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Sample records for schedule process sublingual

  1. Determination of degradation products and process related impurities of asenapine maleate in asenapine sublingual tablets by UPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Sangeetha, D.; Kalyanraman, L.

    2017-11-01

    For determination of process related impurities and degradation products of asenapine maleate in asenapine sublingual Tablets, a reversed phase, stability indicating UPLC method was developed. Acetonitrile, methanol and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with tetra-n- butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate as ion pair (pH 2.2; 0.01 M) at flow rate of 0.2 ml/min were used in gradient elution mode. Separation was achieved by using acquity BEH Shield RP18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm×100 mm) at 35 ºC. UV detection was performed at 228 nm. Subsequently the liquid chromatography method was validated as per ICH. The drug product was exposed to the stress conditions of acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, water hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic. In oxidative stress and thermal stress significant degradation was observed. All the degradation products were well separated from analyte peak and its impurities. Stability indicating nature of the method was proved by demonstrating the peak purity of Asenapine peak in all the stressed samples. The mass balance was found >95% for all the stress conditions. Based on method validation, the method was found specific, linear, accurate, precise, rugged and robust.

  2. Intelligence amplification framework for enhancing scheduling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrkovic, Andrej; Liu, Luyao; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The scheduling process in a typical business environment consists of predominantly repetitive tasks that have to be completed in limited time and often containing some form of uncertainty. The intelligence amplification is a symbiotic relationship between a human and an intelligent agent. This

  3. 21 CFR 113.83 - Establishing scheduled processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commercial production runs should be determined on the basis of recognized scientific methods to be of a size... CONTAINERS Production and Process Controls § 113.83 Establishing scheduled processes. Scheduled processes for... production shall be adequately provided for in establishing the scheduled process. Critical factors, e.g...

  4. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared this document, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update”, according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009”, available at http://www.waojournal.org. Namely, these comprise: “Mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy;” “Clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy” – reporting all the data of all controlled trials published after 2009; “Safety of sublingual immunotherapy” – with the recently published Grading System for adverse reactions; “Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy” – with the relevant evidences published since 2009; “Efficacy of SLIT in children” – with detailed analysis of all the studies; “Definition of SLIT patient selection” – reporting the criteria for eligibility to sublingual immunotherapy; “The future of immunotherapy in the community care setting”; “Methodology of clinical trials according to the current scientific and regulatory standards”; and “Guideline development: from evidence-based medicine to patients' views” – including the evolution of the methods to make clinical recommendations. Additionally, we have added new chapters to cover a few emerging crucial topics: “Practical aspects of schedules and dosages and counseling for adherence” – which is crucial in clinical practice for all treatments; “Perspectives and new approaches” – including recombinant allergens, adjuvants, modified allergens, and the concept of validity of the single products. Furthermore, “Raising public awareness about sublingual immunotherapy”, as a need for our patients, and strategies to increase awareness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among patients, the medical community, all healthcare stakeholders, and public opinion, are also reported in detail. PMID:24679069

  5. Analyzing scheduling in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Production scheduling has been widely studied in several research areas, resulting in a large number of methods, prescriptions, and approaches. However, the impact on scheduling practice seems relatively low. This is also the case in the food-processing industry, where industry......-specific characteristics induce specific and complex scheduling problems. Based on ideas about decomposition of the scheduling task and the production process, we develop an analysis methodology for scheduling problems in food processing. This combines an analysis of structural (technological) elements of the production...... process with an analysis of the tasks of the scheduler. This helps to understand, describe, and structure scheduling problems in food processing, and forms a basis for improving scheduling and applying methods developed in literature. It also helps in evaluating the organisational structures...

  6. Monoid sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Carlos, A G; Santos, A S; Branco-Ferreira, M; Pregal, A L; Palma-Carlos, M L

    2006-03-01

    Sublingual monoid immunotherapy with monomeric allergoids has been largely used in Europe in the last few years. An open trial of allergoid in tablets has been done in rhinitic patients allergic to house dust mites, grass pollens and Parietaria with clear improvement in clinics and drug consumption scores. In a second phase a double blind placebo controlled trial of grass pollens allergoids have been done in hay fever patients with significant decrease on the scores of rhinorrea, sneezing and conjunctivitis nasal steroid consumption and clinical score after serial nasal challenges. Monomeric allergoids are an efficace and safe immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

  7. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  8. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses......-presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  9. Sublingual Immunotherapy: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Compalati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of administering sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergy is gaining more and more diffusion worldwide as a consequence of the robust demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety provided by recent high-powered and well-designed studies, confirming for individual seasonal allergens the results of previous metanalyses in adult and pediatric populations. Preliminary evidence derives from recent rigorous trials on perennial allergens, like house dust mites, and specifically designed studies addressed the benefits on asthma. Emerging research suggests that SLIT may have a future role in other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, food, latex and venom allergy. Efforts to develop a safer and more effective SLIT for inhalant allergens have led to the development of allergoids, recombinant allergens and formulations with adjuvants and substances targeting antigens to dendritic cells that possess a crucial role in initiating immune responses. The high degree of variation in the evaluation of clinical effects and immunological changes requires further studies to identify the candidate patients to SLIT and biomarkers of short and long term efficacy. Appropriate management strategies are urgently needed to overcome the barriers to SLIT compliance.

  10. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  11. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  12. Surgical scheduling: a lean approach to process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross William; Canacari, Elena G

    2014-01-01

    A large teaching hospital in the northeast United States had an inefficient, paper-based process for scheduling orthopedic surgery that caused delays and contributed to site/side discrepancies. The hospital's leaders formed a team with the goals of developing a safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and accurate orthopedic scheduling process; smoothing the schedule so that block time was allocated more evenly; and ensuring correct site/side. Under the resulting process, real-time patient information is entered into a database during the patient's preoperative visit in the surgeon's office. The team found the new process reduced the occurrence of site/side discrepancies to zero, reduced instances of changing the sequence of orthopedic procedures by 70%, and increased patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Car painting process scheduling with harmony search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Maiyasya, A.; Purnamawati, S.; Abdullah, D.; Albra, W.; Heikal, M.; Abdurrahman, A.; Khaddafi, M.

    2018-02-01

    Automotive painting program in the process of painting the car body by using robot power, making efficiency in the production system. Production system will be more efficient if pay attention to scheduling of car order which will be done by considering painting body shape of car. Flow shop scheduling is a scheduling model in which the job-job to be processed entirely flows in the same product direction / path. Scheduling problems often arise if there are n jobs to be processed on the machine, which must be specified which must be done first and how to allocate jobs on the machine to obtain a scheduled production process. Harmony Search Algorithm is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm based on music. The algorithm is inspired by observations that lead to music in search of perfect harmony. This musical harmony is in line to find optimal in the optimization process. Based on the tests that have been done, obtained the optimal car sequence with minimum makespan value.

  14. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Multimodal processes scheduling in mesh-like network environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocewicz Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal processes planning and scheduling play a pivotal role in many different domains including city networks, multimodal transportation systems, computer and telecommunication networks and so on. Multimodal process can be seen as a process partially processed by locally executed cyclic processes. In that context the concept of a Mesh-like Multimodal Transportation Network (MMTN in which several isomorphic subnetworks interact each other via distinguished subsets of common shared intermodal transport interchange facilities (such as a railway station, bus station or bus/tram stop as to provide a variety of demand-responsive passenger transportation services is examined. Consider a mesh-like layout of a passengers transport network equipped with different lines including buses, trams, metro, trains etc. where passenger flows are treated as multimodal processes. The goal is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multimodal transportation processes scheduling encompassing passenger flow itineraries. Then, the main objective is to provide conditions guaranteeing solvability of particular transport lines scheduling, i.e. guaranteeing the right match-up of local cyclic acting bus, tram, metro and train schedules to a given passengers flow itineraries.

  16. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF

  17. Multi-core processing and scheduling performance in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, J M; Evans, D; Foulkes, S

    2012-01-01

    Commodity hardware is going many-core. We might soon not be able to satisfy the job memory needs per core in the current single-core processing model in High Energy Physics. In addition, an ever increasing number of independent and incoherent jobs running on the same physical hardware not sharing resources might significantly affect processing performance. It will be essential to effectively utilize the multi-core architecture. CMS has incorporated support for multi-core processing in the event processing framework and the workload management system. Multi-core processing jobs share common data in memory, such us the code libraries, detector geometry and conditions data, resulting in a much lower memory usage than standard single-core independent jobs. Exploiting this new processing model requires a new model in computing resource allocation, departing from the standard single-core allocation for a job. The experiment job management system needs to have control over a larger quantum of resource since multi-core aware jobs require the scheduling of multiples cores simultaneously. CMS is exploring the approach of using whole nodes as unit in the workload management system where all cores of a node are allocated to a multi-core job. Whole-node scheduling allows for optimization of the data/workflow management (e.g. I/O caching, local merging) but efficient utilization of all scheduled cores is challenging. Dedicated whole-node queues have been setup at all Tier-1 centers for exploring multi-core processing workflows in CMS. We present the evaluation of the performance scheduling and executing multi-core workflows in whole-node queues compared to the standard single-core processing workflows.

  18. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  19. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  20. Sublingual piroxicam in migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, K; Tayade, Himanshu; Mandlik, Rahul

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of a single dose of sublingual piroxicam to that of a placebo during acute attacks of migraine without aura. The drug (N = 30) or a placebo (N = 30) was administered, on randomisation and double-blind basis, to 60 patients between 18 and 50 years of age suffering from migraine without aura. The patients were instructed to take a single tablet sublingually [corresponding to piroxicam 40 mg or placebo] and the severity of the painful symptomatology and associated symptoms were evaluated by this study. The patients treated with sublingual piroxicam showed a significant (P piroxicam administration. In 83.3%, the drug resulted in excellent to good response as compared to only 10% in the placebo group. No local and systemic side effects were reported with sublingual piroxicam. The present study has demonstrated that for the acute management of migraine without aura sublingual piroxicam showed significant analgesic effect with excellent tolerability.

  1. Application of coupled symbolic and numeric processing to an advanced scheduling system for plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takamoto, Masanori; Nonaka, Hisanori; Yamada, Naoyuki

    1994-01-01

    A scheduling system has been developed by integrating symbolic processing functions for constraint handling and modification guidance, with numeric processing functions for schedule optimization and evaluation. The system is composed of an automatic schedule generation module, interactive schedule revision module and schedule evaluation module. The goal of the problem solving is the flattening of the daily resources requirement throughout the scheduling period. The automatic schedule generation module optimizes the initial schedule according to the formulatable portion of requirement description specified in a predicate-like language. A planning engineer refines the near-goal schedule through a knowledge-based interactive optimization process to obtain the goal schedule which fully covers the requirement description, with the interactive schedule revision module and schedule evaluation module. A scheduling system has been implemented on the basis of the proposed problem solving framework and experimentally applied to real-world sized scheduling problems for plant construction. With a result of the overall plant construction scheduling, a section schedule optimization process is described with the emphasis on the symbolic processing functions. (author)

  2. Scheduling algorithms for automatic control systems for technological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Kapulin, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Wide use of automatic process control systems and the usage of high-performance systems containing a number of computers (processors) give opportunities for creation of high-quality and fast production that increases competitiveness of an enterprise. Exact and fast calculations, control computation, and processing of the big data arrays - all of this requires the high level of productivity and, at the same time, minimum time of data handling and result receiving. In order to reach the best time, it is necessary not only to use computing resources optimally, but also to design and develop the software so that time gain will be maximal. For this purpose task (jobs or operations), scheduling techniques for the multi-machine/multiprocessor systems are applied. Some of basic task scheduling methods for the multi-machine process control systems are considered in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages come to light, and also some usage considerations, in case of the software for automatic process control systems developing, are made.

  3. Economic Benefit from Progressive Integration of Scheduling and Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D. R. Beal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance of integrated production scheduling and advanced process control with disturbances is summarized and reviewed with four progressive stages of scheduling and control integration and responsiveness to disturbances: open-loop segregated scheduling and control, closed-loop segregated scheduling and control, open-loop scheduling with consideration of process dynamics, and closed-loop integrated scheduling and control responsive to process disturbances and market fluctuations. Progressive economic benefit from dynamic rescheduling and integrating scheduling and control is shown on a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR benchmark application in closed-loop simulations over 24 h. A fixed horizon integrated scheduling and control formulation for multi-product, continuous chemical processes is utilized, in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and continuous-time scheduling are combined.

  4. Adaptive Dynamic Process Scheduling on Distributed Memory Parallel Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shu

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in programming distributed memory parallel machines is deciding how to allocate work to processors. This problem is particularly important for computations with unpredictable dynamic behaviors or irregular structures. We present a scheme for dynamic scheduling of medium-grained processes that is useful in this context. The adaptive contracting within neighborhood (ACWN is a dynamic, distributed, load-dependent, and scalable scheme. It deals with dynamic and unpredictable creation of processes and adapts to different systems. The scheme is described and contrasted with two other schemes that have been proposed in this context, namely the randomized allocation and the gradient model. The performance of the three schemes on an Intel iPSC/2 hypercube is presented and analyzed. The experimental results show that even though the ACWN algorithm incurs somewhat larger overhead than the randomized allocation, it achieves better performance in most cases due to its adaptiveness. Its feature of quickly spreading the work helps it outperform the gradient model in performance and scalability.

  5. Job schedulers for Big data processing in Hadoop environment: testing real-life schedulers using benchmark programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Usama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, big data is very popular, because it has proved to be much successful in many fields such as social media, E-commerce transactions, etc. Big data describes the tools and technologies needed to capture, manage, store, distribute, and analyze petabyte or larger-sized datasets having different structures with high speed. Big data can be structured, unstructured, or semi structured. Hadoop is an open source framework that is used to process large amounts of data in an inexpensive and efficient way, and job scheduling is a key factor for achieving high performance in big data processing. This paper gives an overview of big data and highlights the problems and challenges in big data. It then highlights Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS, Hadoop MapReduce, and various parameters that affect the performance of job scheduling algorithms in big data such as Job Tracker, Task Tracker, Name Node, Data Node, etc. The primary purpose of this paper is to present a comparative study of job scheduling algorithms along with their experimental results in Hadoop environment. In addition, this paper describes the advantages, disadvantages, features, and drawbacks of various Hadoop job schedulers such as FIFO, Fair, capacity, Deadline Constraints, Delay, LATE, Resource Aware, etc, and provides a comparative study among these schedulers.

  6. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  7. Designing scheduling concept and computer support in the food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, DP; van Wezel, W; Gaalman, G; Bititci, US; Carrie, AS

    1998-01-01

    Food processing industries cope with a specific production process and a dynamic market. Scheduling the production process is thus important in being competitive. This paper proposes a hierarchical concept for structuring the scheduling and describes the (computer) support needed for this concept.

  8. Tinnitus after administration of sublingual immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    , for example, itching, swelling, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. More severe side effects are dominated by systemic and respiratory tract manifestations. RESULTS: In this clinical case, the author reports a right-sided transient tinnitus lasting...... for 48 h after administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case provide important insights for clinical practice, as tinnitus has not been previously reported as a side effect of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens....

  9. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub

    2013-01-01

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors

  10. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors.

  11. Scheduling of Conditional Process Graphs for the Synthesis of Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Kuchcinski, Krzysztof; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    We present an approach to process scheduling based on an abstract graph representation which captures both dataflow and the flow of control. Target architectures consist of several processors, ASICs and shared busses. We have developed a heuristic which generates a schedule table so that the worst...... case delay is minimized. Several experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the approach....

  12. Accuracy improvement of dataflow analysis for cyclic stream processing applications scheduled by static priority preemptive schedulers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtin, Philip Sebastian; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Geuns, S.J.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Stream processing applications executed on embedded multiprocessor systems regularly contain cyclic data dependencies due to the presence of feedback loops and bounded FIFO buffers. Dataflow modeling is suitable for the temporal analysis of such applications. However, the accuracy can be

  13. High resolution sonography of sublingual space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ultrasound examination of the sublingual region is a non-invasive, safe, inexpensive and widely available procedure, unaffected by the amalgam in teeth which is a source of considerable artefact on CT and MRI images. With a little practice and good understanding of the anatomy, ultrasound can be a very helpful primary examination. If the lesion is clearly seen, no further imaging may be required.

  14. Susceptibility of optimal train schedules to stochastic disturbances of process times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rune; Pranzo, Marco; D’Ariano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    study, an advanced branch and bound algorithm, on average, outperforms a First In First Out scheduling rule both in deterministic and stochastic traffic scenarios. However, the characteristic of the stochastic processes and the way a stochastic instance is handled turn out to have a serious impact...... and dwell times). In fact, the objective of railway traffic management is to reduce delay propagation and to increase disturbance robustness of train schedules at a network scale. We present a quantitative study of traffic disturbances and their effects on the schedules computed by simple and advanced...

  15. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available as follows. Given, i) required production over a given time horizon, ii) product recipe and production times, iii) maximum number of processing vessels and storage vessels, and iv) maximum and minimum capacity of processing vessels and storage vessels... the cleaning operation, due to the three different products mixed. Each type of wastewater has the possibility of being stored in a distinct storage vessel. The minimum and maximum capacity of each storage vessel is 500kg and 1500kg, respectively...

  16. Multi-core processing and scheduling performance in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Commodity hardware is going many-core. We might soon not be able to satisfy the job memory needs per core in the current single-core processing model in High Energy Physics. In addition, an ever increasing number of independent and incoherent jobs running on the same physical hardware not sharing resources might significantly affect processing performance. It will be essential to effectively utilize the multi-core architecture. CMS has incorporated support for multi-core processing in the event processing framework and the workload management system. Multi-core processing jobs share common data in memory, such us the code libraries, detector geometry and conditions data, resulting in a much lower memory usage than standard single-core independent jobs. Exploiting this new processing model requires a new model in computing resource allocation, departing from the standard single-core allocation for a job. The experiment job management system needs to have control over a larger quantum of resource since multi-...

  17. An Extended Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Integration of Fuzzy Process Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed integration of process planning and scheduling (DIPPS aims to simultaneously arrange the two most important manufacturing stages, process planning and scheduling, in a distributed manufacturing environment. Meanwhile, considering its advantage corresponding to actual situation, the triangle fuzzy number (TFN is adopted in DIPPS to represent the machine processing and transportation time. In order to solve this problem and obtain the optimal or near-optimal solution, an extended genetic algorithm (EGA with innovative three-class encoding method, improved crossover, and mutation strategies is proposed. Furthermore, a local enhancement strategy featuring machine replacement and order exchange is also added to strengthen the local search capability on the basic process of genetic algorithm. Through the verification of experiment, EGA achieves satisfactory results all in a very short period of time and demonstrates its powerful performance in dealing with the distributed integration of fuzzy process planning and scheduling (DIFPPS.

  18. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  19. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  20. Uncertainty management by relaxation of conflicting constraints in production process scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Juergen; Slany, Wolfgang; Stary, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical-analytical methods as used in Operations Research approaches are often insufficient for scheduling problems. This is due to three reasons: the combinatorial complexity of the search space, conflicting objectives for production optimization, and the uncertainty in the production process. Knowledge-based techniques, especially approximate reasoning and constraint relaxation, are promising ways to overcome these problems. A case study from an industrial CIM environment, namely high-grade steel production, is presented to demonstrate how knowledge-based scheduling with the desired capabilities could work. By using fuzzy set theory, the applied knowledge representation technique covers the uncertainty inherent in the problem domain. Based on this knowledge representation, a classification of jobs according to their importance is defined which is then used for the straightforward generation of a schedule. A control strategy which comprises organizational, spatial, temporal, and chemical constraints is introduced. The strategy supports the dynamic relaxation of conflicting constraints in order to improve tentative schedules.

  1. Simulation of textile manufacturing processes for planning, scheduling, and quality control purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, A. E.; Wang, Z.

    1995-08-01

    Simulation, as a management information tool, has been applied to engineering manufacture and assembly operations. The application of the principles to textile manufacturing (fiber to fabric) is discussed. The particular problems and solutions in applying the simulation software package to the yarn production processes are discussed with an indication of how the software achieves the production schedule. The system appears to have application in planning, scheduling, and quality assurance. The latter being a result of the traceability possibilities through a process involving mixing and splitting of material.

  2. Optimal methodology for a machining process scheduling in spot electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Torres, F.; Khodr, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity spot markets have introduced hourly variations in the price of electricity. These variations allow the increase of the energy efficiency by the appropriate scheduling and adaptation of the industrial production to the hourly cost of electricity in order to obtain the maximum profit for the industry. In this article a mathematical optimization model simulates costs and the electricity demand of a machining process. The resultant problem is solved using the generalized reduced gradient approach, to find the optimum production schedule that maximizes the industry profit considering the hourly variations of the price of electricity in the spot market. Different price scenarios are studied to analyze the impact of the spot market prices for electricity on the optimal scheduling of the machining process and on the industry profit. The convenience of the application of the proposed model is shown especially in cases of very high electricity prices.

  3. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  4. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  5. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.303 Critical factors and the...

  6. Proposal of Heuristic Algorithm for Scheduling of Print Process in Auto Parts Supplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shimpei; Okuhara, Koji; Ueno, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Hiroaki

    We are interested in the print process on the manufacturing processes of auto parts supplier as an actual problem. The purpose of this research is to apply our scheduling technique developed in university to the actual print process in mass customization environment. Rationalization of the print process is depending on the lot sizing. The manufacturing lead time of the print process is long, and in the present method, production is done depending on worker’s experience and intuition. The construction of an efficient production system is urgent problem. Therefore, in this paper, in order to shorten the entire manufacturing lead time and to reduce the stock, we reexamine the usual method of the lot sizing rule based on heuristic technique, and we propose the improvement method which can plan a more efficient schedule.

  7. New heating schedule in hydrogen annealing furnace based on process simulation for less energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad; Hassanpour, Saeid; Abbasi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    Cold rolled steel coils are annealed in batch furnaces to obtain desirable mechanical properties. Annealing operations involve heating and cooling cycles which take long due to high weight of the coils under annealing. To reduce annealing time, a simulation code was developed that is capable of evaluating more effective schedules for annealing coils during the heating process. This code is additionally capable of accurate determination of furnace turn-off time for different coil weights and charge dimensions. After studying many heating schedules and considering heat transfer mechanism in the annealing furnace, a new schedule with the most advantages was selected as the new operation conditions in the hydrogen annealing plant. The performance of all the furnaces were adjusted to the new heating schedule after experiments had been carried out to ensure the accuracy of the code and the fitness of the new operation condition. Comparison of similar yield of cold rolled coils over two months revealed that specific energy consumption of furnaces under the new heating schedule decreased by 11%, heating cycle time by 16%, and the hydrogen consumption by 14%

  8. New heating schedule in hydrogen annealing furnace based on process simulation for less energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran); Hassanpour, Saeid [Rayan Tahlil Sepahan Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan 84155 (Iran); Abbasi, Shahram [R and D Department, Mobarakeh Steel Complex, Isfahan (Iran)

    2008-11-15

    Cold rolled steel coils are annealed in batch furnaces to obtain desirable mechanical properties. Annealing operations involve heating and cooling cycles which take long due to high weight of the coils under annealing. To reduce annealing time, a simulation code was developed that is capable of evaluating more effective schedules for annealing coils during the heating process. This code is additionally capable of accurate determination of furnace turn-off time for different coil weights and charge dimensions. After studying many heating schedules and considering heat transfer mechanism in the annealing furnace, a new schedule with the most advantages was selected as the new operation conditions in the hydrogen annealing plant. The performance of all the furnaces were adjusted to the new heating schedule after experiments had been carried out to ensure the accuracy of the code and the fitness of the new operation condition. Comparison of similar yield of cold rolled coils over two months revealed that specific energy consumption of furnaces under the new heating schedule decreased by 11%, heating cycle time by 16%, and the hydrogen consumption by 14%. (author)

  9. Plant process computer replacements - techniques to limit installation schedules and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.D.; Olson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Plant process computer systems, a standard fixture in all nuclear power plants, are used to monitor and display important plant process parameters. Scanning thousands of field sensors and alarming out-of-limit values, these computer systems are heavily relied on by control room operators. The original nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendor for the power plant often supplied the plant process computer. Designed using sixties and seventies technology, a plant's original process computer has been obsolete for some time. Driven by increased maintenance costs and new US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations such as NUREG-0737, Suppl. 1, many utilities have replaced their process computers with more modern computer systems. Given that computer systems are by their nature prone to rapid obsolescence, this replacement cycle will likely repeat. A process computer replacement project can be a significant capital expenditure and must be performed during a scheduled refueling outage. The object of the installation process is to install a working system on schedule. Experience gained by supervising several computer replacement installations has taught lessons that, if applied, will shorten the schedule and limit the risk of costly delays. Examples illustrating this technique are given. This paper and these examples deal only with the installation process and assume that the replacement computer system has been adequately designed, and development and factory tested

  10. A priority-based heuristic algorithm (PBHA for optimizing integrated process planning and scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Ausaf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Process planning and scheduling are two important components of a manufacturing setup. It is important to integrate them to achieve better global optimality and improved system performance. To find optimal solutions for integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS problem, numerous algorithm-based approaches exist. Most of these approaches try to use existing meta-heuristic algorithms for solving the IPPS problem. Although these approaches have been shown to be effective in optimizing the IPPS problem, there is still room for improvement in terms of quality of solution and algorithm efficiency, especially for more complicated problems. Dispatching rules have been successfully utilized for solving complicated scheduling problems, but haven’t been considered extensively for the IPPS problem. This approach incorporates dispatching rules with the concept of prioritizing jobs, in an algorithm called priority-based heuristic algorithm (PBHA. PBHA tries to establish job and machine priority for selecting operations. Priority assignment and a set of dispatching rules are simultaneously used to generate both the process plans and schedules for all jobs and machines. The algorithm was tested for a series of benchmark problems. The proposed algorithm was able to achieve superior results for most complex problems presented in recent literature while utilizing lesser computational resources.

  11. Direct action of the X-ray on the submandibular and sublingual glands. Histologic and histochemical study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Pinto, M.C. dos; Martinelli, C.; Santos-Pinto, R. dos

    1991-01-01

    The submandibular and sublingual glands of rats are surgically exposed and irradiated by X-ray. A simulated group with surgical exposition of the glands is performed. In the irradiated submandibular glands occurred atrophy, architectural disorder and degenerative processes. RNA reduction in the nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of the acini cells and a decrease of protein synthesis are described. (M.A.C.)

  12. CT features of invasion of sublingual space by malignant oropharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yi; Xiao Jiahe; Zhou Xiangping; Deng Kaihong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the invasion of sublingual space by malignant oropharyngeal tumors in order to provide more accurate information for clinical treatment. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pathologically proven malignant oropharyngeal tumors were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among all the cases, invasion of sublingual space by malignant oropharyngeal tumors could be seen in 14 cases, of which, 7 cases got access to sublingual space through tongue base, 3 cases through parapharyngeal space, 2 cases through pterygomandibular raphe, 2 cases through uncertain routes. Invasion of sublingual space manifested on CT scan as obliteration of fat plane in sublingual space and involvement of the sublingual vessels in the space. Conclusion: Malignant oropharyngeal tumors can invade the adjacent sublingual space via tongue base, pterygomandibular raphe, and parapharyngeal space. The invasion of sublingual space by malignant oropharyngeal tumors manifests in CT as effacement of sublingual fat plane and envelopment of hyoid artery

  13. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  14. Development of nanoparticle based delivery systems for sublingual immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alija, Hava; Rask, Carola; Brimnes, Jens

    The prevalence of IgE mediated allergic diseases is increasing dramatically in industrialized countries. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been demonstrated to be a safe and efficacious treatment for IgE mediated allergic diseases, but requires protracted treatment duration. Even though SLIT...... (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation model for their ability to improve immune tolerance induction of ovalbumin (protein and peptide) when delivered sublingually. In the liposome study, mice were treated sublingually during two weeks with free or liposome encapsulated OVA (OVA-liposomes) followed...... by intraperitoneal injections and intranasal challenge. Mice treated sublingually with OVA-liposomes showed a significant reduction of airway eosinophilia, OVA-specific IgE antibodies and splenocyte proliferation in comparison to free OVA. In addition, reduced levels of IFN-ɣ and IL-5 were observed in spleen cell...

  15. Energy Efficient Scheduling of Real Time Signal Processing Applications through Combined DVFS and DPM

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues , Erwan; Pelcat , Maxime; Menard , Daniel; Mercat , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a framework to design energy efficient signal processing systems. The energy efficiency is provided by combining Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) and Dynamic Power Management (DPM). The framework is based on Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) modeling of signal processing applications. A transformation to a single rate form is performed to expose the application parallelism. An automated scheduling is then performed, minimizing the constraint of...

  16. Refinery scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  17. Comparative Study Between Different Ready-Made Orally Disintegrating Platforms for the Formulation of Sumatriptan Succinate Sublingual Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Saadya A; El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Amin, Maha M; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2017-02-01

    Sumatriptan succinate (SS) is a selective serotonin receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine attacks, suffering from extensive first-pass metabolism and low oral bioavailability (∼14%). The aim of this work is to compare the performance of different ready-made co-processed platforms (Pharmaburst®, Prosolv ODT®, Starlac®, Pearlitol Flash®, or Ludiflash®) in the formulation of SS sublingual orodispersible tablets (ODTs) using direct compression technique. The prepared SS ODT formulae were evaluated regarding hardness, friability, simulated wetting time, and in vitro disintegration and dissolution tests. Different mucoadhesive polymers-HPMC K4M, Carbopol®, chitosan, or Polyox®-were tested aiming to increase the residence time in the sublingual area. A pharmacokinetic study on healthy human volunteers was performed, using LC/MS/MS assay, to compare the optimum sublingual formula (Ph25/HPMC) with the conventional oral tablet Imitrex®. Results showed that tablets prepared using Pharmaburst® had significantly (p disintegration times of 17.17 and 23.50 s, respectively, with Q 5 min of 83.62%. HPMC showed a significant (p tablet Imitrex®. In conclusion, Pharmaburst® was chosen as the optimum ready-made co-processed platform that can be successfully used in the preparation of SS sublingual tablets for the rapid relief of migraine attacks.

  18. Multi-Objective Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Variable Processing Time due to Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative to non-renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing systems. Finding out how to make an alternative energy-efficient scheduling solution when renewable and non-renewable energy drives production is of great importance. In this paper, a multi-objective flexible flow shop scheduling problem that considers variable processing time due to renewable energy (MFFSP-VPTRE is studied. First, the optimization model of the MFFSP-VPTRE is formulated considering the periodicity of renewable energy and the limitations of energy storage capacity. Then, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with variable local search (HNSGA-II is proposed to solve the MFFSP-VPTRE. An operation and machine-based encoding method is employed. A low-carbon scheduling algorithm is presented. Besides the crossover and mutation, a variable local search is used to improve the offspring’s Pareto set. The offspring and the parents are combined and those that dominate more are selected to continue evolving. Finally, two groups of experiments are carried out. The results show that the low-carbon scheduling algorithm can effectively reduce the carbon footprint under the premise of makespan optimization and the HNSGA-II outperforms the traditional NSGA-II and can solve the MFFSP-VPTRE effectively and efficiently.

  19. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Random Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of unpredictable random events, the processing time of each operation should be treated as random variables if we aim at a robust production schedule. However, compared with the extensive research on the deterministic model, the stochastic job shop scheduling problem (SJSSP has not received sufficient attention. In this paper, we propose an artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm for SJSSP with the objective of minimizing the maximum lateness (which is an index of service quality. First, we propose a performance estimate for preliminary screening of the candidate solutions. Then, the K-armed bandit model is utilized for reducing the computational burden in the exact evaluation (through Monte Carlo simulation process. Finally, the computational results on different-scale test problems validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Hypergraph+: An Improved Hypergraph-Based Task-Scheduling Algorithm for Massive Spatial Data Processing on Master-Slave Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data processing often requires massive datasets, and the task/data scheduling efficiency of these applications has an impact on the overall processing performance. Among the existing scheduling strategies, hypergraph-based algorithms capture the data sharing pattern in a global way and significantly reduce total communication volume. Due to heterogeneous processing platforms, however, single hypergraph partitioning for later scheduling may be not optimal. Moreover, these scheduling algorithms neglect the overlap between task execution and data transfer that could further decrease execution time. In order to address these problems, an extended hypergraph-based task-scheduling algorithm, named Hypergraph+, is proposed for massive spatial data processing. Hypergraph+ improves upon current hypergraph scheduling algorithms in two ways: (1 It takes platform heterogeneity into consideration offering a metric function to evaluate the partitioning quality in order to derive the best task/file schedule; and (2 It can maximize the overlap between communication and computation. The GridSim toolkit was used to evaluate Hypergraph+ in an IDW spatial interpolation application on heterogeneous master-slave platforms. Experiments illustrate that the proposed Hypergraph+ algorithm achieves on average a 43% smaller makespan than the original hypergraph scheduling algorithm but still preserves high scheduling efficiency.

