. They can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure. These parse

  8. Discount method for programming language evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtev, Svetomir; Christensen, Tommy Aagaard; Thomsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress on developing a Discount Method for Programming Language Evaluation inspired by the Discount Usability Evaluation method (Benyon 2010) and the Instant Data Analysis method (Kjeldskov et al. 2004). The method is intended to bridge the gap between small scale...

  9. Programming Languages for Distributed Computing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; Steiner, J.G.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    When distributed systems first appeared, they were programmed in traditional sequential languages, usually with the addition of a few library procedures for sending and receiving messages. As distributed applications became more commonplace and more sophisticated, this ad hoc approach became less

  10. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  11. ADAM: A computer program to simulate selective-breeding schemes for animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Henryon, M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM is a computer program that models selective breeding schemes for animals using stochastic simulation. The program simulates a population of animals and traces the genetic changes in the population under different selective breeding scenarios. It caters to different population structures......, genetic models, selection strategies, and mating designs. ADAM can be used to evaluate breeding schemes and generate genetic data to test statistical tools...

  12. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  13. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  14. Java decaffeinated: experiences building a programming language from components

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Simon; Farragher, Linda

    2000-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Most modern programming languages are complex and feature rich. Whilst this is (sometimes) an advantage for industrial-strength applications, it complicates both language teaching and language research. We describe our experiences in the design of a reduced sub-set of the Java language and its implementation using the Vanilla language development framework. We argue that Vanilla???s component-based approach allows the language???s feature set to be varied quickly and simp...

  15. Replacing ANSI C with other modern programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Replacing ANSI C language with other modern programming languages such as Python or Java may be an actual debate topic in technical universities. Researchers whose primary interests are not in programming area seem to prefer modern and higher level languages. Keeping standard language ANSI C as a primary tool for engineers and for microcontrollers programming, robotics and data acquisition courses is another strong different opinion trend. Function oriented versus object oriented languages ma...

  16. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  17. Processing images with programming language Halide

    OpenAIRE

    DUKIČ, ROK

    2017-01-01

    The thesis contains a presentation of a recently created programming language Halide and its comparison to an already established image processing library OpenCV. We compare the execution times of the implementations with the same functionality and their length (in terms of number of lines). The implementations consist of morphological operations and template matching. Operations are implemented in four versions. The first version is made in C++ and only uses OpenCV’s objects. The second ...

  18. Software and the future of programming languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Alfred V

    2004-02-27

    Although software is the key enabler of the global information infrastructure, the amount and extent of software in use in the world today are not widely understood, nor are the programming languages and paradigms that have been used to create the software. The vast size of the embedded base of existing software and the increasing costs of software maintenance, poor security, and limited functionality are posing significant challenges for the software R&D community.

  19. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  20. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybars UĞUR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which can be used on the internet is introduced. As a result, importance of network-centric ray tracing software is discussed.

  1. Translating programming languages for intermediate codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the important data structures used in a compiler are intermediate representations of the program being compiled. Often these representations take the form of trees, with several node types, each of which has different attributes. Tree representations can be described with grammars, just like programming languages. For each grammar rule, there is one constructor that belongs to the class for its left-hand-side symbol. I simply extend the abstract class with a concrete class for each grammar rule. Each grammar rule has right hand side components that must be represented in the data structures.

  2. PIC Microcontrollers Programming in C language

    OpenAIRE

    Henao, Carlos Alberto; Duque Cardona, Edison

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el manejo del compilador PCW para microcontroladores PIC, el cual permite programar fácilmente los microcontroladores en lenguaje C, con lo cual se realiza más rápidamente el desarrollo de programas que serían bastante complejos de abordar en lenguaje ensamblador. In this article management PCW compiler for PIC microcontrollers, which can easily program the PIC microcontrollers in C language, which is quickly developing programs that would be quite complex ...

  3. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  4. Report on Networking and Programming Languages 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Bjorner, Nikolaj

    2017-10-26

    The third workshop on Networking and Programming Lan-guages, NetPL 2017, was held in conjunction with SIG-COMM 2017. The workshop series attracts invited speakers from academia and industry and a selection of contributed abstracts for short presentations. NetPL brings together re-searchers from the networking community and researchers from the programming languages and verification communities. The workshop series is a timely forum for exciting trends, technological and scientific advances in the intersection of these communities. We describe some of the high-lights from the invited talks through the lens of three trends: Advances in network machine architectures, network programming abstractions, and network verification. NetPL included five invited speakers, four from academia, and one from industry. The program contained six contributed talks out of eight submitted for presentation. The workshop organizers reviewed the abstracts for quality and scope. A total of 42 registrations were received and the attendance occupied the lecture room to the brink. Slides and abstracts from all talks are available from the workshop home page.1 Videos of the presentations are available in the NetPL YouTube channel.2.

  5. Reshaping Foreign Language Programs: Implications for Department Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Crosier, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    A chair of a university's department of Romance languages and literature addresses the status of two high priorities in the teaching of foreign languages: the integration of linguistics in the "new" curriculum; the continuing development of language teaching approaches in the classroom; and the commitment of foreign language programs in the…

  6. A Cooperative Bilingual Language Program for Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuroth-Gimbrone, Cindy; Logiodice, Colleen M.

    1992-01-01

    Briefly describes a program that sought to improve the written English skills of deaf adolescents' whose first language was American Sign Language, focusing on first-language skills, metalinguistic skills, translating skills, lexical matching across languages, translation of syntactical structures, and recognition of the importance of the…

  7. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  8. This article discusses the programming language LISP. The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    machine learning, cognition and more generally artificial intelligence. Programming languages, their history and evolution is a hobby and LISP is a particular favourite. This article discusses the programming language. LISP. ..... create an integrated program development environment. An- other widely used program that.

  9. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  10. Educator Language Ideologies and a Top-Down Dual Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon; Palmer, Deborah; Henderson, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Dual language bilingual education (DLBE) programs are framed to reflect pluralist discourses (de Jong, E. [2013]. "Policy Discourses and U.S. Language in Education Policies." "Peabody Journal of Education" 88 (1): 98-111) and affiliated language ideologies. The continued expansion of DLBE programs not surprisingly brings to…

  11. AES ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION IN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Information encryption represents the usage of an algorithm to convert an unknown message into an encrypted one. It is used to protect the data against unauthorized access. Protected data can be stored on a media device or can be transmitted through the network. In this paper we describe a concrete implementation of the AES algorithm in the Java programming language (available from Java Development Kit 6 libraries and C (using the OpenSSL library. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm formally adopted by the U.S. government and was elected after a long process of standardization.

  12. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  13. The ulam Programming Language for Artificial Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, David H; Ackley, Elena S

    2016-01-01

    Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply. This expanded article presents ulam, a language designed to balance concurrency and programmability upon best-effort hardware, using lifelike strategies to achieve robust and scalable computations. The article reviews challenges for traditional architecture, introduces the active-media computational model for which ulam is designed, and then presents the language itself, touching on its nomenclature and surface appearance as well as some broader aspects of robust software engineering. Several ulam examples are presented; then the article concludes with a brief consideration of the couplings between a computational model and its physical implementation.

  14. Language Programs at Villababel High: Rethinking Ideologies of Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Laura; Relano Pastor, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies underlying two language programs implemented in one secondary school in Madrid (Spain). The Spanish for newcomers immersion program ("Aula de Enlace") is aimed at immigrant origin students who do not know or have a poor command of Spanish; and the Spanish-English bilingual program targets…

  15. Going Global: Can Dual-Language Programs Save Bilingual Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Manka M.; Park, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, we extend the cautionary tales regarding dual-language programs raised by several scholars by considering the interface of such programs with global education. We consider the possible pitfalls of uncritically framing dual-language programs within the global education movement in the United States, especially in light of how…

  16. Swift vs. Objective-C: A New Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we compare the new programming language of Apple, Swift, with the main programming language of Apple before Swift, Objective-C. We are going to show the differences, characteristics and novelties to verify the words of Apple about Swift. With that we want to answer the next question: Is Swift a new programming language easier, more secure and quicker to develop than Objective-C?

  17. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortiš Ján

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  18. Set oriented languages and program transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Facon

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Set constructs and notations provide in many areas an unprecedented expressive power. Sets are nevertheless almost non-existent in most programming languages since they don't have a general-purpose efficient enough representation. Only global transformations, taking into account the context of set constructs and operations may provide a reasonable efficiency. After a brief survey of existing Set Oriented Languages, we present recent developments taking place at New York University concerning SETL and its successors, especially fixed-point specifications, elimination of repetitive evaluations by finite differencing and elimination of associative access costs by an appropriate Data Structure Selection for implementing sets. In this framework we present two original contributions: the first one concerns a rewrite operator on sets for dealing with fixed points of some non-monotonic transformations. The second one concerns Data Structure Selection and how we have extended and reformulated its mechanism as a special kind of type inference,relatively easily implemented in Prolog.

  19. Scientific Computing in the CH Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Cheng

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a general-purpose block-structured interpretive programming Ianguage. The syntax and semantics of this language called CH are similar to C. CH retains most features of C from the scientific computing point of view. In this paper, the extension of C to CH for numerical computation of real numbers will be described. Metanumbers of −0.0, 0.0, Inf, −Inf, and NaN are introduced in CH. Through these metanumbers, the power of the IEEE 754 arithmetic standard is easily available to the programmer. These metanumbers are extended to commonly used mathematical functions in the spirit of the IEEE 754 standard and ANSI C. The definitions for manipulation of these metanumbers in I/O; arithmetic, relational, and logic operations; and built-in polymorphic mathematical functions are defined. The capabilities of bitwise, assignment, address and indirection, increment and decrement, as well as type conversion operations in ANSI C are extended in CH. In this paper, mainly new linguistic features of CH in comparison to C will be described. Example programs programmed in CH with metanumbers and polymorphic mathematical functions will demonstrate capabilities of CH in scientific computing.

  20. Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language input and second language acquisition in informal settings. ... Also, the present study reveals that the choice of authentic audiovisual input seems to have a more significant impact on language development compared to the amount of exposure. Southern ...

  1. Clean translation of an imperative reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2011-01-01

    We describe the translation techniques used for the code generation in a compiler from the high-level reversible imperative programming language Janus to the low-level reversible assembly language PISA. Our translation is both semantics preserving (correct), in that target programs compute exactly...... the same functions as their source programs (cleanly, with no extraneous garbage output), and efficient, in that target programs conserve the complexities of source programs. In particular, target programs only require a constant amount of temporary garbage space. The given translation methods are generic......, and should be applicable to any (imperative) reversible source language described with reversible flowcharts and reversible updates. To our knowledge, this is the first compiler between reversible languages where the source and target languages were independently developed; the first exhibiting both...

  2. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  3. Developing a Language Program for the Learning Disabled Student with a Language Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Candler, Ann C.

    Determining the language skill deficits of learning-disabled students may be difficult. They have many appropriate language skills, but may miss the subtlety of language. This is exemplified by their lack of awareness of morphemes and the important information that less-stressed morphemes provide. Developing or selecting a program to improve their…

  4. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  5. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  6. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  7. Implementing a Whole Language Program in a Special Education Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol E.; Costlow, Linda

    1991-01-01

    A program for language learning-disabled students is described that uses a whole language philosophy to structure contexts that develop students' pragmatic, semantic, syntactic, graphophonemic, and metacognitive abilities underlying speaking, listening, reading, and writing. This paper describes the program environment, children, thematic…

  8. Language Enabled Airmen Program: Language Intensive Training Events 2011 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    reading. If teachers do not know how to teach listening, they require information and skills in this area. Macaro, Graham, and Vanderplank (2007), Rost ...assessment in second language testing: A meta-analysis and analysis of experiential factors. Language Testing, 15, 1-20. Rost , M. (2010). Teaching and...interactions, including those where leadership is required • Can respond effectively to verbal and nonverbal forms of communication • Can

  9. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  10. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  11. Alma-0: an imperative language that supports declarative programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); J. Brunekreef; V. Partinton; A. Schaerf

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe describe here an implemented small programming language, called Alma, that augments the expressive power of imperative programming by a limited number of features inspired by the logic programming paradigm. These additions encourage declarative programming and make it a more

  12. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  13. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...

  14. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    languages, and will study the implementation of Java and C# with their underlying platforms, the Java Virtual Machine and .NET Common Language Runtime. We emphasize implementation exercises and experiments. This comes at the expense of classical compiler course subjects such as register allocation...

  15. A comparison of common programming languages used in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mathieu; Gillings, Michael R

    2008-02-05

    The performance of different programming languages has previously been benchmarked using abstract mathematical algorithms, but not using standard bioinformatics algorithms. We compared the memory usage and speed of execution for three standard bioinformatics methods, implemented in programs using one of six different programming languages. Programs for the Sellers algorithm, the Neighbor-Joining tree construction algorithm and an algorithm for parsing BLAST file outputs were implemented in C, C++, C#, Java, Perl and Python. Implementations in C and C++ were fastest and used the least memory. Programs in these languages generally contained more lines of code. Java and C# appeared to be a compromise between the flexibility of Perl and Python and the fast performance of C and C++. The relative performance of the tested languages did not change from Windows to Linux and no clear evidence of a faster operating system was found. Source code and additional information are available from http://www.bioinformatics.org/benchmark/. This benchmark provides a comparison of six commonly used programming languages under two different operating systems. The overall comparison shows that a developer should choose an appropriate language carefully, taking into account the performance expected and the library availability for each language.

  16. Modern Foreign Language Teachers--Don't Leave Those Kids Alone! Linguistic-Cultural "Give and Take" in an Ad-Hoc Tutoring Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Norah

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the theme of social inclusion through language learning. The focus is on an ad-hoc tutoring scheme set up between newly arrived British migrant pupils and French monolingual pupils in a small secondary school in the south-west of France. Though the original objective of this tutoring scheme was to improve the English skills of…

  17. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  18. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  19. A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Secure Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janus Dam; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    We present a domain-specific programming language for Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Information is a resource of vital importance and considerable economic value to individuals, public administration, and private companies. This means that the confidentiality of information is crucial, but...... application development. The language is implemented in a prototype compiler that generates Java code exploiting a distributed cryptographic runtime....

  20. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1...

  1. Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...

  2. Bilingual Education. English as a Second Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Univ., TX. Clear Lake City Branch.

    This report discusses the bilingual education/English as a Second Language (ESL) program at the Univesity of Houston-Clear Lake. These programs have attracted qualified preservice and inservice teachers and support personnel who serve or will serve the 20 local school districts. The student population in the programs has grown 900% since 1979 and…

  3. Multi-agent programming languages, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Seghrouchni, Amal El Fallah; Dastani, Mehdi; Bordini, Rafael H

    2009-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems are a promising technology to develop the next generation open distributed complex software systems. This title presents a number of mature and influential multi-agent programming languages, platforms, development tools and methodologies, and realistic applications.

  4. Epic 1.0 (unconditional) : an equational programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum); J.F.T. Kamperman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe present EPIC, an equational programming language: its abstract syntax, static and operational semantics, and one of many possible concrete grammars of unconditional EPIC.

  5. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  6. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student. ...

  7. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  8. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  9. Beginning R: the statistical programming language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardener, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Conquer the complexities of this open source statistical language R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields...

  10. Yxilon – a Modular Open-Source Statistical Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sigbert Klinke; Uwe Ziegenhagen; Yuval Guri

    2005-01-01

    Statistical research has always been at the edge of available computing power. Huge datasets, e.g in DataMining or Quantitative Finance, and computationally intensive techniques, e.g. bootstrap methods, always require a little bit more computing power than is currently available. But the most popular statistical programming language R, as well as statistical programming languages like S or XploRe, are interpreted which makes them slow in computing intensive areas. The common solution is to im...

  11. Demand side management scheme in smart grid with cloud computing approach using stochastic dynamic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cloud computing framework in smart grid environment by creating small integrated energy hub supporting real time computing for handling huge storage of data. A stochastic programming approach model is developed with cloud computing scheme for effective demand side management (DSM in smart grid. Simulation results are obtained using GUI interface and Gurobi optimizer in Matlab in order to reduce the electricity demand by creating energy networks in a smart hub approach.

  12. Delay-Aware Program Codes Dissemination Scheme in Internet of Everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent advancements in big data, connection technologies, and smart devices, our environment is transforming into an “Internet of Everything” (IoE environment. These smart devices can obtain new or special functions by reprogramming: upgrade their soft systems through receiving new version of program codes. However, bulk codes dissemination suffers from large delay, energy consumption, and number of retransmissions because of the unreliability of wireless links. In this paper, a delay-aware program dissemination (DAPD scheme is proposed to disseminate program codes with fast, reliable, and energy-efficient style. We observe that although total energy is limited in wireless sensor network, there exists residual energy in nodes deployed far from the base station. Therefore, DAPD scheme improves the performance of bulk codes dissemination through the following two aspects. (1 Due to the fact that a high transmitting power can significantly improve the quality of wireless links, transmitting power of sensors with more residual energy is enhanced to improve link quality. (2 Due to the fact that performance of correlated dissemination tends to degrade in a highly dynamic environment, link correlation is autonomously updated in DAPD during codes dissemination to maintain improvements brought by correlated dissemination. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that, compared with previous work, DAPD scheme improves the dissemination performance in terms of completion time, transmission cost, and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  13. Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

    2009-08-06

    Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

  14. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... parental and community participation in language instruction educational programs. Projects funded under...

  15. Beginning R The Statistical Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Gardener, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Conquer the complexities of this open source statistical language R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields. This book examines this complex language using simple statistical examples, showing how R operates in a user-friendly context. Both students and workers in fields that require extensive statistical analysis will find this book helpful as they learn to use R for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, creating graphs, regression, and much more. It covers formula notation, complex statistics

  16. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  17. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is designed...

  18. Comparing Pascal and Modula-2 as systems programming languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Bormann, J.

    The high-level programming languages Pascal [JEN76] and Modula-2 [WIR82] are evaluatedas tools lor system programming. The construction of operating system utilities in Pascal is the focal point of the first part of the paper. Pascal is shown to be adequate for this limited class of applications, on

  19. Basic BASIC; An Introduction to Computer Programming in BASIC Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James S.

