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Sample records for scfbeta-trcp ubiquitin ligase

  1. Phosphorylation and specific ubiquitin acceptor sites are required for ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of type I interferon receptor.

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    Kumar, K G Suresh; Krolewski, John J; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2004-11-05

    Ubiquitination, endocytosis, and lysosomal degradation of the IFNAR1 (interferon alpha receptor 1) subunit of the type I interferon (IFN) receptor is mediated by the SCFbeta-Trcp (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein beta transducin repeat-containing protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In addition, stability of IFNAR1 is regulated by its binding to Tyk2 kinase. Here we characterize the determinants of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and degradation. We found that the integrity of two Ser residues at positions 535 and 539 within the specific destruction motif present in the cytoplasmic tail of IFNAR1 is essential for the ability of IFNAR1 to recruit beta-Trcp as well as to undergo efficient ubiquitination and degradation. Using an antibody that specifically recognizes IFNAR1 phosphorylated on Ser535 we found that IFNAR1 is phosphorylated on this residue in cells. This phosphorylation is promoted by treatment of cells with IFNalpha. Although the cytoplasmic tail of IFNAR1 contains seven Lys residues that could function as potential ubiquitin acceptor sites, we found that only three (Lys501, Lys525, and Lys526), all located proximal to the destruction motif, are essential for ubiquitination and degradation of IFNAR1. Expression of Tyk2 stabilized IFNAR1 in a manner that was dependent neither on its binding to beta-Trcp nor IFNAR1 ubiquitination. We discuss the complexities and specifics of the ubiquitination and degradation of IFNAR1, which is a beta-Trcp substrate that undergoes degradation via a lysosomal pathway.

  2. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases as Cancer Targets and Biomarkers

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    Yi Sun

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available E3 ubiquitin ligases are a large family of proteins that are engaged in the regulation of the turnover and activity of many target proteins. Together with ubiquitinactivating enzyme El and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the ubiquitination of a variety of biologically significant protein substrates for targeted degradation through the 26S proteasome, as well as for nonproteolytic regulation of their functions or subcellular localizations. E3 ubiquitin ligases, therefore, play an essential role in the regulation of many biologic processes. Increasing amounts of evidence strongly suggest that the abnormal regulation of some E3 ligases is involved in cancer development. Furthermore, some E3 ubiquitin ligases are frequently overexpressed in human cancers, which correlates well with increased chemoresistance and poor clinic prognosis. In this review, E3 ubiquitin ligases (such as murine double minute 2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and Skpi-Cullin-F-box protein will be evaluated as potential cancer drug targets and prognostic biomarkers. Extensive study in this field would lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism by which E3 ligases regulate cellular processes and of how their deregulations contribute to carcinogenesis. This would eventually lead to the development of a novel class of anticancer drugs targeting specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, as well as the development of sensitive biomarkers for cancer treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis.

  3. KF-1 ubiquitin ligase: an anxiety suppressor

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    Tamotsu Hashimoto-Gotoh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an instinct that may have developed to promote adaptive survival by evading unnecessary danger. However, excessive anxiety is disruptive and can be a basic disorder of other psychiatric diseases such as depression. The KF-1, a ubiquitin ligase located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, may prevent excessive anxiety; kf-1−/− mice exhibit selectively elevated anxiety-like behavior against light or heights. Thus, KF-1 may degrade some target proteins, responsible for promoting anxiety, through the ER-associated degradation pathway, similar to Parkin in Parkinson's disease (PD. Parkin, another ER-ubiquitin ligase, prevents the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons by degrading the target proteins responsible for PD. Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the prototype of kf-1 appeared in the very early phase of animal evolution but was lost, unlike parkin, in the lineage leading up to Drosophila. Therefore, kf-1−/− mice, be a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in emotional regulation, and for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds.

  4. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Neurobiological Mechanisms: Development to Degeneration

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    Arun Upadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells regularly synthesize new proteins to replace old or damaged proteins. Deposition of various aberrant proteins in specific brain regions leads to neurodegeneration and aging. The cellular protein quality control system develop various defense mechanisms against the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. The mechanisms underlying the selective recognition of specific crucial protein or misfolded proteins are majorly governed by quality control E3 ubiquitin ligases mediated through ubiquitin-proteasome system. Few known E3 ubiquitin ligases have shown prominent neurodevelopmental functions, but their interactions with different developmental proteins play critical roles in neurodevelopmental disorders. Several questions are yet to be understood properly. How E3 ubiquitin ligases determine the specificity and regulate degradation of a particular substrate involved in neuronal proliferation and differentiation is certainly the one, which needs detailed investigations. Another important question is how neurodevelopmental E3 ubiquitin ligases specifically differentiate between their versatile range of substrates and timing of their functional modulations during different phases of development. The premise of this article is to understand how few E3 ubiquitin ligases sense major molecular events, which are crucial for human brain development from its early embryonic stages to throughout adolescence period. A better understanding of these few E3 ubiquitin ligases and their interactions with other potential proteins will provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms to approach toward therapeutic interventions.