  1. An Improved Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm for Sheet Cutting Scheduling with Process Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqing Rao; Dezhong Qi; Jinling Li

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting problem which involves n cutting patterns for m non-identical parallel machines with process constraints has been proposed in the integrated cutting stock model. The objective of the cutting scheduling problem is minimizing the weighted completed time. A mathematical model for this problem is presented, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm (ant colony—hierarchical genetic algorithm) is developed for better ...

  2. Decoupling algorithms from schedules for easy optimization of image processing pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Andrew; Paris, Sylvain; Levoy, Marc; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan Millar; Amarasinghe, Saman P.; Durand, Fredo

    2012-01-01

    Using existing programming tools, writing high-performance image processing code requires sacrificing readability, portability, and modularity. We argue that this is a consequence of conflating what computations define the algorithm, with decisions about storage and the order of computation. We refer to these latter two concerns as the schedule, including choices of tiling, fusion, recomputation vs. storage, vectorization, and parallelism. We propose a representation for feed-forward imagi...

  3. Enhanced efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy by liposome-mediated delivery of allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliu, Have; Rask, Carola; Brimnes, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy by sublingual administration of allergens provides high patient compliance and has emerged as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy for the - treatment of IgE-associated allergic diseases. However, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) can cause adverse events. Development...

  4. Concurrent processes scheduling with scarce resources in small and medium enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马嵩华

    2016-01-01

    Scarce resources , precedence and non-determined time-lag are three constraints commonly found in small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs), which are deemed to block the ap-plication of workflow management system ( WfMS ) .To tackle this problem , a workflow scheduling approach is proposed based on timing workflow net (TWF-net) and genetic algorithm (GA).The workflow is modelled in a form of TWF-net in favour of process simulation and resource conflict checking .After simplifying and reconstructing the set of workflow instance , the conflict resolution problem is transformed into a resource-constrained project scheduling problem ( RCPSP ) , which could be efficiently solved by a heuristic method , such as GA.Finally, problems of various sizes are utilized to test the performance of the proposed algorithm and to compare it with first-come-first-served ( FCFS) strategy.The evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method is an overwhelming and effective approach for scheduling the concurrent processes with precedence and resource con -straints .

  5. Analyzing the nursing organizational structure and process from a scheduling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Broos; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The efficient and effective management of nursing personnel is of critical importance in a hospital's environment comprising approximately 25 % of the hospital's operational costs. The nurse organizational structure and the organizational processes highly affect the nurses' working conditions and the provided quality of care. In this paper, we investigate the impact of different nurse organization structures and different organizational processes for a real-life situation in a Belgian university hospital. In order to make accurate nurse staffing decisions, the employed solution methodology incorporates shift scheduling characteristics in order to overcome the deficiencies of the many phase-specific methodologies that are proposed in the academic literature.

  6. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers.

  7. Effects of practice schedule and task specificity on the adaptive process of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, João Augusto de Camargo; Tani, Go; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of practice schedule and task specificity based on the perspective of adaptive process of motor learning. For this purpose, tasks with temporal and force control learning requirements were manipulated in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Specifically, the task consisted of touching with the dominant hand the three sequential targets with specific movement time or force for each touch. Participants were children (N=120), both boys and girls, with an average age of 11.2years (SD=1.0). The design in both experiments involved four practice groups (constant, random, constant-random, and random-constant) and two phases (stabilisation and adaptation). The dependent variables included measures related to the task goal (accuracy and variability of error of the overall movement and force patterns) and movement pattern (macro- and microstructures). Results revealed a similar error of the overall patterns for all groups in both experiments and that they adapted themselves differently in terms of the macro- and microstructures of movement patterns. The study concludes that the effects of practice schedules on the adaptive process of motor learning were both general and specific to the task. That is, they were general to the task goal performance and specific regarding the movement pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  9. [Characteristics of sublingual vein and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-yu; Wang, Li-na; Yue, Xiao-qiang; Li, Bai

    2009-05-01

    To observe sublingual vein characteristics and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into normal control group and cirrhotic portal hypertension group. There were 6 dogs in each group. A canine model of cirrhosis portal hypertension was established by injecting dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) into portal vein once a week for 7 weeks. The characteristics of sublingual vein were observed. Portal venous pressure was measured by using bioelectric recording techniques. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual vein were detected by immunohistochemical method. The shape and color of sublingual vein in beagle dogs in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group changed obviously as compared with the normal control group. Immunohistochemical results showed that there were almost no expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the normal control group; however, the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group significantly increased. Changes of portal pressure may lead to the formation of the abnormal sublingual vein by increasing the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in Beagle dogs with portal hypertension.

  10. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

  11. An Efficient Randomized Algorithm for Real-Time Process Scheduling in PicOS Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy*, Tarek; Fatai, Anifowose; Sallam, El-Sayed

    PicOS is an event-driven operating environment designed for use with embedded networked sensors. More specifically, it is designed to support the concurrency in intensive operations required by networked sensors with minimal hardware requirements. Existing process scheduling algorithms of PicOS; a commercial tiny, low-footprint, real-time operating system; have their associated drawbacks. An efficient, alternative algorithm, based on a randomized selection policy, has been proposed, demonstrated, confirmed for efficiency and fairness, on the average, and has been recommended for implementation in PicOS. Simulations were carried out and performance measures such as Average Waiting Time (AWT) and Average Turn-around Time (ATT) were used to assess the efficiency of the proposed randomized version over the existing ones. The results prove that Randomized algorithm is the best and most attractive for implementation in PicOS, since it is most fair and has the least AWT and ATT on average over the other non-preemptive scheduling algorithms implemented in this paper.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of losartan potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj J. Aghera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were prepared to improve its bioavailability, to avoid pre-systemic metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic first pass elimination. Methods: The Sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression procedure using different concentration of Starch 1500 and microcrystalline cellulose. Compatibility studies of drug and polymer were performed by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC. Preformulation property of API was evaluated. Postcompressional parameters such disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability study of optimized formulation were determined. Results: FTIR spectroscopy and DSC study revealed that there was no possible interaction between drug and polymers. The precompression parameters were in acceptable range of pharmacopoeial specification. The disintegration time of optimized formulation (F3 was upto 48 sec. The in vitro release of Losartan Potassium was upto 15 min. The percentage relative bioavailability of Losartan Potassium from optimized sublingual tablets was found to be 144.7 %. Conclusions: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

  13. Time Evolution of Sublingual Microcirculatory Changes in Recreational Marathon Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arstikyte, Justina; Vaitkaitiene, Egle; Vaitkaitis, Dinas

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate changes in sublingual microcirculation induced by a marathon race. Thirteen healthy male controls and 13 male marathon runners volunteered for the study. We performed sublingual microcirculation, using a Cytocam-IDF device (Braedius Medical, Huizen, Netherlands), and systemic hemodynamic measurements four times: 24 hours prior to their participation in the Kaunas Marathon (distance: 41.2 km), directly after finishing the marathon, 24 hours after the marathon, and one week after the marathon. The marathon runners exhibited a higher functional capillary density (FCD) and total vascular density of small vessels at the first visit compared with the controls. Overall, we did not find any changes in sublingual microcirculation of the marathon runners at any of the other visits. However, in a subgroup of marathon runners with a decreased FCD compared to the subgroup with increased FCD, the subgroup with decreased FCD had shorter running time (190.37 ± 30.2 versus 221.80 ± 23.4 min, p = 0.045), ingested less fluids (907 ± 615 versus 1950 ± 488 mL, p = 0.007) during the race, and lost much more weight (−2.4 ± 1.3 versus −1.0 ± 0.8 kg, p = 0.041). Recreational marathon running is not associated with an alteration of sublingual microcirculation. However, faster running and dehydration may be crucial for further impairing microcirculation. PMID:28828386

  14. Time Evolution of Sublingual Microcirculatory Changes in Recreational Marathon Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranskunas, Andrius; Arstikyte, Justina; Pranskuniene, Zivile; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Kiudulaite, Inga; Vaitkaitiene, Egle; Vaitkaitis, Dinas; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate changes in sublingual microcirculation induced by a marathon race. Thirteen healthy male controls and 13 male marathon runners volunteered for the study. We performed sublingual microcirculation, using a Cytocam-IDF device (Braedius Medical, Huizen, Netherlands), and systemic hemodynamic measurements four times: 24 hours prior to their participation in the Kaunas Marathon (distance: 41.2 km), directly after finishing the marathon, 24 hours after the marathon, and one week after the marathon. The marathon runners exhibited a higher functional capillary density (FCD) and total vascular density of small vessels at the first visit compared with the controls. Overall, we did not find any changes in sublingual microcirculation of the marathon runners at any of the other visits. However, in a subgroup of marathon runners with a decreased FCD compared to the subgroup with increased FCD, the subgroup with decreased FCD had shorter running time (190.37 ± 30.2 versus 221.80 ± 23.4 min, p = 0.045), ingested less fluids (907 ± 615 versus 1950 ± 488 mL, p = 0.007) during the race, and lost much more weight (-2.4 ± 1.3 versus -1.0 ± 0.8 kg, p = 0.041). Recreational marathon running is not associated with an alteration of sublingual microcirculation. However, faster running and dehydration may be crucial for further impairing microcirculation.

  15. Time Evolution of Sublingual Microcirculatory Changes in Recreational Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Pranskunas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate changes in sublingual microcirculation induced by a marathon race. Thirteen healthy male controls and 13 male marathon runners volunteered for the study. We performed sublingual microcirculation, using a Cytocam-IDF device (Braedius Medical, Huizen, Netherlands, and systemic hemodynamic measurements four times: 24 hours prior to their participation in the Kaunas Marathon (distance: 41.2 km, directly after finishing the marathon, 24 hours after the marathon, and one week after the marathon. The marathon runners exhibited a higher functional capillary density (FCD and total vascular density of small vessels at the first visit compared with the controls. Overall, we did not find any changes in sublingual microcirculation of the marathon runners at any of the other visits. However, in a subgroup of marathon runners with a decreased FCD compared to the subgroup with increased FCD, the subgroup with decreased FCD had shorter running time (190.37±30.2 versus 221.80±23.4 min, p=0.045, ingested less fluids (907±615 versus 1950±488 mL, p=0.007 during the race, and lost much more weight (-2.4±1.3 versus -1.0±0.8 kg, p=0.041. Recreational marathon running is not associated with an alteration of sublingual microcirculation. However, faster running and dehydration may be crucial for further impairing microcirculation.

  16. Space network scheduling benchmark: A proof-of-concept process for technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Happell, Nadine; Hayden, B. J.; Barclay, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed proof-of-concept activity to evaluate flexible scheduling technology as implemented in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) and applied to Space Network (SN) scheduling. The criteria developed for an operational evaluation of a reusable scheduling system is addressed including a methodology to prove that the proposed system performs at least as well as the current system in function and performance. The improvement of the new technology must be demonstrated and evaluated against the cost of making changes. Finally, there is a need to show significant improvement in SN operational procedures. Successful completion of a proof-of-concept would eventually lead to an operational concept and implementation transition plan, which is outside the scope of this paper. However, a high-fidelity benchmark using actual SN scheduling requests has been designed to test the ROSE scheduling tool. The benchmark evaluation methodology, scheduling data, and preliminary results are described.

  17. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL (88th day to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day. The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day; however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day, both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape.

  18. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  19. An Improved Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm for Sheet Cutting Scheduling with Process Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting problem which involves n cutting patterns for m non-identical parallel machines with process constraints has been proposed in the integrated cutting stock model. The objective of the cutting scheduling problem is minimizing the weighted completed time. A mathematical model for this problem is presented, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm (ant colony—hierarchical genetic algorithm is developed for better solution, and a hierarchical coding method is used based on the characteristics of the problem. Furthermore, to speed up convergence rates and resolve local convergence issues, a kind of adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability is used in this algorithm. The computational result and comparison prove that the presented approach is quite effective for the considered problem.

  20. An improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting scheduling with process constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunqing; Qi, Dezhong; Li, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting problem which involves n cutting patterns for m non-identical parallel machines with process constraints has been proposed in the integrated cutting stock model. The objective of the cutting scheduling problem is minimizing the weighted completed time. A mathematical model for this problem is presented, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm (ant colony--hierarchical genetic algorithm) is developed for better solution, and a hierarchical coding method is used based on the characteristics of the problem. Furthermore, to speed up convergence rates and resolve local convergence issues, a kind of adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability is used in this algorithm. The computational result and comparison prove that the presented approach is quite effective for the considered problem.

  1. Job schedulers for Big data processing in Hadoop environment: testing real-life schedulers using benchmark programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Usama; Mengchen Liu; Min Chen

    2017-01-01

    At present, big data is very popular, because it has proved to be much successful in many fields such as social media, E-commerce transactions, etc. Big data describes the tools and technologies needed to capture, manage, store, distribute, and analyze petabyte or larger-sized datasets having different structures with high speed. Big data can be structured, unstructured, or semi structured. Hadoop is an open source framework that is used to process large amounts of data in an inexpensive and ...

  2. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  3. Two-Agent Single-Machine Scheduling of Jobs with Time-Dependent Processing Times and Ready Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Yee Kung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling involving jobs with time-dependent processing times has recently attracted much research attention. However, multiagent scheduling with simultaneous considerations of jobs with time-dependent processing times and ready times is relatively unexplored. Inspired by this observation, we study a two-agent single-machine scheduling problem in which the jobs have both time-dependent processing times and ready times. We consider the model in which the actual processing time of a job of the first agent is a decreasing function of its scheduled position while the actual processing time of a job of the second agent is an increasing function of its scheduled position. In addition, each job has a different ready time. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that no tardy job is allowed for the second agent. We propose a branch-and-bound and several genetic algorithms to obtain optimal and near-optimal solutions for the problem, respectively. We also conduct extensive computational results to test the proposed algorithms and examine the impacts of different problem parameters on their performance.

  4. Processing time tolerance-based ACO algorithm for solving job-shop scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yabo; Waden, Yongo P.

    2017-06-01

    Ordinarily, Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is known as NP-hard problem which has uncertainty and complexity that cannot be handled by a linear method. Thus, currently studies on JSSP are concentrated mainly on applying different methods of improving the heuristics for optimizing the JSSP. However, there still exist many problems for efficient optimization in the JSSP, namely, low efficiency and poor reliability, which can easily trap the optimization process of JSSP into local optima. Therefore, to solve this problem, a study on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm combined with constraint handling tactics is carried out in this paper. Further, the problem is subdivided into three parts: (1) Analysis of processing time tolerance-based constraint features in the JSSP which is performed by the constraint satisfying model; (2) Satisfying the constraints by considering the consistency technology and the constraint spreading algorithm in order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm. Hence, the JSSP model based on the improved ACO algorithm is constructed; (3) The effectiveness of the proposed method based on reliability and efficiency is shown through comparative experiments which are performed on benchmark problems. Consequently, the results obtained by the proposed method are better, and the applied technique can be used in optimizing JSSP.

  5. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Tolentino, Elen de Souza; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Lara, Vanessa Soares; Damante, José Humberto

    2015-10-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. 186 cadavers' glands were allocated to age groups: I (0-30 years); II (31-60), and III (61-90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (pautolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  6. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis AZEVEDO-ALANIS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated.Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death.Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years; II (31–60, and III (61–90. Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05.Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001. However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis.Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of sublingual glands. Surgery and radiotherapy combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnale, Ramiro; Campagnale, Rodrigo; Varalli, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) or Cilindroma is a strange entity classified by the WHO within the carcinomas of salivary glands. It represents only 1 % of all the wicked tumours of the oral and maxillofacial region although, when making reference to the salivary glands, it constitutes 5% of the parotid, submaxilar and sublingual carcinomas, and about 50% of the smallest ones. The most frequent location is in the palatine glands and its main characteristics are: slow but persistent growth, high rates of local relapse and metastasis at distance originating the death between the first 5 and 10 years in 50-70% of the cases approximately. A case of localization is presented in sublingual gland which was first treated surgically and later with radiotherapy, obtaining good results. (author) [es

  8. Time evolution of sublingual microcirculatory changes in recreational marathon runners

    OpenAIRE

    Pranskūnas, Andrius; Kiudulaitė, Inga; Šimkienė, Jūratė; Damanskytė, Diana; Pranskūnienė, Živilė; Arštikytė, Justina; Vaitkaitis, Dinas; Pilvinis, Vidas; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Marathon race transiently elevates the probability of sudden death. Also during long-distance run may occur various gastrointestinal symptoms with range from mild nausea to hemorrhagic stool. However microcirculatory nature of this disturbances is not clear. Microcirculation of sublingual mucosa is part of interest, because it is easy and noninvasively accessible, changes have relation with mortality and it is part of the upper digestive tract. Here, we evaluate changes in subli...

  9. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  10. Formulation and Evaluation of New Glimepiride Sublingual Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Al-Madhagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal delivery of drugs promotes rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with a subsequent immediate onset of pharmacological effect. However, many oral mucosal deliveries are compromised by the possibility of the patient swallowing the active substance before it has been released and absorbed locally into the systemic circulation. The aim of this research was to introduce a new glimepiride formula for sublingual administration and rapid drug absorption that can be used in an emergency. The new sublingual formulation was prepared after five trials to prepare the suitable formulation. Two accepted formulations of the new sublingual product were prepared, but one of them with disintegration time of 1.45 min and searching for preferred formulation, the binder, is changed with Flulac and starch slurry to prepare formula with disintegration time of 21 seconds that supports the aim of research to be used in an emergency. The five formulations were done, after adjusting to the binder as Flulac and aerosil with disintegration time of 21 seconds and accepted hardness as well as the weight variation. The assay of a new product (subglimepiride is 103% which is a promising result, confirming that the formula succeeded. The new product (subglimepiride is accepted in most quality control tests and it is ready for marketing.

  11. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  12. Task Balanced Workflow Scheduling Technique considering Task Processing Rate in Spot Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the cloud computing is a computing paradigm that constitutes an advanced computing environment that evolved from the distributed computing. And the cloud computing provides acquired computing resources in a pay-as-you-go manner. For example, Amazon EC2 offers the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS instances in three different ways with different price, reliability, and various performances of instances. Our study is based on the environment using spot instances. Spot instances can significantly decrease costs compared to reserved and on-demand instances. However, spot instances give a more unreliable environment than other instances. In this paper, we propose the workflow scheduling scheme that reduces the out-of-bid situation. Consequently, the total task completion time is decreased. The simulation results reveal that, compared to various instance types, our scheme achieves performance improvements in terms of an average combined metric of 12.76% over workflow scheme without considering the processing rate. However, the cost in our scheme is higher than an instance with low performance and is lower than an instance with high performance.

  13. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  14. Quantitative Studies of Sublingual PCO2 as a Resuscitation End-Point in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivatury, Pao

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study is examining the relationship between sublingual PCO2 (PslCO2) to real-time changes in microcirculatory blood flow of the sublingual mucosa in victims of traumatic and hemorrhagic shock...

  15. A comparison of mixed-integer linear programming models for workforce scheduling with position-dependent processing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Camacho, Carlos A.; Montoya-Torres, Jairo R.; Vélez-Gallego, Mario C.

    2018-06-01

    Only a few studies in the available scientific literature address the problem of having a group of workers that do not share identical levels of productivity during the planning horizon. This study considers a workforce scheduling problem in which the actual processing time is a function of the scheduling sequence to represent the decline in workers' performance, evaluating two classical performance measures separately: makespan and maximum tardiness. Several mathematical models are compared with each other to highlight the advantages of each approach. The mathematical models are tested with randomly generated instances available from a public e-library.

  16. PROCESS OF CHANGES OF MAINTENANCE-FREE ONBOARD SYSTEM OPERATIONAL STATUS BETWEEN SCHEDULED MAINTENANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mikhaylovich Bronnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors consider the problem of simulating the process of a maintenance-free between scheduled maintenance aircraft system operational status changes, which failure during the flight leads to the disaster. On-board equipment with automatic self-repair between routine maintenance in the event the components fail is called maintenance-free. During operation, onboard equipment accumulates failures maintaining its functions with a safety level not lower than the required minimum. Trouble shooting is carried out either at the end of between-maintenance period (as a rule, or after the failure, which led to the functions disorder or to the decrease below the target level of flight safety (as an exception. The system contains both redundant and nonredundant units and elements with the known failure rates. The system can be in one of the three states: operable, extreme, failed. The excessive redundant elements allow the system to accumulate failures which are repaired during the routine maintenance. The process of system operational status changes is described with the discrete-continuous model in the flight time. Basing on the information about the probabilities of the on-board equipment being in an operable, extreme or failed state, it is possible to calculate such complex efficiency indicators as the average loss of sorties, the average operating costs, the expected number of emergency recovery operations and others. Numerical studies have been conducted to validate the proposed model. It is believed that maintenance work completely updates the system. The analysis of these indicators will allow to evaluate the maintenance-free aircraft equipment operation efficiency, as well as to make an effectiveness comparison with other methods of technical operation. The model can be also used to assess the technical operation systems performance. The model can be used to optimize the period between maintenance.

  17. Intranasal and sublingual delivery of inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Soema, Peter; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-05-09

    Polio is on the brink of eradication. Improved inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) are needed towards complete eradication and for the use in the period thereafter. Vaccination via mucosal surfaces has important potential advantages over intramuscular injection using conventional needle and syringe, the currently used delivery method for IPV. One of them is the ability to induce both serum and mucosal immune responses: the latter may provide protection at the port of virus entry. The current study evaluated the possibilities of polio vaccination via mucosal surfaces using IPV based on attenuated Sabin strains. Mice received three immunizations with trivalent sIPV via intramuscular injection, or via the intranasal or sublingual route. The need of an adjuvant for the mucosal routes was investigated as well, by testing sIPV in combination with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Both intranasal and sublingual sIPV immunization induced systemic polio-specific serum IgG in mice that were functional as measured by poliovirus neutralization. Intranasal administration of sIPV plus adjuvant induced significant higher systemic poliovirus type 3 neutralizing antibody titers than sIPV delivered via the intramuscular route. Moreover, mucosal sIPV delivery elicited polio-specific IgA titers at different mucosal sites (IgA in saliva, fecal extracts and intestinal tissue) and IgA-producing B-cells in the spleen, where conventional intramuscular vaccination was unable to do so. However, it is likely that a mucosal adjuvant is required for sublingual vaccination. Further research on polio vaccination via sublingual mucosal route should include the search for safe and effective adjuvants, and the development of novel oral dosage forms that improve antigen uptake by oral mucosa, thereby increasing vaccine immunogenicity. This study indicates that both the intranasal and sublingual routes might be valuable approaches for use in routine vaccination or outbreak control in the period after

  18. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  19. Maximum Lateness Scheduling on Two-Person Cooperative Games with Variable Processing Times and Common Due Date

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    A new maximum lateness scheduling model in which both cooperative games and variable processing times exist simultaneously is considered in this paper. The job variable processing time is described by an increasing or a decreasing function dependent on the position of a job in the sequence. Two persons have to cooperate in order to process a set of jobs. Each of them has a single machine and their processing cost is defined as the minimum value of maximum lateness. All jobs have a common due ...

  20. 76 FR 60359 - Phytosanitary Treatments; Location of and Process for Updating Treatment Schedules; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... supporting information and data, to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and... supporting information and data, to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and... that approved treatment schedules will instead be found in the Plant Protection and Quarantine...

  1. Sustainable Scheduling of Cloth Production Processes by Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm with Tabu-Enhanced Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dyeing of textile materials is the most critical process in cloth production because of the strict technological requirements. In addition to the technical aspect, there have been increasing concerns over how to minimize the negative environmental impact of the dyeing industry. The emissions of pollutants are mainly caused by frequent cleaning operations which are necessary for initializing the dyeing equipment, as well as idled production capacity which leads to discharge of unconsumed chemicals. Motivated by these facts, we propose a methodology to reduce the pollutant emissions by means of systematic production scheduling. Firstly, we build a three-objective scheduling model that incorporates both the traditional tardiness objective and the environmentally-related objectives. A mixed-integer programming formulation is also provided to accurately define the problem. Then, we present a novel solution method for the sustainable scheduling problem, namely, a multi-objective genetic algorithm with tabu-enhanced iterated greedy local search strategy (MOGA-TIG. Finally, we conduct extensive computational experiments to investigate the actual performance of the MOGA-TIG. Based on a fair comparison with two state-of-the-art multi-objective optimizers, it is concluded that the MOGA-TIG is able to achieve satisfactory solution quality within tight computational time budget for the studied scheduling problem.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of detomidine following sublingual administration to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaio Knych, Heather K; Stanley, Scott D

    2011-10-01

    To characterize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of detomidine gel administered sublingually in accordance with label instructions to establish appropriate withdrawal guidelines for horses before competition. 12 adult racehorses. Horses received a single sublingual administration of 0.04 mg of detomidine/kg. Blood samples were collected before and up to 72 hours after drug administration. Urine samples were collected for 5 days after detomidine administration. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and resulting data were analyzed by use of noncompartmental analysis. Chin-to-ground distance, heart rate and rhythm, glucose concentration, PCV, and plasma protein concentration were also assessed following detomidine administration. Mean ± SD terminal elimination half-life of detomidine was 1.5 ± 1 hours. Metabolite concentrations were below the limit of detection (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 ng/mL for detomidine, carboxydetomidine, and hydroxydetomidine, respectively) in plasma by 24 hours. Concentrations of detomidine and its metabolites were below the limit of detection (0.05 ng/mL for detomidine and 0.10 ng/mL for carboxydetomidine and hydroxydetomidine) in urine by 3 days. All horses had various degrees of sedation after detomidine administration. Time of onset was ≤ 40 minutes, and duration of sedation was approximately 2 hours. Significant decreases, relative to values at time 0, were detected for chin-to-ground distance and heart rate. There was an increased incidence and exacerbation of preexisting atrioventricular blocks after detomidine administration. A 48-hour and 3-day withdrawal period for detection in plasma and urine samples, respectively, should be adopted for sublingual administration of detomidine gel.

  3. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Natalija; Bieber, T; Allam, J-P

    2011-06-01

    Within the last 100 years of allergen-specific immunotherapy, many clinical and scientific efforts have been made to establish alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies. Thus, intra-oral allergen delivery to the sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. As a consequence, to date, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy. Although immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies in mice and humans within recent years provided deeper insights into local as well as systemic immunological features in response to SLIT. First of all, it was shown that the target organ, the oral mucosa, harbours a sophisticated immunological network as an important prerequisite for SLIT, which contains among other cells, local antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DCs), with a constitutive disposition to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms. Further on, basic research on local DCs within the oral mucosa gave rise to possible alternative strategies to deliver the allergens to other mucosal regions than sublingual tissue, such as the vestibulum oris. Moreover, characterization of oral DCs led to the identification of target structures for both allergens as well as adjuvants, which could be applied during SLIT. Altogether, SLIT came a long way since its very beginning in the last century and some, but not all questions about SLIT could be answered so far. However, recent research efforts as well as clinical approaches paved the way for another exciting 100 years of SLIT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Schwannoma of the sublingual gland: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sook; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma, is a solitary, benign and slow growing tumor of nerve sheath origin. This rare lesion originates from Schwann cell of peripheral, autonomic and cranial nerve. Extracranial neurogenic tumor of the head and neck is uncommon. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. In this report, an unusual case of schwannoma in the sublingual region is presented and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed.

  5. Optimal production scheduling for energy efficiency improvement in biofuel feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Sun, Zeyi; Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is considered a promising alternative to traditional liquid transportation fuels. The large-scale substitution of biofuel can greatly enhance global energy security and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One major concern of the broad adoption of biofuel is the intensive energy consumption in biofuel manufacturing. This paper focuses on the energy efficiency improvement of biofuel feedstock preprocessing, a major process of cellulosic biofuel manufacturing. An improved scheme of the feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation is introduced to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. A scheduling model based on the improved scheme is also developed to identify an optimal production schedule that can minimize the energy consumption of the feedstock preprocessing under production target constraint. A numerical case study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The research outcome is expected to improve the energy efficiency and enhance the environmental sustainability of biomass feedstock preprocessing. - Highlights: • A novel method to schedule production in biofuel feedstock preprocessing process. • Systems modeling approach is used. • Capable of optimize preprocessing to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. • A numerical case is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. • Energy consumption per unit production can be significantly reduced.

  6. A Procedure for scheduling and setting processing priority of MC requests

    CERN Document Server

    Balcar, Stepan

    2013-01-01

    My project contains designing and programming a base of an open system, which should help with the scheduling Monte Carlo production requests needed by the CMS physicists for data analysis within the CMS collaboration. A primary requirement was to create web interface that would be portable and independent of the control logic of the system. Another point of the project was to make a scheduler for the Monte Carlo production planning and to design and program interfaces between the various logical blocks of the system. Introduction Many research groups in CERN which specialize in different areas of particle physics works with CMS. They are mostly scientists working at universities or research institutes in their countries. Their research consists in constructing models of elementary particles and subsequent experimental verification of the behavior of these models. All these groups of people create MC production requests which are to be executed using computing resources located at CERN and other institutes. T...

  7. A Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler for High Performance Image Processing Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Timothy; Keyrouz, Walid; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Halem, Milton; Brady, Mary

    2017-12-01

    Designing applications for scalability is key to improving their performance in hybrid and cluster computing. Scheduling code to utilize parallelism is difficult, particularly when dealing with data dependencies, memory management, data motion, and processor occupancy. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) improves programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for multi-core and multi-GPU systems. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) is an abstract execution model, framework, and API that increases programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for such systems. HTGS manages dependencies between tasks, represents CPU and GPU memories independently, overlaps computations with disk I/O and memory transfers, keeps multiple GPUs occupied, and uses all available compute resources. Through these abstractions, data motion and memory are explicit; this makes data locality decisions more accessible. To demonstrate the HTGS application program interface (API), we present implementations of two example algorithms: (1) a matrix multiplication that shows how easily task graphs can be used; and (2) a hybrid implementation of microscopy image stitching that reduces code size by ≈ 43% compared to a manually coded hybrid workflow implementation and showcases the minimal overhead of task graphs in HTGS. Both of the HTGS-based implementations show good performance. In image stitching the HTGS implementation achieves similar performance to the hybrid workflow implementation. Matrix multiplication with HTGS achieves 1.3× and 1.8× speedup over the multi-threaded OpenBLAS library for 16k × 16k and 32k × 32k size matrices, respectively.

  8. [Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (pallergoids are utilized.

  10. A Framework for Process Reengineering in Higher Education: A case study of distance learning exam scheduling and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'hammed Abdous

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a conceptual and operational framework for process reengineering (PR in higher education (HE institutions. Using a case study aimed at streamlining exam scheduling and distribution in a distance learning (DL unit, we outline a sequential and non-linear four-step framework designed to reengineer processes. The first two steps of this framework – initiating and analyzing – are used to initiate, document, and flowchart the process targeted for reengineering, and the last two steps – reengineering/ implementing and evaluating – are intended to prototype, implement, and evaluate the reengineered process. Our early involvement of all stakeholders, and our in-depth analysis and documentation of the existing process, allowed us to avoid the traditional pitfalls associated with business process reengineering (BPR. Consequently, the outcome of our case study indicates a streamlined and efficient process with a higher faculty satisfaction at substantial cost reduction.

  11. Development of midazolam sublingual tablets: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odou, P; Barthelemy, C; Robert, H

    1998-01-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with short elimination half-life, used as induction or continuous agent for general anesthesia. At present, only injectable solution is available from French hospital pharmacies. The aim of the study is the development of 5 mg midazolam sublingual tablets to realize a short general anesthesia without intravenous or intramuscular injection. Incorporation of citric acid in the tablet formulation leads to an increase of dissolution rates of active drug, but a decrease of diffusion through lipid membranes is observed with 10 mg of citric acid when using the Dibbern's Resomat three phases apparatus. One explanation of this result is that midazolam (pKa = 6.1) in presence of 10 mg of citric acid is ionised. The ionised form, more hydrophilic, cannot cross the artificial lipid membrane and therefore the diffusion decreases. On the other hand, the decrease of diffusion's rate, when pH increases, is explained by the precipitation of midazolam at pH higher than 6. A compromise between dissolution and diffusion results leads us to choose the sublingual formulation containing 5 mg of citric acid per tablet.