    With the increasing availability of computer access through remote terminals and time sharing, more and more schools and colleges are able to introduce programing to substantial numbers of students. This book is an attempt to incorporate computer programming, using BASIC language, and the teaching of mathematics. The general approach of the book…

  20. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  1. American Sign Language: An Innovative Middle School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Karen

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) began at Seminole Middle School in August 2007 as part of the program, D.E.C.A.L (Division of Communication and Law), the brainchild of principal, Dr. Kris Black. Her goal was to offer a program that would entice advanced middle school students from around Broward County to Seminole and the hook she used to entice them…

  2. Whatever Happened to Richard Reid's List of First Programming Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Robert M.; Greco, Daniel M.; Miceli, Nicholas G.; Siegfried, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Richard Reid of Michigan State University maintained a list showing the first programming language used in introductory programming courses taken by computer science and information systems majors; it was updated for several years afterwards by Frances Van Scoy of West Virginia University. However, it has been 5 years since…

  3. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  4. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  5. Python as First Textual Programming Language in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos GARCÍA MONSÁLVEZ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the recent introduction of Programming in the K-12 curricula there is an opportunity to include Computer Science fundamental concepts. This paper presents the origin and evolution of Python as well as their main features that configure it as an ideal programming language. We also review and classify some educational tools in the Python ecosystem. Such tools cover a wide-open spectrum of resources from interactive books to libraries which ease the construction of student elaborated software artefacts. This work presents a multidisciplinary proposal to use the Python programming language in all levels of Secondary Stage.

  6. Bricklayer: An Authentic Introduction to the Functional Programming Language SML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Winter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional programming languages are seen by many as instrumental to effectively utilizing the computational power of multi-core platforms. As a result, there is growing interest to introduce functional programming and functional thinking as early as possible within the computer science curriculum. Bricklayer is an API, written in SML, that provides a set of abstractions for creating LEGO artifacts which can be viewed using LEGO Digital Designer. The goal of Bricklayer is to create a problem space (i.e., a set of LEGO artifacts that is accessible and engaging to programmers (especially novice programmers while providing an authentic introduction to the functional programming language SML.

  7. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Davison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  8. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  9. What can the programming language Rust do for astrophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Bolmont, Emeline

    2017-06-01

    The astrophysics community uses different tools for computational tasks such as complex systems simulations, radiative transfer calculations or big data. Programming languages like Fortran, C or C++ are commonly present in these tools and, generally, the language choice was made based on the need for performance. However, this comes at a cost: safety. For instance, a common source of error is the access to invalid memory regions, which produces random execution behaviors and affects the scientific interpretation of the results. In 2015, Mozilla Research released the first stable version of a new programming language named Rust. Many features make this new language attractive for the scientific community, it is open source and it guarantees memory safety while offering zero-cost abstraction. We explore the advantages and drawbacks of Rust for astrophysics by re-implementing the fundamental parts of Mercury-T, a Fortran code that simulates the dynamical and tidal evolution of multi-planet systems.

  10. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  11. Virtualization for cost-effective teaching of assembly language programming

    OpenAIRE

    Cadenas, Jose O.; Sherratt, Simon; Howlett, Des; Guy, Chris; Lundqvist, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    A virtual system that emulates an ARM-based processor machine has been created to replace a traditional hardware-based system for teaching assembly language. The proposed virtual system integrates, in a single environment, all the development tools necessary to deliver introductory or advanced courses on modern assembly language programming. The virtual system runs a Linux operating system in either a graphical or console mode on a Windows or Linux host machine. No software licenses or extra ...

  12. Dedicated Programming Language for Small Distributed Control Divices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Borch, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Small control computers are more and more used in modern households. These computers are for instance in washing machines, heating systems, secure systems, televisions and stereos. In the future all these computers will communicate with each other to implement the intelligent house. This can only....... This paper describes a new, flexible and simple language for programming distributed control tasks. The compiler for this language generates a target code that is very easy to interpret. A interpreter, that can be easy ported to different hardwares, is described. The new language is simple and easy to learn...

  13. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  14. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  15. Programming language, natural language? Supporting the diverse computational activities of novice programmers

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Judith; Howland, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Given the current focus on teaching computational concepts to all from an early age, combined with the growing trend to empower end users to become producers of technology rather than mere consumers, we consider the issue of “computational notation”. Specifically, where the goal is to help individuals develop their understanding of computation and/or use computation in real world settings, we question whether natural language might be a preferred notation to traditional programming languages,...

  16. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluating Locally-Developed Language Testing: A Predictive Study of "Direct Entry" Language Programs at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the predictive validity of language assessments by "Direct Entry" programs at an Australian University--programs developed on site for Non English Speaking Background international students, principally to provide (i) pre-entry academic and language preparation and (ii) language assessment for…

  18. Do They Make a Difference? The Impact of English Language Programs on Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…

  19. A Transcription Scheme for Languages Employing the Arabic Script Motivated by Speech Processing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    pronunciation ( homographs ) similar to the distinction between the two English words convict (n) and convict (v), which are both spelled c-o-n-v- i-c-t, but...different stress assignments create different pronunciations. It is important to note that English has a handful of such homographic pairs, while in...different sounds. The other problem that is common in all languages using the Arabic script is the existance of a large number of homographic words , i.e

  20. Adaptive guard channel allocation scheme with buffer for mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simulation program written in Java programming language evaluates the performance of the scheme based on blocking/dropping probabilities of both calls. Results of the evaluation is described using descriptive statistics such as bar charts. The proposed scheme would reduce congestion and improve quality of service ...

  1. Methods for analysis and synthesis of technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving auxiliary problems of linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Maximov, A. S.; Epishkin, N. O.

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the developed method for analyzing technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving problems of auxiliary linear programming. This method involves solving the linear programming problems to evaluate the effect of supply and removal of heat or material flows of various sizes at different points of the technological scheme of a thermal power plant (TPP). The method effectiveness is demonstrated by the example of the coaldust steam turbine unit with nominal electrical output of 660 MW. As a result of its application, the change of the technological scheme of the unit was found to provide reduction in electricity cost by 0.3%.

  2. The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    concurrent logic programming can be found in [162]. Procs pipes: linear press networks The following program is a parallel implementation of the Sieve of... Eratosthenes [163]. It consists of a process generating all integers in the desired range, and a set of filter proceses, one per prime number found...computation terminates or deadlocks. To improve upon this the guard sake~o(L) can be added to the other clauses of the meta-interpreter. This ensures that

  3. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  4. Assembly language programming ARM Cortex-M3

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    ARM designs the cores of microcontrollers which equip most "embedded systems" based on 32-bit processors. Cortex M3 is one of these designs, recently developed by ARM with microcontroller applications in mind. To conceive a particularly optimized piece of software (as is often the case in the world of embedded systems) it is often necessary to know how to program in an assembly language.This book explains the basics of programming in an assembly language, while being based on the architecture of Cortex M3 in detail and developing many examples.It is written for people who have never pr

  5. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  6. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  7. Head First Programming A learner's guide to programming using the Python language

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a reliable way to learn how to program on your own, without being overwhelmed by confusing concepts? Head First Programming introduces the core concepts of writing computer programs -- variables, decisions, loops, functions, and objects -- which apply regardless of the programming language. This book offers concrete examples and exercises in the dynamic and versatile Python language to demonstrate and reinforce these concepts. Learn the basic tools to start writing the programs that interest you, and get a better understanding of what software can (and cannot) do. When you're fi

  8. Appropriate language for introducing object oriented programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Object Oriented Programming (OOP) has attained a level of acceptance in the software development community so much so that one is now considered a charlatan to have a degree in computing without the flare for OOP. Computing students must therefore be equipped with this skill. The need to do this using the most ...

  9. Abstract Machines for Programming Language Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Stephan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sestoft, Peter

    We present an extensive, annotated bibliography of the abstract machines designed for each of the main programming paradigms (imperative, object oriented, functional, logic and concurrent). We conclude that whilst a large number of efficient abstract machines have been designed for particular

  10. Interdialect Translatability of the Basic Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Gerald L.

    A study was made of several dialects of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC). The purpose was to determine if it was possible to identify a set of interactive BASIC dialects in which translatability between different members of the set would be high, if reasonable programing restrictions were imposed. It was first…

  11. The Varieties of Programming Language Semantics (and Their Uses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    . It assesses the potential and actual uses of semantic descriptions, and considers practical aspects, such as comprehensibility, modularity, and extensibility, which are especially significant when describing full-scale languages. It concludes by suggesting that the provision of mature tools for transforming......Formal descriptions of syntax are quite popular: regular and context-free grammars have become accepted as useful for documenting the syntax of programming languages, as well as for generating efficient parsers; attribute grammars allow parsing to be linked with typechecking and code generation......; and regular expressions are extensively used for searching and transforming text. In contrast, formal semantic descriptions are widely regarded as being of interest only to theoreticians. This paper surveys the main frameworks available for describing the dynamic semantics of programming languages...

  12. Towards Bridging the Gap Programming Language and Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    . One reason is the difficulty of adequately describing specialization opportunities. Indeed, under-specialization or over-specialization often occurs, without any direct feedback to the user as to the source of the problem.We have developed a high-level, module-based language allowing the programmer...... to guide the choice of both the code to specialize and the invariants to exploit during the specialization process. To ease the use of partial evaluation, the syntax of this language is similar to the declaration syntax of the target language of the partial evaluator. To provide feedback to the programmer......Partial evaluation is a program-transformation technique that automatically specializes a program with respect to user-supplied invariants. Despite successful applications in areas such as graphics, operating systems, and software engineering, partial evaluators have yet to achieve widespread use...

  13. The FORCE - A highly portable parallel programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory multiprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low-level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high-level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared-memory multiprocessor executing them.

  14. The FORCE: A highly portable parallel programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

  15. The Intellectual Training Environment for Prolog Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is described a new complex training system, named SPprolog, intended for training and self-training in logic programming language - Prolog. This system includes elements related to Prolog and logic programming, and the elements of independent, complex, self-sufficient training system which is capable considerably to increase the quality of self-training, and to be effective assistant in training. The most useful application of the system can be in distance education and self-training. The main elements of SPprolog system are: Functionally expanded (in comparison with existing systems Prolog development environ-ment, with the multipurpose code editor, the automated organization system of the personal tools, automated advice mode "Expert Advice", based on the incorporated expert system for cultivated, effective and optimized programming; Link to foreign Prolog programs compiler which allow to compile the program to independent executable; Built in intellectual, interactive, multimedia Prolog interpreter integrated with expert system and the elements of the intellectuality, allowing to lead detailed program interpretation, with popular and evident, explanation of the theory and mechanisms used in it, applying audiovisual effects to increase the level of naturalness of process of explanation; Full digital training course of Prolog programming language presented in the form of the matrix of knowledge and supplied system of consecutive knowledge reproduction for self-training and evaluation; an intensive course of training to the Prolog language and Spprolog system, based on the programmed, consecutive set of actions, allowing using the previous two mechanisms of sys-tem for popular and evident explanation of the main principles of work of system and Prolog language.

  16. The Intellectual Training Environment for Prolog Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Serghei PELIN

    2007-01-01

    In this work is described a new complex training system, named SPprolog, intended for training and self-training in logic programming language - Prolog. This system includes elements related to Prolog and logic programming, and the elements of independent, complex, self-sufficient training system which is capable considerably to increase the quality of self-training, and to be effective assistant in training. The most useful application of the system can be in distance education and self-trai...

  17. Formal analysis of name accessing in programming languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carol Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1975-10-01

    One of the main purposes of a programming language is to provide a framework within which a user can convey the specification of a task to an information processing system. A model is proposed in which name accessing conventions can be analyzed and compared.

  18. Student Learning Outcomes Assessment in College Foreign Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M., Ed.; Davis, John McE., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in accreditation policies and institutional practices have led to the emergence of student learning outcomes assessment as an important, increasingly common expectation in U.S. college foreign language programs. This volume investigates contemporary outcomes assessment activity, with a primary focus on useful assessment, that is,…

  19. WNetKAT: A Weighted SDN Programming and Verification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Schmid, Stefan; Xue, Bingtian

    2017-01-01

    Programmability and verifiability lie at the heart of the software-defined networking paradigm. While OpenFlow and its match-action concept provide primitive operations to manipulate hardware configurations, over the last years, several more expressive network programming languages have been deve...

  20. A Relational Algebra Query Language for Programming Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Anderson, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Relational Algebra Query Language (RAQL) and Relational Algebra Query (RAQ) software product we have developed that allows database instructors to teach relational algebra through programming. Instead of defining query operations using mathematical notation (the approach commonly taken in database textbooks), students…

  1. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurzeig, Wallace; Papert, Seymour A.

    2011-01-01

    Formal mathematical methods remain, for most high school students, mysterious, artificial and not a part of their regular intuitive thinking. The authors develop some themes that could lead to a radically new approach. According to this thesis, the teaching of programming languages as a regular part of academic progress can contribute effectively…

  2. A Survey on Visual Programming Languages in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual programming has transformed the art of programming in recent years. Several organizations are in race to develop novel ideas to run visual programming in multiple domains with Internet of Things. IoT, being the most emerging area of computing, needs substantial contribution from the visual programming paradigm for its technological propagation. This paper surveys visual programming languages being served for application development, especially in Internet of Things field. 13 such languages are visited from several popular research-electronic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Postscapes and compared under four key attributes such as programming environment, license, project repository, and platform supports. Grouped into two segments, open source and proprietary platform, these visual languages pertain few crucial challenges that have been elaborated in this literature. The main goal of this paper is to present existing VPLs per their parametric proforma to enable naïve developers and researchers in the field of IoT to choose appropriate variant of VPL for particular type of application. It is also worth validating the usability and adaptability of VPLs that is essential for selection of beneficiary in terms of IoT.

  3. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds to...

  4. Students' Perspective on the First Programming Language: C-Like or Pascal-Like Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios; Pitner, Tomáš; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Savic, Miloš

    2018-01-01

    The choice of the first programming language (FPL) has been a controversial issue for several decades. Nearly everyone agrees that the FPL is important and affects students' subsequent education on programming. The study presented in this article investigates the suitability of various C-like and Pascal-like programming languages as a FPL.…

  5. The programming language HAL: A specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  6. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  7. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  8. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  9. [Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the German pension scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

    2014-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…

  11. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  12. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2017-12-15

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no, anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  14. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  15. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina Negreanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment’s evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  16. The Functional Programming Language R and the Paradigm of Dynamic Scientific Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trancón y Widemann, B.; Bolz, C.F.; Grelck, C.

    2013-01-01

    R is an environment and functional programming language for statistical data analysis and visualization. Largely unknown to the functional programming community, it is popular and influential in many empirical sciences. Due to its integrated combination of dynamic and reflective scripting on one

  17. Teaching Object-Oriented Programming is more than teaching Object-Oriented Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen Lindskov; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1988-01-01

    the research area gives additional insight into the research area and its underlying theoretical foundation. In this paper we will report on our approach to teaching programming languages as a whole and especially teaching object-oriented programming. The prime message to be told is that working from...... a theoretical foundation pays off. Without a theoretical foundation, the discussions are often centered around features of different languages. With a foundation, discussions may be conducted on solid pound. Furthermore, the students have significantly fewer difficulties in grasping the concrete programming...

  18. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  19. Towards the Automatic Generation of Programmed Foreign-Language Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Joseph A.

    The purpose of this report is to describe a set of programs which either perform certain tasks useful in the generation of programed foreign-language instructional material or facilitate the writing of such task-oriented programs by other researchers. The programs described are these: (1) a PDP-10 assembly language program for the selection from a…

  20. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Getov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI tool which provides application programmers wishing to use Java with immediate accessibility to existing scientific packages. The JCI tool also facilitates rapid development and reuse of existing code. These benefits are provided at minimal cost to the programmer. While beneficial to the programmer, the additional advantages of mixed‐language programming in terms of application performance and portability are addressed in detail within the context of this paper. In addition, we discuss how the JCI tool is complementing other ongoing projects such as IBM’s High‐Performance Compiler for Java (HPCJ and IceT’s metacomputing environment.

  1. SitLog: A Programming Language for Service Robot Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Pineda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present SitLog: a declarative situation-oriented logical language for programming situated service robot tasks. The formalism is task and domain independent, and can be used in a wide variety of settings. SitLog can also be seen as a behaviour engineering specification and interpretation formalism to support action selection by autonomous agents during the execution of complex tasks. The language combines the recursive transition network formalism, extended with functions to express dynamic and contextualized task structures, with a functional language to express control and content information. The SitLog interpreter is written in Prolog and SitLog's programs follow closely the Prolog notation, permitting the declarative specification and direct interpretation of complex applications in a modular and compact form. We discuss the structure and representation of service robot tasks in practical settings and how these can be expressed in SitLog. The present framework has been tested in the service robot Golem-II+ using the specification and programming of the typical tasks which require completion in the RoboCup@Home Competition.

  2. Spanish-language community-based mental health treatment programs, policy-required language-assistance programming, and mental health treatment access among Spanish-speaking clients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snowden, Lonnie R; McClellan, Sean R

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal...

  3. Modular Implementation of Programming Languages and a Partial-Order Approach to Infinitary Rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we investigate two independent areas of research. In the first part, we develop techniques for implementing programming languages in a modular fashion. Within this problem domain, we focus on operations on typed abstract syntax trees with the goal of developing a framework...... that facilitates the definition, manipulation and composition of such operations. The result of our work is a comprehensive combinator library that provides these facilities. What sets our approach apart is the use of recursion schemes derived from tree automata in order to implement operations on abstract syntax...... trees. The second part is concerned with infinitary rewriting, a field that studies transfinite rewrite sequences. We extend the established theory of infinitary rewriting in two ways: (1) a novel approach to convergence in infinitary rewriting that replaces convergence in a metric space with the limit...

  4. Programs for the work with ENSDF format files: Evaluator's editor EVE, Viewer for the nuclear level schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, G I

    2010-01-01

    Tools for the regular work of the nuclear data evaluator are presented: the context-dependent editor EVE and the viewer for the level schemes of nuclei from ENSDF datasets. These programs may be used by everybody who works with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File and for the educational purposed.

  5. A Case Study of Dual Language Program Administrators: The Teachers We Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Joan R.

    2017-01-01

    In support of growing numbers of dual language programs nation-wide, dual language school administrators seek to find teachers who are specifically prepared to work with dual language learners for additive biliteracy. For this research the author utilized a case study design to explore practicing dual language administrators' perspectives…

  6. A Proposal for a CA-Integrated English Language Teacher Education Program in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive framework for a Conversation Analysis (CA) informed English language teacher education program in Turkey. By reviewing recent studies in CA, Critical Reflective Practice, Teacher Language Awareness and language teacher education in general; the author calls for a more effective language teacher education program…

  7. Seluge++: a secure over-the-air programming scheme in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Farzan; Abdur Razzaque, Mohammad; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2014-03-11

    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  8. Seluge++: A Secure Over-the-Air Programming Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzan Doroodgar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers’ point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare. Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.