  12. Evaluation of sublingual microcirculation in children with dengue shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Mancino da Luz Caixeta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the sublingual microcirculation observed using Sidestream Dark Field imaging in two children with dengue shock. METHOD: Two children, aged 9 and 10 years, were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with dengue shock and multiple organ dysfunction. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed in each patient on the first and second days of shock and was assessed a final time when the patients were no longer in shock (on the day prior to extubation using Sidestream Dark Field technology. The De Backer score and microvascular flow index were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Both patients had reduced perfused small vessel density in the first two days and showed predominantly intermittent or no microcirculation flow, as demonstrated by a low microvascular flow index. The blood flow in the large vessels was not affected. Prior to the extubation, the microvascular flow index had increased, although the perfused small vessel density remained diminished, suggesting persistent endothelial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Severe microcirculation changes may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the final stages of dengue shock, which is frequently irreversible and associated with high mortality rates. Microcirculatory monitoring may help elucidate the physiopathology of dengue shock and prove useful as a prognostic tool or therapeutic target.

  13. Debut of Gastroesophageal Reflux Concomitant with Administration of Sublingual Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Juel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD is an often debilitating condition characterised by retrograde flow of content from stomach into the oesophagus, where the low pH of the stomach acid irritates the mucosa of the oesophagus. The most dominant symptoms in GORD are pyrosis, regurgitation, and dysphagia. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT was first described in 1986. Following this description, the use has greatly increased in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, as an alternative to subcutaneously administered immunotherapy. Side effects are commonly of oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal nature, for example, swelling, itching, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhoea. More serious side effects are dominated by respiratory tract and systemic manifestations. A 30-year-old male experienced refractory, relentless, and debilitation GORD subsequent to administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. The patient had to stop the SLIT after two weeks of administration due to GORD. The cessation resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms.

  14. Long term scheduling technique for wastewater minimisation in multipurpose batch processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonyane, DR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available (2011) xxx?xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Applied Mathematical Modelling doi:10.1016/j.apm.2011.08.007 The effect of industrial activities on freshwater resources has become more apparent in the past few decades. This has led... journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate /apm e, T. Majozi, Long term scheduling technique for wastewater minimisation in multipurpose :10.1016/j.apm.2011.08.007 Nomenclature Sets P {p|p = time point} J {j|j = unit} C {c|c = contaminant} Sin {sin...

  15. Evaluation of Selected Resource Allocation and Scheduling Methods in Heterogeneous Many-Core Processors and Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciznicki Milosz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous many-core computing resources are increasingly popular among users due to their improved performance over homogeneous systems. Many developers have realized that heterogeneous systems, e.g. a combination of a shared memory multi-core CPU machine with massively parallel Graphics Processing Units (GPUs, can provide significant performance opportunities to a wide range of applications. However, the best overall performance can only be achieved if application tasks are efficiently assigned to different types of processor units in time taking into account their specific resource requirements. Additionally, one should note that available heterogeneous resources have been designed as general purpose units, however, with many built-in features accelerating specific application operations. In other words, the same algorithm or application functionality can be implemented as a different task for CPU or GPU. Nevertheless, from the perspective of various evaluation criteria, e.g. the total execution time or energy consumption, we may observe completely different results. Therefore, as tasks can be scheduled and managed in many alternative ways on both many-core CPUs or GPUs and consequently have a huge impact on the overall computing resources performance, there are needs for new and improved resource management techniques. In this paper we discuss results achieved during experimental performance studies of selected task scheduling methods in heterogeneous computing systems. Additionally, we present a new architecture for resource allocation and task scheduling library which provides a generic application programming interface at the operating system level for improving scheduling polices taking into account a diversity of tasks and heterogeneous computing resources characteristics.

  16. Maximum Lateness Scheduling on Two-Person Cooperative Games with Variable Processing Times and Common Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new maximum lateness scheduling model in which both cooperative games and variable processing times exist simultaneously is considered in this paper. The job variable processing time is described by an increasing or a decreasing function dependent on the position of a job in the sequence. Two persons have to cooperate in order to process a set of jobs. Each of them has a single machine and their processing cost is defined as the minimum value of maximum lateness. All jobs have a common due date. The objective is to maximize the multiplication of their rational positive cooperative profits. A division of those jobs should be negotiated to yield a reasonable cooperative profit allocation scheme acceptable to them. We propose the sufficient and necessary conditions for the problems to have positive integer solution.

  17. A continuous time model for a short-term multiproduct batch process scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Díaz Ramírez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the chemical industry, it is common to find production systems characterized by having a single stage or a previously identified bottleneck stage, with multiple non-identical parallel stations and with setup costs that depend on the production sequence. This paper proposes a mixed integer production-scheduling model that identifies lot size and product sequence that maximize profit. It considers multiple typical industry conditions, such as penalties for noncompliance or out of service periods of the productive units (or stations for preventive maintenance activities. The model was validated with real data from an oil chemical company.  Aiming to analyze its performance, we applied the model to 155 instances of production, which were obtained using Monte Carlo technique on the historical production data of the same company.  We obtained an average 12 % reduction in the total cost of production and a 19 % increase in the estimated profit.

  18. Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. Christiaan; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Spronk, Peter E.; Ince, Can

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory alterations in patients with abdominal sepsis. Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. A 23-bed mixed intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. Patients: Twenty-three patients with abdominal

  19. Sublingual Nitroglycerin Administration in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography : a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A. P.; Suchá, D.; Park, Jakob; Leiner, Tim; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    To systematically investigate the literature for the influence of sublingual nitroglycerin administration on coronary diameter, the number of evaluable segments, image quality, heart rate and blood pressure, and diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. A systematic

  20. Critical appraisal of the clinical utility of sublingual immunotherapy in allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aissa

    2016-12-01

    We performed a literature review in order to remind the mechanisms of action and to demonstrate efficacy and tolerability of the sublingual immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma and its impact on the quality of life.

  1. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  2. An Improved Version of Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Fuzzy Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy processing time occasionally exists in job shop scheduling problem of flexible manufacturing system. To deal with fuzzy processing time, fuzzy flexible job shop model was established in several papers and has attracted numerous researchers’ attention recently. In our research, an improved version of discrete particle swarm optimization (IDPSO is designed to solve flexible job shop scheduling problem with fuzzy processing time (FJSPF. In IDPSO, heuristic initial methods based on triangular fuzzy number are developed, and a combination of six initial methods is applied to initialize machine assignment and random method is used to initialize operation sequence. Then, some simple and effective discrete operators are employed to update particle’s position and generate new particles. In order to guide the particles effectively, we extend global best position to a set with several global best positions. Finally, experiments are designed to investigate the impact of four parameters in IDPSO by Taguchi method, and IDPSO is tested on five instances and compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain better solutions for FJSPF and is more competitive than the compared algorithms.

  3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual gland is an extremely rare neoplasm. The clinicopathological characteristics of ACC are slow-growing swelling with or without ulceration, perineural spread, local recurrence, and distant metastasis. This report describes a 58-year-old male who had a slowly growing swelling without ulceration on the right side of the mouth floor that had been present for 1 month. In a radiological examination, the mass showed multilocular cystic features and no bony or tongue muscle invasion. No enlarged cervical lymph nodes were detected. Excisional biopsy and histological analysis showed that the lesion was ACC. In addition to reporting a rare case of ACC, this report also discusses the differential diagnosis and treatment of ACC with a review of the relevant literature.

  4. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  5. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to...

  6. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  7. Monitoring Microcirculatory Blood Flow with a New Sublingual Tonometer in a Porcine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Palágyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue capnometry may be suitable for the indirect evaluation of regional hypoperfusion. We tested the performance of a new sublingual capillary tonometer in experimental hemorrhage. Thirty-six anesthetized, ventilated mini pigs were divided into sham-operated (n=9 and shock groups (n=27. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP to 40 mmHg for 60 min, after which fluid resuscitation started aiming to increase MAP to 75% of the baseline value (60–180 min. Sublingual carbon-dioxide partial pressure was measured by tonometry, using a specially coiled silicone rubber tube. Mucosal red blood cell velocity (RBCV and capillary perfusion rate (CPR were assessed by orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS imaging. In the 60 min shock phase a significant drop in cardiac index was accompanied by reduction in sublingual RBCV and CPR and significant increase in the sublingual mucosal-to-arterial PCO2 gap (PSLCO2 gap, which significantly improved during the 120 min resuscitation phase. There was significant correlation between PSLCO2 gap and sublingual RBCV (r=-0.65, p<0.0001, CPR (r=-0.64, p<0.0001, central venous oxygen saturation (r=-0.50, p<0.0001, and central venous-to-arterial PCO2 difference (r=0.62, p<0.0001. This new sublingual tonometer may be an appropriate tool for the indirect evaluation of circulatory changes in shock.

  8. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Rehm, D

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with SQ (standardised quality) house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis (AR) exacerbation day (from 11% [placebo] to 5% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]) and an increased probability of having a mild AR day (from 16% [placebo] to 34% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]). © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  9. VA Construction: Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the Handbook.36 VA headquarters officials told us that regional CFM offices monitor change- order - processing time frames for projects in their...visited collected different types of data on change orders. Because VA lacks the data on the change order processing timeframes required by the Handbook...goals of processing change orders in a timelier manner, especially given our previous findings that change- order - processing time frames caused

  10. Efficient Buffer Capacity and Scheduler Setting Computation for Soft Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekooij, Marco; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Wiggers, M.H.; van Meerbergen, Jef

    2007-01-01

    Soft real-time applications that process data streams can often be intuitively described as dataflow process networks. In this paper we present a novel analysis technique to compute conservative estimates of the required buffer capacities in such process networks. With the same analysis technique

  11. Abstractions for aperiodic multiprocessor scheduling of real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmans, J.P.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Embedded multiprocessor systems are often used in the domain of real-time stream processing applications to keep up with increasing power and performance requirements. Examples of such real-time stream processing applications are digital radio baseband processing and WLAN transceivers. These stream

  12. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  13. Single Machine Scheduling and Due Date Assignment with Past-Sequence-Dependent Setup Time and Position-Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Li Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d. It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in On4 time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in On3 time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  14. Buccal or sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzonzini, G; Hofmeyr, G J

    2004-10-18

    This is one of a series of reviews of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. Misoprostol administered by the oral and sublingual routes have the advantage of rapid onset of action, while the sublingual and vaginal routes have the advantage of prolonged activity and greatest bioavailability. To determine the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol administered buccally or sublingually for third trimester cervical ripening and induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (8 December 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003), and bibliographies of relevant papers. Randomised controlled trials comparing buccal or sublingual misoprostol used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A generic strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. Data were extracted onto standardized forms, checked for accuracy, and analysed using RevMan software. Three studies (502 participants) compared buccal/sublingual misoprostol respectively with a vaginal regimen (200 microg versus 50 microg) and with oral administration (50 versus 50 microg and 50 versus 100microg).The buccal route was associated with a trend to fewer caesarean sections than with the vaginal route (18/73 versus 28/79; relative risk (RR) 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.15). There were no significant differences in any other outcomes. When the same dosage was used sublingually versus orally, the sublingual route was associated with less failures to achieve vaginal delivery within 24 hours (12/50 versus 19/50; RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.16), reduced oxytocin augmentation (17/50 versus 23/50; RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.21) and reduced caesarean section (8/50 versus 15/50; RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to

  15. Effects of the amount and schedule of varied practice after constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cesar Corrêa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different amounts and schedules of varied practice, after constant practice, on the adaptive process of motor learning. Participants were one hundred and seven children with a mean age of 11.1 ± 0.9 years. Three experiments were carried out using a complex anticipatory timing task manipulating the following components in the varied practice: visual stimulus speed (experiment 1; sequential response pattern (experiment 2; and visual stimulus speed plus sequential response pattern (experiment 3. In all experiments the design involved three amounts (18, 36, and 63 trials, and two schedules (random and blocked of varied practice. The experiments also involved two learning phases: stabilization and adaptation. The dependent variables were the absolute, variable, and constant errors related to the task goal, and the relative timing of the sequential response. Results showed that all groups worsened the performances in the adaptation phase, and no difference was observed between them. Altogether, the results of the three experiments allow the conclusion that the amounts of trials manipulated in the random and blocked practices did not promote the diversification of the skill since no adaptation was observed.

  16. Resources allocation and scheduling approaches for business process applications in Cloud contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Bessai , Kahina; Youcef , Samir; Oulamara , Ammar; Godart , Claude; Nurcan , Selmin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the last years, the Cloud computing environment has emerged as new execution support of business process. However, despite the proven benefits of using Cloud to run business process, users lack guidance for choosing between multiple offerings while taking into account several objectives, which are often conflicting. On the other side, elastic computing, such as Amazon EC2, allows users to allocate and release compute resources (virtual machines) on-demand and pay on...

  17. Immunotherapy (oral and sublingual) for food allergy to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Nuñez, Juan Jose; Zhang, Yuan; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Bartra Tomas, Joan; Reyes, Juan Manuel; Pineda de la Losa, Fernando; Enrique, Ernesto

    2015-11-09

    Food allergy is an abnormal immunological response following exposure (usually ingestion) to a food. Elimination of the allergen is the principle treatment for food allergy, including allergy to fruit. Accidental ingestion of allergenic foods can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a specific treatment, when the avoidance of allergenic foods is problematic. Recently, studies have been conducted on different types of immunotherapy for the treatment of food allergy, including oral (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with food allergy to fruits, when compared with placebo or an elimination strategy. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED were searched for published results along with trial registries and the Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine for grey literature. The date of the most recent search was July 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing OIT or SLIT with placebo or an elimination diet were included. Participants were children or adults diagnosed with food allergy who presented immediate fruit reactions. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We assessed treatment effect through risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes. We identified two RCTs (N=89) eligible for inclusion. These RCTs addressed oral or sublingual immunotherapy, both in adults, with an allergy to apple or peach respectively. Both studies enrolled a small number of participants and used different methods to provide these differing types of immunotherapy. Both studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in at least one domain. Overall, the quality of evidence was judged to be very low due to the small number of studies and participants and possible bias. The studies were clinically heterogeneous and hence we did not pool the

  18. Prehospital high-dose sublingual nitroglycerin rarely causes hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemency, Brian M; Thompson, Jeffrey J; Tundo, Gina N; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2013-10-01

    High-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is a common in-hospital treatment for respiratory distress due to congestive heart failure (CHF) with hypertension. Intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin administration is impractical in the prehospital setting. In 2011, a new regional Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocol was introduced allowing advanced providers to treat CHF with high-dose oral nitroglycerin. The protocol calls for patients to be treated with two sublingual tabs (0.8 mg) when systolic blood pressure (SBP) was >160 mm Hg, or three sublingual tabs (1.2 mg) when SBP was >200 mm Hg, every five minutes as needed. Hypothesis/Problem To assess the protocol's safety, the incidence of hypotension following prehospital administration of multiple simultaneous nitroglycerin (MSN) tabs by EMS providers was studied. This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients from a single commercial EMS agency over a 6-month period. Records from patients with at least one administration of MSN were reviewed. For each administration, the first documented vital signs pre- and post-administration were compared. Administrations were excluded if pre- or post-administration vital signs were missing. One hundred case-patients had at least one MSN administration by an advanced provider during the study period. Twenty-five case-patients were excluded due to incomplete vital signs. Seventy-five case-patients with 95 individual MSN administrations were included for analysis. There were 65 administrations of two tabs, 29 administrations of three tabs, and one administration of four tabs. The mean change in SBP following MSN was -14.7 mm Hg (SD = 30.7; range, +59 to -132). Three administrations had documented systolic hypotension in the post-administration vital signs (97/71, 78/50 and 66/47). All three patients were over 65 years old, were administered two tabs, had documented improved respiratory status, and had repeat SBP of at least 100. The incidence of hypotension following MSN

  19. Misoprostol sublingual versus vaginal para indução do parto a termo Sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for labor induction of term pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olímpio Barbosa de Moraes Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar efetividade e segurança de uso de comprimido sublingual de 25 µg de misoprostol com o comprimido vaginal de 25 µg do misoprostol na indução do parto com idade gestacional e > 37 semanas e colo uterino desfavorável. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico controlado e aleatorizado, não cego, na Maternidade Monteiro de Morais (CISAM-UPE, em Recife, no período de outubro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Participaram do estudo 123 gestantes com idade gestacional e > 37 semanas, índice de Bishop PURPOSE: to compare the effectiveness and safety of sublingual misoprostol (25 µg versus vaginal misoprostol (25 µg (Prostokos® for labor induction with gestational age > 37 weeks and unripe cervices. METHODS: a randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at the Maternidade Monteiro de Morais (CISAM-UPE, in Recife - PE, Brazil, from October 2003 to February 2004. One hundred and twenty-three women with gestational age > 37 weeks, Bishop score <8, not in labor and with medical indication for interruption of pregnancy were included in this study. The women received randomly 25 µg sublingual misoprostol or 25 µg vaginal misoprostol every 6 h, not exceeding eight doses. In order to evaluate the differences between the groups, means, standard deviations, Student's t-test, c² trend and Mann-Whitney test were used. The statistical significance was considered to be 5%. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the number of women with vaginal delivery in the sublingual group as compared with the vaginal group (65.5 vs 75.8%, p<0.22, or in the interval of time between the induction onset and delivery (24 h and 42 min vs 20 h and 37 min respectively, p=0.11. The two groups, sublingual and vaginal, also did not differ as to the hyperstimulation syndrome (1.7 vs 3.2%, p=0.95, meconium incidence (5.2 vs 4.8%, p=0.74, Apgar score <7 at 5 min (3.4 vs 4.8%, p=0.98 and other adverse effects. CONCLUSION: twenty-five micrograms of

  20. Selection of patients for sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée E S; Blaiss, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the sole treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases directed at the underlying mechanism. The two widely accepted administration routes are sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT). We reviewed how patients should best be selected for immunotherapy and how the optimal administration route can be defined. Before deciding SCIT or SLIT, appropriate selection of patients for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is mandatory. To be eligible for AIT, subjects must have a clear medical history of allergic disease, with exacerbation of symptoms on exposure to one or more allergens and a corresponding positive skin or in vitro test. Then the route of administration should be based on: published evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy (which varies per allergic disease and per allergen); mono- or multi-allergen immunotherapy, for SLIT multi-allergen immunotherapy was not effective; safety: adverse events with SLIT are more frequent, but less severe; and, costs and patient preferences, closely related to adherence issues. All these are discussed in the article.

  1. Local Side Effects of Sublingual and Oral Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly used worldwide, and several products have been recently registered as drugs for respiratory allergy by the European Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerning inhalant allergens, the safety of SLIT is overall superior to that of subcutaneous immunotherapy in terms of systemic adverse events. No fatality has been ever reported, and episodes of anaphylaxis were described only exceptionally. Looking at the historical and recent trials, most (>90%) adverse events are "local" and confined to the site of administration. For this reason, a specific grading system has been developed by the World Allergy Organization to classify and describe local adverse events. There is an increasing amount of literature concerning oral desensitization for food allergens, referred to as oral immunotherapy. Also, in this case, local side effects are predominant, although systemic adverse events are more frequent than with inhalant allergens. We review herein the description of local side effects due to SLIT, with a special focus on large trials having a declared sample size calculation. The use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities nomenclature for adverse events is mentioned in this context, as recommended by regulatory agencies. It is expected that a uniform classification/grading of local adverse events will improve and harmonize the surveillance and reporting on the safety of SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  3. Efficacy and safety of sublingual tablets of house dust mite allergen extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Demoly, Pascal; Worm, Margitta; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Carrillo, Teresa; Tabar, Ana I.; Nguyen, Hélène; Montagut, Armelle; Zeldin, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested the efficacy of sublingual tablets of house dust mite (HDM) extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of HDM sublingual tablets over 1 treatment year and the subsequent immunotherapy-free year. Adults with

  4. Nonlinear model-based control of the Czochralski process III: Proper choice of manipulated variables and controller parameter scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, M.; Winkler, J.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution continues an article series [1,2] about the nonlinear model-based control of the Czochralski crystal growth process. The key idea of the presented approach is to use a sophisticated combination of nonlinear model-based and conventional (linear) PI controllers for tracking of both, crystal radius and growth rate. Using heater power and pulling speed as manipulated variables several controller structures are possible. The present part tries to systematize the properties of the materials to be grown in order to get unambiguous decision criteria for a most profitable choice of the controller structure. For this purpose a material specific constant M called interface mobility and a more process specific constant S called system response number are introduced. While the first one summarizes important material properties like thermal conductivity and latent heat the latter one characterizes the process by evaluating the average axial thermal gradients at the phase boundary and the actual growth rate at which the crystal is grown. Furthermore these characteristic numbers are useful for establishing a scheduling strategy for the PI controller parameters in order to improve the controller performance. Finally, both numbers give a better understanding of the general thermal system dynamics of the Czochralski technique.

  5. Sharp tooth induced sublingual hematoma in a patient with elevated international normalized ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baliah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual hematoma secondary to anticoagulation is a rare fatal condition. Hemorrhagic complications of warfarin are well-known. This particular case is unique because the patient was on warfarin for the past 2 years but did not develop the sublingual hematoma. However, a trauma by an attrited sharp cusp triggered the episode of the sublingual hematoma in this patient. Being a medical emergency, patient was promptly hospitalized in cardiac care unit and managed by medical team. The patient was transfused with 2 units of fresh frozen plasma and warfarin was temporarily stopped for 4 days. Alternate day regimen of warfarin was started after 4 days, and international normalized ratio dropped to 3. In dental management, enameloplasty of the mandibular first molar tooth was done to prevent trauma and ulcer development in the floor of the mouth. The hematoma resolved, and no new hematoma formation was observed for a period of 6 months.

  6. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  7. Phenotype and cell proliferation activity of duct-like structures in human sublingual glands: a histological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Souza TOLENTINO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several age-related microscopic changes in the salivary glands, including the increase in the number of duct-like structures (DLS. However, the true origin and the phenotype of the DLS are not known. Objective To evaluate the phenotype and the cell proliferation index of the DLS of human sublingual glands. Material and Methods Sixty sublingual glands obtained from human cadavers were divided into two groups - 0-30 and 61-90 years old. The phenotype was estimated by immunostaining for cytokeratin 19 (CK 19 and the S-100 protein as well as by the presence of mucin and glycogen. The cell proliferation index was determined by the Ki-67 antibody. The histochemical techniques used periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian Blue. In each captured microscopic field, the DLS were counted to establish a percentage for the staining profile. The statistical analysis was accomplished using Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (p<0.05. Results Comparing both groups, only CK 19 showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.033, with the strongest expression in the elderly group. There was no significant difference between PAS and Alcian Blue (p=0.270. In both groups, the immunostaining for CK 19 was stronger than that for S-100 (p=0.004;p<0.001, but there was no correlation between the two immunomarkers (ρ=-0.163; p=0.315. There was no immunostaining for Ki-67. Conclusions DLS demonstrate a ductal phenotypic profile and do not present cell proliferation activity. DLS may represent a regressive process arising from acini or represent the result of metaplasia.

  8. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue

  9. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 mg/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg, are the subject of NDA 20-733, held by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Reckitt), and initially approved on October 8, 2002. SUBOXONE is indicated...,'' http://www.rb.com/site/rkbr/templates/mediainvestorsgeneral2.aspx?pageid=1332&cc=GB , Reckitt Benckiser...

  10. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of transnasal, sublingual, and buccal disk dosage forms of butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, W C; Mayol, R F; Pfeffer, M; Pittman, K A; Gammans, R E; Barbhaiya, R H

    1993-07-01

    A series of three-way crossover randomized studies were conducted to evaluate the absolute bioavailability of butorphanol, a potent agonist-antagonist analgesic, from transnasal, sublingual, and buccal disk formulations in order to identify a practical alternative to oral administration. In each study, healthy male volunteers received 2 mg doses of butorphanol tartrate intravenously and either transnasally, sublingually or buccally. Serial blood samples were collected over 12 h and butorphanol plasma concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma concentration data were subjected to non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The elimination half-life of butorphanol was about 3-5 h and was independent of the route of administration. Absorption of butorphanol following transnasal administration was faster than that observed following sublingual or buccal administration. Mean absolute bioavailabilities of sublingual tablet and buccal disk formulation were only 19 per cent and 29 per cent, respectively, but for transnasal administration the value rose significantly, to 70 per cent. Based on the results of these studies, transnasal dosage form of butorphanol was selected for further clinical trials of treatment of moderate to severe pain.

  11. Sublingual nitroglycerin administration in coronary computed tomography angiography: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sucha, Dominika; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Park, Jakob [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To systematically investigate the literature for the influence of sublingual nitroglycerin administration on coronary diameter, the number of evaluable segments, image quality, heart rate and blood pressure, and diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. The studies were evaluated for the effect of sublingual nitroglycerin on coronary artery diameter, evaluable segments, objective and subjective image quality, systemic physiological effects and diagnostic accuracy. Due to the heterogeneous reporting of outcome measures, a narrative synthesis was applied. Of the 217 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria: seven reported on the effect of nitroglycerin on coronary artery diameter, six on evaluable segments, four on image quality, five on systemic physiological effects and two on diagnostic accuracy. Sublingual nitroglycerin administration resulted in an improved evaluation of more coronary segments, in particular, in smaller coronary branches, better image quality and improved diagnostic accuracy. Side effects were mild and were alleviated without medical intervention. Sublingual nitroglycerin improves the coronary diameter, the number of assessable segments, image quality and diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography without major side effects or systemic physiological changes. (orig.)

  12. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this tab...

  13. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis : quality of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roeder, Esther; van Wijk, Roy G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    Systematic reviews have gained popularity as a way to combine the increasing amount of research information. This study assessed the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis in children, published since 2000. Eligible reviews were

  14. Intestinal and sublingual microcirculation are more severely compromised in hemodilution than in hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrara, Gonzalo; Kanoore Edul, Vanina Siham; Martins, Enrique; Canales, Héctor Saúl; Canullán, Carlos; Murias, Gastón; Pozo, Mario Omar; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    The alterations in O2 extraction in hemodilution have been linked to fast red blood cell (RBC) velocity, which might affect the complete release of O2 from Hb. Fast RBC velocity might also explain the normal mucosal-arterial Pco2 (ΔPco2). Yet sublingual and intestinal microcirculation have not been

  15. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with sublingual misoprostol or oxytocin: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, M B; Tara, D; Ganachari, M S; Mallapur, M D; Goudar, S S; Kodkany, B S; Sloan, N L; Derman, R

    2012-07-01

    Sublingual misoprostol produces a rapid peak concentration, and is more effective than oral administration. We compared the postpartum measured blood loss with 400 μg powdered sublingual misoprostol and after standard care using 10 iu intramuscular (IM) oxytocin. Double-blind randomised controlled trial. A teaching hospital: J N Medical College, Belgaum, India. A cohort of 652 consenting eligible pregnant women admitted to the labour room. Subjects were assigned to receive the study medications and placebos within 1 minute of clamping and cutting the cord by computer-generated randomisation. Chi-square and bootstrapped Student's t-tests were used to test categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. Measured mean postpartum blood loss and haemorrhage (PPH, loss ≥ 500 ml), >10% pre- to post-partum decline in haemoglobin, and reported side effects. The mean blood loss with sublingual misoprostol was 192 ± 124 ml (n=321) and 366 ± 136 ml with oxytocin IM (n=331, P ≤ 0.001). The incidence of PPH was 3.1% with misoprostol and 9.1% with oxytocin (P=0.002). No woman lost ≥ 1000 ml of blood. We observed that 9.7% and 45.6% of women experienced a haemoglobin decline of >10% after receiving misoprostol and oxytocin, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). Side effects were significantly greater in the misoprostol group than in the oxytocin group. Unlike other studies, this trial found sublingual misoprostol more effective than intramuscular oxytocin in reducing PPH, with only transient side effects being greater in the misoprostol group. The sublingual mode and/or powdered formulation may increase the effectiveness of misoprostol, and render it superior to injectable oxytocin for the prevention of PPH. Further research is needed to confirm these results. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  16. A randomized trial of rectal indomethacin and sublingual nitrates to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Eloubeidi, Mohamad Ali; Asgari, Ali Ali; Farsinejad, Maryam; Khatibian, Morteza

    2014-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common adverse event of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Recent data suggest that indomethacin can reduce the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk individuals. However, whether the combination of indomethacin and sublingual nitrates is superior to indomethacin alone is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of rectally administered indomethacin plus sublingual nitrate compared with indomethacin alone to prevent PEP. During a 17-month period, all eligible patients who underwent ERCP were enrolled in this study. We excluded patients who had undergone a prior endoscopic sphincterotomy. In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, patients received a suppository containing 100 mg of indomethacin, plus 5 mg of sublingual nitrate (group A), or a suppository containing 100 mg of indomethacin, plus sublingual placebo (group B), before ERCP. Serum amylase levels and clinically pertinent evaluations were measured in all patients after ERCP. Of the 300 enrolled patients, 150 received indomethacin plus nitrate. Thirty-three patients developed pancreatitis: 10 (6.7%) in group A and 23 (15.3%) in group B (P=0.016, risk ratio=0.39, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.18-0.86). More than 80% of the patients were at high risk of developing pancreatitis after ERCP. Absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and number needed to treat for the prevention of PEP were 8.6% (95% CI: 4.7-14.5), 56.2% (95% CI: 50.6-60.8), and 12 (95% CI: 7-22), respectively. Combination of rectal indomethacin and sublingual nitrate given before ERCP was significantly more likely to reduce the incidence of PEP than indomethacin suppository alone. Multicenter trials to confirm these promising findings are needed.

  17. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes, while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%, as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%. These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to

  18. Premedication with benzodiazepines for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Comparison between oral midazolam and sublingual alprazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sebghatollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premedication with orally administered benzodiazepines is effective in reducing anxiety and discomfort related to endoscopic procedures. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral midazolam in comparison to sublingual alprazolam as premedication for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD. Materials and Methods: Adult candidates for diagnostic EGD received either oral midazolam (7.5 mg in 15 cc apple juice or sublingual alprazolam (0.5 mg 30 min before EGD. Procedural anxiety and pain/discomfort were assessed using 11-point numerical rating scales. Patients' overall tolerance (using a four-point Likert scale and willingness to repeat the EGD, if necessary, were also assessed. Blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored from medication to 30 min after the procedure. Results: Patients experienced a similar reduction in procedural anxiety after medication with oral midazolam and sublingual alprazolam; mean (standard deviation [SD] of 1.86 [1.63] and 2.02 [1.99] points, respectively, P = 0.91. Compared to oral midazolam, pain/discomfort scores were lower with sublingual alprazolam; mean (SD of 4.80 (3.01 versus 3.68 (3.28, P = 0.024. There was no significant difference between the two groups in patients' tolerance, willingness to repeat the procedure, or hemodynamic events. Conclusion: Oral midazolam and sublingual alprazolam are equally effective in reducing EGD-related anxiety; however, EGD-related pain/discomfort is lower with alprazolam. Both benzodiazepines are equally safe and can be used as premedication for patients undergoing diagnostic EGD.

  19. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug's bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to surfactant ratios. The niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, and entrapment efficiency. The selected niosomal formulation was incorporated into polymeric films using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E15 and methyl cellulose as film-forming polymers and Avicel as superdisintegrant. The physical characteristics (appearance, texture, pH, uniformity of weight and thickness, disintegration time, and palatability) of the prepared films were studied, in addition to evaluating the in vitro drug release, stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits. The release of the drug from the medicated film was fast (99.9% of the drug was released within 30 minutes), while the drug loaded into the niosomes, either incorporated into the film or not, showed only 22.85% drug release within the same time. The selected sublingual film showed significantly higher rate of drug absorption and higher drug plasma levels compared with that of commercial oral tablet. The plasma levels remained detectable for 24 hours following sublingual administration, compared with only 12 hours after administration of the oral tablet. In addition, the absolute bioavailability of the drug (ie, relative to intravenous administration) following sublingual administration was found to be significantly higher (91.06%±13.28%), as compared with that after oral tablet administration (39.37%±11.4%). These results indicate that the fast dissolving niosomal film could be a promising delivery system to enhance the bioavailability and prolong the therapeutic effect of metoprolol tartrate.

  20. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  1. Sublingual flagellin protects against acute pneumococcal pneumonia in a TLR5-dependent and NLRC4-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Rial, Analía; Fougeron, Delphine; Tabareau, Julien; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Chabalgoity, José A

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate efficacy of sublingual flagellin to treat acute pneumonia. Mice were treated sublingually with flagellin and challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of pneumococcus. Flagellins lacking TLR5 or NLRC4 activation domains were used to assess their contribution to protection. Sublingual flagellin protected mice in a TLR5-dependent, NLRC4-independent fashion. Neutrophils were required for protection. Flagellin-stimulated lung epithelial cells recapitulated the lung's transcriptional profile suggesting they could be targeted by flagellin in vivo. Ligation of TLR5, a pathogen recognition receptor not naturally engaged by pneumococcus, protects mice from invasive pneumonia when administered via sublingual route. This can be a highly cost-effective alternative therapy against pneumonia.

  2. Warfarin-induced sublingual hematoma mimicking Ludwig angina: Conservative management of a potentially life-threatening condition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to excessive anticoagulation is a rare, life-threatening condition. Reports in the literature have emphasized the importance of a prompt reversal of the causative coagulopathy by intravenous administration of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. In the event of an unstable airway, surgical intervention via tracheostomy or cricothyroidectomy is advocated. We report a case of sublingual hematoma that was treated conservatively, and we discuss the presentation and management of this entity.

  3. Warfarin-induced sublingual hematoma mimicking Ludwig angina: Conservative management of a potentially life-threatening condition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, Emma

    2011-02-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to excessive anticoagulation is a rare, life-threatening condition. Reports in the literature have emphasized the importance of a prompt reversal of the causative coagulopathy by intravenous administration of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. In the event of an unstable airway, surgical intervention via tracheostomy or cricothyroidectomy is advocated. We report a case of sublingual hematoma that was treated conservatively, and we discuss the presentation and management of this entity.

  4. Scheduling with Learning Effects and/or Time-Dependent Processing Times to Minimize the Weighted Number of Tardy Jobs on a Single Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider single machine scheduling problems with learning/deterioration effects and time-dependent processing times, with due date assignment consideration, and our objective is to minimize the weighted number of tardy jobs. By reducing all versions of the problem to an assignment problem, we solve them in O(n4 time. For some important special cases, the time complexity can be improved to be O(n2 using dynamic programming techniques.

  5. MR imaging of squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth. Appearance of the sublingual and submandibular glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, R.; Baba, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Baba, T.; Nakaura, T.; Takahashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic value of MR imaging for tumors of the floor of the mouth and the effects of the tumors on the sublingual and submandibular glands. Material and methods: Thirty-seven patients with proven squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth underwent MR imaging, including unenhanced T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The appearance of the tumor and the sublingual and submandibular glands was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: All tumors demonstrated replacement of the normal signal intensity in the adjacent sublingual gland. Twenty-one patients (57%) had abnormal signal intensity of the submandibular gland without tumor invasion, presumably secondary to submandibular duct obstruction by the tumor. Unenhanced T1-weighted images provided high contrast between tumor and sublingual gland. Tumors limited within the gland were well detected on unenhanced T1-weighted images. Large tumors extending beyond the gland were well delineated on dynamic images, but no better than on T2-weighted images. Conclusion: At MR imaging for tumor of the floor of the mouth, one must carefully evaluate the appearance of the sublingual and submandibular glands. Contrast-enhanced studies are unnecessary when the tumor is limited within the sublingual gland on precontrast MR images. (orig.)

  6. Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pinedo, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...

  7. ATLAS construction schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  8. Development and evaluation of a sublingual film of the antiemetic granisetron hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vani; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Gautam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an oral transmucosal formulation of an antiemetic drug that can not only serve in the active form but also provide a controlled release profile. In this study, sublingual films based on the biodegradable and water-soluble polymers, that is HPMCK-4M and PVPK-30, were developed by the solvent casting method, and were loaded with the antiemetic drug granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron HCl). The entrapment efficiency of the developed formulation was found to be 86%. The in vitro profile showed an instant release of the drug from the sublingual film, in a pattern following the first order kinetics array. The in vivo studies showed that granisetron HCl was delivered in its active state and showed effective results, as compared to its activity in the marketed formulation.

  9. CHANGES OF IMMUNE INDEXES DURING SUBLINGUAL ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH HAY FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gaiduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: evaluation of immunological parameters in course of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy with tree pollen mixture in children with hay fever.Materials and methods: the study included one-hundred patients 5 to 18 years of age with hay fever (pollen rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was administered pre-seasonally for three consecutive years. Cytokinechanges were studied in blood serum and in lavages from nasal cavity. Samples assessed before treatment and after 2nd and 3rd courses SLIT completion.Results: increased serum concentrations of IL-10, IFNγ, and decreased IL-4 contents were revealed in the course of treatment. No significant changes in cytokineconcentrations were detectable in nasal lavages.Conclusions: the changes revealed correspond to a shift of T cell response profile towards Th1 pathway, thus confirming pathogenetic effects of sublingual allergen-specific

  10. An accelerometric measure of the gait pattern in horses after the administration of sublingual detomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanromán, F J; de la Riva Andrés, S; Holmbak-Petersen, R; Pérez-Nogués, M; Forés Jackson, P; Santos González, M

    2014-10-01

    The locomotor pattern alterations produced after the administration of a sublingual detomidine gel was measured by an accelerometric method in horses. Using a randomized two-way crossover design, all animals (n = 6) randomly received either detomidine gel or a placebo administered sublingually. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for gait assessment 15 minutes before (baseline) and every 10 minutes after each treatment for a period of 180 minutes. Eight different parameters were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral, propulsion, mediolateral, and total power. Force of acceleration and the three components of power were also calculated. Significant statistical differences were observed between groups in all the parameters but stride length. The majority of significant changes started between 30 and 70 minutes after drug administration and lasted for 160 minutes. This route of administration is definitely useful in horses in which a prolonged sedation is required, with stability being a major concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    OpenAIRE

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R.; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina Anna Maria; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Study design Randomised, prospective clinical study. Animals Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Methods Detomidine at 80 μg kg−1 was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg−1 to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg−1) a...

  12. Immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-tai Chen

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine.

  13. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  14. Orally-dissolving film for sublingual and buccal delivery of ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka Lun; Fang, Yuan; Han, Hao; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Ho Yin; Chow, Shing Fung; Lam, Tai Ning; Lee, Wai Yip Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Ropinirole is a very important treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD), a major threat to the aging population. However, this drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low oral bioavailability. Moreover, the necessity of frequent administration due to the short half-life of ropinirole may jeopardize patient compliance. Indeed, taking this drug in solid oral dosage forms (e.g. Tablet) can be a challenge because of the tremor, rigidity, limited mobility, and impaired drug absorption experienced by PD patients. In light of these, there is a pressing need to devise formulations for the delivery of ropinirole that allow simple and easy administration and fast drug action, as well as avoidance of first-pass metabolism and overcoming the challenge of impaired absorption due to gastrointestinal dysfunctions, etc. Herein, we seek to overcome all these challenges via sublingual or buccal delivery of orally-dissolving films. Accordingly, we aimed to fabricate and characterize orally-dissolving films of ropinirole and assess their in vivo pharmacokinetics after sublingual and buccal administration. The ropinirole oral film was non-toxic and exhibited fast disintegration and dissolution and was physically stable for at least 28 days. Upon buccal/sublingual administration of the oral films, ropinirole reached the systemic circulation within 15 min and bioavailability was significantly improved, which may be attributable to avoidance of first-pass metabolism via absorption through the oral cavity. In conclusion, our ropinirole oral film improved bioavailability after sublingual or buccal administration. This formulation potentially overcomes biopharmaceutical challenges and provide a convenient means of administration of ropinirole or other anti-PD drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adrenaline (epinephrine) microcrystal sublingual tablet formulation: enhanced absorption in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Rachid, Ousama; Mendez, Belacryst A; Losada, Annette; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    For anaphylaxis treatment in community settings, adrenaline (epinephrine) administration using an auto-injector in the thigh is universally recommended. Despite this, many people at risk of anaphylaxis in community settings do not carry their prescribed auto-injectors consistently and hesitate to use them when anaphylaxis occurs.The objective of this research was to study the effect of a substantial reduction in adrenaline (Epi) particle size to a few micrometres (Epi microcrystals (Epi-MC)) on enhancing adrenaline dissolution and increasing the rate and extent of sublingual absorption from a previously developed rapidly disintegrating sublingual tablet (RDST) formulation in a validated preclinical model. The in-vivo absorption of Epi-MC 20 mg RDSTs and Epi 40 mg RDSTs was evaluated in rabbits. Epi 0.3 mg intramuscular (IM) injection in the thigh and placebo RDSTs were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Epimean (standard deviation) area under the plasma concentration vs time curves up to 60 min and Cmax from Epi-MC 20 mg and Epi 40 mg RDSTs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from Epi 0.3 mg IM injection. After adrenaline, regardless of route of administration, pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly higher (P adrenaline levels). Epi-MC RDSTs facilitated a twofold increase in Epi absorption and a 50% reduction in the sublingual dose. This novel sublingual tablet formulation is potentially useful for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis in community settings. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Sublingual sugar for hypoglycaemia in children with severe malaria: A pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graz, Bertrand; Dicko, Moussa; Willcox, Merlin L; Lambert, Bernard; Falquet, Jacques; Forster, Mathieu; Giani, Sergio; Diakite, Chiaka; Dembele, Eugène M; Diallo, Drissa; Barennes, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypoglycaemia is a poor prognostic indicator in severe malaria. Intravenous infusions are rarely feasible in rural areas. The efficacy of sublingual sugar (SLS) was assessed in a pilot randomized controlled trial among hypoglycaemic children with severe malaria in Mali. Methods Of 151 patients with presumed severe malaria, 23 children with blood glucose concentrations = 3.3 mmol/l (60 mg/dl) within 40 minutes after admission. Secondary outcome measures were early treatment response at 20 minutes, relapse (early and late), maximal BGC gain (CGmax), and treatment delay. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary outcome measure. Treatment response occurred in 71% and 67% for SLS and IVG, respectively. Among the responders, relapses occurred in 30% on SLS at 40 minutes and in 17% on IVG at 20 minutes. There was one fatality in each group. Treatment failures in the SLS group were related to children with clenched teeth or swallowing the sugar, whereas in the IVG group, they were due to unavoidable delays in beginning an infusion (median time 17.5 min (range 3–40). Among SLS, the BGC increase was rapid among the nine patients who really kept the sugar sublingually. All but one increased their BGC by 10 minutes with a mean gain of 44 mg/dl (95%CI: 20.5–63.4). Conclusion Sublingual sugar appears to be a child-friendly, well-tolerated and effective promising method of raising blood glucose in severely ill children. More frequent repeated doses are needed to prevent relapse. Children should be monitored for early swallowing which leads to delayed absorption, and in this case another dose of sugar should be given. Sublingual sugar could be proposed as an immediate "first aid" measure while awaiting intravenous glucose. In many cases it may avert the need for intravenous glucose. PMID:19025610

  17. Sublingual sugar for hypoglycaemia in children with severe malaria: A pilot clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoglycaemia is a poor prognostic indicator in severe malaria. Intravenous infusions are rarely feasible in rural areas. The efficacy of sublingual sugar (SLS was assessed in a pilot randomized controlled trial among hypoglycaemic children with severe malaria in Mali. Methods Of 151 patients with presumed severe malaria, 23 children with blood glucose concentrations = 3.3 mmol/l (60 mg/dl within 40 minutes after admission. Secondary outcome measures were early treatment response at 20 minutes, relapse (early and late, maximal BGC gain (CGmax, and treatment delay. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary outcome measure. Treatment response occurred in 71% and 67% for SLS and IVG, respectively. Among the responders, relapses occurred in 30% on SLS at 40 minutes and in 17% on IVG at 20 minutes. There was one fatality in each group. Treatment failures in the SLS group were related to children with clenched teeth or swallowing the sugar, whereas in the IVG group, they were due to unavoidable delays in beginning an infusion (median time 17.5 min (range 3–40. Among SLS, the BGC increase was rapid among the nine patients who really kept the sugar sublingually. All but one increased their BGC by 10 minutes with a mean gain of 44 mg/dl (95%CI: 20.5–63.4. Conclusion Sublingual sugar appears to be a child-friendly, well-tolerated and effective promising method of raising blood glucose in severely ill children. More frequent repeated doses are needed to prevent relapse. Children should be monitored for early swallowing which leads to delayed absorption, and in this case another dose of sugar should be given. Sublingual sugar could be proposed as an immediate "first aid" measure while awaiting intravenous glucose. In many cases it may avert the need for intravenous glucose.

  18. Scheduling the scheduling task : a time management perspective on scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larco Martinelli, J.A.; Wiers, V.C.S.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Time is the most critical resource at the disposal of schedulers. Hence, an adequate management of time from the schedulers may impact positively on the scheduler’s productivity and responsiveness to uncertain scheduling environments. This paper presents a field study of how schedulers make use of

  19. A randomised controlled trial of sublingual misoprostol and intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, A; El-Mazny, A; Shohayeb, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of 200 μg sublingual misoprostol vs 5 IU i.m. oxytocin, administered immediately following cord clamping in normal non-augmented vaginal delivery, in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). A total of 104 women were randomised into three groups: misoprostol group (28 patients); oxytocin group (37 patients) and control group (39 patients). Misoprostol and oxytocin significantly minimised the blood loss during the third stage of labour and reduced the need for additional treatments for PPH as compared with the control group. Oxytocin was more effective than misoprostol in minimising blood loss and the need for additional uterotonic treatments. However, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, associated with tachycardia was observed in the oxytocin group. In conclusion, sublingual misoprostol appears to be less effective than i.m. oxytocin in the prevention of PPH; however, it has the potential advantages of being easily used, cost-effective and stable at room temperature. Therefore, sublingual misoprostol is still a feasible drug for routine management of third stage, especially in areas with limited medical facilities.

  20. [Efficacy of the dust mites drops sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lisheng; Jiang, Yinzhu; Li, Qi

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of the dust mites drops sublingual immunotherapy(SLIT) in pediatric allergic rhiriitis caused by dust mites and compare its efficacy between monosensitized and polysensitized children. A total of 77 pediatric allergic rhinitis patients received Dermatophagoides farina extracts sublingual immunotherapy for 2 years were enrolled as desensitization group and were allocated into monosensitized group (41 cases) and polysensitized group (36 cases) according to the number of coexisting allergens. Meanwhile another 33 allergic rhinitis children treated by pharmacotherapy during the period were collected as control group. The total symptom scores (TNSS), total medication scores (TMS) and visual analogue scale(VAS) were assessed at the beginning, six months, 1 year and 2 years of the treatment. SPSS 13. 0 software was used to analyze the data. the score of TNSS and VAS in desensitization was slightly higher than the control after six months treatment, but without difference at l year and 2 years; the score of TMS had significantly improved in desensitization compared with the corresponding points in control. All the parameters in monosensitized group were equivalent with polysensitizend group, except the score of TMS was slightly lower than the polysensitizend group at six months. Dust mite drops sublingual immunotherapy is effective for the allergic rhinitis children caused by mites. And it has similar immunotherapy efficacy between monosensitized and polysensitized children.

  1. Bioavailability of detomidine administered sublingually to horses as an oromucosal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, H; Aspegrén, J; Hyyppä, S; Tamm, L; Salonen, J S

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the absorption, bioavailability and sedative effect of detomidine administered to horses as an oromucosal gel compared to intravenous and intramuscular administration of detomidine injectable solution. The study was open and randomized, with three sequences crossover design. Nine healthy horses were given 40 μg/kg detomidine intravenously, intramuscularly or administered under the tongue with a 7-day wash-out period between treatments. Blood samples were collected before and after drug administration for the measurement of detomidine concentrations in serum. The effects of the route of administration on heart rate and rhythm were evaluated and the depth of sedation assessed. Mean (±SD) bioavailability of detomidine was 22% (±5.3%) after sublingual administration and 38.2% (±7.9%) after intramuscular administration. The sedative effects correlated with detomidine concentrations regardless of the route of administration. We conclude that less detomidine is absorbed when given sublingually than when given intramuscularly, because part of it does not reach the circulation. Sublingual administration of detomidine oromucosal gel at 40 μg/kg produces safe sedation in horses. Slow absorption leads to fewer and less pronounced adverse effects than the more rapid absorption after intramuscular injection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Sequential Treatment Initiation with Timothy Grass and Ragweed Sublingual Immunotherapy Tablets Followed by Simultaneous Treatment Is Well Tolerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jennifer; Berman, Gary; Gagnon, Remi; Bernstein, David I; Nelson, Harold S; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaur, Amarjot; Li, Qing; Nolte, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Dual treatment with grass and ragweed sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets has not been studied. To characterize the safety and tolerability of dual grass and ragweed SLIT-tablet administration. This open-label, multicenter trial (NCT02256553) enrolled North American adults (N = 102) allergic to grass and ragweed. The trial had 3 periods, each of 2 weeks duration. In period 1, subjects received once-daily timothy grass SLIT tablet (2800 bioequivalent allergen unit; Merck, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ/ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark). In period 2, subjects received a short ragweed SLIT tablet (12 Ambrosia artemisiifolia 1-U; Merck/ALK) every morning and a grass SLIT tablet every evening. In period 3, subjects received once-daily grass and ragweed SLIT tablets within 5 minutes (simultaneous intake). The primary end point was the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events in each period. Secondary end points were the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local adverse events (AEs), that discontinued the treatment because of AEs, and subjects with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment. No severe swellings, systemic allergic reactions, asthma attacks, or reactions requiring epinephrine were reported. Most (99%) AEs were graded mild to moderate. The proportions of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events were 14%, 22%, and 15% for periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For periods 1, 2, and 3, the proportions of subjects with 1 or more local AEs were 71%, 69%, and 56%, respectively; the proportions discontinuing the treatment because of treatment-related AEs were 5%, 1%, and 2%, and the proportions with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment were 4%, 4%, and 1%. In this trial, a 4-week sequential SLIT-tablet dosing schedule followed by simultaneous intake of timothy grass and ragweed tablets was well tolerated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  4. A multiprocessor computer simulation model employing a feedback scheduler/allocator for memory space and bandwidth matching and TMR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. B.; Irwin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation model for a multiprocessor computer is developed that is useful for studying the problem of matching multiprocessor's memory space, memory bandwidth and numbers and speeds of processors with aggregate job set characteristics. The model assumes an input work load of a set of recurrent jobs. The model includes a feedback scheduler/allocator which attempts to improve system performance through higher memory bandwidth utilization by matching individual job requirements for space and bandwidth with space availability and estimates of bandwidth availability at the times of memory allocation. The simulation model includes provisions for specifying precedence relations among the jobs in a job set, and provisions for specifying precedence execution of TMR (Triple Modular Redundant and SIMPLEX (non redundant) jobs.

  5. A Three-Year Course of House Dust Mite Sublingual Immunotherapy Appears Effective in Controlling the Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Silviya M; Novakova, Plamena I; Yakovliev, Plamen H; Staevska, Maria T; Mateva, Nonka G; Dimcheva, Teodora D; Peichev, Jivko L

    2018-05-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disorder. Although the management of the disease is successful in many patients, based on guidelines, some of them remain with symptoms uncontrolled with pharmacotherapy. Presently, there is no substantiated information on the control of allergic rhinitis in patients who underwent sublingual immunotherapy. Objective The purpose of this prospective follow-up study was to assess the control of allergic rhinitis in adults after a three-year course of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Methods This prospective real-life study was designed to include adults with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis sensitized to house dust mite who underwent a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy. Control of symptoms was assessed by Rhinitis Control Assessment Test (RCAT) after three years of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Additionally, patients assessed their symptoms by utilizing a visual analog scale. Results A total number of 86 consecutively enrolled patients (46 (53.49%) men; mean age 26.10 years (SD = 5.85)) with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis and clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mite were evaluated. When assessed by RCAT on the third year, 74 (86.05%) had well-controlled symptoms and 20 (27.03%) of them were completely controlled. A significant reduction in visual analog scale scores-from 7.52 cm at baseline to 2.31 cm-was established ( P house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy appears effective in controlling the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  7. LEARNING SCHEDULER PARAMETERS FOR ADAPTIVE PREEMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Prakhar Ojha; Siddhartha R Thota; Vani M; Mohit P Tahilianni

    2015-01-01

    An operating system scheduler is expected to not allow processor stay idle if there is any process ready or waiting for its execution. This problem gains more importance as the numbers of processes always outnumber the processors by large margins. It is in this regard that schedulers are provided with the ability to preempt a running process, by following any scheduling algorithm, and give us an illusion of simultaneous running of several processes. A process which is allowed t...

  8. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yzquierdo, Antonio Pérez-Calero; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  9. Airway function indicators and blood indicators in children with dust mite allergic rhinitis after sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the airway function indicators and blood indicators in children with dust mite allergic rhinitis after sublingual immunotherapy. Methods: A total of 68 children with dust mite allergic rhinitis treated in our hospital from November, 2012 to October, 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into observation group 34 cases and control group 34 cases. The control group received clinical routine therapy for allergic rhinitis, the observation group received sublingual immunotherapy, and then differences in basic lung function indicator values, small airway function indicator values and levels of serum inflammatory factors as well as serum ECP, TARC, Eotaxin-2 and VCAM were compared between two groups after treatment. Results: The FVC, FEV1, PEF and FEV1/FVC values of the observation group after treatment were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05; the MMEF, MEF50% and MEF25% values of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the proportion of AHR was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05; the serum IL-4, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-16 levels of the observation group after treatment were lower than those of the control group, and the IL-10 and IL-12 levels are higher than those of the control group (P<0.05; the serum ECP, TARC, Eotaxin-2 and VCAM levels of the observation group children after treatment were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Sublingual immunotherapy for children with dust mite allergic rhinitis can optimize the airway function, reduce the systemic inflammatory response and eventually improve the children’s overall state, and it’s has positive clinical significance.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a sublingual fentanyl wafer formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim SCB

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephen CB Lim,1,3 Michael J Paech,2 Bruce Sunderland,3 Yandi Liu3 1Pharmacy Department, Armadale Health Service, Armadale, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, and Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Subiaco, 3School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Background: The objective of this study was to prepare a novel fentanyl wafer formulation by a freeze-drying method, and to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo release characteristics, including its bioavailability via the sublingual route. Methods: The wafer formulation was prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of fentanyl containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose and amylogum as matrix formers. Uniformity of weight, friability, and dissolution testing of the fentanyl wafer was achieved using standard methods, and the residual moisture content was measured. The fentanyl wafer was also examined using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The absolute bioavailability of the fentanyl wafer was evaluated in 11 opioid-naïve adult female patients using a randomized crossover design. Results: In vitro release showed that almost 90% of the fentanyl dissolved in one minute. In vivo, the first detectable plasma fentanyl concentration was observed after 3.5 minutes and the peak plasma concentration between 61.5 and 67 minutes. The median absolute bioavailability was 53.0%. Conclusion: These results indicate that this wafer has potential as an alternative sublingual fentanyl formulation. Keywords: absolute bioavailability, fentanyl wafer, in vitro dissolution, in vivo study, pharmacokinetics, sublingual

  11. ROLE OF 400 MCG INTRAOPERATIVE SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL FOR REDUCTION OF CAESAREAN BLOOD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalmohan Nayak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lower segment caesarean section is a common surgical procedure. Postpartum haemorrhage incidence after LSCS is 4%. Misoprostol is a prostaglandin E1 analogue with good uterotonic properties, easy availability, low cost, thermostability, long shelf life, easy administration and few adverse effects at therapeutic dose. It is readily absorbed by oral, sublingual, buccal, vaginal or rectal route. Sublingual route attains quickest concentration. Dose of 400 mcg was chosen in this study to minimise adverse effects with optimal therapeutic benefit. The aim of the study is to determine the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in reducing caesarean blood loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective experimental study done in VSSIMSAR, Burla. Women undergoing LSCS were randomly assigned to study and control groups of equal strength of 100 each. In all cases, preoperative Hb%, haematocrit, pulse, BP was noted. Study group were given 400 mcg misoprostol at the time of cord clamping. In control group, nothing was given. In all patients, active management of third stage of labour was done by using oxytocin 10 IU (IV along with uterine massage. Blood loss soaked by tetra was calculated using formula, blood loss = wet weight-dry weight/1.05 (1.05 is constant. Amount of blood loss, postoperative Hb%, haematocrit, pulse rate, BP was noted in both groups and compared. BP and pulse were noted after 1 hour and Hb%, haematocrit were noted after 24 hours. RESULTS Study group showed significant decrease in total blood loss (around 117.9 mL as compared to control group. There was significant decrease in the postoperative fall in Hb in the study group as compared to control, the mean difference being 0.631 gm%. Study group also showed decrease in postoperative fall in haematocrit as compared to control, the mean difference being 0.055. CONCLUSION Misoprostol significantly reduced caesarean blood loss and doesn’t affect foetal outcome without significant

  12. Sedation and mechanical hypoalgesia after sublingual administration of detomidine hydrochloride gel to donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Ignacio; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Varner, Kelley M; Robinson, Lauren S

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare sedative and mechanical hypoalgesic effects of sublingual administration of 2 doses of detomidine gel to donkeys. DESIGN Randomized blinded controlled trial. ANIMALS 6 healthy castrated male donkeys. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, donkeys received each of the following sublingual treatments 1 week apart in a randomly assigned order: 1 mL of molasses (D0) or detomidine hydrochloride gel at 20 μg/kg (9 μg/lb; D20) or 40 μg/kg (18 μg/lb; D40). Sedation score (SS), head height above the ground (HHAG), and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were assessed before and for 180 minutes after treatment. Areas under the effect change-versus-time curves (AUCs) from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, 60 to 120, and 120 to 180 minutes after administration were computed for SS, HHAG, and MNT and compared among treatments. RESULTS D20 and D40 resulted in greater SS AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes and smaller HHAG AUCs from 30 through 180 minutes than did D0. The D40 resulted in smaller HHAG AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes than did D20. Compared with D0 values, MNT AUCs from 60 to 120 minutes were higher for D20, whereas MNT AUCs from 30 through 180 minutes were higher for D40. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE D20 and D40 induced sedation and mechanical hypoalgesia in donkeys by > 30 minutes after administration, but only sedation was dose dependent. Sublingual administration of detomidine gel at 40 μg/kg may be useful for sedation of standing donkeys prior to potentially painful minor procedures.

  13. Disintegration of sublingual tablets: proposal for a validated test method and acceptance criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weda, M; van Riet-Nales, D A; van Aalst, P; de Kaste, D; Lekkerkerker, J F F

    2006-12-01

    In the Netherlands the market share of isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg sublingual tablets is dominated by 2 products (A and B). In the last few years complaints have been received from health care professionals on product B. During patient use the disintegration of the tablet was reported to be slow and/or incomplete, and ineffectiveness was experienced. In the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) no requirement is present for the disintegration time of sublingual tablets. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro disintegration time of products A and B, and to establish a suitable test method and acceptance criterion. A and B were tested with the Ph. Eur. method described in the monograph on disintegration of tablets and capsules as well as with 3 modified tests using the same Ph. Eur. apparatus, but without movement of the basket-rack assembly. In modified test 1 and modified test 2 water was used as medium (900 ml and 50 ml respectively), whereas in modified test 3 artificial saliva was used (50 ml). In addition, disintegration was tested in Nessler tubes with 0.5 and 2 ml of water. Finally, the Ph. Eur. method was also applied to other sublingual tablets with other drug substances on the Dutch market. With modified test 3 no disintegration could be achieved within 20 min. With the Ph. Eur. method and modified tests 1 and 2 product A and B differed significantly (p disintegration times. These 3 methods were capable of discriminating between products and between batches. The time measured with the Ph. Eur. method was significantly lower compared to modified tests 1 and 2 (p tablets the disintegration time should be tested. The Ph. Eur. method is considered suitable for this test. In view of the products currently on the market and taking into consideration requirements in the United States Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, an acceptance criterion of not more than 2 min is proposed.

  14. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  15. Reduced sublingual endothelial glycocalyx in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Signe Abitz; Frimodt-Møller, Marie; Zobel, Emilie Hein

    thickness was assessed by 5 measurements with the GlucoCheck device (GlucoCheck BV, The Netherlands), a non-invasive hand-held microscope generating video recordings of the sublingual capillaries. Endothelial glycocalyx thickness was estimated from the PBR in capillaries with a diameter range of 5-25 μm......- and macroalbuminuric patients (p=0.020) and micro- and macroalbuminuric patients (p=0.042) were significant, but the difference between normo- and microalbuminuric patients was not (p=0.74). After adjustment for age, sex, HbA1c, diabetes duration and systolic blood pressure, differences between normo...

  16. Multislice CT coronary angiography: effect of sublingual nitroglycerine on the diameter of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, M.; Hamm, B.; Hoffmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate the influence of sublingual glycerol trinitrate (1.2 mg, Nitrate [nitroglycerine], Nitrolingual N spray) on the coronary artery diameter on multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography. Materials and methods: out of our database of patients who underwent MSCT (slice thickness of 0.5 mm, Aquilion, Toshiba) coronary angiography between July 2003 and November 2005 (950 patients) we retrospectively identified patients with follow-up examinations who received Nitrate for one examination while another examination was performed without Nitrate (10 patients). Another 10 patients who underwent two MSCT examinations with sublingual Nitrate administration were randomly selected from this database to serve as control group. For the resulting 40 MSCT examinations, blinded MSCT datasets were prepared, which were randomly evaluated by a reader blinded to the patient information and whether or not Nitrate had been given. The proximal coronary artery diameters were measured for the left main coronary artery (LMA), the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), and the right coronary artery (RCA) in all 40 datasets, resulting in altogether 160 measurements. Results: the proximal diameters of all four coronary arteries were significantly larger on the MSCT coronary angiograms obtained after sublingual administration of Nitrate compared with the examinations in the same 10 patients without Nitrate (p < 0.001). The average diameters without and with Nitrate for the LMA, LAD, LCX, and RCA were 4.3 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 mm (12% increase, p < 0.005), 3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.5 mm (17% increase, p < 0.001), 2.7 ± 0.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.7 mm (19% increase, p < 0.005), and 2.9 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 0.7 mm (21% increase, p < 0.005), respectively. In the control group of 10 patients who underwent two MSCT coronary angiographies after sublingual Nitrate, no significant difference in the proximal diameter of all four

  17. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... injections, or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMC were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...

  18. The New Alvin and the Scheduling/Planning Processes for the National Deep Submergence Facility Jon C. Alberts, Barrie B. Walden, Richard F. Pittinger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, J.; Walden, B.

    2003-12-01

    Research. Operation of the NDSF remotely operated vehicle (ROV) assets can be arranged in a fly-away mode on appropriate vessels within the UNOLS fleet or on commercial vessels or foreign research vessels provided they are suitably equipped. Scheduling of the R/V ATLANTIS is arranged through UNOLS, as is the use of the ROVs on UNOLS ships. Coordination between funding agencies and the UNOLS scheduling process strives to provide the users with the optimal scheduling of the assets in a given year. Requests for at-sea use of these assets remain strong for the foreseeable future.

  19. Robust and Flexible Scheduling with Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel T.

    Over the last ten years, there have been numerous applications of evolutionary algorithms to a variety of scheduling problems. Like most other research on heuristic scheduling, the primary aim of the research has been on deterministic formulations of the problems. This is in contrast to real world...... scheduling problems which are usually not deterministic. Usually at the time the schedule is made some information about the problem and processing environment is available, but this information is uncertain and likely to change during schedule execution. Changes frequently encountered in scheduling...... environments include machine breakdowns, uncertain processing times, workers getting sick, materials being delayed and the appearance of new jobs. These possible environmental changes mean that a schedule which was optimal for the information available at the time of scheduling can end up being highly...