  9. Design and Implementation of the Futhark Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Troels

    reasoning. Fifth, we perform an evaluation on 21 benchmarks that demonstrates the impact of the language and compiler features, and shows application-level performance that is in many cases competitive with hand-written GPU code. Sixth, we make the Futhark compiler freely available with full source code......In this thesis we describe the design and implementation of Futhark, a small data-parallel purely functional array language that offers a machine-neutral programming model, and an optimising compiler that generates efficient OpenCL code for GPUs. The overall philosophy is based on seeking a middle...... sequentialised, while keeping access patterns intact, which then permits further locality-of-reference optimisations. We demonstrate this capability by showing instances of automatic loop tiling, as well as optimising memory access patterns. Second, to support the flattening transformation, we present...

  10. A Language Exchange Program: Sustainability Innovation in Language and Culture Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad Fernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Spanish Educational Laws over the past years have been promoting the widespread use of English as the vehicle for teaching and learning in most curricular subjects. This trend is evincing new needs especially among higher education students. Consequently, Spanish Universities are looking for ways to provide international training involving global partnerships. The Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain (UPM, and the University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Canada (UBCO have come together to offer opportunities for international collaboration and learning, thus facilitating virtual encounters among Spanish and Canadian students. The Language Exchange Program between the UPM and UBCO acts as a model for sustainability innovation in language and culture engagement as the students can interact with native speakers in communication tasks. This interdisciplinary initiative supports the latest methodological principles observed in the Common European Framework for Languages [1], such as autonomous and life-long learning, self-assessment and peer-assessment as well as the incorporation of new technologies to the learning process. Additionally the 'virtual' mobility is provided at no extra cost. This article presents the preliminary results of two virtual exchange programs that have been offering varied forms of study which are venue-independent, promoting collaborative work and cultural exchange.

  11. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under...

  12. [The physician and the computer. 22. Programming in the Prolog language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feber, J; Kasal, P

    1989-01-01

    A modern tool of interaction with the computer is the programming language Prolog. The authors discuss its position among other languages, emphasize its different character (declarative programming). They outline basic structures of Prolog and its type of function. They also give examples of creating data bases of patients and the possibility to use this language in the creation of expert systems in medicine.

  13. The Teacher-Librarian's Role in Literature-Based Reading and Whole Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Argues that language programs should result not only in competent language use but also in reading for enjoyment. The advantages of a whole language approach in achieving this goal are discussed. Strategies for incorporating this approach into traditional programs by developing literature-based reading units as extensions of basal readers are…

  14. The Effects of Web 2.0 Technologies Usage in Programming Languages Lesson on the Academic Success, Interrogative Learning Skills and Attitudes of Students towards Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençtürk, Abdullah Tarik; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    It is observed that teacher candidates receiving education in the department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education are not able to gain enough experience and knowledge in "Programming Languages" lesson. The goal of this study is to analyse the effects of web 2.0 technologies usage in programming languages lesson on the…

  15. Modern foreign language teachers - don't leave those kids alone! Linguistic-cultural "give and take" in an ad-hoc tutoring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Norah

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses the theme of social inclusion through language learning. The focus is on an ad-hoc tutoring scheme set up between newly arrived British migrant pupils and French monolingual pupils in a small secondary school in the south-west of France. Though the original objective of this tutoring scheme was to improve the English skills of the younger pupils, feedback reports indicated that it also had a positive impact on the relationship between the British migrant pupils and their French peers. Teachers believed that those involved participated more fully in class, and appeared more self-assured and generally happy thanks to the interpersonal relationships this scheme helped to forge. This study demonstrates the necessity of analysing the socio-cultural context migrants may find themselves in, in order to identify potential challenges. The ad-hoc tutoring scheme described here is an example of how language learning can support the integration and inclusion of "new generation" migrants into everyday school life.

  16. An Application Programming Interface For Developing Distributed Algorithm Along With Proposed Meta Language Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Kishalay Bairagi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In computer science an application programming interface API is an interface that defines the ways by which an application programming may request services from libraries.7 Libraries of a programming language are the list of all classes and interfaces along with their fields constructors and methods that are part of that language. For example java is an object oriented programming language which has a rich set of built-in classes and interfaces packaged in the API also known as java ...

  17. Where Do We Stand? Language Program Direction as Reflected in the "MLA Job Information List."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Compares information gleaned from the Modern Language Association's "MLA Job Information List" seeking language program directors in 1996 and provides an overview of changes in the profession during that time. (Author/VWL)

  18. A CRITICAL MULTICULTURAL ANALYSIS OF A ROMANIAN TEXTBOOK TAUGHT IN ELEMENTARY INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorian Stoilescu

    2014-01-01

      This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP...

  19. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development program...

  20. Introductory Computer Programming Course Teaching Improvement Using Immersion Language, Extreme Programming, and Education Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rubio, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Teaching computer programming to freshmen students in Computer Sciences and other Information Technology areas has been identified as a complex activity. Different approaches have been studied looking for the best one that could help to improve this teaching process. A proposed approach was implemented which is based in the language immersion…

  1. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulices Córdoba Zúñiga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative competence in English. The results suggest that the implementation of task-based language teaching facilitated the integration of the four skills in the English as a foreign language context. Furthermore, tasks were meaningful and integrated different reading, writing, listening, and speaking exercises that enhanced students’ communicative competences and interaction. It can be concluded that task-based language teaching is a good approach to be used in the promotion of skills integration and language competences.

  2. Cooperative robot programming based on the parallel logic language KL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Fumio; Iizuka, Keiichi; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Ohwada, Hayato

    1996-10-01

    Multi-agent root systems for the real world, must handle negotiations between agents. In this paper, we present a robot language which makes it easy to describe negotiation processes. This language provides concurrency and synchronization based on the logic programming language KL1. We incorporate the language into a look-ahead facility for handling emergent situations. Thus, reactive actions can be described in the language. We illustrate these facilities through cooperate tasks in pick-and-place problems.

  3. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed.

  4. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  5. BioRuby: bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2010-10-15

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it supports many widely used data formats and provides easy access to databases, external programs and public web services, including BLAST, KEGG, GenBank, MEDLINE and GO. BioRuby comes with a tutorial, documentation and an interactive environment, which can be used in the shell, and in the web browser. BioRuby is free and open source software, made available under the Ruby license. BioRuby runs on all platforms that support Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. And, with JRuby, BioRuby runs on the Java Virtual Machine. The source code is available from http://www.bioruby.org/. katayama@bioruby.org

  6. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  7. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Saito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.

  8. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  9. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  10. A CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE SUPPORT OF LEARNING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kruglyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.

  11. Business with Words: Language Programs That Generate Revenue and Impact Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the "business" of language programs. In particular, it focuses on the economic impact of English as a Second language programs physically located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which draw and serve foreign students. The impact such programs have on the wider community will also be explored. A bibliography is included.…

  12. Children Learning Computer Programming: Experiments with Languages, Curricula and Programmable Devices. Technical Report No. 250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, S. A.; Cannara, A. B.

    An experiment was conducted to study how children, aged 10-15 years, learn concepts relevant to computer programing and how they learn modern programing languages. The implicit educational goal was to teach thinking strategies through the medium of programing concepts and their applications. The computer languages Simper and Logo were chosen…

  13. Spanish-Language Community-Based Mental Health Treatment Programs, Policy-Required Language-Assistance Programming, and Mental Health Treatment Access Among Spanish-Speaking Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663

  14. Spanish-language community-based mental health treatment programs, policy-required language-assistance programming, and mental health treatment access among Spanish-speaking clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R; McClellan, Sean R

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997-2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services.

  15. Literature in Foreign Language Education Programs: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abukhattala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the studies on the subject of literature as an essential part of the English  education programs in Arab universities  has concentrated on only professors’ views and attitudes to these courses. By contrast, the following article describes a qualitative investigation on how former students and presently in-service English teachers felt about studying English literature during their university years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with six English-major graduates who teach EFL at high and secondary schools in Misurata. Libya. The study has revealed that participants were not positive about literature courses as they maintain that these courses have contributed little to their language development and teaching careers. They have narrated several factors which limited benefiting from these courses. Some of these factors are the teaching and learning practices in the language classroom, the   difficulty and oddness of  vocabulary and structures of literature texts and the lack of skills in English. Based on the interviews, reflections and implications of these barriers are made.

  16. Foreign Language Writing Fellows Programs: A Model for Improving Advanced Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Delys Waite; Nielson, Rex P.; Kurzer, Kendon

    2016-01-01

    Within the growing field of scholarly literature on foreign language (FL) writing pedagogy, few studies have addressed pedagogical questions regarding the teaching of writing to advanced language learners. Writing fellows peer tutoring programs, although typically associated with first language writing instruction, likely can benefit and support…

  17. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  18. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vassilev

    Full Text Available A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir.

  19. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir.

  20. Survey of Speech-Language Pathology Graduate Program Training in Outer and Middle Ear Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpanos, Yula C; Senzer, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the national training practices of speech-language pathology graduate programs in outer and middle ear screening. Directors of all American Speech-Language-Hearing Association-accredited speech-language pathology graduate programs (N = 254; Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, 2013) were surveyed on instructional formats in outer and middle ear screening. The graduate speech-language pathology program survey yielded 84 (33.1%) responses. Results indicated that some programs do not provide any training in the areas of conventional screening otoscopy using a handheld otoscope (15.5%; n = 13) or screening tympanometry (11.9%; n = 10), whereas close to one half (46.4%; n = 39) reported no training in screening video otoscopy. Outcomes revealed that approximately one third or more of speech-language pathology graduate programs do not provide experiential opportunities in screening handheld otoscopy (36.9%) or tympanometry (32.1%), and most (78.6%) do not provide experiential opportunities in video otoscopy. The implication from the graduate speech-language pathology program survey findings is that some speech-language pathologists will graduate from academic programs without the acquired knowledge or experiential learning required to establish skill in 1 or more areas of screening otoscopy and tympanometry. Graduate speech-language pathology programs should consider appropriate training opportunities for students to acquire and demonstrate skill in outer and middle ear screening.

  1. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  2. Computationally intensive econometrics using a distributed matrix-programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornik, Jurgen A; Hendry, David F; Shephard, Neil

    2002-06-15

    This paper reviews the need for powerful computing facilities in econometrics, focusing on concrete problems which arise in financial economics and in macroeconomics. We argue that the profession is being held back by the lack of easy-to-use generic software which is able to exploit the availability of cheap clusters of distributed computers. Our response is to extend, in a number of directions, the well-known matrix-programming interpreted language Ox developed by the first author. We note three possible levels of extensions: (i) Ox with parallelization explicit in the Ox code; (ii) Ox with a parallelized run-time library; and (iii) Ox with a parallelized interpreter. This paper studies and implements the first case, emphasizing the need for deterministic computing in science. We give examples in the context of financial economics and time-series modelling.

  3. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies William

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  4. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Thies, William

    2010-11-08

    Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  5. Inventory control program for laboratory equipment written in the C programming language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishman, J.L.; Shipp, S.G.

    1986-10-01

    A property inventory package has been written in the C programming language to keep track of general laboratory equipment. All functions which would be expected for a master inventory database are available including add, delete, edit, and find. The package was developed on a Digital Equipment Corporation LSI 11/73 computer using the ULTRIX-11 operating system, and can be adapted for use on any UNIX based system, or any operating system with a C compiler.

  6. Innovative Mobile Robot Method: Improving the Learning of Programming Languages in Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Octavio Ortiz; Pastor Franco, Juan Ángel; Alcover Garau, Pedro María; Herrero Martín, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a study of teaching a programming language in a C programming course by having students assemble and program a low-cost mobile robot. Writing their own programs to define the robot's behavior raised students' motivation. Working in small groups, students programmed the robots by using the control structures of structured…

  7. The Effect of Data-Based Translation Program Used in Foreign Language Education on the Correct Use of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darancik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that data-based translation programs are often used both in and outside the class unconsciously and thus there occurs many problems in foreign language learning and teaching. To draw attention to this problem, with this study, whether the program has satisfactory results or not has been revealed by making translations from…

  8. A comparative study of programming languages for next-generation astrodynamics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Helge; Cano, Juan Luis; McLean, Frazer; Anderl, Reiner

    2017-09-01

    Due to the computationally intensive nature of astrodynamics tasks, astrodynamicists have relied on compiled programming languages such as Fortran for the development of astrodynamics software. Interpreted languages such as Python, on the other hand, offer higher flexibility and development speed thereby increasing the productivity of the programmer. While interpreted languages are generally slower than compiled languages, recent developments such as just-in-time (JIT) compilers or transpilers have been able to close this speed gap significantly. Another important factor for the usefulness of a programming language is its wider ecosystem which consists of the available open-source packages and development tools such as integrated development environments or debuggers. This study compares three compiled languages and three interpreted languages, which were selected based on their popularity within the scientific programming community and technical merit. The three compiled candidate languages are Fortran, C++, and Java. Python, Matlab, and Julia were selected as the interpreted candidate languages. All six languages are assessed and compared to each other based on their features, performance, and ease-of-use through the implementation of idiomatic solutions to classical astrodynamics problems. We show that compiled languages still provide the best performance for astrodynamics applications, but JIT-compiled dynamic languages have reached a competitive level of speed and offer an attractive compromise between numerical performance and programmer productivity.

  9. The Application of Visual Basic Computer Programming Language to Simulate Numerical Iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Baba HASSAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of Visual Basic Computer Programming Language to Simulate Numerical Iterations, the merit of Visual Basic as a Programming Language and the difficulties faced when solving numerical iterations analytically, this research paper encourage the uses of Computer Programming methods for the execution of numerical iterations and finally fashion out and develop a reliable solution using Visual Basic package to write a program for some selected iteration problems.

  10. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Exercise Adaptive Response Schemes with the Help of Technology-Based Programs: Three Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The present three single-case studies assessed the effectiveness of technology-based programs to help three persons with multiple disabilities exercise adaptive response schemes independently. The response schemes included (a) left and right head movements for a man who kept his head increasingly static on his wheelchair's headrest (Study I), (b)…

  11. Examining the Need for Chinese Language Programs in Mid-Atlantic Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhey, Ruth Ann Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Public education reform designed for K-12 and higher education exists to transform teaching and learning within the United States in order to graduate today's student. One specific initiative on the federal, state, and local levels is the implementation of Chinese language programs. Some of the Chinese language programs in the K-12 education…

  12. Master Program in Foreign Language Education at New York University Steinhardt (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonnikova, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with master program in foreign language education at New York University Steinhardt (US). Thus, its peculiarities have been revealed. It has been defined that the study program presupposes mastering of foreign language teaching approaches that meet various needs of learners. It has been indicated that students acquire the…

  13. Stratego/XT 0.17. A Language and Toolset for Program Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.; Kalleberg, K.T.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: Science of Computer Programming (Elsevier), 72 (1-2), 2008; doi:10.1016/j.scico.2007.11.003 Stratego/XT is a language and toolset for program transformation. The Stratego language provides rewrite rules for expressing basic transformations, programmable rewriting

  14. Toward A Competency-Based Teacher Education Program in Foreign Languages at SUNY/Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    SUNY/Buffalo's competency-based teacher education program in foreign languages emphasizes: (1) a field-centered program, (2) a multi-institutional pattern of organizations, (3) feedback to students regarding their progress, (4) preservice/inservice continuum. The competencies required of foreign language teachers include: a practical command of…

  15. What Parents Want To Know about Foreign Language Immersion Programs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Tara W.; Tedick, Diane J.

    Modeled after the pioneering French immersion programs developed in Canada in the 1960s, foreign language immersion programs in the United States are designed to enrich the education of native-English-speaking students by teaching them all of their academic subjects in a second language. The goal is for students to become proficient in the second…

  16. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  17. A Survey of Language Classes in the Army Specialized Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, Frederick B.; And Others

    A survey, involving visits to the 44 institutions offering the Army Specialized Training Program's (ASTP) Foreign Area and Language Study Curriculum, provides information on program structure, faculty organization, student requirements, instructional procedures for presenting language skills and grammar, instructional aids, and the result achieved…

  18. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  19. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a…

  20. mm_par2.0: An object-oriented molecular dynamics simulation program parallelized using a hierarchical scheme with MPI and OPENMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang Jin; Kang, Ji Hoon; Myung, Hun Joo

    2012-02-01

    We have revised a general purpose parallel molecular dynamics simulation program mm_par using the object-oriented programming. We parallelized the revised version using a hierarchical scheme in order to utilize more processors for a given system size. The benchmark result will be presented here. New version program summaryProgram title: mm_par2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADXP_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXP_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 390 858 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 068 310 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any system operated by Linux or Unix Operating system: Linux Classification: 7.7 External routines: We provide wrappers for FFTW [1], Intel MKL library [2] FFT routine, and Numerical recipes [3] FFT, random number generator, and eigenvalue solver routines, SPRNG [4] random number generator, Mersenne Twister [5] random number generator, space filling curve routine. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXP_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 560 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of fluids and solids from microscopic scales to mesoscopic scales. Solution method: Molecular dynamics simulation in NVE, NVT, and NPT ensemble, Langevin dynamics simulation, dissipative particle dynamics simulation. Reasons for new version: First, object-oriented programming has been used, which is known to be open for extension and closed for modification. It is also known to be better for maintenance. Second, version 1.0 was based on atom decomposition and domain decomposition scheme [6] for parallelization. However, atom

  1. An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Gomez-Castañeda, Felipe; Moreno-Cadenas, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a Least Mean Square (LMS) programming scheme is used to set the offset voltage of two operational amplifiers that were built using floating-gate transistors, enabling a 0.95 VRMS trimmer-less flame detection sensor. The programming scheme is capable of setting the offset voltage over a wide range of values by means of electron injection. The flame detection sensor consists of two programmable offset operational amplifiers; the first amplifier serves as a 26 μV offset voltage follower, whereas the second amplifier acts as a programmable trimmer-less voltage comparator. Both amplifiers form the proposed sensor, whose principle of functionality is based on the detection of the electrical changes produced by the flame ionization. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the presence of a flame accurately after programming the amplifiers with a maximum of 35 LMS-algorithm iterations. Current commercial flame detectors are mainly used in absorption refrigerators and large industrial gas heaters, where a high voltage AC source and several mechanical trimmings are used in order to accurately measure the presence of the flame. PMID:28613250

  2. An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Gomez-Castañeda, Felipe; Moreno-Cadenas, Jose Antonio

    2017-06-14

    In this paper, a Least Mean Square (LMS) programming scheme is used to set the offset voltage of two operational amplifiers that were built using floating-gate transistors, enabling a 0.95 VRMS trimmer-less flame detection sensor. The programming scheme is capable of setting the offset voltage over a wide range of values by means of electron injection. The flame detection sensor consists of two programmable offset operational amplifiers; the first amplifier serves as a 26 μV offset voltage follower, whereas the second amplifier acts as a programmable trimmer-less voltage comparator. Both amplifiers form the proposed sensor, whose principle of functionality is based on the detection of the electrical changes produced by the flame ionization. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the presence of a flame accurately after programming the amplifiers with a maximum of 35 LMS-algorithm iterations. Current commercial flame detectors are mainly used in absorption refrigerators and large industrial gas heaters, where a high voltage AC source and several mechanical trimmings are used in order to accurately measure the presence of the flame.