  20. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ayadi, Yassin

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  1. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-09

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  2. Planning and scheduling - A schedule's performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Planning and scheduling is a process whose time has come to PSI Energy. With an awareness of the challenges ahead, individuals must look for ways to enhance the corporate competitiveness. Working toward this goal means that each individual has to dedicate themselves to this more competitive corporate environment. Being competitive may be defined as the ability of each employee to add value to the corporation's economic well being. The timely and successful implementation of projects greatly enhances competitiveness. Those projects that do not do well often suffer from lack of proper execution - not for lack of talent or strategic vision. Projects are consumers of resources such as cash and people. They produce a return when completed and will generate a better return when properly completed utilizing proven project management techniques. Completing projects on time, within budget and meeting customer expectations is the way a corporation builds it's future. This paper offers suggestions on implementing planning and scheduling and provides a review of results in the form of management reports

  3. Spontaneous sublingual and intramural small-bowel hematoma in a patient on oral anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moftah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a sublingual fentanyl wafer formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen CB; Paech, Michael J; Sunderland, Bruce; Liu, Yandi

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to prepare a novel fentanyl wafer formulation by a freeze-drying method, and to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo release characteristics, including its bioavailability via the sublingual route. Methods The wafer formulation was prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of fentanyl containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose and amylogum as matrix formers. Uniformity of weight, friability, and dissolution testing of the fentanyl wafer was achieved using standard methods, and the residual moisture content was measured. The fentanyl wafer was also examined using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The absolute bioavailability of the fentanyl wafer was evaluated in 11 opioid-naïve adult female patients using a randomized crossover design. Results In vitro release showed that almost 90% of the fentanyl dissolved in one minute. In vivo, the first detectable plasma fentanyl concentration was observed after 3.5 minutes and the peak plasma concentration between 61.5 and 67 minutes. The median absolute bioavailability was 53.0%. Conclusion These results indicate that this wafer has potential as an alternative sublingual fentanyl formulation. PMID:23596347

  5. Sublingual administration of detomidine in horses: sedative effect, analgesia and detection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ami, Jiske J; Vermunt, Lian E; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2013-05-01

    A single dose of 40 μg/kg bodyweight (BW) of oromucosal detomidine gel was administered sublingually to 10 healthy Dutch Warmblood mares aged 7 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) and BW 580 ± 69 kg. Blood and urine samples were collected before and for 8 days following administration and evaluated qualitatively in an FEI Reference Laboratory and quantitatively in a research laboratory. Clinical effects were evaluated at baseline and for 24 h after administration. Sedation was determined using head height and scores of reaction to auditory and mixed auditory/sensory stimuli. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) were assessed using pressure algometry to evaluate analgesia. Heart rate (HR) was measured and ataxia scored. All horses were considered negative for detomidine in blood samples by 48 h post-administration and in urine by 60 h. These results indicated that a safe withdrawal time for detomidine oromucosal gel may be 72 h following a single sublingual administration of 40 μg/kgBW. Decreases in HR and head height were maximal at 40 and 60 min post-administration, respectively. The maximal decrease in response to stimuli was observed at 100 min. Ataxia was maximal at 60 min. At 40 and 80 min MNTs were significantly increased compared to baseline. All parameters, except the MNTs of two locations, which were decreased, returned to baseline values within 24 h post-administration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Congenital hypothyroidism due to ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in Prader-Willi Syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Sarah; Fintini, Danilo; Grugni, Graziano; Boiani, Arianna; Convertino, Alessio; Crinò, Antonino

    2017-09-22

    Thyroid gland disorders are variably associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Many of the clinical features in newborns with PWS are similar to those found in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We report a case of a girl with CH and PWS. At the age of 9 months CH caused by an ectopic sublingual thyroid was diagnosed, and hormone replacement therapy was started. In spite of this treatment a decrease in growth velocity, weight excess and delayed development were observed. At the age of 9 years PWS was suspected on the basis of phenotype and genetic tests confirmed a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. This is the second reported case of hypothyroidism due to an ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in PWS suggesting that, although rare, an association between CH and PWS may exist. In our case diagnosis of PWS was delayed because mental retardation, hypotonia, obesity and short stature were initially attributed to hypothyroidism. In this context PWS should be considered in obese children with CH who do not improve adequately with l-thyroxine therapy. Also, thyroid function in all PWS children should be assessed regularly in order to avoid delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

  7. Tank waste processing analysis: Database development, tank-by-tank processing requirements, and examples of pretreatment sequences and schedules as applied to Hanford Double-Shell Tank Supernatant Waste - FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.; Orth, R.J.; Aitken, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report gives the results of work conducted in FY 1993 by the Tank Waste Processing Analysis Task for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration. The main purpose of this task, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to demonstrate a methodology to identify processing sequences, i.e., the order in which a tank should be processed. In turn, these sequences may be used to assist in the development of time-phased deployment schedules. Time-phased deployment is implementation of pretreatment technologies over a period of time as technologies are required and/or developed. The work discussed here illustrates how tank-by-tank databases and processing requirements have been used to generate processing sequences and time-phased deployment schedules. The processing sequences take into account requirements such as the amount and types of data available for the tanks, tank waste form and composition, required decontamination factors, and types of compact processing units (CPUS) required and technology availability. These sequences were developed from processing requirements for the tanks, which were determined from spreadsheet analyses. The spreadsheet analysis program was generated by this task in FY 1993. Efforts conducted for this task have focused on the processing requirements for Hanford double-shell tank (DST) supernatant wastes (pumpable liquid) because this waste type is easier to retrieve than the other types (saltcake and sludge), and more tank space would become available for future processing needs. The processing requirements were based on Class A criteria set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Clean Option goals provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  8. Sublingual injection of microparticles containing glycolipid ligands for NKT cells and subunit vaccines induces antibody responses in oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLyria, Elizabeth S; Zhou, Dapeng; Lee, Jun Soo; Singh, Shailbala; Song, Wei; Li, Fenge; Sun, Qing; Lu, Hongzhou; Wu, Jinhui; Qiao, Qian; Hu, Yiqiao; Zhang, Guodong; Li, Chun; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Shen, Haifa

    2015-03-20

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a unique type of innate immune cells which exert paradoxical roles in animal models through producing either Th1 or Th2 cytokines and activating dendritic cells. Alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic antigen for NKT cells, was found to be safe and immune stimulatory in cancer and hepatitis patients. We recently developed microparticle-formulated αGalCer, which is selectively presented by dendritic cells and macrophages, but not B cells, and thus can avoid the anergy of NKT cells. In this study, we have examined the immunogenicity of microparticles containing αGalCer and protein vaccine components through sublingual injection in mice. The results showed that sublingual injection of microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin triggered IgG responses in serum (titer >1:100,000), which persisted for more than 3months. Microparticles containing ovalbumin alone also induced comparable level of IgG responses. However, immunoglobulin subclass analysis showed that sublingually injected microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin induced 20 fold higher Th1 biased antibody (IgG2c) than microparticles containing OVA alone (1:20,000 as compared to 1:1000 titer). Sublingual injection of microparticles containing αGalCer and ovalbumin induced secretion of both IgG (titer >1:1000) and IgA (titer=1:80) in saliva secretion, while microparticles containing ovalbumin alone only induced secretion of IgG in saliva. Our results suggest that sublingual injection of microparticles and their subsequent trafficking to draining lymph nodes may induce adaptive immune responses in mucosal compartments. Ongoing studies are focused on the mechanism of antigen presentation and lymphocyte biology in the oral cavity, as well as the toxicity and efficacy of these candidate microparticles for future applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioavailability of House Dust Mite Allergens in Sublingual Allergy Tablets Is Highly Dependent on the Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo; Kito, Hirokazu; Du, Weibin; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Ipsen, Henrik; Gudmann, Pernille; Lund, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    In sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), the immune system is addressed by solubilized allergen that interacts with immunocompetent cells of the oral mucosa, the efficiency of which is governed by 2 main factors of SLIT allergen bioavailability: the allergen concentration and the mucosal contact time. Recently, 3 house dust mite (HDM) SLIT tablets were developed that differ with regard to allergen content, nominal strength (maintenance doses: 6 SQ-HDM/10,000 Japanese Allergen Units [JAU], 12 SQ-HDM/ 20,000 JAU, and 300 IR/57,000 JAU), and formulation (freeze-dried/compressed). Here, the importance of the SLIT tablet formulation for HDM major allergen bioavailability is examined. The HDM major allergen content, tablet disintegration times, and allergen release kinetics were determined. Dissolution kinetics (allergen concentration vs. time) of Der f 1, Der p 1, and Der 2 were measured. Area under the curve (AUC) was used as a surrogate parameter for allergen bioavailability. The release of HDM major allergens from the freeze-dried tablets was complete after 30 s, while only partial release was achieved with the compressed tablets, even after prolonged dissolution. At 1 min, i.e., the recommended sublingual holding time for the freeze-dried tablets, the allergen bioavailability (AUC) of the compressed 300 IR/57,000 JAU tablet was 4.7-fold (Der f 1), 10.8-fold (Der p 1), and 23.6-fold (Der 2) lower than that of the freeze-dried 12 SQ-HDM/20,000 JAU tablet and similar to (Der f 1) and 5.3-fold (Der p 1) and 12.5-fold (Der 2) lower than that of the freeze-dried 6 SQ-HDM/10,000 JAU tablet. SLIT tablet allergen bioavailability depends highly on the tablet formulation. Only the fast-dissolving freeze-dried tablets provide maximal delivery of soluble allergens and achieve allergen concentrations that reflect the nominal tablet strengths within the recommended sublingual holding time. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain in patients receiving transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, David S; Smith, Christina Cognata; Parikh, Neha; Rauck, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between effective fentanyl sublingual spray (FSS) doses for breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) and around-the-clock (ATC) transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP). Adults tolerating ATC opioids received open-label FSS for 26 days, followed by a 26-day double-blind phase for patients achieving an effective dose (100-1600 µg). Out of 50 patients on ATC TFP at baseline, 32 (64%) achieved an effective dose. FSS effective dose moderately correlated with mean TFP dose (r = 0.4; p = 0.03). Patient satisfaction increased during the study. Common adverse event included nausea (9%) and peripheral edema (9%). FSS can be safely titrated to an effective dose for BTCP in patients receiving ATC TFP as chronic cancer pain medication. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538850.

  11. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  12. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  13. How useful are preemptive schedules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Heitmann, S.; Hurink, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Machine scheduling admits two options to process jobs. In a preemptive mode processing may be interrupted and resumed later even on a different machine. In a nonpreemptive mode interruptions are not allowed. Usually, the possibility to preempt jobs leads to better performance values. However, also

  14. Histological study of human sublingual gland with special emphasis on intercalated and striated ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, R.; Minhas, L.A.; Mubarik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the histomorphological characteristics of human sublingual gland, specially of intercalated and striated ducts. Study design: Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Army Medical College from Jan 2002 to Dec 2002 Materials and methods: Fifteen sublingual glands (right and left) from postmortem cases were obtained from District Headquarter Hospital Rawalpindi, within twelve hours of death. Five micrometer thick sections were made and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). Morphology of intercalated and striated ducts was studied and their number was counted. Results: The mean number of intercalated ducts in the right gland 'a'and 'b' parts, and in the left gland 'a' and 'b' parts was 1.45+-0.14, 1.39+-.009, 1.31+-0.11 and 1.18+-0.10 respectively. The mean diameter of intercalated ducts in the same parts was 19.76+-0.44 micro m, 20.6+-0.53 micro m, 20.34+-0.49 micro m and 19.84+-0.98 micro m respectively. The mean number of striated ducts in the right gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts, and in the left gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts was 0.55+-.008, 0.57+-.008, 0.80+-0.14 and 0.80+-0.14 while mean diameter of striated ducts in the right gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts, and in the left gland ''a'' and ''b'' parts was 49.90+-4.70 micro m, 53.23+-2.50 micro m, 61.68+-3.93 micro m and 57.73+-2.85 micro m respectively. Conclusion: The difference between the mean number and diameter of the ducts of right and left glands was statistically insignificant. (author)

  15. Sublingual piroxicam in the management of postoperative pain after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Vibha; Wadhwani, Puneet; Tayade, Himanshu P; Rathod, Onkar K

    2012-01-01

    Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is one of the most commonly performed procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgical practice. The role of preoperative and postoperative medications for management of postoperative complications has been extensively evaluated. To assess the therapeutic effect of a single dose of 40 mg sublingual piroxicam (study group) vs 150 mg oral diclofenac (50 mg thrice a day) (control group) in patients undergoing surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. A total of 100 patients with asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars were randomized into two groups. One group received two 20-mg tablets of piroxicam once daily on the first and second postoperative days, followed by one 20-mg tablet on the third post-operative day. The other group received one tablet of diclofenac 50 mg orally thrice daily on the first, second, and third post-operative days. Repeated extraoral examinations were done for continuous assessment of swelling, trismus, and reduction in pain. Overall impression of the treating physician and the patient regarding efficacy of study drugs were recorded at the end of the study. In the piroxicam group there was >50% reduction in pain on all three days postoperatively. The incidence of swelling and trismus was found to be higher in the control group as compared to the study group. Adverse events, such as gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, were significantly higher in the diclofenac group (11%) as compared to the piroxicam group (0%). Two sublingual piroxicam 20 mg tablets once daily has better efficacy and tolerability profile than diclofenac 50 mg one tablet thrice daily in the management of pain after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  16. Uso y abuso del nifedipino por vía sublingual en nuestros sistemas de urgencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Guinart Zayas

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se observa que el incremento de la prevalencia de pacientes hipertensos en nuestras comunidades, y la implantación del Programa Nacional para el control de la hipertensión arterial, no han podido disminuir la cantidad de pacientes que acuden con cifras altas de su presión arterial a nuestros servicios de urgencia con decisiones terapéuticas indiscriminadas y agresivas. Se ha generalizado el uso del nifedipino sublingual, incluso en pacientes de la tercera edad, lo que produce bajadas bruscas de la presión arterial por disminución en la sensibilidad de los barorreceptores y con ellas una alteración de los mecanismos de autorregulación del flujo hístico. Se señala que las complicaciones producidas no son alarmantes, pero con un uso racional y si se cumplen algunas normas, podrían disminuirse aún másIt is observed that the prevalence increase of hypertensive patients in our communities and the implementation of the National Program for the Hypertension Control have not so far been able to reduce the number of hypertensive patients going to our emergency medical services by applying indiscriminate and aggressive therapeutical methods. The use of sublingual administered nifedipine is extensive even in elderly patients, which may cause a sharp blood pressure drop and also a change in the hystic flow self-regulating mechanisms. It is stressed that complications are not serious but if this drug is more rationally used and some directions are fulfilled, then these complications will be further reduced

  17. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri M; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Randomised, prospective clinical study. Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Detomidine at 80 μg kg(-1) was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg(-1) to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) and local anaesthetic (lidocaine 3 mg kg(-1) ) were administered before heat cauterization of horn buds. Heart rate (HR), body temperature and clinical sedation were monitored over 240 minutes. Blood was collected from the V. cephalica during the same period for drug concentration analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated from the plasma detomidine concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. Statistical analyses compared routes of administration by Student's t-test and linear mixed models as relevant. The maximum plasma detomidine concentration after GEL was 2.1 ± 1.2 ng mL(-1) (mean ±SD) and the time of maximum concentration was 66.0 ± 36.9 minutes. The bioavailability of detomidine was approximately 34% with GEL. Similar sedation scores were reached in both groups after administration of detomidine, but maximal sedation was reached earlier in the IV group (10 minutes) than in the GEL group (40 minutes). HR was lower after IV than GEL from 5 to 10 minutes after administration. All animals were adequately sedated, and we were able to administer local anaesthetic without resistance to all of the calves before disbudding. Oromucosally administered detomidine is an effective sedative agent for calves prior to disbudding. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  18. Buprenorphine Implants for Treatment of Opioid Dependence: Randomized Comparison to Placebo and Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard N.; Ling, Walter; Casadonte, Paul; Vocci, Frank; Bailey, Genie L.; Kampman, Kyle; Patkar, Ashwin; Chavoustie, Steven; Blasey, Christine; Sigmon, Stacey; Beebe, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate safety and efficacy of buprenorphine implants (BI) versus placebo implants (PI) for the treatment of opioid dependence. A secondary aim compared BI to open-label sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets (BNX). Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects received either 4 buprenorphine implants (80 mg/implant) (n=114), 4 placebo implants (n=54), or open-label BNX (12–16 mg/d) (n=119). Setting 20 addiction treatment centers. Participants Adult outpatients (ages 18 to 65) with DSM-IV-TR opioid dependence. Measurements The primary efficacy endpoint was the percent of urine samples negative for opioids collected from weeks 1 to 24, examined as a cumulative distribution function (CDF). Findings The BI CDF was significantly different from placebo (P<.0001). Mean (95% CI) proportions of urines negative for opioids were: BI: 31.2% (25.3, 37.1) and PI: 13.4% (8.3, 18.6). BI subjects had a higher study completion rate relative to placebo (64% vs. 26%, P<.0001), lower clinician-rated (P<.0001) and patient-rated (P<.0001) withdrawal, lower patient-ratings of craving (P<.0001), and better subjects’ (P=.031) and clinicians’ (P=.022) global ratings of improvement. BI also resulted in significantly lower cocaine use (P=.0016). Minor implant-site reactions were comparable in the buprenorphine (27.2% [31/114]) and placebo groups (25.9% [14/54]). BI were non-inferior to BNX on percent urines negative for opioids [mean (95% CI): 33.5 (27.3, 39.6); CI for the difference of proportions, (−10.7, 6.2)]. Conclusions Compared with placebo, buprenorphine implants result in significantly less frequent opioid use, and are non-inferior to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets. PMID:23919595

  19. Development and evaluation of fixed dose bi therapy sublingual tablets for treatment stress hypertension and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A El-Nabarawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min. Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug′s absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6 tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH

  20. Effects of annealing schedule on orientation of Bi3.2Nd0.8Ti3O12 ferroelectric film prepared by chemical solution deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.Y.; Huang, J.F.; Cao, L.Y.; Wang, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue-free Bi 3.2 Nd 0.8 Ti 3 O 12 ferroelectric thin films were successfully prepared on p-Si(1 1 1) substrate using chemical solution deposition process. The orientation and formation of thin film under different annealing schedules were studied. XRD analysis indicated that (2 0 0)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (200) /I (117) = 2.097 and 0.466 were obtained by preannealing for 10 min at 400 deg. C followed by rapid thermal annealing for 3, 10 and 20 min at 700 deg. C, respectively (0 0 8)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (008) /I (117) = 1.706 were obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C without preannealing, and (0 0 8)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (008) /I (117) = 0.719 were obtained by preheating the film from room temperature at 20 deg. C/min followed by annealing for 10 min at 700 deg. C. The a-axis and c-axis orientation decreased as increase of annealing time due to effects of (1 1 1)-oriented substrate. AFM analysis further indicated that preannealing at 400 deg. C for 10 min followed by rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C resulted in formation of platelike crystallite parallel to substrate surface, however rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C without preannealing resulted in columnar crystallite perpendicular to substrate surface

  1. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  2. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  3. Web Publishing Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  4. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, H.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  5. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, G.J.; Paterson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  6. Outage scheduling and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.E.; Segall, P.; Smith, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Successful preparation and implementation of an outage schedule and completion of scheduled and emergent work within an identified critical path time frame is a result of careful coordination by Operations, Work Control, Maintenance, Engineering, Planning and Administration and others. At the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) careful planning has been responsible for meeting all scheduled outage critical paths

  7. Scheduling with Time Lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xiandong)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractScheduling is essential when activities need to be allocated to scarce resources over time. Motivated by the problem of scheduling barges along container terminals in the Port of Rotterdam, this thesis designs and analyzes algorithms for various on-line and off-line scheduling problems

  8. Impact of mean arterial pressure on sublingual microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass - secondary outcome from a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Frederik; Vedel, Anne G; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2018-01-01

    . METHODS: Thirty-six cardiac surgery patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included and randomised to either low (40-50 mmHg) or high (70-80 mmHg) mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sidestream Dark Field video images were recorded from the sublingual mucosa. Recordings...... were analysed in a blinded fashion to quantify microcirculatory variables. RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass in the low target group was 45.0 mmHg (SD 5.3) vs. 67.2 mmHg (SD 8.9) in the high target group. We found no significant difference between the two groups......OBJECTIVE: In this substudy of a randomised, clinical trial, we explored the sublingual microcirculation during cardiac surgery at two different levels of blood pressure. We hypothesised that a higher mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass would cause higher Microvascular Flow Index...

  9. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  10. New approaches for the management of bipolar disorder: role of sublingual asenapine in the treatment of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren CG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Calvert G Warren,1 Steven L Dubovsky1,21Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USAAbstract: Bipolar disorder is a prevalent disorder that tends to become progressive without treatment and with inadequate treatment. Second generation (atypical antipsychotic drugs have increasingly been used as adjunctive treatment or monotherapy for mania, but they have the potential for significant adverse effects and their role in maintenance treatment remains unclear. Asenapine is a new atypical antipsychotic medication formulated in a sublingual preparation that has been studied for mania but not maintenance therapy. Evidence indicating efficacy, adverse effects, and potential benefits and drawbacks of using asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder based on currently available published data are summarized.Keywords: bipolar disorder, antipsychotic drug, mania, maintenance, sublingual

  11. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M

    2009-01-01

    pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic......BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... to grass pollen. METHODS: Different subgroups could be identified regarding comorbidities (with or without asthma during the grass-pollen season), sensitization (mono/polysensitization) and symptom severity. An additional exploratory analysis was performed within four subgroups based on pre...

  12. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  13. Oral myeloid cells uptake allergoids coupled to mannan driving Th1/Treg responses upon sublingual delivery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, I; López-Relaño, J; Viñuela, M; Tudela, J-I; Angelina, A; Benito-Villalvilla, C; Díez-Rivero, C M; Cases, B; Manzano, A I; Fernández-Caldas, E; Casanovas, M; Palomares, O; Subiza, J L

    2018-04-01

    Polymerized allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan (PM-allergoids) may represent novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs). PM-allergoids are better captured by DCs than native allergens and favor Th1/Treg cell responses upon subcutaneous injection. Herein we have studied in mice the in vivo immunogenicity of PM-allergoids administered sublingually in comparison with native allergens. Three immunization protocols (4-8 weeks long) were used in Balb/c mice. Serum antibody levels were tested by ELISA. Cell responses (proliferation, cytokines, and Tregs) were assayed by flow cytometry in spleen and lymph nodes (LNs). Allergen uptake was measured by flow cytometry in myeloid sublingual cells. A quick antibody response and higher IgG2a/IgE ratio were observed with PM-allergoids. Moreover, stronger specific proliferative responses were seen in both submandibular LNs and spleen cells assayed in vitro. This was accompanied by a higher IFNγ/IL-4 ratio with a quick IL-10 production by submandibular LN cells. An increase in CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Treg cells was detected in LNs and spleen of mice treated with PM-allergoids. These allergoids were better captured than native allergens by antigen-presenting (CD45 + MHC-II + ) cells obtained from the sublingual mucosa, including DCs (CD11b + ) and macrophages (CD64 + ). Importantly, all the differential effects induced by PM-allergoids were abolished when using oxidized instead of nonoxidized PM-allergoids. Our results demonstrate for the first time that PM-allergoids administered through the sublingual route promote the generation of Th1 and FOXP3 + Treg cells in a greater extent than native allergens by mechanisms that might well involve their better uptake by oral antigen-presenting cells. © 2018 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ghasem; Khorsand, Mahmood; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Jarahi, Lida; Zirak, Nahid

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient's satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They were older than 18 years and in classes I and II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) with an operation time of 30-90 minutes. Patients were divided into two groups of buprenorphine (4.5µg/kg sublingually) and morphine (0.2mg/kg intravenously). Baseline characteristics, vital signs, pain score, level of sedation and pharmacological side effects were recorded in the recovery room (at 0 and 30 minutes), and in the ward (at 3, 6 and 12 hours). SPSS version 19 software was used for data analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05. Ninety patients were studied, 60 males and 30 females with a mean age of 37.7±16.2 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. Pain score in the morphine group was significantly higher than the buprenorphine group with an average score of 2.5 (P<0.001). Postoperative mean heart rate in the buprenorphine group was four beats lower than the morphine group (P<0.001). Also, in the buprenorphine 48.6% and in the morphine group 86.7% of cases were conscious in recovery (P=0.001) with a higher rate of pruritus in the latter group (P=0.001). Sublingual buprenorphine administration before anesthesia induction in closed reduction surgery can lead to better postoperative pain control in comparison to intravenous morphine. Due to simple usage and longer postoperative sedation, sublingual buprenorphine is recommended as a suitable drug in closed reduction surgery.

  15. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Soltani; Mahmood Khorsand; ALireza Sepehri Shamloo; Lida Jarahi; Nahid Zirak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient’s satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They wer...

  16. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs : a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Elisa; Pelst, Michael; Hesta, Myriam; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healt...

  17. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  18. The Influence of Low Salivary Flow Rates on the Absorption of a Sublingual Fentanyl Citrate Formulation for Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Mundin, Gill; Vriens, Joanna; Webber, Kath; Buchanan, Alison; Waghorn, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction may affect the absorption of drugs through the oral mucosa, which in turn may affect their clinical efficacy (e.g., onset of action). The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of a sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet (Abstral, Prostrakan Inc.) in a group of cancer patients with salivary gland hypofunction. Nine cancer patients with salivary gland hypofunction underwent a series of three pharmacokinetic studies with the sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet. In the first phase, the patients received no pretreatment; in the second phase, the patients were allowed to moisten the oral cavity before dosing; in the third phase, the patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (saliva stimulant) before dosing. Fentanyl concentrations were measured using a method of high-performance liquid chromatography with validated tandem mass spectrometric detection. The Tmax was longer, the Cmax was lower, the AUC0-30 lower, and the AUClast lower in the phase involving no pretreatment; the Tmax/Cmax/AUC0-30/AUClast were similar in the phase involving moistening of the oral cavity and the phase involving giving pilocarpine hydrochloride. The pharmacokinetics of the sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet appear to be negatively affected by the presence of salivary gland hypofunction, although the moistening of the oral cavity before dosing results in a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that seen with the giving of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of sublingual delivery of piroxicam using thermosensitive polymer with an inverted Franz diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Arunprasad; Banga, Ajay K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare a sublingual formulation for piroxicam using a thermosensitive polymer and to evaluate its permeation through porcine sublingual mucosa. Formulation technique utilized the transition property of poloxamer from solution state at room temperature to gel state at oromucosal temperature (37 °C). The permeation of the drug was evaluated using an inverted Franz diffusion cell technique that allowed the dosage form to be directly applied onto the substrate with required volume of saliva. The formulation was characterized for microscopy of the piroxicam crystals, sol-gel transition property and in-vitro diffusion study. Poloxamer-based formulation enhanced solubility and increased permeability of the piroxicam. Poloxamer formulation with 0.1% w/w piroxicam delivered a cumulative amount of 11.99 ± 7.82 and 11.23 ± 1.79 μg/cm(2), while non-poloxamer formulation delivered 3.57 ± 2.20 and 4.60 ± 6.90 μg/cm(2) with 0.1 and 0.5 ml artificial saliva, respectively, through porcine sublingual tissue in 6 h. A similar delivery profile was observed for 0.05% w/w piroxicam formulation as well. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. NASA scheduling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  2. Stochastic scheduling on unrelated machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutella, Martin; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Two important characteristics encountered in many real-world scheduling problems are heterogeneous machines/processors and a certain degree of uncertainty about the actual sizes of jobs. The first characteristic entails machine dependent processing times of jobs and is captured by the classical

  3. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raof R. A. A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.

  4. Current issues on sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was the first official organization to recognize that sublingual administration could be “promising route” for allergic desensitization. A few years later, the World Health Organization recommended this therapy as “a viable alternative to the injection route in adults.” The first meta-analysis showed sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT effectiveness for allergic rhinitis and another study showed SLIT can actually help prevent the development of asthma both in adults and in children. The main goal of this review article is to present insight into the most up-to-date understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. A literature review was performed on PubMed from 1990 to 2015 using the terms “asthma,” “allergic rhinitis,” “children,” “allergen specific immune therapy.” Evaluating data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (DB-PC-RCTs, the clinical efficacy (assessed as the reduction of symptom score and the need of rescue medicament of SLIT for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, has been confirmed in various meta-analysis Outcomes such as rhinoconjunctivitis score and medication scores, combined scores, quality of life, days with severe symptoms, immunological endpoints, and safety parameters were all improved in the SLIT-tablet compared with placebo group. SLIT safety has been already proven in many DB-PC-RCTs and real-life settings. In accordance with all of the above mentioned, the goals for future trials and studies are the development of comprehensive guidelines for clinical practice on immunotherapy, embracing all the different potential participants. The importance of allergen immunotherapy is of special relevance in the pediatric age, when the plasticity and modulability of the immune system are maximal, and when

  5. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    . The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...

  6. Cloud Service Scheduling Algorithm Research and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cloud service scheduling model that is referred to as the Task Scheduling System (TSS. In the user module, the process time of each task is in accordance with a general distribution. In the task scheduling module, we take a weighted sum of makespan and flowtime as the objective function and use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and a Genetic Algorithm (GA to solve the problem of cloud task scheduling. Simulation results show that the convergence speed and output performance of our Genetic Algorithm-Chaos Ant Colony Optimization (GA-CACO are optimal.

  7. BIM-BASED SCHEDULING OF CONSTRUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The potential of BIM is generally recognized in the construction industry, but the practical application of BIM for management purposes is, however, still limited among contractors. The objective of this study is to review the current scheduling process of construction in light of BIM...... and communicate. Scheduling on the detailed level, on the other hand, follows a stipulated approach to scheduling, i.e. the Last Planner System (LPS), which is characterized by involvement of all actors in the construction phase. Thus, the major challenge when implementing BIM-based scheduling is to improve...

  8. Scheduling for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podmajersky, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

  9. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  10. Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis: prospective study of clinical outcomes over a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, J Y; Thalayasingam, M; Ong, S; Loo, E X L; Shek, L P; Chao, S S

    2016-03-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis sensitised to house dust mites is safe, but its efficacy is controversial and sublingual immunotherapy with Blomia tropicalis has not yet been studied. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extract in children and adults with house dust mite allergic rhinitis over a period of two years. A prospective observational study was conducted of children and adults diagnosed with house dust mite allergic rhinitis who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2008 to 2012. Total Nasal Symptom Scores, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores and medication usage scores were assessed prospectively. Thirty-nine patients, comprising 24 children and 15 adults, were studied. Total Nasal Symptom Scores and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores dropped significantly at three months into therapy, and continued to improve. Medication usage scores improved at one year into immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extracts, including B tropicalis, is efficacious as a treatment for patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

  11. Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark

    2009-01-01

    We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...

  12. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  13. Fast-Acting Sublingual Zolpidem for Middle-of-the-Night Wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph V. Pergolizzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders (somnipathies are conditions characterized by disruptions of sleep quality or of sleep pattern. They can involve difficulty falling asleep (prolonged sleep onset latency, difficulty staying asleep (disturbance of sleep maintenance, sleep of poor quality (unrefreshing, or combinations of these and can lead to poor health and quality of life problems. A subtype of sleep-maintenance insomnia is middle-of-the-night wakefulness, a relatively common occurrence. Zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine benzodiazepine receptor agonist, allosterically modulates an ion channel and increases the influx of Cl−, thereby dampening the effect of excitatory (sleep disrupting input. Recently, product label changes to some zolpidem containing products have been implemented by the FDA in order to reduce the risk associated with their morning after residual side effects. A new formulation of zolpidem tartrate (Intermezzo sublingual tablet, an approved product indicated exclusively for the treatment of middle-of-the-night wakefulness and difficulty returning to sleep, did not have its label changed. We present a short summary of its basic science and clinical attributes in light of the recent regulatory changes for zolpidem products.

  14. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  15. Suppression of TIM-1 predicates clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhibin; Zhou, Lifeng; Luo, Xi; Xia, Wentong; Chen, Dehua; Xu, Rui; Wang, Jie; Luo, Renzhong; Xu, Geng; Li, Huabin

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with house-dust mite (HDM) extract and to examine the change of biomarkers (TIM-1, IL-5 and IL-10) after 6-month SLIT in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). One hundred and sixteen HDM-sensitized children with persistent AR were enrolled to assess the clinical efficacy of SLIT by determining the individual nasal symptom score (INSS) and total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) after 6-month SLIT. Moreover, the mRNA expression of TIM-1, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined in 16 well-controlled and 12 uncontrolled AR patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After 6-month SLIT, both TNSS and INSS scores were significantly decreased compared with the baseline value (p < 0.01). The rates for well-controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled children were 43.1%, 32.8% and 24.1%, respectively. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of TIM-1 and IL-5 decreased significantly and IL-10 mRNA level increased significantly compared with the baseline value in well-controlled children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest SLIT with HDM extract is effective and safe for AR children and TIM-1 may be considered as an indicator for evaluating the clinical efficacy of SLIT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  17. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  18. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  19. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  20. Genetic algorithm to solve the problems of lectures and practicums scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Apriani, R.; Sawaluddin; Abdullah, D.; Albra, W.; Heikal, M.; Abdurrahman, A.; Khaddafi, M.

    2018-02-01

    Generally, the scheduling process is done manually. However, this method has a low accuracy level, along with possibilities that a scheduled process collides with another scheduled process. When doing theory class and practicum timetable scheduling process, there are numerous problems, such as lecturer teaching schedule collision, schedule collision with another schedule, practicum lesson schedules that collides with theory class, and the number of classrooms available. In this research, genetic algorithm is implemented to perform theory class and practicum timetable scheduling process. The algorithm will be used to process the data containing lists of lecturers, courses, and class rooms, obtained from information technology department at University of Sumatera Utara. The result of scheduling process using genetic algorithm is the most optimal timetable that conforms to available time slots, class rooms, courses, and lecturer schedules.

  1. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  2. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of sublingual administration of detomidine gel for sedation of horses undergoing veterinary and husbandry procedures under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rachel B; White, Gary W; Ramsey, Deborah S; Boucher, Joseph F; Kilgore, W Randal; Huhtinen, Mirja K

    2010-12-15

    To determine whether sublingual detomidine gel administration to horses would be effective in providing an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures under field conditions. Multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study. 270 client-owned horses known to require sedation or strong restraint to enable veterinary and husbandry procedures to be performed. Horses randomly received a single dose of detomidine gel (0.04 mg/kg [0.018 mg/lb]) or placebo gel administered sublingually. Horses were sedated to facilitate cleaning the prepuce, cutting of hair with electric clippers, hoof trimming or application of shoes, manual dental floating (ie, rasping or filing of the teeth to remove irregularities), nasogastric passage of a stomach tube or endoscope, and radiography. The primary determinant of efficacy was an assessment by a veterinarian on the ability or inability to successfully conduct the procedure. 171 horses met all the study protocol criteria. One hundred twenty-nine horses were treated with detomidine. The procedure was completed successfully for 76% (98/129) of the detomidine-treated horses, while the procedure was completed successfully for only 7% (3/42) of the placebo-treated horses. The percentage of horses in which the procedure was successfully completed was significantly different between detomidine-treated horses and placebo-treated horses. No serious adverse effects were reported. Detomidine gel administered to horses sublingually at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg provided an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures in horses known to require sedation for such procedures.

  4. Effectiveness of sublingual nitroglycerin before puncture compared with conventional intra-arterial nitroglycerin in transradial procedures: a randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Burak, E-mail: drburakturan@gmail.com; Daşlı, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail

    2015-10-15

    Aim: Sublingual (SL) nitroglycerin administered before radial artery puncture can improve cannulation success and decrease the incidence of radial artery spasm (RAS) compared with intra-arterial (IA) nitroglycerin in transradial procedures. Methods: Patients undergoing diagnostic transradial angiography were randomized to IA (200 mcg) or SL (400 mcg) nitroglycerin. Primary endpoints were puncture time and puncture attempts. Secondary endpoint was the incidence of RAS. Results: Total of 101 participants (mean age 60 ± 11 years, 53% male) were randomized (51 in IA and 50 in SL groups). Puncture time (50 [36–75] vs 50 [35–90] sec), puncture attempts (1.18 ± 0.48 vs 1.20 ± 0.49), multiple punctures (13.7 vs 16.0%) and RAS (19.6 vs 24.0%) were not statistically different between IA vs SL groups respectively. A composite endpoint of all adverse events related to transradial angiography (multiple punctures, RAS, access site crossover, hypotension/bradycardia associated with nitroglycerin and radial artery occlusion) was very similar in IA vs SL groups (39 vs 40%, respectively). However puncture time was significantly longer with SL nitroglycerin in patients < 1.65 m height (47 [36–66] vs 63 [41–110] sec, p = 0.042). Multiple punctures seemed higher with SL nitroglycerin in patients with diabetes (0 vs 30%, p = 0.028) or in patients < 1.65 m height (7.4 vs 25%, p = 0.085). Likewise, RAS with SL nitroglycerin seemed more frequent in smokers compared to IA nitroglycerin (0 vs 27%, p = 0.089). Conclusions: SL nitroglycerin was not different from IA nitroglycerin in terms of efficiency and safety in overall study population. However it may be inferior to IA nitroglycerin in certain subgroups (shorter individuals, diabetics and smokers). - Highlights: • Improvement in radial artery puncture time and success with subcutaneous nitrate was reported. • Giving nitrate sublingually may have vasodilation along entire length of radial artery and may prevent RAS

  5. Algorithms for classical and modern scheduling problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the design and the analysis of algorithms for scheduling problems. In the first part, we focus on energy-efficient scheduling, where one seeks to minimize the energy needed for processing certain jobs via dynamic adjustments of the processing speed (speed scaling). We consider variations and extensions of the standard model introduced by Yao, Demers, and Shenker in 1995 [79], including the addition of a sleep state, the avoidance of preemption, and variable speed lim...

  6. Efficacy of Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Methylergometrine in Prevention of Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Ambreen, A.; Khuram, A.; Mushtaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Post partum hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Most of oxytocics like methylergometrine require parenteral administration, which requires special storage. Misoprostol is thermo stable, has a long shelf life and is widely recommended for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This can be a choice of oxytocic in developing countries like ours, where storage facilities and resources are limited. Objectives: To compare efficacy of sublingual Misoprostol versus intramuscular Methylergometrine in prevention of primary postpartum hemorrhage after delivery. Study Design: Quasi experimental study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gynae/Obs, Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi cantt. December 2007 to July 2008. Material and Methods: One hundred and thirty six pregnant ladies were selected. On arrival each patient was examined thoroughly along with baseline investigations. Therapeutic option was allocated to the patients simply by using a table of random numbers and dividing them in two equal groups. Informed written consent was taken. Each patient was observed for blood loss estimation and hematocrit drop. All the data was analyzed using SPSS version 10.0. Mean +- SD for age, pre-delivery and post-delivery hematocrit, percentage of drop in hematocrit and blood loss during labour was calculated. Results: Mean drop of hematocrit and blood loss were compared among two groups. At the end, it was revealed that there was no significant difference among two groups in blood loss (p=0.49) and hematocrit drop (p=0.14). Conclusion: There is no significant better effect in preventing post partum hemorrhage among the two drugs. (author)

  7. Sublingual buprenorphine is effective in the treatment of chronic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, Herbert L; Barkin, Robert L; Wilson, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Many patients with chronic pain have less than optimal therapeutic outcomes after prolonged treatment with opiate analgesics. Worsening of pain perception, functional capacity, and mood often result. Medical detoxification is often undertaken in this situation. Ninety-five consecutive patients (49 men and 46 women; age range, 26-84) with chronic noncancer pain (maldynia) were referred by local pain clinics for detoxification from long-term opiate analgesic (LTOA) therapy. All patients had failed treatment as manifest by increasing pain levels, worsening functional capacity, and, in 8%, the emergence of opiate addiction. Length of prior LTOA therapy ranged from 1.5 to 27 years (mean, 8.8 years). After a minimum of 12 hours of abstinence from all opiate analgesics, patients were given low doses of sublingual (SL) buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone (Reckitt Benckiser). Maintenance dosing was individualized to treat chronic pain. Daily SL dose of buprenorphine ranged from 4 to 16 mg (mean, 8 mg) in divided doses. Mean duration of treatment is 8.8 months (range, 2.4-16.6 months). At clinic appointments, patients were assessed for pain reports, functional capacity, and mood inventory. Eighty-six percent of patients experienced moderate to substantial relief of pain accompanied by both improved mood and functioning. Patient and family satisfaction was robust. Only 6 patients discontinued therapy secondary to side effects and/or exacerbation of pain. In this open-label study, SL buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone were well tolerated and safe and appeared to be effective in the treatment of chronic pain patients refractory to LTOA.

  8. [Onset time and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in children with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiling; Qian, Yasheng; Liu, Suqin; Huang, Liqin; Xu, Shiying; Yin, Wenhua; Chen, Yanchun; Wu, Huawei; Wang, Gan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the onset time and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in children with house dust mites (HDM)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). One hundred and forty three children with perennial moderate to severe HDM-induced AR were treated by SLIT with standardized Dermatophagoides farinae extract. One hundred children who finally completed two years treatment were divided into two groups according to the age: younger children group (aged 4-8 years, n = 52) and older children group (aged 9-14 years, n = 48). Respectively, Each children was assessed before and after 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th months of the treatment. Total nasal symptom score (TNSS), total medication score (TMS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated at each visit. All clinical data were analyzed retrospectively with the SPSS 19.0 software. TNSS, TMS and VAS of two groups decreased significantly after three months of the treatment compared with before (younger children group: Z value was -3.843, -3.534, -3.940, older children group: Z value was -3.938, -3.405, -3.953, all P < 0.05). TNSS and VAS of younger children group decreased significantly after two months of the treatment compared with before (6.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 1.4 vs 8.6 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 1.6, Z value was -3.843, -3.940, both P < 0.05). Five children (5%) experienced local adverse events and 2 children (2%) experienced mild systemic adverse events. No severe adverse events happened during the treatment. SLIT with Dermatophagoides farinae drops is an efficient and safe treatment for children with HDM-induced AR. Its onset of action can be observed as early as 3 months after treatment.

  9. Influence of food on pharmacokinetics of zolpidem from fast dissolving sublingual zolpidem tartrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David J; Harmatz, Jerold S; Singh, Nikhilesh N; Roth, Thomas; Harris, Stephen C; Kapil, Ram P

    2013-11-01

    Ingesting food can impact the pharmacokinetics of sedative-hypnotic drugs. A buffered zolpidem sublingual tablet (ZST) recently became available for the treatment of middle-of-the-night awakening. In this randomized, open-label, single-site study, the pharmacokinetic profile of ZST was evaluated when administered while fasting and following a standard high-fat meal (fed state). Healthy adults aged 18-64 years received a single morning dose of 3.5 mg ZST in the fed or fasting state. From 20 min to 3 h post-dose, zolpidem plasma levels were lower in the fed state compared to the fasting state. After 4 h post-dose (corresponding to "morning wake time"), higher zolpidem plasma levels were evident in the fed state. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for the 0-8 h interval were 160 ng/mL h in the fed state and 203 ng/mL h in the fasting state (P fasting states, Cmax was 32.0 ng/mL versus 57.3 ng/mL (P < .001), respectively, and Tmax was 3.0 h versus 0.92 h (P < .001), respectively. Together these data suggest that administration of ZST in the fed state is not optimal for maximizing the likelihood of therapeutic benefit and minimizing the probability of residual sedation. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Clinical and immunological responses of dust mite sensitive, atopic dogs to treatment with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Douglas J; Verbrugge, Maria; Morris, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been reported to be beneficial in people with atopic dermatitis (AD) and dust mite sensitivity. Evaluation of this therapy has not been reported in spontaneous canine AD. The objective of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the effectiveness of an established SLIT protocol, as used in human patients, in dogs with AD. Ten dust mite sensitive dogs with spontaneous AD. Dogs underwent a 6 month open trial of SLIT concurrently with decreasing dose oral methylprednisolone. Clinical evaluations and quantitative serum anti-mite IgE and IgG levels were performed every 2 months. Mean methylprednisolone use from the first 2 months of the study to the final 2 months declined from 10.2 to 4.3 mg/kg/2 months (P test); at 6 months, four dogs required no oral corticosteroid administration. Over the course of the study, median Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 scores declined from 76.5 to 59; median pruritus scores declined from 65 to 37 (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Pre- and post-SLIT intradermal test scores for mite allergen were not significantly different over time. Median Dermatophagoides farinae (DF)-specific IgE levels declined significantly from 150.2 × 10(3) AU/mL to 3.6 × 10(3) AU/mL (P Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). SLIT treatment produced clinical improvement in dogs with dust mite-associated AD and was associated with serological changes supporting this improvement. Further studies in larger numbers of dogs and those with polysensitization are warranted. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Effects of three antagonists on selected pharmacodynamic effects of sublingually administered detomidine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Stanley, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effects of alpha2 -adrenergic receptor antagonists on the pharmacodynamics of sublingual (SL) detomidine in the horse. Randomized crossover design. Nine healthy adult horses with an average age of 7.6 ± 6.5 years. Four treatment groups were studied: 1) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL; 2) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.075 mg kg(-1) yohimbine intravenously (IV); 3) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 4 mg kg(-1) tolazoline IV; and 4) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.12 mg kg(-1) atipamezole IV. Each horse received all treatments with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Blood samples were obtained and plasma analyzed for yohimbine, atipamezole and tolazoline concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Behavioral effects, heart rate and rhythm, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma proteins were monitored. Chin-to-ground distance increased following administration of the antagonists, however, this effect was transient, with a return to pre-reversal values as early as 1 hour. Detomidine induced bradycardia and increased incidence of atrioventricular blocks were either transiently or incompletely antagonized by all antagonists. PCV and glucose concentrations increased with tolazoline administration, and atipamezole subjectively increased urination frequency but not volume. At the doses administered in this study, the alpha2 -adrenergic antagonistic effects of tolazoline, yohimbine and atipamezole on cardiac and behavioral effects elicited by SL administration of detomidine are transient and incomplete. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. Real-life compliance and persistence among users of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Menno A; Röder, Esther; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Al, Maiwenn J; Hop, Wim C J; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2013-08-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are safe and effective treatments of allergic rhinitis, but high levels of compliance and persistence are crucial to achieving the desired clinical effects. Our objective was to assess levels and predictors of compliance and persistence among grass pollen, tree pollen, and house dust mite immunotherapy users in real life and to estimate the costs of premature discontinuation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a community pharmacy database from The Netherlands containing data from 6486 patients starting immunotherapy for 1 or more of the allergens of interest between 1994 and 2009. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-six patients received SCIT, and 3690 received SLIT. Time to treatment discontinuation was analyzed and included Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates, where appropriate. Overall, only 18% of users reached the minimally required duration of treatment of 3 years (SCIT, 23%; SLIT, 7%). Median durations for SCIT and SLIT users were 1.7 and 0.6 years, respectively (P < .001). Other independent predictors of premature discontinuation were prescriber, with patients of general practitioners demonstrating longer persistence than those of allergologists and other medical specialists; single-allergen immunotherapy, lower socioeconomic status; and younger age. Of the persistent patients, 56% were never late in picking up their medication from the pharmacy. Direct medication costs per nonpersistent patient discontinuing in the third year of treatment were €3800, an amount that was largely misspent. Real-life persistence is better in SCIT users than in SLIT users, although it is low overall. There is an urgent need for further identification of potential barriers and measures that will enhance persistence and compliance. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edwin H; Bird, J Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. We sought to investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness, and immunologic changes with SLIT in children with peanut allergy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Eighteen children aged 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median, 1,710 vs 85 mg; P = .011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in skin prick test wheal size (P = .020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10(-2) μg/mL (P = .009) and 10(-3) μg/mL (P = .009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE levels increased over the initial 4 months (P = .002) and then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (P = .003), whereas peanut-specific IgG4 levels increased during the 12 months (P = .014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (P = .015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percentage of regulatory T cells, or IL-10 and IFN-γ production. Peanut SLIT is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in children with peanut allergy, with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine whether continued peanut SLIT is able to induce long-term immune tolerance. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA Instrument Cost/Schedule Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Mrozinski, Joe; Fox, George

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Office of Independent Program and Cost Evaluation (IPCE) has established a number of initiatives to improve its cost and schedule estimating capabilities. 12One of these initiatives has resulted in the JPL developed NASA Instrument Cost Model. NICM is a cost and schedule estimator that contains: A system level cost estimation tool; a subsystem level cost estimation tool; a database of cost and technical parameters of over 140 previously flown remote sensing and in-situ instruments; a schedule estimator; a set of rules to estimate cost and schedule by life cycle phases (B/C/D); and a novel tool for developing joint probability distributions for cost and schedule risk (Joint Confidence Level (JCL)). This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation), the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite.

  15. Optimal Algorithms and a PTAS for Cost-Aware Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chen; N. Megow; R. Rischke; L. Stougie (Leen); J. Verschae

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider a natural generalization of classical scheduling problems in which using a time unit for processing a job causes some time-dependent cost which must be paid in addition to the standard scheduling cost. We study the scheduling objectives of minimizing the makespan and the

  16. Some extensions of the discrete lotsizing and scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Salomon (Marc); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R. Kuik (Roelof); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the Discrete Lotsizing and Scheduling Problem (DLSP) is considered. DLSP relates to capacitated lotsizing as well as to job scheduling problems and is concerned with determining a feasible production schedule with minimal total costs in a single-stage manufacturing process.

  17. AP1000 construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  18. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  19. Integrated multi-resource planning and scheduling in engineering project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Ben Issa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and scheduling processes in project management are carried out sequentially in prac-tice, i.e. planning project activities first without visibility of resource limitation, and then schedul-ing the project according to these pre-planned activities. This is a need to integrate these two pro-cesses. In this paper, we use Branch and Bound approach for generating all the feasible and non-feasible project schedules with/without activity splitting, and with a new criterion called “the Minimum Moments of Resources Required around X-Y axes (MMORR”, we select the best feasible project schedule to integrate plan processing and schedule processing for engineering projects. The results illustrate that this integrated approach can effectively select the best feasible project schedule among alternatives, improves the resource utilization, and shortens the project lead time.

  20. Physician Fee Schedule Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  1. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  2. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  3. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  4. Project Schedule Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizouni, Rabeb; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    overrun both their budget and time. To improve the quality of initial project plans, we show in this paper the importance of (1) reflecting features’ priorities/risk in task schedules and (2) considering uncertainties related to human factors in plan schedules. To make simulation tasks reflect features......’ priority as well as multimodal team allocation, enhanced project schedules (EPS), where remedial actions scenarios (RAS) are added, were introduced. They reflect potential schedule modifications in case of uncertainties and promote a dynamic sequencing of involved tasks rather than the static conventional...... this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at Journal of Software. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column....

  5. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...

  6. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  7. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  8. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  9. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  10. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  11. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  12. Fee Schedules - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by Medicare to pay doctors or other providers-suppliers. This comprehensive listing of fee maximums is used to...

  13. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Trichinella spiralis Obtained by Sublingual and Conventional Immunizations with the 45kDa Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Chávez Ruvalcaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease produced mainly by the consumption of poorly cooked swine meat. Several studies have probed the efficiency of immunotherapy as a method for the treatment of trichinellosis. In this work, a 45 kDa immunodominant antigen was characterized, and the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG anti-Trichinella spiralis antibodies was evaluated during the course of the infection. In addition, the differences between sublingual and parenteral administration of the 45 kDa T. spiralis antigen were determined. Long Evans rats were used both to purify the 45 kDa antigen and to evaluate the immune response produced in six different groups: healthy and infected controls; two groups of immunized murines (sublingually and parenterally with 4 doses of the 45 kDa T. spiralis immunogen administered at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and challenged with 500 T. spiralis infective larvae (IL 7 days after the last immunization; and finally, two groups of murines infected with 500 IL of T. spiralis, immunized at week 4 post infection by the same two routes. The humoral response was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence by confocal microscopyin order to determine the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies.

  15. A 12-week DBPC dose-finding study with sublingual monomeric allergoid tablets in house dust mite-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, C; Dieterich, P; Singh, J; Shah-Hosseini, K; Allekotte, S; Lehmacher, W; Compalati, E; Mösges, R

    2017-01-01

    In sublingual immunotherapy, optimal doses are a key factor for therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study with tablets containing carbamylated monomeric house dust mite allergoids was to determine the most effective and safe dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 131 patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to 12-week treatments with 300 UA/day, 1000 UA/day, 2000 UA/day, 3000 UA/day or placebo. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) were performed before, during and after treatment. The change in mean allergic severity (primary endpoint), calculated from the severity of the CPT reaction, and the proportion of patients with an improved CPT threshold (secondary endpoint) determined the treatment effect. The mean allergic severity decreased in all groups, including the placebo group. It was lower in all active treatment groups (300 UA/day: 0.14, 1000 UA/day: 0.15, 2000 UA/day: 0.10, 3000 UA/day: 0.15) than in the placebo group (0.30). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P allergoid sublingual tablets is well tolerated and reduces the CPT reaction in house dust mite-allergic patients. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT – indications, mechanism, and efficacy Position paper prepared by the Section of Immunotherapy, Polish Society of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SLIT ( sublingual immunotherapy induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy, with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50–100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1 – 3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, Parietaria , house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae , cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 – 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization.

  17. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Soltani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient’s satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They were older than 18 years and in classes I and II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA with an operation time of 30-90 minutes. Patients were divided into two groups of buprenorphine (4.5μg/kg sublingually and morphine (0.2mg/kg intravenously. Baseline characteristics, vital signs, pain score, level of sedation and pharmacological side effects were recorded in the recovery room (at 0 and 30 minutes, and in the ward (at 3, 6 and 12 hours. SPSS version 19 software was used for data analysis and the significance level was set at P Results: Ninety patients were studied, 60 males and 30 females with a mean age of 37.7±16.2 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics.Pain score in the morphine group was significantly higher than the buprenorphine group with an average score of 2.5 (P

  18. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient’s satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They were older than 18 years and in classes I and II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA with an operation time of 30-90 minutes. Patients were divided into two groups of buprenorphine (4.5μg/kg sublingually and morphine (0.2mg/kg intravenously. Baseline characteristics, vital signs, pain score, level of sedation and pharmacological side effects were recorded in the recovery room (at 0 and 30 minutes, and in the ward (at 3, 6 and 12 hours. SPSS version 19 software was used for data analysis and the significance level was set at P Results: Ninety patients were studied, 60 males and 30 females with a mean age of 37.7±16.2 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics.Pain score in the morphine group was significantly higher than the buprenorphine group with an average score of 2.5 (P

  19. CMS Planning and Scheduling System

    CERN Document Server

    Kotamaki, M

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures and the system to build and maintain the schedules needed to manage time, resources, and progress of the CMS project. The system is based on the decomposition of the project into work packages, which can be each considered as a complete project with its own structure. The system promotes the distribution of the decision making and responsibilities to lower levels in the organisation by providing a state-of-the-art system to formalise the external commitments of the work packages without limiting their ability to modify their internal schedules to best meet their commitments. The system lets the project management focus on the interfaces between the work packages and alerts the management immediately if a conflict arises. The proposed system simplifies the planning and management process and eliminates the need for a large, centralised project management system.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a Prototype Formulation of Sublingual Testosterone and a Buspirone Tablet, Versus an Advanced Combination Tablet of Testosterone and Buspirone in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, Kim; De Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The

  1. Deposition of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Davis, S.S.; Melia, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition and clearance of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity/upper oesophagus and in the stomach after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets has been followed by gamma scintigraphy in a group of healthy male volunteers. Following administration...

  2. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  3. Constraint-based job shop scheduling with ILOG SCHEDULER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, W.P.M.; Le Pape, C.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce constraint-based scheduling and discuss its main principles. An approximation algorithm based on tree search is developed for the job shop scheduling problem using ILOG SCHEDULER. A new way of calculating lower bounds on the makespan of the job shop scheduling problem is presented and

  4. Pharmacokinetics and safety of fentanyl sublingual spray and fentanyl citrate intravenous: a single ascending dose study in opioid-naïve healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard; Oh, D Alexander; Parikh, Neha; Koch, Christian; Singla, Neil; Yu, Jin; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Vetticaden, Santosh

    2017-11-01

    Fentanyl sublingual spray offers rapid pain relief in opioid-tolerant cancer patients, and may be useful in acute or post-operative pain. Both opioid-naïve and non-tolerant patients are likely to receive opioids in these settings. Understanding the relationship between systemic exposure of fentanyl sublingual spray and effects on respiratory function in opioid-naïve or non-tolerant populations is important to ensure patient safety. This study evaluated single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray in opioid-naïve participants. Participants were randomized to receive single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray (100, 200, 400, 600, 800 mcg) or fentanyl citrate IV in one of five cohorts. Dosing occurred following a 10-h fast, with fasting continuing for 4 h post-dose. Dose proportionality was assessed using analysis of variance and linear regression techniques. PK assessments and safety monitoring were performed through 24 h post-dose. Safety assessments, including adverse event (AE) monitoring, occurred from dosing through Day 7. Fifty participants (19-53 years) received fentanyl sublingual spray or fentanyl citrate IV. Mean maximum plasma concentrations were reached between 0.27-0.60 h post-dose for fentanyl sublingual spray. Peak (C max ) and total (AUC 0- t , AUC 0-∞ ) fentanyl exposures increased in a linear, but more than dose-proportional manner, with higher doses. The most common AEs were somnolence, nausea, and vomiting. All AEs were mild or moderate in severity. Doses at 400, 600, and 800 mcg were associated with nausea and vomiting, requiring pharmacologic intervention. Hypoxia episodes requiring nasal cannula oxygenation were observed with 600mcg and 800mcg doses. Overall, single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray (100-800 mcg) was generally well tolerated, with greater incidences of AEs (e.g. nausea, vomiting, hypoxia) at higher doses. Doses up to 200 mcg may be safely administered to healthy opioid-naïve individuals with routine monitoring; doses

  5. A Mathematical Model for Scheduling a Batch Processing Machine with Multiple Incompatible Job Families, Non-identical Job dimensions, Non-identical Job sizes, Non-agreeable release times and due dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramaniam, M; Mathirajan, M

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem scheduling a batch processing machine with multiple incompatible job families, non-identical job dimensions, non-identical job sizes and non-agreeable release dates to minimize makespan. The research problem is solved by proposing a mixed integer programming model that appropriately takes into account the parameters considered in the problem. The proposed is validated using a numerical example. The experiment conducted show that the model can pose significant difficulties in solving the large scale instances. The paper concludes by giving the scope for future work and some alternative approaches one can use for solving these class of problems.

  6. Sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy: patient adherence at a large German allergy center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemberg M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Luise Lemberg,1 Till Berk,2 Kija Shah-Hosseini,1 Elena-Manja Kasche,1,3 Ralph Mösges1 1Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Center for Dermatology, Specific Allergology and Environmental Medicine, Hamburg, Germany Background: Many placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy (AIT is an effective therapy for treating allergies. Both commonly used routes, subcutaneous (SCIT and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT, require high patient adherence to be successful. In the literature, numbers describing adherence vary widely; this investigation compares these two routes of therapy directly.Methods: All data were retrieved from the patient data management system of a center for dermatology, specific allergology, and environmental medicine in Germany. All 330 patients (aged 13–89 years included in this study had commenced AIT between 2003 and 2011, thus allowing a full 3-year AIT cycle to be considered for each investigated patient.Results: In this specific center, SCIT was prescribed to 62.7% and SLIT to 37.3% of all included patients. The total dropout rate of the whole patient cohort was 34.8%. Overall, SLIT patients showed a higher dropout rate (39.0% than did SCIT patients (32.4%; however, the difference between these groups was not significant. Also, no significant difference between the overall dropout rates for men and for women was observed. A Kaplan–Meier curve of the patient collective showed a remarkably high dropout rate for the first year of therapy.Conclusion: The analysis presented in this single-center study shows that most patients who discontinue AIT do so during the first year of therapy. Patients seem likely to finish the 3-year therapy cycle if they manage to adhere to treatment throughout the first year. Strategies for preventing

  7. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  8. SPANR planning and scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

    2001-07-01

    SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

  9. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  10. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  11. Post LS1 schedule

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, M

    2014-01-01

    The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.

  12. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  13. Minimizing tardiness for job shop scheduling under uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Yahouni , Zakaria; Mebarki , Nasser; Sari , Zaki

    2016-01-01

    International audience; —Many disturbances can occur during the execution of a manufacturing scheduling process. To cope with this drawback , flexible solutions are proposed based on the offline and the online phase of the schedule. Groups of permutable operations is one of the most studied flexible scheduling methods bringing flexibility as well as quality to a schedule. The online phase of this method is based on a human-machine system allowing to choose in real-time one schedule from a set...

  14. Multiple-Machine Scheduling with Learning Effects and Cooperative Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyuan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-machine scheduling problems with position-based learning effects are studied in this paper. There is an initial schedule in this scheduling problem. The optimal schedule minimizes the sum of the weighted completion times; the difference between the initial total weighted completion time and the minimal total weighted completion time is the cost savings. A multiple-machine sequencing game is introduced to allocate the cost savings. The game is balanced if the normal processing times of jobs that are on the same machine are equal and an equal number of jobs are scheduled on each machine initially.

  15. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    according to the topology. The mapping process could be completed through the network management plane or by manual configuration. Based on the knowledge of the network, the scheduler can manage the traffic on behalf of other less advanced nodes, avoid potential traffic congestion, and provide flow...... protection and isolation. Comparisons between hierarchical scheduling, flow-based scheduling, and class-based scheduling schemes have been carried out under a symmetric tree topology. Results have shown that the hierarchical scheduling scheme provides better flow protection and isolation from attack...

  16. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a novel nonblocking scheduling mechanism that is used prior to the actual service invocations. Its aim is to reach an agreement between the client and all participating providers on what transaction processing times have to be expected, accepted, and guaranteed. This enables service......For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...... schedulers of service providers typically do take into account neither time constraints for committing the whole transaction, nor the individual services' constraints when scheduling decisions are made. This often leads to an unnecessary blocking of transactions by (possibly long-running) others...

  17. A Gas Scheduling Optimization Model for Steel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Honghai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the scheduling problems of steel enterprises, this research designs the gas scheduling optimization model according to the rules and priorities. Considering different features and the process changes of the gas unit in the process of actual production, the calculation model of process state and gas consumption soft measurement together with the rules of scheduling optimization is proposed to provide the dispatchers with real-time gas using status of each process, then help them to timely schedule and reduce the gas volume fluctuations. In the meantime, operation forewarning and alarm functions are provided to avoid the abnormal situation in the scheduling, which has brought about very good application effect in the actual scheduling and ensures the safety of the gas pipe network system and the production stability.

  18. Technology for planning and scheduling under complex constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguire, Karen M.; Pedro Gomes, Carla O.

    1997-02-01

    Within the context of law enforcement, several problems fall into the category of planning and scheduling under constraints. Examples include resource and personnel scheduling, and court scheduling. In the case of court scheduling, a schedule must be generated considering available resources, e.g., court rooms and personnel. Additionally, there are constraints on individual court cases, e.g., temporal and spatial, and between different cases, e.g., precedence. Finally, there are overall objectives that the schedule should satisfy such as timely processing of cases and optimal use of court facilities. Manually generating a schedule that satisfies all of the constraints is a very time consuming task. As the number of court cases and constraints increases, this becomes increasingly harder to handle without the assistance of automatic scheduling techniques. This paper describes artificial intelligence (AI) technology that has been used to develop several high performance scheduling applications including a military transportation scheduler, a military in-theater airlift scheduler, and a nuclear power plant outage scheduler. We discuss possible law enforcement applications where we feel the same technology could provide long-term benefits to law enforcement agencies and their operations personnel.

  19. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  20. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  1. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  2. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  3. Baixa dose de misoprostol sublingual (12,5 µg para indução do parto Low dose of sublingual misoprostol (12.5 µg for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sofia de Moraes Barros Gattás

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os resultados maternos e perinatais utilizando 12,5 µg de misoprostol sublingual para indução do parto em gestantes com feto vivo a termo. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo multicêntrico, tipo ensaio clínico, aberto e não randomizado, no período de julho a dezembro de 2009. Foram incluídas 30 gestantes com indicação de indução do parto, a termo, feto vivo, escore de Bishop menor ou igual a seis, apresentação cefálica, peso fetal estimado menor que 4.000 g e índice de líquido amniótico maior que cinco. Foram excluídas mulheres com cicatriz uterina, alteração da vitalidade fetal, anomalias congênitas, gestação múltipla, restrição de crescimento intrauterino, hemorragia genital e contraindicações ao parto vaginal. O comprimido de misoprostol sublingual 12,5 µg foi administrado a cada seis horas, até o início do trabalho de parto, máximo de oito doses. RESULTADOS: O trabalho de parto foi induzido satisfatoriamente em 90% das gestantes. As médias dos intervalos entre a primeira dose e o início das contrações uterinas e o parto foram de 14,3±11,7 horas e 25,4±13 horas, respectivamente. A frequência de parto vaginal foi de 60%. A taquissistolia ocorreu em duas gestantes, sendo revertida em ambos os casos sem necessitar de cesariana. A eliminação de mecônio foi observada em quatro pacientes e o escore de Apgar foi menor que sete no quinto minuto em um recém-nascido. CONCLUSÃO: Os desfechos maternos e perinatais foram favoráveis depois da indução do parto com misoprostol sublingual na dose de 12,5 µg a cada seis horas. No entanto, são necessários ensaios clínicos controlados comparando esse esquema posológico com outras doses e vias de administraçãoPURPOSE: To describe the maternal and perinatal outcomes after the use of 12.5 µg of sublingual misoprostol for labor induction in women with term pregnancy and a live fetus. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, open and non

  4. The power of reordering for online minimum makespan scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Matthias; Özmen, Deniz; Westermann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the classic minimum makespan scheduling problem, we are given an input sequence of jobs with processing times. A scheduling algorithm has to assign the jobs to m parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the makespan, which is the time it takes until all jobs are processed. In this paper, we consider online scheduling algorithms without preemption. However, we do not require that each arriving job has to be assigned immediately to one of the machines. A reordering buffer with limited...