  3. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  4. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…

  5. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  6. An Evaluation Framework and Comparative Analysis of the Widely Used First Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  7. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Farooq

    Full Text Available Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL. The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  8. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  9. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  10. Benchmarks of programming languages for special purposes in the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoebel, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    Although Ada is likely to be chosen as the principal programming language for the Space Station, certain needs, such as expert systems and robotics, may be better developed in special languages. The languages, LISP and Prolog, are studied and some benchmarks derived. The mathematical foundations for these languages are reviewed. Likely areas of the space station are sought out where automation and robotics might be applicable. Benchmarks are designed which are functional, mathematical, relational, and expert in nature. The coding will depend on the particular versions of the languages which become available for testing.

  11. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  12. Program Verification with Monadic Second-Order Logic & Languages for Web Service Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders

    , such as maintaining session state and dynamically producing HTML or XML documents. By introducing explicit language-based mechanisms for those issues, we liberate the Web service programmer from the tedious and error-prone alternatives. Specialized program analyses aid the programmer by verifying at compile time......, and syntax-level macros for making additional language extensions. In its newest version, the programming language is designed as an extension of Java. To describe classes of XML documents, we introduce a novel XML schema language aiming to both simplify and generalize existing proposals. All parts...

  13. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Saito; Tsuneo Yamaura

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper...

  14. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  15. The Julia programming language: the future of scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John

    2017-11-01

    Julia is an innovative new open-source programming language for high-level, high-performance numerical computing. Julia combines the general-purpose breadth and extensibility of Python, the ease-of-use and numeric focus of Matlab, the speed of C and Fortran, and the metaprogramming power of Lisp. Julia uses type inference and just-in-time compilation to compile high-level user code to machine code on the fly. A rich set of numeric types and extensive numerical libraries are built-in. As a result, Julia is competitive with Matlab for interactive graphical exploration and with C and Fortran for high-performance computing. This talk interactively demonstrates Julia's numerical features and benchmarks Julia against C, C++, Fortran, Matlab, and Python on a spectral time-stepping algorithm for a 1d nonlinear partial differential equation. The Julia code is nearly as compact as Matlab and nearly as fast as Fortran. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1554149.

  16. Task Parallelism and Data Distribution: An Overview of Explicit Parallel Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldi, Dounia; Jouvelot, Pierre,; Ancourt, Corinne; Irigoin, François

    2012-01-01

    15 pages; International audience; Programming parallelmachines as effectively as sequential ones would ideally require a language that provides high-level programming constructs to avoid the programming errors frequent when expressing parallelism. Since task parallelism is considered more error-prone than data parallelism, we survey six popular and efficient parallel language designs that tackle this difficult issue: Cilk, Chapel, X10, Habanero-Java, OpenMP and OpenCL. Using as single running...

  17. Payment Schemes in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: The Case of 4Ps in the Davao Region, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Cecilia Catubig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates current payment schemes employed by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps in the Philippines using six assessment criteria: transaction cost, security/risks, speed and timeliness, acceptability, resilience and flexibility. Employing data collected at the regional level, we establish four main findings: (1 all 4Ps payment conduits present trade-offs; (2 a payment approach that uses mainstream financial infrastructure is beneficial if cost, speed and simplicity of the payment system are critical; (3 competition for 4Ps contracts for Payment Service Providers (PSPs has improved the quality of payment services and minimized costs; and (4 the efficiency of the program is greatly influenced by the commitment of the PSP to deliver the cash benefits to the recipients in a timely manner rather than by maximizing conduit branches.

  18. Fuzzy Arden Syntax: A fuzzy programming language for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Thomas; Mandl, Harald; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The programming language Arden Syntax has been optimised for use in clinical decision support systems. We describe an extension of this language named Fuzzy Arden Syntax, whose original version was introduced in S. Tiffe's dissertation on "Fuzzy Arden Syntax: Representation and Interpretation of Vague Medical Knowledge by Fuzzified Arden Syntax" (Vienna University of Technology, 2003). The primary aim is to provide an easy means of processing vague or uncertain data, which frequently appears in medicine. For both propositional and number data types, fuzzy equivalents have been added to Arden Syntax. The Boolean data type was generalised to represent any truth degree between the two extremes 0 (falsity) and 1 (truth); fuzzy data types were introduced to represent fuzzy sets. The operations on truth values and real numbers were generalised accordingly. As the conditions to decide whether a certain programme unit is executed or not may be indeterminate, a Fuzzy Arden Syntax programme may split. The data in the different branches may be optionally aggregated subsequently. Fuzzy Arden Syntax offers the possibility to formulate conveniently Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) based on the principle of a continuously graded applicability of statements. Furthermore, ad hoc decisions about sharp value boundaries can be avoided. As an illustrative example shows, an MLM making use of the features of Fuzzy Arden Syntax is not significantly more complex than its Arden Syntax equivalent; in the ideal case, a programme handling crisp data remains practically unchanged when compared to its fuzzified version. In the latter case, the output data, which can be a set of weighted alternatives, typically depends continuously from the input data. In typical applications an Arden Syntax MLM can produce a different output after only slight changes of the input; discontinuities are in fact unavoidable when the input varies continuously but the output is taken from a discrete set of possibilities

  19. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  20. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  1. Modern X86 assembly language programming 32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX

    CERN Document Server

    Kusswurm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction setX87 core architecture, register stack, special

  2. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  3. Influences of Globalization on K-12 Language Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of globalization on K-12 language teacher education at Northern Arizona University (NAU) in terms of multilingual practices in the US, with reference to an English-only-state, Arizona. This study explored influences of globalization on K-12 language education practices in the US through teacher…

  4. Integrating Other Areas of Learning into the Language Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Mariel

    1996-01-01

    Presents modules and learning activities taken from other learning areas useful in the Australian second-language classroom. Argues that general and specific subject areas can stimulate dialogue and interest as well as cultural and social awareness, provide new language structures, enrich vocabulary and extend the use of idiomatic expressions, and…

  5. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  6. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  7. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  8. An Application of Answer Set Programming to the Field of Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Inclezan, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the contributions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to the study of an established theory from the field of Second Language Acquisition: Input Processing. The theory describes default strategies that learners of a second language use in extracting meaning out of a text, based on their knowledge of the second language and their background knowledge about the world. We formalized this theory in ASP, and as a result we were able to determine opportunities for refining its natur...

  9. Evaluating the quality of STARTALK Program for Teaching Heritage and Non-heritage Arabic Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available STARTALK is a federally funded program launched as a new component of the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI announced by former President Bush in January 2006 to increase the number of Americans learning and speaking foreign languages, and to provide students at all levels of education with an opportunity to learn the foreign languages of their choice. It is also designed to offer teachers of foreign languages creative teaching strategies to exemplify best practices in language education and in professional development. This study was conducted at Michigan State University to evaluate the quality of a specific STARTALK training program designed for teachers of heritage and non-heritage Arabic language learners. The study participants included 16 teachers and 30 heritage and non-heritage high school students. Two different survey instruments were used to collect data from the participating teachers and students. The data collected for the study were analyzed through the use of quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings indicated that both heritage and non-heritage groups have generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards Arabic language learning. The two groups, however, differed significantly in their perceptions towards the importance and the use of Arabic language in the context of the United States. The findings also revealed positive attitudes of the participating students towards the quality of the program activities. The study further revealed positive attitudes of the participating teachers towards the quality of their training program. Based on the significant findings of the study, it was concluded that the program has been successful since both students and teachers indicated that they were satisfied with the program activities. It was also 134 Hassan concluded that the study findings can be properly applied for conducting any successful language learning program. Several recommendations were made by both students

  10. Identity Labels and Self-Reported Language Use: Implications for Spanish Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Daniel; Villa, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between self-identification labels and self-reported language use, among other factors, of students who have self selected into Spanish-for-Native-Speakers (SNS) courses. A principal goal of this study is to work toward better understanding of certain identity features of students with heritage language skills in order to…

  11. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Bilingualism in Spanish and Mandarin Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research documents students' outcomes in dual language (DL) programs, but there is little examination of students' perceptions of bilingualism and its impact on students' cognitive functioning and social relationships, especially with comparative studies across different target languages and student backgrounds. This study, which…

  13. A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP) in Toronto public schools in Ontario, Canada. Based on an analysis developed from Fairclough and Parker's criteria, this paper determined stereotypes…

  14. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  15. COMPARATIVE-EVALUATION OF HIGH-LEVEL REAL-TIME PROGRAMMING-LANGUAGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA; STOYENKO, AD

    1990-01-01

    Owing to the fast growing need for better means of building real-time systems, a number of representative languages used in real-time programming is surveyed. The evaluation focuses on seven languages which possess explicit real-time features. Based on a categorization of the latter, the seven

  16. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  17. Three Methods for Language Acquisition: Total Physical Response; the Tomatis Program; Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic…

  18. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  19. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  20. Identifying and Expressing Emotions: A Language Therapy Program for Behavior Disordered Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monast, Sheila; Smith, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    A language therapy program designed for use with behavior-disordered adolescents was also used with language/learning-disabled adolescents. Line drawings of facial expressions were used to teach the concepts of feelings and identify ranges of similar emotions as well as to introduce new vocabulary. Special behavior considerations with the behavior…

  1. Policies and Practices regarding Students with Accents in Speech-Language Pathology Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Erika S.; Crowley, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathology (SLP) training programs are the initial gateway for nonnative speakers of English to join the SLP profession. An anonymous web-based survey in New York State examined policies and practices implemented when SLP students have foreign accents in English or in other languages. Responses were elicited from 530 students and 28…

  2. "We Only Speak English Here": English Dominance in Language Diverse, Immigrant After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Melanie Jones; Okamoto, Dina G.; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests that community after-school programs (ASPs) are crucial sites for culturally relevant programming for minority and immigrant youth; yet, we know little about how ASPs address language in their programming. Using an ethnographic fieldwork approach, we examine the goals and practices of ASP workers serving immigrant youth with…

  3. An Implementation of the Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming Language SINA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triphathi, Anand; Berge, Eric; Aksit, Mehmet

    SINA is an object-oriented language for distributed and concurrent programming. The primary focus of this paper is on the object-oriented concurrent programming mechanisms of SINA and their implementation. This paper presents the SINA constructs for concurrent programming and inter-object

  4. Constructing the ScratchJr Programming Language in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelance, Dylan J.; Strawhacker, Amanda L.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the growing literature on children and computer programming by focusing on a programming language for children in Kindergarten through second grade. Sixty-two students were exposed to a 6-week curriculum using ScartchJr. They learned foundational programming concepts and applied those concepts to create personally…

  5. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part II: scheme analysis and mechanism revelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Jiapei; Chen, Xiujuan; Li, Kailong

    2017-03-01

    As presented in the first companion paper, distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) was developed for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) under complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions. Beijing was selected as a representative case. This paper focuses on presenting the obtained schemes and the revealed mechanisms of the Beijing MSWM system. The optimal MSWM schemes for Beijing under various solid waste treatment policies and their differences are deliberated. The impacts of facility expansion, hierarchy, and spatial heterogeneities and potential extensions of DMIFHP are also discussed. A few of findings are revealed from the results and a series of comparisons and analyses. For instance, DMIFHP is capable of robustly reflecting these complexities in MSWM systems, especially for Beijing. The optimal MSWM schemes are of fragmented patterns due to the dominant role of the proximity principle in allocating solid waste treatment resources, and they are closely related to regulated ratios of landfilling, incineration, and composting. Communities without significant differences among distances to different types of treatment facilities are more sensitive to these ratios than others. The complexities of hierarchy and heterogeneities pose significant impacts on MSWM practices. Spatial dislocation of MSW generation rates and facility capacities caused by unreasonable planning in the past may result in insufficient utilization of treatment capacities under substantial influences of transportation costs. The problems of unreasonable MSWM planning, e.g., severe imbalance among different technologies and complete vacancy of ten facilities, should be gained deliberation of the public and the municipal or local governments in Beijing. These findings are helpful for gaining insights into MSWM systems under these complexities, mitigating key challenges in the planning of these systems, improving the related management

  6. Visual flight simulation of UAVs in real time programmed in JAVA language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaohong; Liao, Fang

    1999-07-01

    The configuration and characteristics of the flight management and control system of an UAV is quite different from that of a manned aircraft. A visual flight simulation is a most important way to improve the performance and effectiveness of UAVs in the practical field use. In this paper, a visual flight Real Time Simulation Environment (RTSE) for UAVs are programmed in Java language combined with Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and C++ language. The advantages of Java program in this project are introduced. Its disadvantages are overcome through three layer program. The bottom layer is the device-driven system layer with the hardware access capability programmed in C language. The middle layer is the dynamical link library that is made up of the native methods of JAVA application programmed in C++ language. The top layer is the application program programmed in Java language and VRML. The RTSE has the ability to provide significant training, demonstration and assessment of the UAVs economically, and reduce the operator workload.

  7. Workshop on programming languages for high performance computing (HPCWPL): final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the deliberations and conclusions of the Workshop on Programming Languages for High Performance Computing (HPCWPL) held at the Sandia CSRI facility in Albuquerque, NM on December 12-13, 2006.

  8. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Newley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improved their knowledge about robotics and programing language at the end of the robotics program. Delayed posttest results indicated that the students were able to sustain their improved knowledge two months after the posttest. Formal data about student motivation and interest in STEM learning were not collected; however, it was observed that students expressed interest to participate in more advanced robotics programs in the future.

  9. The NINDS Hearing, Speech, and Language Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an overview of hearing, speech and language research being sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS). Described is research in such areas as infant audiological screening, auditory prostheses, larynx surgery, and developmental dysphasia. (LS)

  10. The Rhythm of Language: Fostering Oral and Listening Skills in Singapore Pre-School Children through an Integrated Music and Language Arts Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…

  11. International Education Programs: Access to the World and Its Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Education Programs Service (IEPS) administers 14 education programs. These programs are complementary in nature and designed to benefit a variety of audiences through training programs, research, start-up or enhancement projects, and fellowships. This paper provides brief descriptions of these programs.

  12. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow o...... justification for low-level machine code for reversible microprocessors as well as high-level block-structured reversible languages. We give examples for both such languages and illustrate them with a lossless encoder for permutations given by Dijkstra....

  13. A C++-embedded Domain-Specific Language for programming the MORA soft processor array

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderbauwhede, W.; Margala, M.; Chalamalasetti, S.R.; Purohit, S.

    2010-01-01

    MORA is a novel platform for high-level FPGA programming of streaming vector and matrix operations, aimed at multimedia applications. It consists of soft array of pipelined low-complexity SIMD processors-in-memory (PIM). We present a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for high-level programming of the MORA soft processor array. The DSL is embedded in C++, providing designers with a familiar language framework and the ability to compile designs using a standard compiler for functional testing befo...

  14. A Regularization SAA Scheme for a Stochastic Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reflect uncertain data in practical problems, stochastic versions of the mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC have drawn much attention in the recent literature. Our concern is the detailed analysis of convergence properties of a regularization sample average approximation (SAA method for solving a stochastic mathematical program with complementarity constraints (SMPCC. The analysis of this regularization method is carried out in three steps: First, the almost sure convergence of optimal solutions of the regularized SAA problem to that of the true problem is established by the notion of epiconvergence in variational analysis. Second, under MPCC-MFCQ, which is weaker than MPCC-LICQ, we show that any accumulation point of Karash-Kuhn-Tucker points of the regularized SAA problem is almost surely a kind of stationary point of SMPCC as the sample size tends to infinity. Finally, some numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the method proposed.

  15. Using the Spec# Language, Methodology, and Tools to Write Bug-Free Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, K. Rustan M.; Müller, Peter

    Spec# is a programming system for the development of correct programs. It consists of a programming language, a verification methodology, and tools. The Spec# language extends C# with contracts, which allow programmers to document their design decisions in the code. The verification methodology provides rules and guidelines for how to use the Spec# features to express and check properties of interesting implementations. Finally, the tool support consists of a compiler that emits run-time checks for many contracts and a static program verifier that attempts to prove automatically that an implementation satisfies its specification. These lecture notes teach the use of the Spec# system, focusing on specification and static verification.

  16. CRITERIA OF LANGUAGE AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT SELECTION FOR USE IN THE CAPACITY OF EDUCATIONAL AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro H. Shevchuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of educational aids is to a large degree treated to be determinative in provision with its efficiency. The languages and programming environments are stated in the article as those that belong to educational aids. The criteria and backgrounds of their selection for educational purpose at the lessons of programming at comprehensive school are treated in the article. The examples of principle characteristics comparison of Pascal and C# are also cited. The article points at the necessity of further analysis of programming languages sampling for use as educational aids in teaching programming.

  17. Current Status of the Indigenous Languages Education Program from the Ministry of Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ramos Rivas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All of the Costa Rican indigenous languages are in danger of being lost because their spheres of use continue to shrink over time and the intergenerational transmission is diminishing. For this reason, the Costa Rican government has initiated a program to teach indigenous languages as a way to prevent their disappearance. As an effort to obtain a panoramic overview of the current status of indigenous languages education, this article presents a bibliographical review of what has been said about this program, its origins, obstacles and educational achievements. It is concluded that indigenous languages education has not been approached from a second language teaching perspective, there is shortage of educational material and a need for more training and follow-up for teachers, and finally, the non-indigenous population needs to be involved to create a better environment for language revitalization. Aside from providing a formal educational space, little has been done to incorporate indigenous languages in the social life of communities. These languages continue to be anchored in the past and language teachers have been left with a responsibility that should have been shared with the families.