  5. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with....../without conjunctivitis (AR/C), AE frequencies were determined in adults and children with and without reported asthma. METHODS: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Timothy grass SLIT-tablet MK-7243 (2800 BAU/75 000 SQ-T, Merck/ALK-Abelló) were pooled for post hoc analyses. Subjects...... with asthma treated with grass SLIT-tablet versus subjects without asthma in or outside of pollen season. There were 6/120 asthma-related TRAEs assessed as severe with grass SLIT-tablet and 2/60 with placebo, without a consistent trend among subjects with and without asthma (5 and 3 events, respectively...

  6. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  7. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial

  8. Sublingual immunization with the phosphate-binding-protein (PstS) reduces oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, E L; Batista, M T; Cavalcante, R C M; Pegos, V R; Passos, H M; Silva, D A; Balan, A; Ferreira, L C S; Ferreira, R C C

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in the physiology and pathogenicity of different bacterial species. Components of ABC transporters have also been tested as target antigens for the development of vaccines against different bacterial species, such as those belonging to the Streptococcus genus. Streptococcus mutans is the etiological agent of dental caries, and previous studies have demonstrated that deletion of the gene encoding PstS, the substrate-binding component of the phosphate uptake system (Pst), reduced the adherence of the bacteria to abiotic surfaces. In the current study, we generated a recombinant form of the S. mutans PstS protein (rPstS) with preserved structural features, and we evaluated the induction of antibody responses in mice after sublingual mucosal immunization with a formulation containing the recombinant protein and an adjuvant derived from the heat-labile toxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Mice immunized with rPstS exhibited systemic and secreted antibody responses, measured by the number of immunoglobulin A-secreting cells in draining lymph nodes. Serum antibodies raised in mice immunized with rPstS interfered with the adhesion of bacteria to the oral cavity of naive mice challenged with S. mutans. Similarly, mice actively immunized with rPstS were partially protected from oral colonization after challenge with the S. mutans NG8 strain. Therefore, our results indicate that S. mutans PstS is a potential target antigen capable of inducing specific and protective antibody responses after sublingual administration. Overall, these observations raise interesting perspectives for the development of vaccines to prevent dental caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and safety of fentanyl sublingual spray and fentanyl citrate intravenous: a multiple ascending dose study in opioid-naïve healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard L; Oh, D Alexander; Singla, Neil; Koch, Christian; Parikh, Neha; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Wilson, Daniel; Yu, Jin; Vetticaden, Santosh

    2017-11-01

    Fentanyl sublingual spray, with its rapid onset for pain relief, may be efficacious in the management of acute or post-operative pain. Because patients in these settings may be opioid-naïve, the study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administration of fentanyl sublingual spray in an opioid-naïve population. Fentanyl sublingual spray (100 mcg, 200 mcg, and 400 mcg) and fentanyl citrate intravenous (IV; 50 mcg) were administered every 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 h for up to three doses per cohort in opioid-naïve subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02641340). Eight subjects in each cohort were randomly assigned (six subjects received fentanyl sublingual spray; two subjects received fentanyl citrate IV). Pharmacokinetic and safety-related pharmacodynamic assessments were performed through 24 h post-first dose. Safety assessments were collected through Day 7. Ninety-six opioid-naïve subjects, aged 20-55 years, with a body mass index of 18.7-31.5 kg/m 2 , participated in the study. Multiple doses of fentanyl sublingual spray (100, 200, and 400 mcg) were generally well tolerated. Hypoxia, observed in the 200-mcg and 400-mcg dose groups, increased with increasing doses and higher dosing frequency, but was readily managed by nasal cannula oxygenation. Overall, nausea increased with increasing doses, and ∼52.6% (10 out of 19) cases of nausea that occurred at the highest dose of 400 mcg were treated with concomitant medication. Overall, the reported adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of fentanyl. Fentanyl sublingual spray (100 mcg, 200 mg, and 400 mcg) administered every 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h was generally well tolerated in an opioid-naïve population. The results suggest that doses of 200 mcg or lower may be safe for use in an opioid-naïve population.

  10. Developing optimal nurses work schedule using integer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidin, Ainon Mardhiyah; Said, Mohd Syazwan Md; Said, Noor Hizwan Mohamad; Sazali, Noor Izatie Amaliena

    2017-08-01

    Time management is the art of arranging, organizing and scheduling one's time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Scheduling is the process of deciding how to commit resources between varieties of possible tasks. Thus, it is crucial for every organization to have a good work schedule for their staffs. The job of Ward nurses at hospitals runs for 24 hours every day. Therefore, nurses will be working using shift scheduling. This study is aimed to solve the nurse scheduling problem at an emergency ward of a private hospital. A 7-day work schedule for 7 consecutive weeks satisfying all the constraints set by the hospital will be developed using Integer Programming. The work schedule for the nurses obtained gives an optimal solution where all the constraints are being satisfied successfully.

  11. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  12. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  13. Self-scheduling with Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, S A; Brown, H N

    1999-01-01

    Excessive time was being spent by the emergency department (ED) staff, head nurse, and unit secretary on a complex 6-week manual self-scheduling system. This issue, plus inevitable errors and staff dissatisfaction, resulted in a manager-lead initiative to automate elements of the scheduling process using Microsoft Excel. The implementation of this initiative included: common coding of all 8-hour and 12-hour shifts, with each 4-hour period represented by a cell; the creation of a 6-week master schedule using the "count-if" function of Excel based on current staffing guidelines; staff time-off requests then entered by the department secretary; the head nurse, with staff input, then fine-tuned the schedule to provide even unit coverage. Outcomes of these changes included an increase in staff satisfaction, time saved by the head nurse, and staff work time saved because there was less arguing about the schedule. Ultimately, the automated self-scheduling method was expanded to the entire 700-bed hospital.

  14. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  15. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  16. Estrutura de prática e validade ecológica no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora Practice schedule and ecological validity in the adaptive process of motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Massigli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o efeito da estrutura de prática no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora em função da validade ecológica da situação experimental. Participaram do estudo 104 crianças distribuídas em oito grupos experimentais (dois níveis de validade ecológica x quatro estruturas de prática. A tarefa consistiu em rebater uma bola de tênis de mesa lançada por um equipamento ou pelo experimentador, com o objetivo de acertar um alvo localizado no lado oposto da mesa. O estudo envolveu duas fases: estabilização e adaptação. O desempenho foi analisado por meio da soma dos pontos obtidos em blocos de 10 tentativas. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos das práticas constante, aleatória, constante-aleatória e aleatória-constante no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora foram similares em ambos os níveis de validade ecológica; a prática constante foi a estrutura menos efetiva no processo adaptativo de aprendizagem motora em ambas as situações experimentais.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different practice schedules in the adaptive process of motor learning in function of the ecological validity of the experimental situation. Participants were 104 children distributed in eight experimental groups (2 levels of ecological validity x 4 practice schedules. The task was to hit a table tennis ball thrown by equipment or experimenter, aiming to hit a target located on the opposite side of the table. The study was carried out in two phases: stabilization and adaptation. Performance was analyzed through the sum of the points achieved in ten trial blocks. Results showed that the effects of constant, random, constant-random and random-constant practice on the adaptive process of motor learning were similar in both levels of ecological validity; constant practice was the less effective schedule on the adaptive process of motor learning in both experimental situations.

  17. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  18. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  19. Online scheduling of 2-re-entrant flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinxten, J. van; Waqas, U.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Somers, L.

    2017-01-01

    Online scheduling of operations is essential to optimize productivity of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) where manufacturing requests arrive on the fly. An FMS processes products according to a particular flow through processing stations. This work focusses on online scheduling of re-entrant

  20. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  1. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  2. VPipe: Virtual Pipelining for Scheduling of DAG Stream Query Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Gupta, Chetan; Mehta, Abhay

    There are data streams all around us that can be harnessed for tremendous business and personal advantage. For an enterprise-level stream processing system such as CHAOS [1] (Continuous, Heterogeneous Analytic Over Streams), handling of complex query plans with resource constraints is challenging. While several scheduling strategies exist for stream processing, efficient scheduling of complex DAG query plans is still largely unsolved. In this paper, we propose a novel execution scheme for scheduling complex directed acyclic graph (DAG) query plans with meta-data enriched stream tuples. Our solution, called Virtual Pipelined Chain (or VPipe Chain for short), effectively extends the "Chain" pipelining scheduling approach to complex DAG query plans.

  3. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  4. The effect of X-ray irradiation on the function and saliva composition of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashida, Tatsuo; Kamemoto, Hiromasa; Fuchihata, Hajime; Ooshima, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Radiation therapy to the head and neck area frequently causes severe salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Morphological studies of irradiated salivary glands have suggested that the submandibular/sublingual gland may be less radiosensitive than the parotid gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation on major salivary gland functions in rats with radiation-induced xerostomia. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were irradiated with a single exposure of either 22 Gy or 32 Gy. Stimulated saliva excretion time was measured for the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands, and the total protein in saliva was analysed. Our results showed that the saliva flow rate and protein concentration of parotid saliva were significantly reduced in the 32 Gy-irradiated rats. (author)

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Fast-Dissolving Sublingual Film of Iloperidone Using Box-Behnken Design for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Vaishali; Shirsat, Rucha

    2018-04-01

    Iloperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic drug which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia and has very low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. This drug also undergoes first-pass metabolism. The aim of this work is to formulate fast-dissolving sublingual films of iloperidone to improve its bioavailability. Sublingual films were prepared by solvent casting method. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5, propylene glycol 400, and transcutol HP were optimized using Box-Behnken three-level statistical design on the basis of disintegration time and folding endurance of films. Iloperidone:hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin kneaded complex was used in films instead of plain drug due to its low solubility. Optimized film was further evaluated for drug content, pH, dissolution studies, ex vivo permeation studies, and pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The optimized film disintegrated within 30 s. The in vitro dissolution of the film showed 80.3 ± 3.4% drug dissolved within first 5 min. In ex vivo permeation studies using sublingual tissue, flux achieved within first 15 min by film was around 117.1 ± 0.35 (mcg/cm 2 /h) which was ten times more than that of plain drug. This formulation showed excellent uniformity. AUC and C max of film were significantly higher (p films was 148% when compared to the plain drug. Thus, this study showed optimized fast-dissolving sublingual film to improve permeation and bioavailability of iloperidone. Fast-dissolving films will be customer-friendly approach for geadiatric schizophrenic patients.

  6. Flow-shop scheduling problem under uncertainties: Review and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana María González-Neira; Jairo R. Montoya-Torres; David Barrera

    2017-01-01

    Among the different tasks in production logistics, job scheduling is one of the most important at the operational decision-making level to enable organizations to achieve competiveness. Scheduling consists in the allocation of limited resources to activities over time in order to achieve one or more optimization objectives. Flow-shop (FS) scheduling problems encompass the sequencing processes in environments in which the activities or operations are performed in a serial flow. This type of co...

  7. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays proposing four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  8. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays with four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  9. Schedulability-Driven Communication Synthesis for Time Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to static priority preemptive process scheduling for the synthesis of hard real-time distributed embedded systems where communication plays an important role. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication...... delays proposing four different message scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the synthesis of communication are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments...

  10. Schedule optimization study implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed

  11. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  12. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis.

  13. Transdermal buprenorphine, opioid rotation to sublingual buprenorphine, and the avoidance of precipitated withdrawal: a review of the literature and demonstration in three chronic pain patients treated with butrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Howard; Reetz, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid, used in the United States and abroad for both analgesia and addiction, with unique opioid receptor binding properties. There are several pharmacological features of buprenorphine that make it an emerging option for the long-term treatment of chronic pain-its respiratory suppression ceiling effect, its efficacy in neuropathic pain and hyperalgesic states, and its decreased suppression of the immune and endocrine systems compared with other long-acting opioids. Previous studies have shown that high-dose sublingual buprenorphine is an effective treatment of chronic pain patients not responding to other opioids. Guidelines for the introduction of sublingual buprenorphine, termed buprenorphine induction, include an opioid-free "withdrawal" period of 12-48 hours to avoid an anticipated and accelerated opioid withdrawal, a syndrome described in this article as precipitated withdrawal. The requirement of a period of opioid abstinence before buprenorphine use may present a significant barrier to its adoption for chronic pain. We present a case series of a novel method of sublingual buprenorphine introduction without an induction period, using the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved low-dose transdermal buprenorphine (Butrans; Purdue Pharma L.P.) as a bridge medication. In these cases, buprenorphine was started in opioid-dependent chronic noncancer pain patients who had taken short-acting opioid medications within hours of the initiation of the rotation. This method avoids the painful abstinence period and did not result in precipitated withdrawal or other significant adverse effects.

  14. Development and Characterization of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Furosemide in the Form of a Sublingual Bioadhesive Film to Enhance Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Viviana; Ajovalasit, Alessia; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Murgia, Denise; Sabatino, Maria Antonietta; Dispenza, Clelia

    2017-06-24

    Administered by an oral route, Furosemide (FUR), a diuretic used in several edematous states and hypertension, presents bioavailability problems, reported as a consequence of an erratic gastrointestinal absorption due to various existing polymorphic forms and low and pH-dependent solubility. A mucoadhesive sublingual fast-dissolving FUR based film has been developed and evaluated in order to optimize the bioavailability of FUR by increasing solubility and guaranteeing a good dissolution reproducibility. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses confirmed that the film prepared using the solvent casting method entrapped FUR in the amorphous state. As a solid dispersion, FUR increases its solubility up to 28.36 mg/mL. Drug content, thickness, and weight uniformity of film were also evaluated. The measured Young's Modulus, yield strength, and relative elongation of break percentage (EB%) allowed for the classification of the drug-loaded film as an elastomer. Mucoadhesive strength tests showed that the force to detach film from mucosa grew exponentially with increasing contact time up to 7667 N/m². FUR was quickly discharged from the film following a trend well fitted with the Weibull kinetic model. When applied on sublingual mucosa, the new formulation produced a massive drug flux in the systemic compartment. Overall, the proposed sublingual film enhances drug solubility and absorption, allowing for the prediction of a rapid onset of action and reproducible bioavailability in its clinical application.

  15. Practical quantum appointment scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Dave; Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    We propose a protocol based on coherent states and linear optics operations for solving the appointment-scheduling problem. Our main protocol leaks strictly less information about each party's input than the optimal classical protocol, even when considering experimental errors. Along with the ability to generate constant-amplitude coherent states over two modes, this protocol requires the ability to transfer these modes back-and-forth between the two parties multiple times with very low losses. The implementation requirements are thus still challenging. Along the way, we develop tools to study quantum information cost of interactive protocols in the finite regime.

  16. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  17. FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING USING A NETWORK APPROACH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    time when the last job completes on the last machine. The objective ... more jobs in a permutation flow shop scheduling problem ... processing time of a job on a machine is zero, it ..... hybrid flow shops with sequence dependent setup times ...

  18. Role of Combining Peripheral with Sublingual Perfusion on Evaluating Microcirculation and Predicting Prognosis in Patients with Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Liu, Da-Wei; Su, Long-Xiang; He, Huai-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yu, Chao

    2018-05-20

    Measurement of general microcirculation remains difficult in septic shock patients. The peripheral perfusion index (PI) and sublingual microcirculation monitoring are thought to be possible methods. This study was performed to determine whether assessing microcirculation by PI and a new parameter, proportion of perfusion vessel change rate (△PPV) from sublingual microcirculation monitoring, can be associated with patients' outcome. A prospective observational study was carried out, including 74 patients with septic shock in a mixed intensive care unit. Systemic hemodynamic variables were obtained at T0 and 6 h after (T6). PI and sublingual microcirculation indicators were obtained using a bedside monitor and a sidestream dark-field device, respectively. The t-test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the Hanley-McNeil test, survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to statistical analysis. Systemic hemodynamics and microcirculation data were obtained and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the first 6 h lactate clearance (LC) was ≥20%; PI and △PPV were lower at T6 in the LC <20% group compared with LC ≥20% (PI: 1.52 [0.89, 1.98] vs. 0.79 [0.44, 1,81], Z = -2.514, P = 0.012; △PPV: 5.9 ± 15.2 vs. 17.9 ± 20.0, t = -2.914, P = 0.005). The cutoff values of PI and △PPV were 1.41% and 12.1%, respectively. The cutoff value of the combined indicators was 1.379 according to logistic regression. Area under the curve demonstrated 0.709 (P < 0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of using combined indicators were 0.622 and 0.757, respectively. Based on the PI and △PPV cutoff, all the participants were divided into the following groups: (1) high PI and high △PPV group, (2) high PI and low △PPV group, (3) low PI and high △PPV group, and (4) low PI and low △PPV group. The highest Sequential

  19. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  20. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  1. An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

  2. Conception of Self-Construction Production Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hai; Zhang, Xuerui; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Fujimura, Shigeru

    With the high speed innovation of information technology, many production scheduling systems have been developed. However, a lot of customization according to individual production environment is required, and then a large investment for development and maintenance is indispensable. Therefore now the direction to construct scheduling systems should be changed. The final objective of this research aims at developing a system which is built by it extracting the scheduling technique automatically through the daily production scheduling work, so that an investment will be reduced. This extraction mechanism should be applied for various production processes for the interoperability. Using the master information extracted by the system, production scheduling operators can be supported to accelerate the production scheduling work easily and accurately without any restriction of scheduling operations. By installing this extraction mechanism, it is easy to introduce scheduling system without a lot of expense for customization. In this paper, at first a model for expressing a scheduling problem is proposed. Then the guideline to extract the scheduling information and use the extracted information is shown and some applied functions are also proposed based on it.

  3. Correction of vitamin D deficiency using sublingually administered vitamin D2 in a Crohn's disease patient with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Patrick; Heaney, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with many adverse health problems. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease who have low vitamin D levels have a poorer quality of life than those with more adequate levels. It has also been shown that patients with mal-absorption problems have a difficult time achieving normal vitamin D levels in spite of aggressive supplementation, and that exposure to UVB radiation may be the most effective treatment option for these patients. We present a case in which 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were normalized within 2 weeks in a severely vitamin D deficient patient with Crohn's disease with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy, utilizing sublingually administered vitamin D2. A 58 year-old white female was admitted with a new ileostomy following partial bowel resection due to complications from Crohn's disease. She was found to be severely vitamin D deficient at the time of admission, with a level of 6.1ng/ml on hospital day 3. Her treatment with vitamin D was delayed for a few days. She was initially treated with 5000 units of vitamin D3 orally twice a day for 3days (days 7-10). After discussion with the patient and obtaining her consent, vitamin D3 was stopped, and she was then treated with a total of 8 doses of 50,000 units of vitamin D2 administered sublingually. She was given the first 3 doses on alternating days (days 11, 13, 15), and then 5 more doses on consecutive days (days 17-21). The rise in her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to treatment with sublingual vitamin D2 was significant. On day 10, after receiving 3days of orally administered vitamin D3, her level was 9.8ng/ml. One week later, after receiving 3 sublingual doses of vitamin D2, it rose to 20.3ng/ml. It was then measured on alternating days twice over the next 4days, and it rose to 45.5ng/ml, and then to 47.4ng/ml on the day of discharge to home. The major finding of this study is that sublingual administration of vitamin D2 appears to

  4. APGEN Scheduling: 15 Years of Experience in Planning Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldague, Pierre F.; Wissler, Steve; Lenda, Matthew; Finnerty, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the scheduling capability of APGEN (Activity Plan Generator), a multi-mission planning application that is part of the NASA AMMOS (Advanced Multi- Mission Operations System), and how APGEN scheduling evolved over its applications to specific Space Missions. Our analysis identifies two major reasons for the successful application of APGEN scheduling to real problems: an expressive DSL (Domain-Specific Language) for formulating scheduling algorithms, and a well-defined process for enlisting the help of auxiliary modeling tools in providing high-fidelity, system-level simulations of the combined spacecraft and ground support system.

  5. Perceptions of randomized security schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

    2014-04-01

    Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. 36 CFR 1258.12 - NARA reproduction fee schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NARA reproduction fee... ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.12 NARA reproduction fee schedule. (a) Certification: $15...) Unlisted processes: For reproductions not covered by this fee schedule, see also § 1258.4. Fees for other...

  7. Duality-based algorithms for scheduling on unrelated parallel machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the following parallel machine scheduling problem. Each of n independent jobs has to be scheduled on one of m unrelated parallel machines. The processing of job J[sub l] on machine Mi requires an uninterrupted period of positive length p[sub lj]. The objective is to find an assignment of

  8. Recovery scheduling for industrial pocesses using graph constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saltik, M.B.; van Gameren, S.; Özkan, L.; Weiland, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers a class of scheduling problems cast for processes that consist of several interconnected subprocesses. We model the temporal constraints (On-Off status) on each subprocess using labeled directed graphs to form the admissible set of schedules. Furthermore, we consider physical

  9. Scheduling the powering tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  10. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    OpenAIRE

    Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C

    2018-01-01

    The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...

  11. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory

  12. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  13. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  14. Diverse task scheduling for individualized requirements in cloud manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Longfei; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Chun; Laili, Yuanjun; Xu, Lida

    2018-03-01

    Cloud manufacturing (CMfg) has emerged as a new manufacturing paradigm that provides ubiquitous, on-demand manufacturing services to customers through network and CMfg platforms. In CMfg system, task scheduling as an important means of finding suitable services for specific manufacturing tasks plays a key role in enhancing the system performance. Customers' requirements in CMfg are highly individualized, which leads to diverse manufacturing tasks in terms of execution flows and users' preferences. We focus on diverse manufacturing tasks and aim to address their scheduling issue in CMfg. First of all, a mathematical model of task scheduling is built based on analysis of the scheduling process in CMfg. To solve this scheduling problem, we propose a scheduling method aiming for diverse tasks, which enables each service demander to obtain desired manufacturing services. The candidate service sets are generated according to subtask directed graphs. An improved genetic algorithm is applied to searching for optimal task scheduling solutions. The effectiveness of the scheduling method proposed is verified by a case study with individualized customers' requirements. The results indicate that the proposed task scheduling method is able to achieve better performance than some usual algorithms such as simulated annealing and pattern search.

  15. PLACEMENT APPLICATIONS SCHEDULING LECTURE IN INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM UNIKOM BASED ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Sahata Sitanggang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One who determines life of a classroom namely mapping scheduling courses especially at college. The process scheduling has included time or schedule of a class of available, room available, lecture who is scheduled for, and schedule for lecturer going to teach. Hopefully with a scheduling it will facilitate the students and teachers in obtaining information lecture schedule. With the emergence of the android application ( is implanted in mobile phones , the public can now use the internet so fast that is based .So with that researchers give one a technology based solutions to build android application .This is because one of the technology has given the functions which may make it easier for students and university lecturers in terms of access to information. In building this application used method of the prototype consisting 2 access namely access user and admin , where module user consisting of modules register , login , scheduling module , while for admin given module login , register and arrangement information scheduling courses both the administration and lecturers .Application made will be integrated with internet so that this program is real-time application.

  16. Practical principles in appointment scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, A.; Mandjes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Appointment schedules aim at achieving a proper balance between the conflicting interests of the service provider and her clients: a primary objective of the service provider is to fully utilize her available time, whereas clients want to avoid excessive waiting times. Setting up schedules that

  17. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  18. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  19. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION SCHEDULE & INTEGRATION

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Zeuner

    Introduction The endgame of CMS installation in the underground cavern is in full swing, with several major milestones having been passed since the last CMS week. The Tracker was installed inside the Vactank just before the CERN end-of-year shutdown. Shortly after the reopening in 2008, the two remaining endcap disks, YE-2 and YE-1, were lowered, marking the completion of eight years of assembly in the surface building SX5. The remaining tasks, before the detector can be closed for the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), are the installation of the thermal shields, the cabling of the negative endcap, the cabling of the tracker and the beam pipe installation. In addition to these installation tasks, a test closure of the positive endcap is planned just before the installation of the central beam pipe. The schedule is tight and complicated but the goal to close CMS by the end of May for a cosmic test with magnetic field remains feasible. Safety With all large components now being underground, the shortage...

  1. Using Integer Programming for Airport Service Planning in Staff Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Ip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and safety in flight is extremely necessary and that depend on the adoption of proper maintenance system. Therefore, it is essential for aircraft maintenance companies to perform the manpower scheduling efficiently. One of the objectives of this paper is to provide an Integer Programming approach to determine the optimal solutions to aircraft maintenance planning and scheduling and hence the planning and scheduling processes can become more efficient and effective. Another objective is to develop a set of computational schedules for maintenance manpower to cover all scheduled flights. In this paper, a sequential methodology consisting of 3 stages is proposed. They are initial maintenance demand schedule, the maintenance pairing and the maintenance group(s assignment. Since scheduling would split up into different stages, different mathematical techniques have been adopted to cater for their own problem characteristics. Microsoft Excel would be used. Results from the first stage and second stage would be inputted into integer programming model using Microsoft Excel Solver to find the optimal solution. Also, Microsoft Excel VBA is used for devising a scheduling system in order to reduce the manual process and provide a user friendly interface. For the results, all can be obtained optimal solution and the computation time is reasonable and acceptable. Besides, the comparison of the peak time and non-peak time is discussed.

  2. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  3. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  4. The influence of sublingual immunotherapy on several parameters of immunological response in children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis depending on asthma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kotuła, Iwona; Demkow, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has already been proven and is known to be high. Its influence on the immunological system of patients suffering from bronchial asthma was also examined. However, it is still unclear how the polysensitisation, coexistence of other atopic disease and asthma treatment step influence the response to treatment with specific immunotherapy. Herein we evaluate the impact of one-year SLIT on selected markers of immunological response depending on different individual and clinical factors of children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Twenty-five patients aged 8.1 ± 3.1 years (range 5-15 years), 21 boys and 4 girls, suffering from asthma and allergic rhinitis with polysensitisation to seasonal and non-seasonal allergens, shortlisted for SLIT, were included in the study. Th1 cell and Th2 cell percentages, Bcl-2 expression in T cells, and basophil activation after allergen challenge (house dust mite and/or grass pollen antigen in solution used for skin prick tests) in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. The association between clinical features of asthma and the influence of SLIT on immunological parameters was evaluated with exact Fisher test. No association between the influence of one-year sublingual immunotherapy on immunological system and patients' age, polysensitisation, asthma treatment step, or coexistence of any other atopic diseases was observed. However, an increase of the Th1 percentage in children sensitised against more than three allergens was found more often (at the limit of statistical significance) than in the group of children sensitised against three or less allergens. Based on our results, we cannot point to any subgroup isolated in the study, in which the response of the immunological system to sublingual immunotherapy is more satisfactory than any other. Nevertheless, the increase of Th1 cells may be more specific for polysensitised children.

  5. Estrutura de prática e idade no processo adaptativo da aprendizagem de uma tarefa de "timing" coincidente Practice schedule and age on the adaptive process of the coincident timing task learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Afonso Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes estruturas de prática no processo adaptativo da aprendizagem de uma tarefa de "timing" coincidente em função da idade. Crianças (n = 40, adultos (n = 47 e idosos (n = 57 foram distribuídos em grupos de prática constante, aleatória, constante-aleatória e aleatória-constante. A tarefa consistiu consistia em tocar certos alvos de forma sequencial em integração a um estímulo visual. O delineamento envolveu duas fases de aprendizagem: estabilização e adaptação. Os dados foram analisados em relação aos erros absoluto, variável, constante e de execução. Os resultados mostraram que o processo adaptativo na aprendizagem de crianças, adultos e idosos de uma tarefa de "timing" coincidente foi mais beneficiado pela prática constante-aleatória.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different practice schedules on the adaptive process of a coincident timing task learning in function of age. Children (n = 40, adults (n = 47 and elderly (n = 57 were distributed into constant, random, constant-random and random-constant practice groups. The task consisted of touching response keys sequentially in conjunction with a visual stimulus. The experimental design was consisted of two learning phases: stabilization and adaptation. The data were analyzed in terms of absolute, variable, constant and execution errors. The results showed that the constant-random practice was the most efficient for the adaptive process in learning a coincident timing task regardless of the age group.

  6. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  7. 78 FR 26701 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    .... Phentermine Being Combined With Lorcaserin Eight commenters expressed concern about the probability that... follows: Several commenters were critical of DEA's handling of the scheduling process. The commenters did..., 1301.74, 1301.75(b) and (c), 1301.76, and 1301.77 on or after June 7, 2013. Labeling and Packaging. All...

  8. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  9. Cine MR enterography grading of small bowel peristalsis: evaluation of the antiperistaltic effectiveness of sublingual hyoscyamine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Peter M; Neuberger, Ilana; Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G; Parker, Laurence; O'Kane, Patrick L; Roth, Christopher G; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Borowski, Allison

    2014-01-01

    To use a cine balanced steady-state free precession magnetic resonance enterography (cine MRE) pulse sequence to assess the effectiveness of a sublingual (SL) antiperistaltic agent, hyoscyamine sulfate. Institutional review board approval was granted with an exemption for informed consent in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective, single-institution study. Of the 288 MRE examinations performed between October 1, 2007 and January 15, 2011, 92 using SL hyoscyamine sulfate for antiperistalsis were included for review, each with cine MRE before and after medication. These 184 cine MRE data sets were randomized, blinded for treatment, and independently reviewed by five attending abdominal radiologists, who rated the degree of whole abdomen bowel motility on each cine MRE data set on a 5-point scale. Pre- and postmedication mean peristalsis ratings, standard deviation, mean difference, and treatment effect sizes were calculated. A repeated measures analysis of variance test was performed using a significance threshold of P = .05. Interobserver reliabilities were also calculated. Mean peristalsis ratings ranged 2.63-3.34 and 2.36-3.03, before and after medication administration, respectively. The mean differences ranged from 0.22 to 0.46, which are treatment effect sizes of 0.20 to 0.37. The decrease in peristalsis observed by the five reviewing radiologists after SL hyoscyamine sulfate administration was significant (df = 1/182, f = 7.35, P cine MRE sequences show decreased bowel peristalsis after the use of SL hyoscyamine sulfate, the small size of the observed treatment effect is likely insufficient to justify its use for MRE. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sublingual Buprenorphine and Methadone Maintenance Treatment: A Three-Year Follow-Up of Quality of Life Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore M. Giacomuzzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare long-term outcome effects on the quality of life (QOL of oral methadone with sublingual buprenorphine maintenance treatment. The QOL status of opioid-dependent patients was assessed using the German version (“Berlin Quality of Life Profile” of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Physical symptoms were measured using the Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OWS. Urine tests were carried out randomly to detect additional consumption. In the first study period, 53 opioid-dependent subjects were enrolled and 25 could be reached after 3 years. The retention rate was 50% for methadone and 45% for buprenorphine (p = 0.786. Baseline values of the total sample (completers and noncompleters QOL and somatic complaints did not show significant differences between the two treatment groups. QOL characteristics at 6 months of treatment of the buprenorphine completer and noncompleter groups differed significantly regarding job (p = 0.013, family, and total score of physical symptoms (p = 0.002, in which the completer group showed the more favorable values. Concerning physical symptoms at 36 months, logistic regression revealed significantly less stomach cramps (p = 0.037 and fatigue and tiredness (p = 0.034 in buprenorphine compared to the methadone. Moreover, the buprenorphine-maintained group showed significantly less additional consumption of benzodiazepines (p = 0.015 compared with methadone participants. It is concluded that opioid addicts improved their QOL and health status when treated with methadone or buprenorphine. In summary, regarding QOL and health status, the present data indicate that buprenorphine is also a useful long-term alternative for maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients.

  11. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  12. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  13. The local–global conjecture for scheduling with non-linear cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Dürr, C.; Thang, N.K.K.; Vásquez, Ó.C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the classical scheduling problem on a single machine, on which we need to schedule sequentially n given jobs. Every job j has a processing time pj and a priority weight wj, and for a given schedule a completion time Cj. In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the objective

  14. "What Do I Teach for 90 Minutes?" Creating a Successful Block-Scheduled English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Carol

    The story of the process that Mundelein High School (located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois) as it moved from a traditional schedule to a block schedule is described throughout this book as a way to blend theory with practice. The book addresses types of block schedules; key issues for effective preparation; professional development…

  15. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  16. Operating Theatre Planning and Scheduling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Vanberkel, P.T.; Hall, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we present a number of approaches to operating theatre planning and scheduling. We organize these approaches hierarchically which serves to illustrate the breadth of problems confronted by researchers. At each hierarchicalplanning level we describe common problems, solution

  17. Schedule Sales Query Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  18. Multiagent scheduling models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Gawiejnowicz, Stanisław; Pacciarelli, Dario; Soukhal, Ameur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents multi-agent scheduling models in which subsets of jobs sharing the same resources are evaluated by different criteria. It discusses complexity results, approximation schemes, heuristics and exact algorithms.