  18. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Modular General English Language Teaching Preparatory Program at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating existing foreign language programs on a regular basis is essential because program evaluation leads to more effective programs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by investigating students' and English instructors' perceptions of…

  19. Propaedeutics of Mathematical Language of Schemes and Structures in School Teaching of the Natural Sciences Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kotchnev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the teaching process at schools of the natural sciences profile. The subject of the research is devoted to the correlations between the students’ progress and the degree of their involvement in creative activities of problem solving in the natural sciences context. The research is aimed to demonstrate the reinforce- ment of students’ creative learning by teaching mathematical schemes and structures. The comparative characteristics of the task, problem and model approaches to mathematical problem solving are given; the experimental data on the efficiency of mathematical training based on the above approaches being discussed, as well as the specifics of modeling the tasks for problem solving. The author examines the ways for stimulating the students’ creative activity and motivating the knowledge acquisition, and search for the new mathematical conformities related to the natural science content. The significance of the Olympiad and other non-standard tasks, broadening the students’ horizons and stimulating creative thinking and abilities, is emphasized.The proposed method confirms the appropriateness of introducing the Olympiad and non-standard problem solving into the preparatory training curricula for the Unified State Examinations. 

  20. Implementing Two-Way Dual-Language Immersion Programs: Classroom Insights from an Urban District. Research Brief. RB-9921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer J.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Dual-language immersion programs--in which students learn core subjects (language arts, math, science, and social studies) in both English and a "partner" language--have been gaining in popularity across the United States. Such programs may use a "two-way model," in which roughly half the students are native speakers of the…

  1. Development of Reading Skills from K-3 in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners Following Three Programs of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…

  2. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. A Survey on Postsecondary Korean Language Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs retain higher motivation in learning (Bao & Lee, 2012; Brown, 2009; Liu & Shibata, 2008; Murphy, Back, & Garrett-Rucks, 2009; Nunn, 2013, but it is uncertain to what extent the LCTL programs are equipped to provide an education that meets students’ expectations. In this study, I diagnosed various aspects of the organization and management of Korean programs in U.S. postsecondary education as an example case. I contacted 104 Korean language program coordinators in the United States and collected responses from 34 in spring 2015. I reported on issues related to faculty, course curricula, proficiency goals, recent and projected changes in the program, and the difficulties that the program coordinators faced. Further, I discussed the strengths and robustness of Korean language education in the United States, and highlighted factors that may inhibit potential improvement and constructive changes.

  4. Interactive debug program for evaluation and modification of assembly-language software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An assembly-language debug program written for the Honeywell HDC-601 and DDP-516/316 computers is described. Names and relative addressing to improve operator-machine interaction are used. Features include versatile display, on-line assembly, and improved program execution and analysis. The program is discussed from both a programmer's and an operator's standpoint. Functional diagrams are included to describe the program, and each command is illustrated.

  5. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Webb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal forensic investigation were compared with different sets of random episodes. The results showed that although there were an equivalent number of running words in each set of episodes, the episodes from programs within the same subgenre contained fewer word families than random programs. The findings also showed that low frequency word families (4000-14,000 levels reoccur more often in programs within the same subgenre. Together the results indicate that watching programs within the same subgenre may be an effective approach to language learning with television because it reduces the lexical demands of viewing and increases the potential for vocabulary learning.Los guiones de 288 episodios televisivos se analizaron para determinar el alcance de la recursividad del vocabulario en programas de televisión del mismo subgénero y en programas no relacionados de géneros diferentes. Se compararon episodios de tres subgéneros del drama americano: médico, de espías/acción y de investigación forense, con varios grupos de episodios elegidos al azar. Los resultados muestran que, aunque el número de palabras en cada grupo de episodios era equivalente, los episodios del mismo subgénero contienen menos familias de palabras que aquellos elegidos al azar. Los hallazgos mostraron que las familias de baja frecuencia (niveles de 4.000-14.000 se repiten con más frecuencia en los programas del mismo subgénero. En conjunto, los resultados indican que el visionado de programas del mismo subgénero puede ser un método efectivo para aprender el lenguaje por medio de la televisión porque reduce la demanda léxica de la

  6. AUDIO-LINGUAL METHODS IN THE LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PLAISTER, TED

    WHEN CHILDREN ENTER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, THEY POSSESS A LANGUAGE SYSTEM WHICH HAS BEEN INTUITED FROM WHAT THEY HEAR AND WHICH CAN PRODUCE FOR THEM AN INFINITE NUMBER OF SENTENCES REFLECTING EITHER STANDARD OR NONSTANDARD DIALECTS OF ENGLISH. THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER CAN EQUIP THOSE WHO SPEAK A DIVERGENT ENGLISH DIALECT WITH ANOTHER, MORE SOCIALLY…

  7. Abstraction and Modularization in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    One of the characteristics of BETA is the unification of abstraction mechanisms such as class, procedure, process type, generic class, interface, etc. into one abstraction mechanism: the pattern. In addition to keeping the language small, the unification has given a systematic treatment of all...

  8. Towards Meaningful Interaction in Multimedia Programs for Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Uschi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the interactive potential for teaching four language skills (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) in the context of what is available across a range of multimedia technologies, from CD-ROMs to the World Wide Web. Identifies three levels of interactivity in the multimedia environment and notes the advantages that multimedia…

  9. Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the analysis of the literature that has been written on project management and language issues in development, it attempts to show how the Communication Skills programme could benefit from this knowledge on project management and educational change management in the third millennium. The paper concludes that ...

  10. High-Level Operations in Nonprocedural Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    defining type specific operators. Abstract data type has been applied to the nonprocedural language NOPAL [Sang8O]. It was primarily used as a tool...Navigation............24 Network data model. ...... 24 NEXT...............98, 100 Nonterminals .......... 118 NOPAL .............19 Optimization .......... 80

  11. What Should We Expect of Community Language Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the threshold-level movement in European language teaching. Objectives are not defined in terms of what material is to be covered but in terms of what behavior is desired. The movement's application to Australia is discussed from three perspectives: (1) social justice, (2) linguistic resources, and (3) multiculturalism. (PJM)

  12. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    analysis. With a tool such as Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, to be ex- plained below, the grammar writer or programmer working with language analysis can define his or her own constraint solvers specifically tailored for the linguistic problems at hand. We concentrate on grammars and lan- guage analysis...

  13. Integrating Programming Language and Operating System Information Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    of language-level and OS mechanisms for provenance Provenance is the history of computation. Audit logs are a form of provenance, as are execution...is guaranteed to correctly enforce a general class of user-specified auditing policies. Moreover, we have implemented this model for the Java

  14. Virtualization for Cost-Effective Teaching of Assembly Language Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, José O.; Sherratt, R. Simon; Howlett, Des; Guy, Chris G.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a virtual system that emulates an ARM-based processor machine, created to replace a traditional hardware-based system for teaching assembly language. The virtual system proposed here integrates, in a single environment, all the development tools necessary to deliver introductory or advanced courses on modern assembly language…

  15. Program Evaluation: English Grammar in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    The present study wants to find out the reasons for choosing the current methods/techniques for teaching grammar and it also wants to investigate whether there is a relation between teachers' thinking and their actions in the class or not. For this reason, four language teachers were selected. The subjects were selected by non-random sampling.…

  16. Linguistics courses in pre-service foreign language teacher training programs and knowledge about language

    OpenAIRE

    Hatipoğlu, Çiler

    2017-01-01

    The introductory linguistics courses have been a constant component of the pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) curricula in Turkey since 1944 when the ELT Department at Gazi Institute of Education was establishment (Hatipoğlu 2017; Hatipoğlu & Erçetin, 2016). In Turkey, no ELT student can graduate and become a language teacher without taking and passing these courses. The aim of the linguistics courses, as defined by the Council of Higher Education (YOK 2005), is to equip futu...

  17. Teaching an Introductory Programming Language in a General Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…

  18. Policies and Practices of the Doctoral Programs in English Language Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan; Kinik, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The present review focuses on the doctoral programs and dissertations in the field of English language teaching between the period 2010 and 2015 in Turkey to reveal how the latest reforms on higher education shaped the programs, supervisors, students and dissertations. This research focus requires immediate attention as there is not yet an…

  19. 75 FR 12221 - Foreign Language Assistance Program-Local Educational Agencies with Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Foreign Language Assistance Program--Local Educational Agencies with Institutions of Higher Education... one or more institutions of higher education (IHEs) to establish or expand articulated programs of... part 86 apply to institutions of higher education only. II. Award Information Type of Award...

  20. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2, phase 2: Introduction to plans programming. [user guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, D. R.; Ishikawa, M. K.; Paulson, R. E.; Ramsey, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A user guide for the Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling (PLANS) is presented. Information is included for the construction of PLANS programs. The basic philosophy of PLANS is discussed, and access and update reference techniques are described along with the use of tree structures.

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Reid List of First Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Robert M.; Siegfried, Jason P.; Alexandro, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Richard Reid of Michigan State University maintained a list showing the first programming language used in introductory programming courses taken by computer science and information systems majors; it was updated for several years afterwards with the most recent update done in 2011. This is a follow-up to that last update of…

  2. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  3. A Study of the Programming Languages Used in Information Systems and in Computer Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jack; Russell, Barbara; Pollacia, Lissa F.; Tastle, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper researches the computer languages taught in the first, second and third programming courses in Computer Information Systems (CIS), Management Information Systems (MIS or IS) curricula as well as in Computer Science (CS) and Information Technology (IT) curricula. Instructors teaching the first course in programming within a four year…

  4. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  5. USING DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LEARNING PROCESS OF MODERN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia A. Umryk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.

  6. Educating Emergent Bilinguals: Policies, Programs, and Practices for English Language Learners. Language & Literacy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia; Kleifgen, Jo Anne

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive and insightful book shows how present educational policies and practices to educate language minority students in the United States ignore an essential characteristic--their emergent bilingualism. In one accessible guide, the authors compile the most up-to-date research findings to demonstrate how ignoring children's…

  7. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  8. Technology-enhanced instruction in learning world languages: The Middlebury interactive learning program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Lake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.

  9. Developing Standards for Language Teacher Education Programs in Indonesia: Professionalizing or Losing in Complexity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luciana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting standards for language teacher education programs, materials, and evaluation sparks some hope in attempts to improve the quality of the programs. Yet, this very fact augmented by my examination of ten language teacher education programs in Java, Bali, and Lampung (FKIP and PGRI triggers a critical look at the idea of standard development. In particular, I would like to explore whether it can lead to a better professionalism or we are just lost in the complexity of the standardization itself. This paper consists of four sections. Departing from an overview of language teacher education programs in Indonesia and the theoretical foundations, some major problems in this area are identified. Following this, the discussion is focused on the idea of standard development for language teacher education programs in Indonesia. Eventually, some suggestions are put forth to highlight the need for establishing coherent curriculum framework bridging the two realms of language teacher education and school milieu as well as providing learners with knowledge base that enables them to cope with complex demands of school settings and more essentially, to act as an agent in the social change process.

  10. Towards provably correct code generation for a hard real-time programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1994-01-01

    This paper sketches a hard real-time programming language featuring operators for expressing timeliness requirements in an abstract, implementation-independent way and presents parts of the design and verification of a provably correct code generator for that language. The notion of implementatio...... correctness used as an implicit specification of the code generator pays attention to timeliness requirements. Hence, formal verification of the code generator design is a guarantee of meeting all deadlines when executing generated code....

  11. Literacy Experiences and Disciplinary Socialization of Second Language Students in an M.A. TESOL Program

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Chi-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uncovered how a group of second language (L2) students, including international and immigrant students, became socialized into American academic discourse through the writing that they did as graduate students in the context of their academic field. In particular, this study focused on Mandarin Chinese-speaking graduate students studying in an M.A. program of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) at a major U.S. university located in the Bay Area of Northe...

  12. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  13. Formal semantic specifications as implementation blueprints for real-time programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, S.

    1981-01-01

    Formal definitions of language and system semantics provide highly desirable checks on the correctness of implementations of programming languages and their runtime support systems. If these definitions can give concrete guidance to the implementor, major increases in implementation accuracy and decreases in implementation effort can be achieved. It is shown that of the wide variety of available methods the Hgraph (hypergraph) definitional technique (Pratt, 1975), is best suited to serve as such an implementation blueprint. A discussion and example of the Hgraph technique is presented, as well as an overview of the growing body of implementation experience of real-time languages based on Hgraph semantic definitions.

  14. Language outcomes for children with cochlear implants enrolled in different communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanbay, Ennur; Hickson, Louise; Scarinci, Nerina; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dettman, Shani J

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) compare language outcomes in pediatric cochlear implant users enrolled in three different communication programs: sign and spoken language, auditory-oral, and auditory-verbal therapy, and (b) examine factors influencing language outcomes. Post-implant standard scores on language assessments of receptive vocabulary, auditory comprehension, and expressive communication were collected from files of 42 children with prelingual hearing loss who were implanted by 3;6 years of age. Early intervention history, device details, and demographic information were obtained for each child. Family involvement was evaluated using a rating scale. After adjusting for potential covariates, there were no significant differences in language outcomes across the three groups. Overall, there was a large degree of variability with some children achieving below average scores and others achieving above average scores. Age at diagnosis of hearing loss and family involvement were significantly associated with language outcomes. Regardless of the type of communication approach received, children diagnosed with hearing loss at an early age and children with a high level of family involvement had better post-implant language scores than children diagnosed later and with lower levels of family involvement. These findings emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and highlight the contribution families make to the language outcomes of children with cochlear implants.

  15. Specifying the Behaviour of Python Programs: Language and Basic Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describe BeSSY, a function-centric language for formal behavioural specification that requires no more than high-school mathematics on arithmetic, functions, Boolean algebra and sets theory. An object can be modelled as a union of data sets and functions whereas inherited object can be modelled as a union of supersets and a set of object-specific functions. Python list and dictionary operations will be specified in BeSSY for illustration.

  16. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  17. A descriptive study of the interaction behaviors in a language video program and in live elementary language classes using that video program

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Solange Aparecida

    1996-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe: 1) the predominant types of interaction behaviors encountered in a foreign language video program; and 2) the types of teacher-student interaction features that resulted from use of the instructional video in elementary school classrooms. Based on the findings, the second purpose of the study was to examine how these interaction behaviors shaped amount of teacher and student talk in the two sources of data. The researcher exami...

  18. Generic multiset programming for language-integrated querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Larsen, Ken Friis

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how relational algebraic programming based on efficient symbolic representations of multisets and operations on them can be applied to the query sublanguage of SQL in a type-safe fashion. In essence, it provides a library for naïve programming with multisets in a generalized...... SQL-style fashion, but avoids many cases of asymptotically inefficient nested iteration through cross-products....

  19. BAIK– PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE BASED ON INDONESIAN LEXICAL PARSING FOR MULTITIER WEB DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hasanudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Business software development with global team is increasing rapidly and the programming language as development tool takes the important role in the global web development. The real user friendly programming language should be written in local language for programmer who has native language is not in English. This paper presents our design of BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputerscripting language which syntax is modeled with Bahasa Indonesian for multitier web development. Researcher propose the implementation of Indonesian Parsing Engine and Binary Search Tree structure for memory allocation of variable and compose the language features that support basic Object Oriented Programming, Common Gateway Interface, HTML style manipulation and database connection. Our goal is to build real programming language from simple structure design for web development using Indonesian lexical words. Pengembangan bisnis perangkat lunak dalam tim berskala global meningkat dengan cepat dan bahasa pemrograman berperan penting dalam pengembangan web secara global. Bahasa pemrograman yang benar-benar ramah terhadap pengguna harus ditulis dalam bahasa lokal programmer yang bahasa ibunya bukan Bahasa Inggris. Paper ini menyajikan desain dari bahasa penulisan BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputer, yang sintaksisnya dimodelkan dengan Bahasa Indonesia untuk pengembangan web multitier. Peneliti mengusulkan implementasi dari parsing engine Bahasa Indonesia dan struktur binary search tree untuk alokasi memori terhadap variabel, serta membuat fitur bahasa yang mendukung dasar pemrograman berbasis objek, common gateway interface, manipulasi gaya HTML, dan koneksi basis data. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menciptakan bahasa pemrograman yang sesungguhnya dan menggunakan desain struktur sederhana untuk pengembangan web dengan menggunakan kata-kata dari Bahasa Indonesia.

  20. Efficacy of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning (DI-LL) Program to Promote Expressive and Receptive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Learning (DI-LL) is a highly structured intervention with empirical support in children with language delay uncomplicated by autism spectrum disorder ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0154 TITLE: Efficacy of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning (DI-LL) Program to Promote Expressive and...Receptive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Scahill, MSN, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Emory

  1. Efficacy of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning (DI-LL) Program to Promote Expressive and Receptive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0154 TITLE: “Efficacy of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning (DI-LL) Program to Promote Expressive and...Receptive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Scahill, MSN, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Emory...information indicates that as many as 75% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have language delay ranging from moderate to extreme. Many

  2. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras: ensayo metodologico (Notions on the Programming of Foreign Languages: Methodological Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Presents a computerized program for foreign language learning giving drills for all the major language skills. The drills are followed by an extensive bibliography of documents in some way dealing with computer based instruction, particularly foreign language instruction. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  3. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  4. Effects of a language program in the social functioning of children at elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Carnio, Maria Silvia

    2017-10-23

    the purpose of this study was to describe a language stimulation program, including teacher training and practical activities in the classroom, and investigate the effectiveness of this action on the social functioning and behavioral problems of elementary school children. 136 children from six classrooms of a public school and their teachers participated in this research. Of these, half were given the language stimulation program: 16 hours of training for teachers and 9 meetings in the classroom with activities for students. The activities involved instruction for the use of language reflection and practice with the narrative structure. Teachers filled out questionnaires about the social skills and behavior problems of their students before and after the program. there was no statistically significant difference between the research groups pre- and post- program in terms of assertiveness/ social resourcefulness (1st and 5th grades) and cooperation/affection (1st and 3rd grades). In the research groups, children of the 3rd grade, different from the 1st and the 5th grade, showed more evolution in their self-control abilities, which may be related to the lower frequency of externalizing problems in this group. the language program had positive effects on social assertiveness/resourcefulness skills and social cooperation/affection.

  5. Features of parallel processing of Russian language content using the basic characteristics of object-oriented high-level programming languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Евгеньевич Кошкин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the general features which are traceable in the Russian language and high-level programming languages, and offers an approach to identify the relationship between words in a sentence and proposals within the text. A matter may be interesting in terms of automatic semantic analysis of texts and for the systems of automatic translation.

  6. Effectiveness of a working memory intervention program in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Victor; Hernandez, Sergio; Ramirez, Gustavo

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was twofold: first, to obtain a neuropsychological characterization of children with language disorders, and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on working memory. We used a pretest-instruction-posttest design, carefully identifying a sample of 32 children with language disorders whom we then evaluated for short-term verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, attention, processing speed, and lexical-semantic skills. We then implemented an intervention program on working memory consisting of 72 sessions of 15 minutes each, after which we repeated the neuropsychological assessment of these functions. Children with language disorders performed worse than children in the control group in all memory tasks evaluated and in the lexical-semantic processing task. After the intervention, children with language disorders showed a significant increase over their own previous performance in all variables. Children with language disorders show significant cognitive deficits and not just linguistic impairment. We offer conclusive findings on the effectiveness of the intervention program used. Finally, we obtained partial support for the existence of a causal link between improved performance on memory tasks and performance in a lexical-semantic task.

  7. Economic evaluation of progeny-testing and genomic selection schemes for small-sized nucleus dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; Brascamp, E W; Komen, H; Kahi, A K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries minimal and erratic performance and pedigree recording impede implementation of large-sized breeding programs. Small-sized nucleus programs offer an alternative but rely on their economic performance for their viability. We investigated the economic performance of 2 alternative small-sized dairy nucleus programs [i.e., progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS)] over a 20-yr investment period. The nucleus was made up of 453 male and 360 female animals distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 active sires and 100 elite dams were selected. Populations of commercial recorded cows (CRC) of sizes 12,592 and 25,184 were used to produce test daughters in PT or to create a reference population in GS, respectively. Economic performance was defined as gross margins, calculated as discounted revenues minus discounted costs following a single generation of selection. Revenues were calculated as cumulative discounted expressions (CDE, kg) × 0.32 (€/kg of milk) × 100,000 (size commercial population). Genetic superiorities, deterministically simulated using pseudo-BLUP index and CDE, were determined using gene flow. Costs were for one generation of selection. Results show that GS schemes had higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared with PT schemes. Gross margins were between 3.2- and 5.2-fold higher for GS, depending on size of the CRC population. The increase in gross margin was mostly due to a decreased generation interval and lower running costs in GS schemes. In PT schemes many bulls are culled before selection. We therefore also compared 2 schemes in which semen was stored instead of keeping live bulls. As expected, semen storage resulted in an increase in gross margins in PT schemes, but gross margins remained lower than those of GS schemes. We conclude that implementation of small-sized GS breeding schemes can be economically viable for developing countries. The

  8. Stan: A Probabilistic Programming Language for Bayesian Inference and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Andrew; Lee, Daniel; Guo, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Stan is a free and open-source C++ program that performs Bayesian inference or optimization for arbitrary user-specified models and can be called from the command line, R, Python, Matlab, or Julia and has great promise for fitting large and complex statistical models in many areas of application. We discuss Stan from users' and developers'…

  9. PLDI 2006. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGPLAN Conferenceon Programming Language Design and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the program committee for their commitment to reading, reviewing the submitted papers, selecting the program and providing detailed reviews. Thanks also to the 283 PLDI subreviewers for their input to the reviewing process. Thanks to Jeff Foster of the University of Maryland for organizing the PLDI tutorials...... papers (which did make up the largest category of submissions), we find papers submitted on topics varying from program verification and defect detection to run-time techniques for memory optimization and new programming languages for concurrency. We believe that PLDI benefits from having a diverse...

  10. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  11. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Comparison of and conversion between different implementations of the FORTRAN programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, L.

    1980-01-01

    A guideline for computer programmers who may need to exchange FORTRAN programs between several computers is presented. The characteristics of the FORTRAN language available on three different types of computers are outlined, and procedures and other considerations for the transfer of programs from one type of FORTRAN to another are discussed. In addition, the variance of these different FORTRAN's from the FORTRAN 77 standard are discussed.

  13. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  14. The Oral-Aural-Visual Program for Teaching Language Arts: Units of Instruction, Grade Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indianapolis Public Schools, IN.

    The language program and the six thematic literature units outlined in this oral-aural-visual guide for grade 9 were developed by the Indianapolis Public Schools under Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The literature units--"Excitement at Your Elbow,""Worlds of the Weird and the Wayout,""Close-Ups,""War and the Individual,""A…

  15. Attitudinal Perspectives: A Factor to Implementation of a Dual Language Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of this study was to determine the overall perceptions of school administrators, and the district bilingual coordinator on transferring theory to classroom practice, implementation, as viewed by those involved in the implementation process of the Gómez and Gómez Model of Dual Language Education. Responses were solicited from administrative personnel involved in the implementation of the Gómez and Gómez Model of Dual Language. Results revealed overall administrative attitudes were positive to the theoretical ideology and mixed as related to the actual implementation of the dual language program. The greatest areas of concern were; what to do when students enter the program who are either not Spanish dominant or who have not been in a dual language program. The second area of concern was with how to effectively evaluate teachers as they are observed for implementation of the dual langue program. Lastly, most administrators felt there was a lack of faculty proficient in Spanish.

  16. Communicative Competence of the Fourth Year Students: Basis for Proposed English Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Vu Van

    2017-01-01

    This study on level of communicative competence covering linguistic/grammatical and discourse has aimed at constructing a proposed English language program for 5 key universities in Vietnam. The descriptive method utilized was scientifically employed with comparative techniques and correlational analysis. The researcher treated the surveyed data…

  17. Programming in Polygon R&D: Explorations with a Spatial Language II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the language associated with a polygon microworld called Polygon R&D, which has the mathematical crispness of Logo and has the discreteness and simplicity of a Turing machine. In this microworld, polygons serve two purposes: as agents (similar to the turtles in Logo), and as data (landmarks in the plane). Programming the…

  18. Building a Foreign Language Program at a Small Campus: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties small community colleges face in including foreign languages in the courses taught each year. Offers suggestions for strengthening such programs, including using a textbook with a taped component; scheduling foreign films on campus; visiting ethnic restaurants, theaters, movies, and museums; and organizing trips abroad.…

  19. Programme de Francais. Classes Secondaires de Langue Francaise (French Program. Secondary Classes in French Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-13. SUBJECT MATTER: French (for French-speaking students). ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in French. It is divided into five sections--spoken language, grammar, spelling, composition, and "explication de texte." Within each section a curriculum is outlined for 2-, 3-, 4-year programs at each grade…

  20. Prevention of language problems in children: the effectiveness of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.

  1. Is the Library's Online Orientation Program Effective with English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Frans

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author examines four years of assessment data (N = 4,786) from Brooklyn College's Library Online Orientation Program (LOOP; url: https://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/resources/loop/loop.php), which is used to provide all English 1010 students with an orientation to the library, to see if English language learners (ELLs) are…

  2. Second/Foreign Language Program Preservation and Advancement: Literatures and Lessons for Teachers and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Graham; Talmy, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In a period of declining state support for education, we argue S/FL teachers and teacher educators would do well to become oriented to language program preservation and advancement. We discuss three areas such an orientation could take, namely organizing, direct action, and fundraising, so that teachers and students can become more involved in…

  3. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  4. The Decision-Making Process in Language Program Placement: Test and Nontest Factors Interacting in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakans, Lia; Burke, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The use of tests has been targeted as a critical point in validity, which suggests that contexts for test use warrant closer investigation. This article describes a study of decision making during test use in the context of a university intensive English language program. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, data were collected by audio-recording…

  5. Combining Self-Explaining with Computer Architecture Diagrams to Enhance the Learning of Assembly Language Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of combining self explaining (SE) with computer architecture diagrams to help novice students learn assembly language programming. Pre- and post-test scores for the experimental and control groups were compared and subjected to covariance (ANCOVA) statistical analysis. Results indicate that the SE-plus-diagram…

  6. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  7. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  8. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  9. Effects of Dual-Language Immersion Programs on Student Achievement: Evidence from Lottery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert O.; Zamarro, Gema; Miller, Trey; Li, Jennifer; Burkhauser, Susan; Bacon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Using data from seven cohorts of language immersion lottery applicants in a large, urban school district, we estimate the causal effects of immersion programs on students' test scores in reading, mathematics, and science and on English learners' (EL) reclassification. We estimate positive intent-to-treat (ITT) effects on reading performance in…

  10. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Foreign Language Education: Perspectives of College Students in a German Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Segler, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore and comprehend the role of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in foreign language learning by analyzing the perspectives of college students in a German immersion program at a liberal arts college in the Midwest. Data collection included 10 in-depth student…

  11. Abs: a high-level modeling language for cloud-aware programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCloud technology has become an invaluable tool to the IT business, because of its attractive economic model. Yet, from the programmers’ perspective, the development of cloud applications remains a major challenge. In this paper we introduce a programming language that allows Cloud

  12. Building a Synchronous Virtual Classroom in a Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Belgin; Yuzer, T. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a synchronous project, "the virtual classroom" prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature.…

  13. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras; Ensayo metodologico (II) (Notions on Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages; Methodological Essay II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the prerequisites to programed language instruction, the role of the native language and the level of skill, and then explains materials and machines needed for such a program. Particular attention is given to phonetics. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  14. Encapsulating Software Platform Logic by Aspect-Oriented Programming : A Case Study in Using Aspects for Language Portability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.; Visser, E.

    Software platforms such as the Java Virtual Machine or the CLR .NET virtual machine have their own ecosystem of a core programming language or instruction set, libraries, and developer community. Programming languages can target multiple software platforms to increase interoperability or to boost

  15. Encapsulating Software Platform Logic by Aspect-Oriented Programming : A Case Study in Using Aspects for Language Portability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Software platforms such as the Java Virtual Machine or the CLR .NET virtual machine have their own ecosystem of a core programming language or instruction set, libraries, and developer community. Programming languages can target multiple software platforms to increase interoperability or to boost

  16. An Incremental Type Inference System for the Programming Language Id

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    contemporaries in the realm of functional langauges , namely, ML, Hope [14], Miranda, Haskell [27] etc. But the programming environment for Id is different from...example, if A and B are simple syntactic sets, then A -- B merely denotes the set of all total functions from A to B; if A and B are scott- domains ...are functions (maps) then, 1. Dom(fy) is the Domain of f. 2. Ran(f) is the Range of f. 3. f E A --+ B means that f is a function from A to B as

  17. Participatory arts programs in residential dementia care: Playing with language differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Aagje; de Medeiros, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article examines connections between language, identity, and cultural difference in the context of participatory arts in residential dementia care. Specifically, it looks at how language differences become instruments for the language play that characterizes the participatory arts programs, TimeSlips and the Alzheimer's Poetry Project. These are two approaches that are predominantly spoken-word driven. Although people living with dementia experience cognitive decline that affects language, they are linguistic agents capable of participating in ongoing negotiation processes of connection, belonging, and in- and exclusion through language use. The analysis of two ethnographic vignettes, based on extensive fieldwork in the closed wards of two Dutch nursing homes, illustrates how TimeSlips and the Alzheimer's Poetry Project support them in this agency. The theoretical framework of the analysis consists of literature on the linguistic agency of people living with dementia, the notions of the homo ludens (or man the player) and ludic language, as well as linguistic strategies of belonging in relation to place.

  18. On the Performance of the Python Programming Language for Serial and Parallel Scientific Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the performance of scientific applications that use the Python programming language. First, we investigate several techniques for improving the computational efficiency of serial Python codes. Then, we discuss the basic programming techniques in Python for parallelizing serial scientific applications. It is shown that an efficient implementation of the array-related operations is essential for achieving good parallel performance, as for the serial case. Once the array-related operations are efficiently implemented, probably using a mixed-language implementation, good serial and parallel performance become achievable. This is confirmed by a set of numerical experiments. Python is also shown to be well suited for writing high-level parallel programs.

  19. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  20. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  1. The effects of program model and language on science TAKS scores among fifth graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, Stephanie

    This study examined the conditions of learning allowing students in one classroom to succeed on the fifth grade science TAKS test whereas students in other classrooms on the same campus do not succeed. It focused on the relationship of program models, specifically as it pertains to the influence of language within the content area of science and student performance on the fifth grade science TAKS scores. To compare the academic achievement, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, in grade five students as a function of program model, the mean levels of achievement of students served by straight monolingual, 50/50 TWB (Spanish component of dual), 50/50 TWM (English component of dual) and 90/10 OWB programs were examined. The mean levels of achievement of students on the fifth grade science TAKS were also compared as a function of language of instruction and the language in which the test was administered to the students. The mean levels of achievement of students were also compared as a function of various teacher characteristics. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the statistical procedure used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that a statistically significant difference was present in TAKS science scores as a function of Program Model. Students in a Two-Way (dual) program model outperformed the students in the One-Way model. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of students as a function of teachers' area of certification, teachers' source of certification, teachers' first language, teachers' language of formal education, or teacher/student language match. In the analysis of teacher characteristics, students taught by teachers educated in the U.S. in grades K-12 significantly outscored the students taught by teachers educated in Mexico in grades K-12. Students taught by teachers with a master's degree significantly outscored students taught by teachers without a master's degree. The students

  2. An Application Programming Interface For Developing Distributed Algorithm Along With Proposed Meta Language Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishalay Bairagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In computer science an application programming interface API is an interface that defines the ways by which an application programming may request services from libraries.7 Libraries of a programming language are the list of all classes and interfaces along with their fields constructors and methods that are part of that language. For example java is an object oriented programming language which has a rich set of built-in classes and interfaces packaged in the API also known as java API7. Therefore a programmer can easily borrow built-in classes or interfaces to use the fields constructors and methods of those classes and interfaces in his or her application and is able to be free from the hazards of thinking the implementation details of those functions and constructors and writing it down to the application he or she is developing. An API 7 also helps a programmer to write a short and compact code to save time of program and application development and to produce a quality code having readability and understandability than the code without having the application of API. Almost all the modern programming languages come up with the rich set of APIs. The basic difference between an API and library lies in the fact that while API reflects the expected behaviour library is an actual implementation of this set of rules. 7 On the other hand the relation with framework is based on several libraries implementing several APIs but instead of normal use of an API the access to the behaviour built into the framework is made possible by extending its contents with new classes and interfaces.7 This paper presents a component of framework4 where the API for the distributed algorithms has been plugged into the framework so that a programmer can get services from the built- in classes and interfaces for easily understandable compact and faster program development. Here a concept of meta language consisting of very simple constructs has been introduced

  3. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1996-04-15

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  4. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  6. TOWARDS A MULTI-SCALE AGENT-BASED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE METHODOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Hagar, Amit; Glazier, James A

    2016-12-01

    Living tissues are dynamic, heterogeneous compositions of objects, including molecules, cells and extra-cellular materials, which interact via chemical, mechanical and electrical process and reorganize via transformation, birth, death and migration processes. Current programming language have difficulty describing the dynamics of tissues because: 1: Dynamic sets of objects participate simultaneously in multiple processes, 2: Processes may be either continuous or discrete, and their activity may be conditional, 3: Objects and processes form complex, heterogeneous relationships and structures, 4: Objects and processes may be hierarchically composed, 5: Processes may create, destroy and transform objects and processes. Some modeling languages support these concepts, but most cannot translate models into executable simulations. We present a new hybrid executable modeling language paradigm, the Continuous Concurrent Object Process Methodology (CCOPM) which naturally expresses tissue models, enabling users to visually create agent-based models of tissues, and also allows computer simulation of these models.

  7. Incorporating Language Structure in a Communicative Task: An Analysis of the Language Component of a Communicative Task in the LINC Home Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze a task included in the LINC Home Study (LHS) program. LHS is a federally funded distance education program offered to newcomers to Canada who are unable to attend regular LINC classes. A task, in which a language structure (a gerund) is chosen and analyzed, was selected from one instructional module of LHS…

  8. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

    OpenAIRE

    Song Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach...

  9. Educational Software for the Teaching and Learning of Quadrilaterals Generated from a Programming Language and the Dabeja Method (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bejarano Segura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of math is a process that starts from an early age especially the teaching of geometry through which different representations, constructions, axioms, and theorems among others helps develop the formal thoughts of individuals. This requires not only graphical but demonstrative processes that mentally schemes chords to generate levels of rational thought. Quadrilaterals are part of the components of geometry in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional fields. They possess properties, definitions, classifications, and studies through postulations of parallelism and perpendicularity. Using dynamic strategies and formal processes of knowledge as the Dabeja method to strengthen the teaching of geometry of quadrilaterals through the construction of dynamic courseware, is one of the questions that reveals problems in thought formation. This is an investigation of a parametric quantitative approach with an experimental design of research aimed at the techno de facto and their relationship with the individual development of a formal thinking. An educational software was developed using the Java programming language to construct quadrilaterals, demonstrate their properties and relationships through the Dabeja method.

  10. Qualitative assessment of the kodu visual programming language in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sir Alexci Suarez Castillón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to developing scientific thinking in children from the perspective of Systems Engineering program through KODU Visual programming language. This is based on the ability children have to resolving problems, critical thinking, and their natural inborn talent. In order to accomplish this task, the process is part of a science club named University of the Children. This is a project with six different phases and four roles to be played as a designer, a programmer, a testing person, and a client. The results show that children have knowledge on the properties of objects, and about their real and virtual world, which allows them to develop a language program focused on objects without having a prior knowledge on this paradigm. It has been demonstrated by proof that children can make decisions by doing research and working with peers. They can also develop scientific knowledge and correct mistakes, and that leads them to dare to be innovative at all times. The results show that more than 90% of children have responded with satisfaction to the challenges proposed by programming language which gives them a better idea of the role, functions and responsibilities of a systems engineer.

  11. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  12. A systematic program of research regarding the assessment of speech-language pathology competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the nature and development of competence in speech-language pathology and is informed by the development and validation of a competency-based assessment tool to assess Australian speech-language pathology students' professional performance in the workplace (COMPASS). Background is provided on speech-language pathology competency frameworks in Australia and a systematic program of research to validate this assessment tool. Findings relevant to understanding the nature and development of speech-language pathology competency are described. The domains of competence considered important for practice were found to extend beyond specific processes of professional practice to include generic competencies of reasoning, communication, lifelong learning, and professionalism. The achievement of competency was identified as developmental, and clinical educators were found to validly and reliably identify seven levels of competency development. Competency may transfer across the scope of practice, and marginal students' performances were characterized by a high degree of variability. These findings are discussed in relation to the profession's understanding of competency and speech-language pathology education, professional development, and further research.