  19. Executive Schedule C System (ESCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...

  20. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  1. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  2. Flow-shop scheduling problem under uncertainties: Review and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana María González-Neira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different tasks in production logistics, job scheduling is one of the most important at the operational decision-making level to enable organizations to achieve competiveness. Scheduling consists in the allocation of limited resources to activities over time in order to achieve one or more optimization objectives. Flow-shop (FS scheduling problems encompass the sequencing processes in environments in which the activities or operations are performed in a serial flow. This type of configuration includes assembly lines and the chemical, electronic, food, and metallurgical industries, among others. Scheduling has been mostly investigated for the deterministic cases, in which all parameters are known in advance and do not vary over time. Nevertheless, in real-world situations, events are frequently subject to uncertainties that can affect the decision-making process. Thus, it is important to study scheduling and sequencing activities under uncertainties since they can cause infeasibilities and disturbances. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the FS scheduling problem under uncertainties and its role in production logistics and to draw up opportunities for further research. To this end, 100 papers about FS and flexible flow-shop scheduling problems published from 2001 to October 2016 were analyzed and classified. Trends in the reviewed literature are presented and finally some research opportunities in the field are proposed.

  3. Understanding the costs and schedule of hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrow, E.W.; Schroeder, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is based on a study conducted for the World Bank which evaluated the feasibility of developing an empirically based ex ante project analysis system for hydroelectric projects. The system would be used to assess: the reasonableness of engineering-based cost and schedule estimates used for project appraisal and preliminary estimates used to select projects for appraisal; and the potential for cost growth and schedule slip. The system would help identify projects early in the project appraisal process that harbor significantly higher than normal risks of overrunning cost and schedule estimates

  4. Flexiyear Schedules in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriet, Bernhard

    1982-01-01

    Describes a German experiment whereby fulltime employees can work fewer hours without losing status and parttime employees have more options on allocations of working hours. The process ensures that management can count on enough staff for peak periods and more easily plan ahead. (JOW)

  5. The applicability of knowledge-based scheduling to the utilities industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, G.; Gargan, R. Jr.; Duggan, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Nuclear Power Division, has identified the three major goals of high technology applications for nuclear power plants. These goals are to enhance power production through increasing power generation efficiency, to increase productivity of the operations, and to reduce the threats to the safety of the plant. Our project responds to the second goal by demonstrating that significant productivity increases can be achieved for outage maintenance operations based on existing knowledge-based scheduling technology. Its use can also mitigate threats to potential safety problems by means of the integration of risk assessment features into the scheduler. The scheduling approach uses advanced techniques enabling the automation of the routine scheduling decision process that previously was handled by people. The process of removing conflicts in scheduling is automated. This is achieved by providing activity representations that allow schedulers to express a variety of different scheduling constraints and by implementing scheduling mechanisms that simulate kinds of processes that humans use to find better solutions from a large number of possible solutions. This approach allows schedulers to express detailed constraints between activities and other activities, resources (material and personnel), and requirements that certain states exist for their execution. Our scheduler has already demonstrated its benefit to improving the shuttle processing flow management at Kennedy Space Center. Knowledge-based scheduling techniques should be examined by utilities industry researchers, developers, operators and management for application to utilities planning problems because of its great cost benefit potential. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions

  7. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  8. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  12. Cbs (Contrastrain Based Schedulling Adalah Faktor Penentu Keberhasilan Perusahanan Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Achmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive industry faces today ranging from small or home-based printing to using machine that can print offset a hundred thousand copies per hour. But, the increasing competition resulted in requiring a faster production time from order entry, print proff until the production process to delivery to customers. Often times in case of orders which will result in the concurrent PPIC will experience vertigo in the setting of production schedules which have concurrent delivery time. Often will end up with no receipt of orders due to difficulties in the production schedule, especially if the orders require the same offset machine and cylinder wear the same length, while the number of cylinders is limited. Therefore, the printing company should be able to do so in the conduct of a penetration timing of production can easily be simulated and implemented on the ground. CBS (Base Constraint scheduling is a technique to do the scheduling of production so that production can be carried out smoothly and quickly that fulfill the promise made to customers. In scheduling, there are several techniques that can be used are: FCFS (First Came First Serve, EDD (Earliest Date, and LCLS (Last Came Last Serve. So, it is required to be able to do way better scheduling to get results quickly in this fast changing schedules.

  13. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  15. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  16. Adapting planning and scheduling concepts to an engineering perspective: Key issues and successful techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to engineering planning are slanted toward the formats and interests of downstream implementation, and do not always consider the form and criticality of the front-end engineering development process. These processes and scopes are less defined and more subjective than most construction and operations tasks, and require flexible scheduling methods. This paper discusses the characteristics and requirement of engineering schedules, presents concepts for approaching planning in this field, and illustrates simple methods for developing and analyzing engineering plans, and evaluating schedule performance. Engineering plans are structured into a schedule hierarchy which delineates appropriate control and responsibilities, and is governed by key evaluation and decision milestones. Schedule risk analysis considers the uncertainty of engineering tasks, and critical resource constraints. Methods to evaluate schedule performance recognize that engineers and managers are responsible for adequate planning and forecasting, and quality decisions, even if they cannot control all factors influencing schedule results

  17. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. Residency Applicants Prefer Online System for Scheduling Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Residency coordinators may be overwhelmed when scheduling residency interviews. Applicants often have to coordinate interviews with multiple programs at once, and relying on verbal or email confirmation may delay the process. Our objective was to determine applicant mean time to schedule and satisfaction using online scheduling. Methods: This pilot study is a retrospective analysis performed on a sample of applicants offered interviews at an urban county emergency medicine residency. Applicants were asked their estimated time to schedule with the online system compared to their average time using other methods. In addition, they were asked on a five-point anchored scale to rate their satisfaction. Results: Of 171 applicants, 121 completed the survey (70.8%. Applicants were scheduling an average of 13.3 interviews. Applicants reported scheduling interviews using the online system in mean of 46.2 minutes (median 10, range 1-1800 from the interview offer as compared with a mean of 320.2 minutes (median 60, range 3-2880 for other programs not using this system. This difference was statistically significant. In addition, applicants were more likely to rate their satisfaction using the online system as “satisfied” (83.5% vs 16.5%. Applicants were also more likely to state that they preferred scheduling their interviews using the online system rather than the way other programs scheduled interviews (74.2% vs 4.1% and that the online system aided them coordinating travel arrangements (52.1% vs 4.1%. Conclusion: An online interview scheduling system is associated with higher satisfaction among applicants both in coordinating travel arrangements and in overall satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:352-354.

  19. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  20. An Automatic Course Scheduling Approach Using Instructors' Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Faris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available University Courses Timetabling problem has been extensively researched in the last decade. Therefore, numerous approaches were proposed to solve UCT problem. This paper proposes a new approach to process a sequence of meetings between instructors, rooms, and students in predefined periods of time with satisfying a set of constraints divided in variety of types. In addition, this paper proposes new representation for courses timetabling and conflict-free for each time slot by mining instructor preferences from previous schedules to avoid undesirable times for instructors. Experiments on different real data showed the approach achieved increased satisfaction degree for each instructor and gives feasible schedule with satisfying all hard constraints in construction operation. The generated schedules have high satisfaction degrees comparing with schedules created manually. The research conducts experiments on collected data gathered from the computer science department and other related departments in Jordan University of Science and Technology- Jordan.

  1. Microcomputer-based workforce scheduling for hospital porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C K

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on labour scheduling for hospital porters who are the major workforce providing routine cleansing of wards, transportation and messenger services. Generating an equitable monthly roster for porters while meeting the daily minimum demand is a tedious task scheduled manually by a supervisor. In considering a variety of constraints and goals, a manual schedule was usually produced in seven to ten days. To be in line with the strategic goal of scientific management of an acute care regional hospital in Hong Kong, a microcomputer-based algorithm was developed to schedule the monthly roster. The algorithm, coded in Digital Visual Fortran 5.0 Professional, could generate a monthly roster in seconds. Implementation has been carried out since September 1998 and the results proved to be useful to hospital administrators and porters. This paper discusses both the technical and human issues involved during the computerization process.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  3. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alle A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  4. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  5. Adaptive scheduling with postexamining user selection under nonidentical fading

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-11-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive scheduling algorithm for multiuser environments with statistically independent but nonidentically distributed (i.n.d.) channel conditions. The algorithm aims to reduce feedback load by sequentially and arbitrarily examining the user channels. It also provides improved performance by realizing postexamining best user selection. The first part of the paper presents new formulations for the statistics of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the scheduled user under i.n.d. channel conditions. The second part capitalizes on the findings in the first part and presents various performance and processing complexity measures for adaptive discrete-time transmission. The results are then extended to investigate the effect of outdated channel estimates on the statistics of the scheduled user SNR, as well as some performance measures. Numerical results are provided to clarify the usefulness of the scheduling algorithm under perfect or outdated channel estimates. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  6. A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Malhotra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we have discussed about various fault tolerant task scheduling algorithm for multi core system based on hardware and software. Hardware based algorithm which is blend of Triple Modulo Redundancy and Double Modulo Redundancy in which Agricultural Vulnerability Factor is considered while deciding the scheduling other than EDF and LLF scheduling algorithms. In most of the real time system the dominant part is shared memory.Low overhead software based fault tolerance approach can be implemented at user-space level so that it does not require any changes at application level. Here redundant multi-threaded processes are used. Using those processes we can detect soft errors and recover from them. This method gives low overhead fast error detection and recovery mechanism. The overhead incurred by this method ranges from 0 to 18 for selected benchmarks. Hybrid Scheduling Method is another scheduling approach for real time systems. Dynamic fault tolerant scheduling gives high feasibility rate whereas task criticality is used to select the type of fault recovery method in order to tolerate the maximum number of faults.

  7. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  8. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  9. Interaction in activity location scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, V.; Vries, de B.; Dijkstra, J.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction in activity location scheduling which is the main subject of an ongoing research project called "User Simulation of Space Utilization". The aim of this research project is to develop an overall model for the simulation of human movement and utilization of

  10. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  11. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  12. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  13. Toward Realistic Acquisition Schedule Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    replace earlier versions of the F/A-18. Joint and International Nature At the time of JSF conception, there was a clear preference at the highest levels...ALPHABET SOUP ” (Aboulafia, 2015) OF STUDIES AND CONCEPTS • … MERGED INTO JAST • … WHICH EVOLVED TO JSF • WELL-KNOWN COST AND SCHEDULE

  14. Analyzing NPS Scheduling Using OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    School TEACHER SCHEDULE BLOCKS REPORT Date: 2/19/93 Period Name ID Term Days 1234 Adragna , Joe 170401 1 F xx Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 F xx Almquist...LOAD REPORT Date: 3/18/93 Total Max Consec Total Teacher ID Term Classes Classes Stud Adragna , Joe 170401 1 1 1 3 Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 2 2 98 Aiello

  15. Advertisement scheduling on commercial radio station using genetics algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamawati, S.; Nababan, E. B.; Tsani, B.; Taqyuddin, R.; Rahmat, R. F.

    2018-03-01

    On the commercial radio station, the advertising schedule is done manually, which resulted in ineffectiveness of ads schedule. Playback time consists of two types such as prime time and regular time. Radio Ads scheduling will be discussed in this research is based on ad playback schedule between 5am until 12am which rules every 15 minutes. It provides 3 slots ads with playback duration per ads maximum is 1 minute. If the radio broadcast time per day is 12 hours, then the maximum number of ads per day which can be aired is 76 ads. The other is the enactment of rules of prime time, namely the hours where the common people (listeners) have the greatest opportunity to listen to the radio, namely between the hours and hours of 4 am - 8 am, 6 pm - 10 pm. The number of screenings of the same ads on one day are limited to prime time ie 5 times, while for regular time is 8 times. Radio scheduling process is done using genetic algorithms which are composed of processes initialization chromosomes, selection, crossover and mutation. Study on chromosome 3 genes, each chromosome will be evaluated based on the value of fitness calculated based on the number of infractions that occurred on each individual chromosome. Where rule 1 is the number of screenings per ads must not be more than 5 times per day and rule 2 is there should never be two or more scheduling ads delivered on the same day and time. After fitness value of each chromosome is acquired, then the do the selection, crossover and mutation. From this research result, the optimal advertising schedule with schedule a whole day and ads data playback time ads with this level of accuracy: the average percentage was 83.79%.

  16. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... allergic disease and report the AR results. METHODS: Six hundred four subjects at least 14 years old with HDM AR and mild to moderate HDM allergic asthma were randomized 1:1:1:1 to double-blinded daily treatment with 1, 3, 6 SQ-HDM or placebo. End-of-treatment rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication...... score were predefined extrapulmonary end points. A subgroup analysis was conducted post hoc in subjects with a total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) > 0 (ie, with AR symptoms and/or AR medication use during the 4-week baseline period). The subgroup was comprised of 498 subjects (82%). RESULTS...

  17. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Xin; Ren, Yu-Shan; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Min; Liu, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Although arctigenin ( AG ) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro . In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v), hypodermic injection (i.h), and sublingual (s.l) administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate 100%), and a strong elimination ability ( t 1/2 beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24%) > rat (15.7 ± 9%) > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%). This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG) in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration.

  18. An Organizational and Qualitative Approach to Improving University Course Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Duncan L.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on the current timetabling process at the University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM), I apply David Wesson's theoretical framework in order to understand (1) how increasing enrollment interacts with a decentralized timetabling process to limit the flexibility of course schedules and (2) the resultant impact on educational quality. I then…

  19. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  20. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication, and who are tolerant (used to the effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl ... medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Tegretol, Teril), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), and phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); modafinil (Provigil); nalbuphine; ...

  1. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  2. The R-Shell approach - Using scheduling agents in complex distributed real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Swaminathan; Zhao, Wei; Goforth, Andre

    1993-01-01

    Large, complex real-time systems such as space and avionics systems are extremely demanding in their scheduling requirements. The current OS design approaches are quite limited in the capabilities they provide for task scheduling. Typically, they simply implement a particular uniprocessor scheduling strategy and do not provide any special support for network scheduling, overload handling, fault tolerance, distributed processing, etc. Our design of the R-Shell real-time environment fcilitates the implementation of a variety of sophisticated but efficient scheduling strategies, including incorporation of all these capabilities. This is accomplished by the use of scheduling agents which reside in the application run-time environment and are responsible for coordinating the scheduling of the application.

  3. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  4. Scheduling Parallel Jobs Using Migration and Consolidation in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocheng Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of high performance computing parallel applications leverages the power of the cloud for parallel processing. How to schedule the parallel applications to improve the quality of service is the key to the successful host of parallel applications in the cloud. The large scale of the cloud makes the parallel job scheduling more complicated as even simple parallel job scheduling problem is NP-complete. In this paper, we propose a parallel job scheduling algorithm named MEASY. MEASY adopts migration and consolidation to enhance the most popular EASY scheduling algorithm. Our extensive experiments on well-known workloads show that our algorithm takes very good care of the quality of service. For two common parallel job scheduling objectives, our algorithm produces an up to 41.1% and an average of 23.1% improvement on the average response time; an up to 82.9% and an average of 69.3% improvement on the average slowdown. Our algorithm is robust even in terms that it allows inaccurate CPU usage estimation and high migration cost. Our approach involves trivial modification on EASY and requires no additional technique; it is practical and effective in the cloud environment.

  5. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  6. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  7. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    .../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law... Income, Credits, Deductions and Other Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule M-2 (Analysis of Partners...

  8. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We have......In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  9. Brokdorf nuclear power station: Construction scheduling and deadline control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, U.D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Scheduling, especially deadline control, for all installations of the Brokdorf nuclear power station was carried out centrally by the Project Management of Kraftwerk Union AG. 130 timetables encompassing some 13,000 activities were handled, which were interconnected and linked to 189 timetables (approx. 18,000 activities) from various specialized sections by means of data processing systems. Much space in time scheduling was taken by controls of software processing, especially of the preliminary inspection documents in the piping sector and of working documents for construction management in the control systems area. (orig.) [de

  10. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  11. Preemptive scheduling in overloaded systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrobak, M.; Epstein, L.; Noga, J.; Sgall, Jiří; van Stee, R.; Tichý, Tomáš; Vakhania, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2003), s. 183-197 ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk ME 476; GA AV ČR IAA1019901; GA MŠk LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : scheduling * online algorithms * benefit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.795, year: 2003

  12. WCET Analysis for Preemptive Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Gebhard, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Hard real-time systems induce strict constraints on the timing of the task set. Validation of these timing constraints is thus a major challenge during the design of such a system. Whereas the derivation of timing guarantees must already be considered complex if tasks are running to completion, it gets even more complex if tasks are scheduled preemptively -- especially due to caches, deployed to improve the average performance. In this paper we propose a new method to compu...

  13. Scheduling Maintenance Jobs in Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Fidaa; Chen, Lin; Disser, Yann; Groß, Martin; Megow, Nicole; Meißner, Julie; Richter, Alexander T.; Rischke, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of scheduling the maintenance of edges in a network, motivated by the goal of minimizing outages in transportation or telecommunication networks. We focus on maintaining connectivity between two nodes over time; for the special case of path networks, this is related to the problem of minimizing the busy time of machines. We show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time in arbitrary networks if preemption is allowed. If preemption is restricted to integral t...

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  15. Broadcast scheduling for mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...

  16. Schedule of the nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heigl, F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecure tries to explain the main phases which must be passed to establish nuclear power plants, the feasibility phase, preconstruction and construction phase. Each phase consists of a lot of activities which are commented. Further the lecture tries to give some ideas of durances and dependence between the phases or activities to get a complete time schedule of the realization of a nuclear power project. (HP) [de

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  19. An Event-driven, Value-based, Pull Systems Engineering Scheduling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    combining a services approach to systems engineering with a kanban -based scheduling system. It provides the basis for validating the approach with...agent-based simulations. Keywords-systems engineering; systems engineering process; lean; kanban ; process simulation I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND...approaches [8], [9], we are investigating the use of flow-based pull scheduling techniques ( kanban systems) in a rapid response development

  20. Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

  1. Pittsburgh International Airport - Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Here you can find Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Reports. Each of these reports contain a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled...

  2. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  3. GSA eLibrary Schedules and Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA eLibrary (formerly Schedules e-Library) is the online source for the latest contract award information for: GSA Schedules; Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...

  4. Interactive Anticipatory Scheduling for Two Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, Adele

    2003-01-01

    ...; these models partially explain what makes some job shop scheduling problems difficult. For the second, several algorithms for Air Force Satellite Control Network scheduling have been compared on historical and recent data...

  5. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Network scheduling at Belene NPP construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Four types of schedules differing in the level of their detail are singled out to enhance the efficiency of Belene NPP Project implementation planning and monitoring: Level 1 Schedule–Summary Integrated Overall Time Schedule (SIOTS) is an appendix to EPC Contract. The main purpose of SIOTS is the large scale presentation of the current information on the Project implementation. Level 2 Schedule–Integrated Overall Time Schedule (IOTS)is the contract schedule for the Contractor (ASE JSC) and their subcontractors.The principal purpose of IOTS is the work progress planning and monitoring, the analysis of the effect of activities implementation upon the progress of the Project as a whole. IOTS is the reporting schedule at the Employer –Contractor level. Level 3 Schedules, Detail Time Schedules(DTS) are developed by those who actually perform the work and are agreed upon with Atomstroyexport JSC.The main purpose of DTS is the detail planning of Atomstroyexport subcontractor's activities. DTSare the reporting schedules at the level of Contractor-Subcontractor. Level 4 Schedules are the High Detail Time Schedules (HDTS), which are the day-to-day plans of work implementation and are developed, as a rule, for a week's time period.Each lower level time schedule details the activities of the higher level time schedule

  7. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  8. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... serving at least 10,000 people must submit their sampling schedule for the initial round of source water... submitting the sampling schedule that EPA approves. (3) Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must submit... analytical result for a scheduled sampling date due to equipment failure, loss of or damage to the sample...

  9. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  10. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  11. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River... Administrative Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges... commenter and the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please...

  12. Mechanisms for scheduling games with selfish players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges in operations research involve optimization. In particular, scheduling treats the optimal planning of tasks. This thesis focuses on machine scheduling models, where a number of tasks, called jobs, need to be scheduled on one or more machines. The outcome is determined by which job is

  13. Cooperated Bayesian algorithm for distributed scheduling problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Lei; XIAO Tian-yuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new distributed Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) to overcome the efficiency problem when solving NP scheduling problems.The proposed approach integrates BOA into the co-evolutionary schema,which builds up a concurrent computing environment.A new search strategy is also introduced for local optimization process.It integrates the reinforcement learning(RL) mechanism into the BOA search processes,and then uses the mixed probability information from BOA (post-probability) and RL (pre-probability) to enhance the cooperation between different local controllers,which improves the optimization ability of the algorithm.The experiment shows that the new algorithm does better in both optimization (2.2%) and convergence (11.7%),compared with classic BOA.

  14. A meta-heuristic method for solving scheduling problem: crow search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Antono; Santosa, Budi; Siswanto, Nurhadi

    2018-04-01

    Scheduling is one of the most important processes in an industry both in manufacturingand services. The scheduling process is the process of selecting resources to perform an operation on tasks. Resources can be machines, peoples, tasks, jobs or operations.. The selection of optimum sequence of jobs from a permutation is an essential issue in every research in scheduling problem. Optimum sequence becomes optimum solution to resolve scheduling problem. Scheduling problem becomes NP-hard problem since the number of job in the sequence is more than normal number can be processed by exact algorithm. In order to obtain optimum results, it needs a method with capability to solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable time. Meta-heuristic is a method usually used to solve scheduling problem. The recently published method called Crow Search Algorithm (CSA) is adopted in this research to solve scheduling problem. CSA is an evolutionary meta-heuristic method which is based on the behavior in flocks of crow. The calculation result of CSA for solving scheduling problem is compared with other algorithms. From the comparison, it is found that CSA has better performance in term of optimum solution and time calculation than other algorithms.

  15. Adaptive Incremental Genetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Duan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new commercial model that enables customers to acquire large amounts of virtual resources on demand. Resources including hardware and software can be delivered as services and measured by specific usage of storage, processing, bandwidth, etc. In Cloud computing, task scheduling is a process of mapping cloud tasks to Virtual Machines (VMs. When binding the tasks to VMs, the scheduling strategy has an important influence on the efficiency of datacenter and related energy consumption. Although many traditional scheduling algorithms have been applied in various platforms, they may not work efficiently due to the large number of user requests, the variety of computation resources and complexity of Cloud environment. In this paper, we tackle the task scheduling problem which aims to minimize makespan by Genetic Algorithm (GA. We propose an incremental GA which has adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation. The mutation and crossover rates change according to generations and also vary between individuals. Large numbers of tasks are randomly generated to simulate various scales of task scheduling problem in Cloud environment. Based on the instance types of Amazon EC2, we implemented virtual machines with different computing capacity on CloudSim. We compared the performance of the adaptive incremental GA with that of Standard GA, Min-Min, Max-Min , Simulated Annealing and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in finding the optimal scheme. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve feasible solutions which have acceptable makespan with less computation time.

  16. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  17. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  18. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  19. Solving University Scheduling Problem Using Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed Shaikh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In universities scheduling curriculum activity is an essential job. Primarily, scheduling is a distribution of limited resources under interrelated constraints. The set of hard constraints demand the highest priority and should not to be violated at any cost, while the maximum soft constraints satisfaction mounts the quality scale of solution. In this research paper, a novel bisected approach is introduced that is comprisesd of GA (Genetic Algorithm as well as Backtracking Recursive Search. The employed technique deals with both hard and soft constraints successively. The first phase decisively is focused over elimination of all the hard constraints bounded violations and eventually produces partial solution for subsequent step. The second phase is supposed to draw the best possible solution on the search space. Promising results are obtained by implementation on the real dataset. The key points of the research approach are to get assurance of hard constraints removal from the dataset and minimizing computational time for GA by initializing pre-processed set of chromosomes.

  20. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  1. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    ASC-U uses a deterministic algorithm to optimize over a given finite time horizon to obtain near-optimal UAS mission area assignments. ASC-U...the details of the algorithm . We set an upper bound on the total number of schedules that can be generated, so as not to create unsolvable ILPs. We...COL_MISSION_NAME)) If Trim( CStr (rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED))) <> "" Then If CLng(rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED)) > CLng

  2. Scheduling and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Transparency/Performance Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules and for the mapping of fault-tolerant applications. Our techniques handle transparency/performance trade-offs and use the faultoccurrence information to reduce the overhead due to fault tolerance. Processes...... and messages are statically scheduled, and we use process reexecution for recovering from multiple transient faults. We propose a finegrained transparent recovery, where the property of transparency can be selectively applied to processes and messages. Transparency hides the recovery actions in a selected part...... of the application so that they do not affect the schedule of other processes and messages. While leading to longer schedules, transparent recovery has the advantage of both improved debuggability and less memory needed to store the faulttolerant schedules....

  3. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  4. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995

  5. Suitability and managerial implications of a Master Surgical Scheduling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, Jeroen M.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Bredenhoff, E.; Hans, Elias W.

    2010-01-01

    Operating room (OR) planning and scheduling is a popular and challenging subject within the operational research applied to health services research (ORAHS). However, the impact in practice is very limited. The organization and culture of a hospital and the inherent characteristics of its processes

  6. Scheduling with Optimized Communication for Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to process scheduling for synthesis of safety-critical distributed embedded systems.Our system model captures both the flow of data and that of control. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We take into consideration overheads due to communication...

  7. The Lot Sizing and Scheduling of Sand Casting Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, Steef

    2011-01-01

    We describe a real world case study that involves the monthly planning and scheduling of the sand-casting department in a metal foundry. The problem can be characterised as a single-level multi-item capacitated lot-sizing model with a variety of additional process-specific constraints. The main

  8. A stochastic simulation approach for production scheduling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... management decisions related to production scheduling and investment planning. ... and indicate the value of promoting an information culture in the entire work forces. ... to support decision making in a BPR (Business Processes Re-engineering) scenario.

  9. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic…

  10. Decentralization and mechanism design for online machine scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arge, Lars; Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Freivalds, Rusins; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    We study the online version of the classical parallel machine scheduling problem to minimize the total weighted completion time from a new perspective: We assume that the data of each job, namely its release date $r_j$, its processing time $p_j$ and its weight $w_j$ is only known to the job itself,

  11. Verification and Optimization of a PLC Control Schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.; Havelund, K.; Penix, J.; Visser, W.

    We report on the use of the SPIN model checker for both the verification of a process control program and the derivation of optimal control schedules. This work was carried out as part of a case study for the EC VHS project (Verification of Hybrid Systems), in which the program for a Programmable

  12. Power-scheduling - Introduction of the FPBG1 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Meier, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at the Scheduled Balance Group system (in German: 'Fahrplanbilanzgruppensystem', FPBG) which was successfully introduced in Switzerland in December 2005. The development of the system is described and the reasons for the development of a new concept for Switzerland are discussed. The system permits the use of standard European scheduling processes for national and international power traders and supports Switzerland's function as an important power hub in Europe. The basics behind the concept are discussed and the mechanisms of its functioning are illustrated in graphical form. The implementation of the system by the ETRANS company is looked at and various questions posed in this connection are answered

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  15. Comparison Performance of Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization in Course Scheduling Optimizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Ahmad Ashari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems at the university is a complex type of scheduling problems. The scheduling process should be carried out at every turn of the semester's. The core of the problem of scheduling courses at the university is that the number of components that need to be considered in making the schedule, some of the components was made up of students, lecturers, time and a room with due regard to the limits and certain conditions so that no collision in the schedule such as mashed room, mashed lecturer and others. To resolve a scheduling problem most appropriate technique used is the technique of optimization. Optimization techniques can give the best results desired. Metaheuristic algorithm is an algorithm that has a lot of ways to solve the problems to the very limit the optimal solution. In this paper, we use a genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization algorithm is an algorithm metaheuristic to solve the problem of course scheduling. The two algorithm will be tested and compared to get performance is the best. The algorithm was tested using data schedule courses of the university in Semarang. From the experimental results we conclude that the genetic algorithm has better performance than the ant colony optimization  algorithm in solving the case of course scheduling.

  16. Sharing data for production scheduling using the ISA-95 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiro eHarjunkoski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development and deployment of production scheduling solutions one major challenge is to establish efficient information sharing with industrial production management systems. Information comprising production orders to be scheduled, processing plant structure, product recipes, available equipment and other resources are necessary for producing a realistic short-term production plan. Currently, a widely-accepted standard for information sharing is missing. This often leads to the implementation of costly custom-tailored interfaces, or in the worst case the scheduling solution will be abandoned. Additionally, it becomes difficult to easily compare different methods on various problem instances, which complicates the re-use of existing scheduling solutions. In order to overcome these hurdles, a platform-independent and holistic approach is needed. Nevertheless, it is difficult for any new solution to gain wide acceptance within industry as new standards are often refused by companies already using a different established interface. From an acceptance point of view, the ISA-95 standard could act as a neutral data-exchange platform. In this paper, we assess if this already widespread standard is simple, yet powerful enough to act as the desired holistic data-exchange for scheduling solutions.

  17. Optimal Time-Abstract Schedulers for CTMDPs and Markov Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rabe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study time-bounded reachability in continuous-time Markov decision processes for time-abstract scheduler classes. Such reachability problems play a paramount role in dependability analysis and the modelling of manufacturing and queueing systems. Consequently, their analysis has been studied intensively, and techniques for the approximation of optimal control are well understood. From a mathematical point of view, however, the question of approximation is secondary compared to the fundamental question whether or not optimal control exists. We demonstrate the existence of optimal schedulers for the time-abstract scheduler classes for all CTMDPs. Our proof is constructive: We show how to compute optimal time-abstract strategies with finite memory. It turns out that these optimal schedulers have an amazingly simple structure---they converge to an easy-to-compute memoryless scheduling policy after a finite number of steps. Finally, we show that our argument can easily be lifted to Markov games: We show that both players have a likewise simple optimal strategy in these more general structures.

  18. Sharing Data for Production Scheduling Using the ISA-95 Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harjunkoski, Iiro, E-mail: iiro.harjunkoski@de.abb.com; Bauer, Reinhard [ABB Corporate Research, Industrial Software and Applications, Ladenburg (Germany)

    2014-10-21

    In the development and deployment of production scheduling solutions, one major challenge is to establish efficient information sharing with industrial production management systems. Information comprising production orders to be scheduled, processing plant structure, product recipes, available equipment, and other resources are necessary for producing a realistic short-term production plan. Currently, a widely accepted standard for information sharing is missing. This often leads to the implementation of costly custom-tailored interfaces, or in the worst case the scheduling solution will be abandoned. Additionally, it becomes difficult to easily compare different methods on various problem instances, which complicates the re-use of existing scheduling solutions. In order to overcome these hurdles, a platform-independent and holistic approach is needed. Nevertheless, it is difficult for any new solution to gain wide acceptance within industry as new standards are often refused by companies already using a different established interface. From an acceptance point of view, the ISA-95 standard could act as a neutral data-exchange platform. In this paper, we assess if this already widespread standard is simple, yet powerful enough to act as the desired holistic data exchange for scheduling solutions.

  19. Sharing Data for Production Scheduling Using the ISA-95 Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjunkoski, Iiro; Bauer, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    In the development and deployment of production scheduling solutions, one major challenge is to establish efficient information sharing with industrial production management systems. Information comprising production orders to be scheduled, processing plant structure, product recipes, available equipment, and other resources are necessary for producing a realistic short-term production plan. Currently, a widely accepted standard for information sharing is missing. This often leads to the implementation of costly custom-tailored interfaces, or in the worst case the scheduling solution will be abandoned. Additionally, it becomes difficult to easily compare different methods on various problem instances, which complicates the re-use of existing scheduling solutions. In order to overcome these hurdles, a platform-independent and holistic approach is needed. Nevertheless, it is difficult for any new solution to gain wide acceptance within industry as new standards are often refused by companies already using a different established interface. From an acceptance point of view, the ISA-95 standard could act as a neutral data-exchange platform. In this paper, we assess if this already widespread standard is simple, yet powerful enough to act as the desired holistic data exchange for scheduling solutions.

  20. A General State-Space Formulation for Online Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Gupta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalized state-space model formulation particularly motivated by an online scheduling perspective, which allows modeling (1 task-delays and unit breakdowns; (2 fractional delays and unit downtimes, when using discrete-time grid; (3 variable batch-sizes; (4 robust scheduling through the use of conservative yield estimates and processing times; (5 feedback on task-yield estimates before the task finishes; (6 task termination during its execution; (7 post-production storage of material in unit; and (8 unit capacity degradation and maintenance. Through these proposed generalizations, we enable a natural way to handle routinely encountered disturbances and a rich set of corresponding counter-decisions. Thereby, greatly simplifying and extending the possible application of mathematical programming based online scheduling solutions to diverse application settings. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this model on a case study from the field of bio-manufacturing.