  13. Punctuated equilibrium in the large-scale evolution of programming languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-06-06

    The analogies and differences between biological and cultural evolution have been explored by evolutionary biologists, historians, engineers and linguists alike. Two well-known domains of cultural change are language and technology. Both share some traits relating the evolution of species, but technological change is very difficult to study. A major challenge in our way towards a scientific theory of technological evolution is how to properly define evolutionary trees or clades and how to weight the role played by horizontal transfer of information. Here, we study the large-scale historical development of programming languages, which have deeply marked social and technological advances in the last half century. We analyse their historical connections using network theory and reconstructed phylogenetic networks. Using both data analysis and network modelling, it is shown that their evolution is highly uneven, marked by innovation events where new languages are created out of improved combinations of different structural components belonging to previous languages. These radiation events occur in a bursty pattern and are tied to novel technological and social niches. The method can be extrapolated to other systems and consistently captures the major classes of languages and the widespread horizontal design exchanges, revealing a punctuated evolutionary path. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  15. Assessment for English Language Education on the Programs at the Agricultural Engineering School of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; San José Martínez, Fernando; Hontoria, Kira; Adán, Angeles; Blanco, María; Calderón, Fernando; Carbonell, Victoria; Chaya, Carolina; Fondevila, Guillermo; González, Trinidad; Marín, Carmen; Mira, Sara; Molina, Antonio; Pereira, David; Quemada, Miguel; Ricote, Luis; Sánchez Monje, Rosa; Sanz, Alberto; Albir, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The convergence process among European academic degrees pursues the exchange of graduate students and the adaptation of university programs to social demand. Within the framework of the European Higher Education, European universities will need to be more competitive not only by increasing or maintaining the student enrolment, but also in their academic performance. Thus, the reinforcing of English language education within the University Programs might play an important role to reach these objectives. In this sense, a complete survey was accomplished at the Agricultural Egineering School of Madrid (ETSIA ) addressing issues such as: identification the needs for bilingual instruction at ETSIA, identification resources needed and interest and background in English language of students and professors (San José et al., 2013). The conclusions and recommendations to promote the bilingual instruction in the ETSIA, taking into account the approaches followed by other Spanish universities, are presented in this work.

  16. Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings.

  17. Building a Synchronous Virtual Classroom in a Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    T. Volkan YUZER; Aydin, Belgin

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a synchronous project, “the virtual classroom” prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature. The evaluation of the project concludes that the virtual classroom facilitated increased authentic interaction and encouraged learners to become more autonomous...

  18. Benchmarking Web-testing - Selenium versus Watir and the Choice of Programming Language and Browser

    OpenAIRE

    Kuutila, Miikka; Mäntylä, Mika; Raulamo-Jurvanen, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Selenium is claimed to be the most popular software test automation tool. Past academic works have mainly neglected testing tools in favor of more methodological topics. Objective: We investigated the performance of web-testing tools, to provide empirical evidence supporting choices in software test tool selection and configuration. Method: We used 4*5 factorial design to study 20 different configurations for testing a web-store. We studied 5 programming language bindings (C#, Java, ...

  19. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments.   Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain.   Conclusion:  In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.

  20. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE DISTANCE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM (DELTTP IN ANADOLU UNIVERSITY, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri Ozkose BlYlK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of a relatively new interactive distance learning model for training English language teachers in Turkey. The Distance English Language Teacher Training Program (DELTTP was established as a result of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of National Education and Eskisehir Anadolu University, Turkey in 2000, whose goal is to train a sufficient number of EFL teachers, in the shortest time possible, without abandoning the high quality of professional training provided heretofore (AOF, 2006. In order to seek objective information regarding their current status as well as to obtain opinion data concerning their perceptions of the adequacy of their education, 2004 and 2005 graduates of the DELTTP Program were administered questionnaires. Four interviews were conducted with different stakeholders. The results and statistics indicate that DELTTP is presently unable to train English teachers of the desired number and in a short period of time due to a variety of factors; however, the program has been successful in maintaining a high standard of quality and has not abandoned the essentials needed for foreign language teacher education.

  1. A user-friendly menu-driven language-free laser characteristics curves graphing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutz, Glenn

    1990-01-01

    In the selection of laser materials to be used as active sensors, it is essential to know how various factors of the specific material composition interact. Questions such as how does the rod size and frequency or absorption relate and how might this be affected by temperature variations must be answered before the materials are selected. A menu-driven language-free program was developed that would graph the interrelationship of many physical parameters of laser materials. This program reduced or removed the requirement that all users be competent in FORTRAN. A menu-driven language-free program was then developed that requires the use of a microcomputer to graph a two-dimensional display of data. The ability to graph more than one graph-line on the same chart was accomplished. The program is now generic in that it will take any data file whether in the data base or not. The program generates the format for the data read statement if it is not contained in the file header and the user does not know how to write them.

  2. Evaluating an academic writing program for nursing students who have English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed.

  3. Professional Language Use by Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers in a Teaching Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayli, Demet

    2012-01-01

    Since the language used by people has the potential to signal a membership in a discourse community, it is significant that prospective teachers speak the appropriate social language to be able to claim a strong membership in the community of teachers. This qualitative study explores a group of pre-service teachers' professional language use and…

  4. Towards Internationalising the Curriculum: A Case Study of Chinese Language Teacher Education Programs in China and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…

  5. Multilingual Pedagogies and Pre-Service Teachers: Implementing "Language as a Resource" Orientations in Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Hamann, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    While Ruiz's (1984) influential work on language orientations has substantively influenced how we study and talk about language planning, few teacher education programs today actually embed his framework in the praxis of preparing pre-service and practicing teachers. Hence, the primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate new understandings…

  6. The Effects of a Professional Development Program on English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Efficacy and Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaçtepe, DenIz; Akyel, Ayse S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate the relationship between the efficacy of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and their self-reported practice of communicative language teaching (CLT) and (2) to examine the impact of an in-service teacher education program on teachers' efficacy and self-reported and…

  7. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  8. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  9. How Did the Teacher Training Program Change the Teacher Trainees' View of Language Education? : Based on SCAT Analysis of Essays

    OpenAIRE

    小原, 亜紀子; 稲葉, みどり

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary for teachers to respond to the increased diversity of Japanese learners in Japanese language classes. Therefore, “teacher development programs (development programs),” which are considered more effective than “teacher training programs for practical teaching methods (methodical programs),” are in their trial stage. “Methodical programs,” in this paper, is defined as teacher training which aims to promote teaching skills, whereas “development programs” emphasize improving teach...

  10. Programming Languages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1 2. IBM Professor of Information Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560012, India; Hon.Professor, Supercomputer Education & Research Centre Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India ...

  11. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We present a context-sensitive reduction semantics for a lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions and store and we show that the functional implementation of this small-step semantics mechanically corresponds to that of an abstract machine. This abstract machine is very close to the abstract m...

  12. Supporting Argumentation Schemes in Argumentative Dialogue Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Simon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary work into the exploitation of argumentation schemes within dialogue games. We identify a property of dialogue games that we call “scheme awareness” that captures the relationship between dialogue game systems and argumentation schemes. Scheme awareness is used to examine the ways in which existing dialogue games utilise argumentation schemes and consequently the degree with which a dialogue game can be used to construct argument structures. The aim is to develop a set of guidelines for dialogue game design, which feed into a set of Dialogue Game Description Language (DGDL extensions in turn enabling dialogue games to better exploit argumentation schemes.

  13. Implications of the Turing machine model of computation for processor and programming language design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A computational process is classified according to the theoretical model that is capable of executing it; computational processes that require a non-predeterminable amount of intermediate storage for their execution are Turing-machine (TM) processes, while those whose storage are predeterminable are Finite Automation (FA) processes. Simple processes (such as traffic light controller) are executable by Finite Automation, whereas the most general kind of computation requires a Turing Machine for its execution. This implies that a TM process must have a non-predeterminable amount of memory allocated to it at intermediate instants of its execution; i.e. dynamic memory allocation. Many processes encountered in practice are TM processes. The implication for computational practice is that the hardware (CPU) architecture and its operating system must facilitate dynamic memory allocation, and that the programming language used to specify TM processes must have statements with the semantic attribute of dynamic memory allocation, for in Alan Turing"s thesis on computation (1936) the "standard description" of a process is invariant over the most general data that the process is designed to process; i.e. the program describing the process should never have to be modified to allow for differences in the data that is to be processed in different instantiations; i.e. data-invariant programming. Any non-trivial program is partitioned into sub-programs (procedures, subroutines, functions, modules, etc). Examination of the calls/returns between the subprograms reveals that they are nodes in a tree-structure; this tree-structure is independent of the programming language used to encode (define) the process. Each sub-program typically needs some memory for its own use (to store values intermediate between its received data and its computed results); this locally required memory is not needed before the subprogram commences execution, and it is not needed after its execution terminates

  14. Teaching Literature Written in English in Undergraduate Language Teacher Education Programs: A Dialogic-Pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison Marden Bandeira de Melo Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to be part of the ongoing discussion on the teaching of literature written in English (LWE in literature classes in undergraduate language programs. In order to do that, it shows the challenges posed by the Letras DCN (National Curriculum Guidelines for the undergraduate Language Teacher Education programs as well as the reality literature teachers face due to the reduced number of hours of literature classes assigned in course curricula and to students' limited knowledge of English. Based on the dialogical concept of language and on the possibility of cooperation between scientific trends, we present a cooperative work between DDA (Dialogical Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics, showing how consonant and dissonant they are. Besides, we present part of the analysis of Alice Walker's short story Her Sweet Jerome done by students, which, in this context of teaching LWE to students with limited knowledge of English, pointed to the possibility of Pragmatics being the first step towards a dialogical analysis of literary texts.

  15. Evaluation of Rehabilitation Strategies and Management Schemes for the Improvement of Mangrove Management Programs in Lingayen Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the mangrove rehabilitation strategies and management schemes in five municipalities in Lingayen Gulf (Bolinao, Anda, Bani, Alaminos and San Fernando. Mangrove planting appears to be the first and only option used in the area, ignoring other recommended management strategies, e.g. conservation, landscaping, and sustainable production. All planting sites were located in coastal fringes and are mostly monospeficic stands of the species Rhizophora mucronata. The planted mangroves were constrained by low seedling survival and stunted growth as probably caused by poor species-substrate matching, mono-species planting and pest infestations. Three management schemes were noted: community-managed (Bolinao and Anda, local government unit (LGU-managed (Alaminos and San Fernando, and co-managed between the LGU and the community (Bani. The community-managed mangrove areas have the benefits of voluntary efforts from community-based organizations in conducting daily management activities but were constrained with budgetary and logistical concerns. In contrast, both LGU-managed and co-managed areas received institutional and logistical supports from their respective municipal governments, but lacking community participation made mangrove management difficult. Almost two decades of mangrove management indeed helped improved the mangrove forest condition, at least in terms of forest structure. These projects demonstrated some level of success but also encountered several setbacks. Several lessons can be derived from these areas that can help improve the mangrove rehabilitation and management approaches in Lingayen Gulf. Among the recommendations are: (1 provide ordinance enacting the remaining natural secondary growth mangroves as marine protected areas, (2 promote planting in former mangrove areas by reverting abandoned, idled and unproductive aquaculture ponds to mangroves; (3 improve management schemes by formulating resource management plan

  16. "It's Difficult because of the Language": A Case Study of the Families Promoting Success Program in the Los Angeles Unified School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Shartriya; Auerbach, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The social nature of language learning and development has been widely acknowledged, as has the importance of family relationships in language learning processes. The role that the first language plays in the literacy development of English language learners (ELLs) and their families is irrefutable. Advocates of family literacy programs have…

  17. INSTRUMENTAL TOOLS FOR PROGRAM CODE DEVELOPMENT WRITTEN IN HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Alferov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environment of demonstration of integrated environment for studying course «Basics of algorithmization and programming» (http://weboap.ksu.ks.ua, which allows execution of computational experiment to study the complexity and majorizability of sorting algorithms. We describe the design and development of new version of the application. Much attention is paid to the development component of the code editor, which will meet the current requirements of tools to write programs.

  18. The University of Saint Louis’ Foreign Language Program: Introspections and Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel James P. Pattaguan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was meant to present an evaluation of the delivery of the University of Saint Louis’ Foreign Language Program-Mandarin Chinese. Using descriptive research design, coupled with focus group discussion with the students in total enumeration, data along the different aspects of the teaching and learning of Mandarin Chinese, was ascertained using a developed and validated questionnaire. The student-respondents have evaluated the following areas: 1.Objectives of the Lesson/Course 2 Lesson Strategies 3 Lesson Assessments 4 Student Engagement 5 Learning Resources and Environment 5 Classroom Management 6 Outcomes. Moreover, the grades of the students along two major assessments-oral and written were also looked into to validate the perceptions of students along outcomes. In addition, a structured interview with the teachers was also conducted to provide further information. Looking within, data gathered and analyzed reveals that the University’s Foreign Language Program with the offering of Mandarin Chinese is generally very satisfactory along all areas evaluated. The oral and written examination results as reflected in the grades of the students show that the students have gained adequate skills in both oral and written Mandarin Chinese, although among all areas, it’s the written Mandarin that got the lowest mean rating among all items under “outcomes”. From the foregoing, realizations have been made that while the evaluation is generally very satisfactory using the scale, there is a need for the University to look into specific items under the major areas by way of designing intervention programs to further improve the delivery of the current foreign language program to its students. Moreover, an in-depth study of the same can be expanded to other classes delivered by Filipino professors.

  19. The Integration of Language and Content: Form-Focused Instruction in a Content-Based Language Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Valeo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This comparative, classroom-based study investigated the effect and effectiveness of introducing a focus on form approach to a content-based, occupation-specific language program for adults. Thirty-six adults in two classes participated in a 10-week study. One group of 16 adults received content-based instruction that included a focus on form component while the other group of 20 adults received the same content-based instruction with a focus on meaning only. Pre-tests/post-tests/delayed post-tests measured learning of two grammatical forms, the present conditional and the simple past tense, as well as occupational content knowledge. Results indicated significant gains on most of the language measures for both learner groups but significant advantages for the form-focused group on the content knowledge tests. The results are discussed in relation to the impact of specific strategies designed to focus on form and the relationship between attention to form and comprehension of content in the context of content-based language programs. Résumé Cette étude comparative menée en salle de classe a examiné l'effet et l'efficacité d’un enseignement mettant l’accent sur ​​la forme dans un programme de langues professionnelles pour adultes. Trente-six apprenants de deux classes intactes ont participé à cette recherche pendant 10 semaines. Un groupe de 16 personnes a reçu les instructions qui se concentraient sur la forme, tandis que l'autre groupe de 20 personnes a reçu les mêmes instructions qui portaient sur ​​le sens seulement. Des pré-tests, des post-tests ainsi que des post-tests retardés ont mesuré l'apprentissage de la langue et du contenu de deux traits grammaticaux; premièrement, la connaissance du conditionnel et du passé et, deuxièmement, la connaissance du contenu professionnel. Les résultats ont indiqué une amélioration sensible de la plupart des compétences linguistiques pour les deux groupes d

  20. Bellman's GAP--a language and compiler for dynamic programming in sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauthoff, Georg; Möhl, Mathias; Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic programming is ubiquitous in bioinformatics. Developing and implementing non-trivial dynamic programming algorithms is often error prone and tedious. Bellman's GAP is a new programming system, designed to ease the development of bioinformatics tools based on the dynamic programming technique. In Bellman's GAP, dynamic programming algorithms are described in a declarative style by tree grammars, evaluation algebras and products formed thereof. This bypasses the design of explicit dynamic programming recurrences and yields programs that are free of subscript errors, modular and easy to modify. The declarative modules are compiled into C++ code that is competitive to carefully hand-crafted implementations. This article introduces the Bellman's GAP system and its language, GAP-L. It then demonstrates the ease of development and the degree of re-use by creating variants of two common bioinformatics algorithms. Finally, it evaluates Bellman's GAP as an implementation platform of 'real-world' bioinformatics tools. Bellman's GAP is available under GPL license from http://bibiserv.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/bellmansgap. This Web site includes a repository of re-usable modules for RNA folding based on thermodynamics.

  1. Embedding academic socialisation within a language support program: An Australian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Beatty

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes discipline-specific transition support utilised to follow-up the Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA recently introduced at Edith Cowan University as one strategy to address declining rates of English language proficiency.  Transition support was embedded within a first year core unit and emphasis was placed on assisting students to develop spoken and written communicative competencies by scaffolding assessment tasks and providing other academic supports that used contextualised examples. While general satisfaction with the academic support offered during the course was high, the program achieved limited success in encouraging at-risk students to seek support. Further investigation into methods of encouraging student participation is required, along with research into strategies for extending effective academic socialisation support into the online learning environment.

  2. Secondary 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.: Process Evaluation Based on the Co-Walker Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum delivered in the second year of the Full Implementation Phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. Under the “Co-Walker Scheme”, systematic observation of curriculum units was conducted in 138 schools. Results indicated that the overall level of program adherence was high, with an average of 82.9%. The mean ratings of the program implementation quality were also high. Despite limitations, the findings of this study suggest that the implementation of the Secondary 1 Program (Tier 1 Program of the Full Implementation Phase was of very high quality. The present findings also provide strong evidence to account for the successful and encouraging outcomes of a major positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

  3. Algunos aspectos sicolinguisticos de la Instruccion Programada en el laboratorio de idiomas (Some Psycholinguistic Aspects of Programed Instruction in the Language Laboratory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde G., Luisa

    1971-01-01

    This paper presents ideas on using programed instruction in the language laboratory for second language learning. Linear programing is more suited to language instruction than is branching, because the former more easily allows comparison between the students' and teachers' solutions and is technically less complicated and less expensive to…

  4. Contesting legitimacy of voluntary sustainability certification schemes: valuation languages and power asymmetries in the roundtable on sustainable palm oil in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Burgos, V.; Clancy, Joy S.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary certification schemes aimed at assuring producer compliance with a set of sustainability criteria have emerged as market-based instruments (MBIs) of sustainability governance. However, the impacts they tackle can be part of a complex arena of socio-environmental conflict, where values and

  5. The LOGO-S Language and the Portable LOGO System. Volume I: Language and System Descriptions. Volume II: Program Listings. Report No. 3968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    This two volume report presents descriptions of LOGO-S, an interactive programming language expressly designed for education, and the portable LOGO system, a computer software development. The modular structure of LOGO, along with its simple but powerful extension features, is naturally suited to problem solving in many problem domains with…

  6. Computer-Assisted and Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    The documents listed in this annotated bibliography on computer-aided and programmed instruction in foreign languages appeared in RIE during the period from April 1971 through February 1977. The selection comprises reports on conference and research projects, papers concerned with theory and application, and descriptions of teaching materials. The…

  7. High-performance CAM-based Prolog execution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Yahia, Tahar; Dana, Michel

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we present an execution scheme allowing a direct and a pipeline evaluation of a Prolog Program. The execution scheme enhances Prolog performances in interpreted mode, by means of associative processing tools embodied in Content Addressable Memories and potential parallelism existing between clauses selection, unification, and access to clause arguments. The interpretation algorithm is distributed on several processing units, which are Content Addressable Memories (CAMs). These latter are generic and reconfigurable dealing with much more Artificial Intelligence applications, through improved target languages like Prolog, Lisp, and Object oriented languages. The model has been evaluated with a functional simulator written in Le-lisp. The results show the CAMs feasibility in improving Prolog execution at performances greater than 160 KLIPS, in interpreted mode.

  8. The VIS-AD data model: Integrating metadata and polymorphic display with a scientific programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, William L.; Dyer, Charles R.; Paul, Brian E.

    1994-01-01

    The VIS-AD data model integrates metadata about the precision of values, including missing data indicators and the way that arrays sample continuous functions, with the data objects of a scientific programming language. The data objects of this data model form a lattice, ordered by the precision with which they approximate mathematical objects. We define a similar lattice of displays and study visualization processes as functions from data lattices to display lattices. Such functions can be applied to visualize data objects of all data types and are thus polymorphic.

  9. iOS Game Development using SpriteKit Framework with Swift Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Lal

    2016-01-01

    iOS is a mobile operating system for Apple manufactured phones and tablets. Mobile Gaming Industries are growing very fast, and compatibility with iOS is becoming very popular among game developers. The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to find the best available game development tools for iOS platform. The 2D game named Lapland was developed using Apple’s own native framework, SpriteKit. The game was written with the SpriteKit programming language. The combination of SpriteKit and Swift...

  10. People-Specific Languages: a case for automated programming language generation by reverse-engineering programmer minds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Bagge, A.H.; Zaytsev, V.

    2014-01-01

    The innovation of DSLs was the recognition that each application domain has its few idiomatic patterns of language use, found often in that domain and rarely in others. Capturing these idioms in the language design makes a DSL and yields gains in productivity, reliability and maintainability.

  11. Quality Assurance and Foreign Languages--Reflecting on Oral Assessment Practices in Two University Spanish Language Programs in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Adriana R.; Hortiguera, Hugo; Espinoza Vera, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    In the era of quality assurance (QA), close scrutiny of assessment practices has been intensified worldwide across the board. However, in the Australian context, trends in QA efforts have not reached the field of modern/foreign languages. This has largely resulted in leaving the establishment of language proficiency benchmarking up to individual…

  12. Linear Programming and Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization for the Weighting Scheme of a Value Focused Thinking Hierarchy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thawley, David

    2003-01-01

    .... When historical data exists on evaluation measures and performance of alternatives, linear programming and genetic algorithm based optimization may be used to derive historically optimal weights for a hierarchy...

  13. Micro-enterprise development schemes as effective reintegration assistance programs for voluntarily-repatriated Vietnamese asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, J B

    1995-01-01

    "From the creation of the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) in 1989 through December 1994, about sixty-eight thousand asylum seekers have voluntarily repatriated to Vietnam. In response to this reverse migration, the international community has funded numerous reintegration assistance programs to facilitate the asylum seekers' return. This article examines reintegration assistance programs currently operating in Vietnam and presents an argument that small scale income generation projects constitute the most effective and efficient use of scarce repatriation funding." excerpt

  14. Math Instruction Is Not Universal: Language-Specific Pedagogical Knowledge in Korean/English Two-Way Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wona; Lee, Jin Sook

    2017-01-01

    Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes in students' academic achievement in English, yet less is known about content teaching and learning in the non-English language in these programs. This study uses math instruction as a lens to identify pedagogical strategies and challenges in the teaching of math in Korean to…

  15. The Gift of Two Languages: A Spanish Immersion Program Brings Government Hill Elementary Back from the Brink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Judy

    2002-01-01

    An Anchorage (Alaska) elementary school serving low-income minority groups revitalized itself by starting a dual-language (Spanish/English) immersion program. Pull-out programs were coordinated using instructional and tutoring teams, quality professional development was provided, bilingualism was fostered for all students, and parent participation…

  16. "You Get to Be Yourself": Visual Arts Programs, Identity Construction and Learners of English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, Meg; Molyneux, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Students learning English as an additional language (EAL) in Australian schools frequently struggle with the cultural and linguistic demands of the classroom while concurrently grappling with issues of identity and belonging. This article reports on an investigation of the role primary school visual arts programs, distinct programs with a…

  17. The Impact of an Urban Universal Public Prekindergarten Program on Children's Early Numeracy, Language, Literacy, and Executive Function Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The authors add to and extend the emerging evidence base of the effects of public preschool programs on child school readiness. Using a quasi-experimental, Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, they estimate the impacts of a universal preschool program on children's early numeracy, language, literacy, and executive function skills, both for the…

  18. Towards Implementation of a Generalized Architecture for High-Level Quantum Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, El-Mahdy M.; Ali, Hesham A.; Salem, Mofreh M.; Badawy, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates a novel architecture to the problem of quantum computer programming. A generalized architecture for a high-level quantum programming language has been proposed. Therefore, the programming evolution from the complicated quantum-based programming to the high-level quantum independent programming will be achieved. The proposed architecture receives the high-level source code and, automatically transforms it into the equivalent quantum representation. This architecture involves two layers which are the programmer layer and the compilation layer. These layers have been implemented in the state of the art of three main stages; pre-classification, classification, and post-classification stages respectively. The basic building block of each stage has been divided into subsequent phases. Each phase has been implemented to perform the required transformations from one representation to another. A verification process was exposed using a case study to investigate the ability of the compiler to perform all transformation processes. Experimental results showed that the efficacy of the proposed compiler achieves a correspondence correlation coefficient about R ≈ 1 between outputs and the targets. Also, an obvious achievement has been utilized with respect to the consumed time in the optimization process compared to other techniques. In the online optimization process, the consumed time has increased exponentially against the amount of accuracy needed. However, in the proposed offline optimization process has increased gradually.

  19. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  20. A Domain-Specific Language for Programming Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Christensen, David Johan; Støy, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    , self-reconfigurable robots, we have developed a declarative, role-based language that allows the programmer to define roles and behavior independently of the concrete physical structure of the robot. Roles are compiled to mobile code fragments that distribute themselves over the physical structure......A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular...

  1. Handling movement epenthesis and hand segmentation ambiguities in continuous sign language recognition using nested dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiduo; Sarkar, Sudeep; Loeding, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    We consider two crucial problems in continuous sign language recognition from unaided video sequences. At the sentence level, we consider the movement epenthesis (me) problem and at the feature level, we consider the problem of hand segmentation and grouping. We construct a framework that can handle both of these problems based on an enhanced, nested version of the dynamic programming approach. To address movement epenthesis, a dynamic programming (DP) process employs a virtual me option that does not need explicit models. We call this the enhanced level building (eLB) algorithm. This formulation also allows the incorporation of grammar models. Nested within this eLB is another DP that handles the problem of selecting among multiple hand candidates. We demonstrate our ideas on four American Sign Language data sets with simple background, with the signer wearing short sleeves, with complex background, and across signers. We compared the performance with Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Latent Dynamic-CRF-based approaches. The experiments show more than 40 percent improvement over CRF or LDCRF approaches in terms of the frame labeling rate. We show the flexibility of our approach when handling a changing context. We also find a 70 percent improvement in sign recognition rate over the unenhanced DP matching algorithm that does not accommodate the me effect.

  2. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  3. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach are examined based on the pre- and post-proficiency test results, learners’ self-reported surveys on the themes and topics, and the reading strategies covered in the program. Qualitative analysis of learners’ self-reflections and program evaluations is also presented. Based on the evidence collected, this paper argues that the theme-based model has positive impacts on improving language proficiency, preparing for academic and professional language use, cultivating strategic language learners, and revitalizing Chinese teaching at the superior level.

  4. Intercultural Communicative Competence, Complexity Theory and Assessment: Considerations for Creating Effective Intercultural and Foreign Language Development Programs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

      The recent interest to prepare Japanese university students to study abroad or work in intercultural contexts, has caused a demand for foreign language educators to create effective intercultural and foreign language development programs. This paper will give an overview of how intercultural communicative competence (ICC) can help educators meet these demands. ICC has made a relatively small impact within the Japanese educational system, thus the main purpose of this paper is to bring a gre...

  5. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ERASMUS EXCHANGE PROGRAM ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin GÜRLEK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization the societies have got closer and there has occurred a link between countries and cultures in terms of trade, immigration and the exchange of information and ideas. Erasmus Exchange Program is another way of sharing cultures and information. Erasmus Exchange Program has paved the way for participants to think in different dimensions. Culture and language may be preferred as the selection of these dimensions. In this sense, sharing culture plays a major role among the objectives of Erasmus Program. In addition, culture may be represented with the use of EFL among the advantages of this program. Gardner (1985 states that the attitudes are important elements of learning process and suggests that the more positive attitudes a learner develop, the more achievement s/he gets during learning process. The study of Jenkins (2009 revealed that Erasmus Exchange Program helps participants to develop an appreciation towards the idea of being a non-native speaker of English in a multicultural environment. Put another way, English plays another major role and in this study the ultimate purpose has been determined to indicate changes in the attitudes of Erasmus Students at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University in Turkey towards learning EFL after Erasmus Exchange Program. 18 items in a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview have been conducted within the study. There are 65 participants in this study who studied in different European countries during an educational period. The results of the study indicate that living and studying in a multicultural environment either strengthened their already positive attitudes towards learning EFL or helped the participants to develop positive attitudes.

  7. Language-specific strategy for programming hearing aids - A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nozomu; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuha; Tsukiji, Hiroki; Higashino, Yoshie; Tabuki, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-11-17

    Voice-aligned compression (VAC) is a method used in Oticon's hearing aids to provide more comfortable hearing without sacrificing speech discrimination. The complex, non-linear compression curve for the VAC strategy is designed based on the frequency profile of certain spoken Western languages. We hypothesized that hearing aids could be further customized for Japanese-speaking users by modifying the compression curve using the frequency profile of spoken Japanese. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was performed to determine whether or not Oticon's modified amplification strategy (VAC-J) provides subjectively preferable hearing aids for Japanese-speaking hearing aid users compared to the same company's original amplification strategy (VAC). The participants were randomized to two groups. The VAC-first group received a pair of hearing aids programmed using the VAC strategy and wore them for three weeks, and then received a pair of hearing aids programmed using VAC-J strategy and wore them for three weeks. The VAC-J-first group underwent the same study, but they received hearing aids in the reverse sequence. A Speech, Spatial and Qualities (SSQ) questionnaire was administered before beginning to use the hearing aids, at the end of using the first pair of hearing aids, and at the end of using the second pair of hearing aids. Twenty-five participants that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1 to October 31, 2016, were randomized to two groups. Twenty-two participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences in the increment of SSQ scores between the participants when using the VAC- or the VAC-J-programmed hearing aids. However, participants preferred the VAC-J strategy to the VAC strategy at the end of the study, and this difference was statistically significant. Japanese-speaking hearing aid users preferred using hearing aids that were fitted with the VAC-J strategy. Our results show that the VAC strategy

  8. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  9. Speech, Language and Hearing Program: A Guide for Head Start Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    This guide is designed to assist Head Start personnel in effectively approaching communication problems of children. The sections of the guide are as follows: (1) Introduction, (2) Development of Speech and Language (Normal Development of Speech and Language; Factors; Influencing Speech and Language Development), (3) Goals of the Speech, Language,…

  10. Experience in the design, implementation and use of PL-11, a programming language for the PDP-11

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D

    1976-01-01

    PL-11 is a programming language for the PDP-11 family of computers designed and implemented as part of the OMEGA Project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). Its purpose is to provide an effective tool for both physicists and systems programmers to use in building real time data acquisition systems that are online to high-energy physics experiments. It is a fairly typical member of the PL-class of programming languages which are based on the initial design of PL360. (44 refs).

  11. iOS game development : Mobile game development with Swift programming language and SceneKit framework

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenseppä, Juuso

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to create an iOS game that could be deemed complete enough, so it could be published in Apple’s App Store. This meant fulfilling different guide-lines specified by Apple. The project was carried out by using Apple’s new Swift programming language and SceneKit framework, with an intention to see how they work for iOS game development. The immaturity of Swift programming language led to several code rewrites, every time a newer Swift version was released. T...

  12. Design Automation Using Script Languages. High-Level CAD Templates in Non-Parametric Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the advantages offered by the application of traditional techniques of technical drawing in processes for automation of the design, with non-parametric CAD programs, provided with scripting languages. Given that an example drawing can be solved with traditional step-by-step detailed procedures, is possible to do the same with CAD applications and to generalize it later, incorporating references. In today’s modern CAD applications, there are striking absences of solutions for building engineering: oblique projections (military and cavalier), 3D modelling of complex stairs, roofs, furniture, and so on. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into high-level CAD templates allows the automation of processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar designs or modifying their data, users should be able to use these templates to generate future variations of the same design. This paper presents the automation process of several complex drawing examples based on CAD script files aided with parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to solve complex geometry designs not currently incorporated in the current CAD applications and to subsequently create other new derivatives without user intervention. Automation in the generation of complex designs not only saves time but also increases the quality of the presentations and reduces the possibility of human errors.

  13. Learning abstract visual concepts via probabilistic program induction in a Language of Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlan, Matthew C; Jacobs, Robert A; Piantadosi, Steven T

    2017-11-01

    The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding. Because the model makes use of symbolic variables as well as Bayesian inference and programs with stochastic primitives, it combines many of the advantages of both symbolic and statistical approaches to cognitive modeling. To evaluate the model, we conducted an experiment in which human subjects viewed training items and then judged which test items belong to the same concept as the training items. We found that the HLOT model provides a close match to human generalization patterns, significantly outperforming two variants of the Generalized Context Model, one variant based on string similarity and the other based on visual similarity using features from a deep convolutional neural network. Additional results suggest that variable binding happens automatically, implying that binding operations do not add complexity to peoples' hypothesized rules. Overall, this work demonstrates that a cognitive model combining symbolic variables with Bayesian inference and stochastic program primitives provides a new perspective for understanding people's patterns of generalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of an In-Service Education Program on Promoting Language Development in Young Children: A Pilot Study with Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Rose, Tanya; Pee, Jerrine; Webb, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) play an important role in fostering language development in young children. In-service education, led by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), has a potential role in educating ECEs about language development. In this pilot study, 42 ECEs attended an in-service education program and completed pre- and…

  15. A natural language processing program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian J; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil A; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex free text into simplified organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included the TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a gold standard compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying the Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in report. This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases.

  16. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  17. The prevalence of the term subluxation in North American English-Language Doctor of chiropractic programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtz Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subluxation construct has been a divisive term in the chiropractic profession. There is a paucity of evidence to document the subluxation. Some authors have questioned the propriety of continuing to use the term. Aim The purpose of this study is to examine current North American English language chiropractic college academic catalogs and determine the prevalence of the term subluxation in the respective chiropractic program curricula. Methods Sixteen current English-language North American chiropractic college academic catalogs were studied. The term subluxation was searched for in each of the catalogs. Categories were developed for the usage of the term. These included "total times mentioned", "subluxation mentioned in a course description", "subluxation mentioned in a course title", "subluxation mentioned in a technique course description", and "subluxation mentioned in a philosophy course description." The prevalence of the "subluxation mentioned in a course description" was compared to the total programmatic curriculum. Results Palmer College in Florida devoted 22.72% of its curriculum to courses mentioning the subluxation followed by Life University (Marietta, GA and Sherman College with 16.44% and 12.80% respectively. As per specific coursework or subjects, an average of 5.22 courses or subjects have descriptions mentioning the term subluxation. Three schools made no mention of the term subluxation in their academic catalogs; they were National University of Health Sciences, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, and Southern California University of Health Sciences. Conclusion Despite the controversies and paucity of evidence the term subluxation is still found often within the chiropractic curricula of most North American chiropractic programs. Future research should determine if changes in accreditation standards and research on evidence based practice will affect this prevalence.

  18. DEMONIC programming: a computational language for single-particle equilibrium thermodynamics, and its formal semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Abramsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's Demon, 'a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course', has been the centre of much debate about its abilities to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Landauer's hypothesis, that the Demon must erase its memory and incur a thermodynamic cost, has become the standard response to Maxwell's dilemma, and its implications for the thermodynamics of computation reach into many areas of quantum and classical computing. It remains, however, still a hypothesis. Debate has often centred around simple toy models of a single particle in a box. Despite their simplicity, the ability of these systems to accurately represent thermodynamics (specifically to satisfy the second law and whether or not they display Landauer Erasure, has been a matter of ongoing argument. The recent Norton-Ladyman controversy is one such example. In this paper we introduce a programming language to describe these simple thermodynamic processes, and give a formal operational semantics and program logic as a basis for formal reasoning about thermodynamic systems. We formalise the basic single-particle operations as statements in the language, and then show that the second law must be satisfied by any composition of these basic operations. This is done by finding a computational invariant of the system. We show, furthermore, that this invariant requires an erasure cost to exist within the system, equal to kTln2 for a bit of information: Landauer Erasure becomes a theorem of the formal system. The Norton-Ladyman controversy can therefore be resolved in a rigorous fashion, and moreover the formalism we introduce gives a set of reasoning tools for further analysis of Landauer erasure, which are provably consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  20. EVALUATION OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SKILLS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TURKEY ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE DIPLOMA PROGRAM CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yücel Çetin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, evaluation criteria for the teaching of language and literature used in Turkey and in the world was discussed; language and literature skills of Turkish students who came to the final stage of the secondary education were evaluated according to International Baccalaureate Diploma Program -IBDP- Turkish A1 course criteria. Related literature was examined in order to determine national and international criteria used in teaching of language and literature. 43 participant study group which were taken from 4th grade of high schools was created to evaluate written and oral expression skills of students gained from Turkish language and literature according to international criteria. The working group has been obtained to provide the maximum variety sample. Two written and one oral exam questions in accordance with Turkish A1 course evaluating criteria were asked to the study group, answers papers were evaluated by three expert by using document analysis technique of qualitative research method. According to the research results, it has been observed that teachers do not use common criteria in evaluating language and literature teaching. 12th grade students’ language and expression skills are between 5-6 from 10 points according to international criteria; however language and expression skills of girl students are better than boy students and oral expression skills of students are better than written skills in general according to international criteria. Also, it has been found that students make their comments without relying on literary works.