  5. Auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 Enhances Its Substrate Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

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    Ranaweera, Ruchira S.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    The RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the master regulator of the tumor suppressor p53. It targets p53 for proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Like most E3 ligases, Mdm2 can also ubiquitinate itself. How Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination may influence its substrate ubiquitin ligase activity is undefined. Here we show that auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 is an activating event. Mdm2 that has been conjugated to polyubiquitin chains, but not to single ubiquitins, exhibits substantially enhanced activity to polyubiquitinate p53. Mechanistically, auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 facilitates the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. This occurs through noncovalent interactions between the ubiquitin chains on Mdm2 and the ubiquitin binding domain on E2s. Mutations that diminish the noncovalent interactions render auto-ubiquitination unable to stimulate Mdm2 substrate E3 activity. These results suggest a model in which polyubiquitin chains on an E3 increase the local concentration of E2 enzymes and permit the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. They also support the notion that autocatalysis may be a prevalent mode for turning on the activity of latent enzymes. PMID:23671280

  6. Substrates of the BRCA1-dependent ubiquitin ligase.

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    Starita, Lea M; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2006-02-01

    Discovering the precise function of the breast and ovarian specific tumor suppressor, BRCA1, has proven to be quite complicated. It has been determined that BRCA1, together with BARD1, comprise an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Since it is now known that BRCA1 is an enzyme, the challenge for BRCA1 research is to learn how this enzymatic activity functions in normal breast and ovarian cells in order to suppress cancerous transformation. This review will survey the known ubiquitination substrates of BRCA1 and suggest how these reactions may influence the genomic stability and proliferation of breast cells.

  7. Stealing the spotlight: CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase docks WD40-repeat proteins to destroy

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    Zhang Hui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent investigation of Cullin 4 (CUL4 has ushered this class of multiprotein ubiquitin E3 ligases to center stage as critical regulators of diverse processes including cell cycle regulation, developmental patterning, DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, and epigenetic control of gene expression. CUL4 associates with DNA Damage Binding protein 1 (DDB1 to assemble an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets protein substrates for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. CUL4 ligase activity is also regulated by the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to CUL4, or neddylation, and the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN that removes this important modification. Recently, multiple WD40-repeat proteins (WDR were found to interact with DDB1 and serve as the substrate-recognition subunits of the CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. As more than 150–300 WDR proteins exist in the human genome, these findings impact a wide array of biological processes through CUL4 ligase-mediated proteolysis. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the mechanism of CUL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase and discuss the architecture of CUL4-assembled E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes by comparison to CUL1-based E3s (SCF. Then, we will review several examples to highlight the critical roles of CUL4 ubiquitin ligase in genome stability, cell cycle regulation, and histone lysine methylation. Together, these studies provide insights into the mechanism of this novel ubiquitin ligase in the regulation of important biological processes.

  8. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function.

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    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains and that thalidomide blocks the formation of CRBN-ubiquitin conjugates. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitinated CRBN is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines such as MM1.S, OPM2, and U266 with thalidomide (100 μM) and its structural analog lenalidomide (10 μM) results in stabilization of CRBN and elevation of CRBN protein levels. This in turn leads to the reduced level of CRBN target proteins and enhances the sensitivity of human multiple myeloma cells to IMiDs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which thalidomide and its analogs modulate the CRBN function in cells. Through inhibition of CRBN ubiquitination, thalidomide and its analogs allow CRBN to accumulate, leading to the increased cullin-4 RING E3 ligase-mediated degradation of target proteins. © FASEB.

  9. RNF111/Arkadia is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the DNA damage response

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    Poulsen, Sara L; Hansen, Rebecca K; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    Protein modifications by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) directly couple these modifications by selectively recognizing SUMOylated target proteins through SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), pro...

  10. The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Prevents SirT6 Degradation through Noncanonical Ubiquitination

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    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Wu, Yaxu; McDonough, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) regulates protein quality control, and CHIP deletion accelerates aging and reduces the life span in mice. Here, we reveal a mechanism for CHIP's influence on longevity by demonstrating that CHIP stabilizes the sirtuin family member SirT6, a lysine deacetylase/ADP ribosylase involved in DNA repair, metabolism, and longevity. In CHIP-deficient cells, SirT6 protein half-life is substantially reduced due to increased proteasome-mediated degradation, but CHIP overexpression in these cells increases SirT6 protein expression without affecting SirT6 transcription. CHIP noncanonically ubiquitinates SirT6 at K170, which stabilizes SirT6 and prevents SirT6 canonical ubiquitination by other ubiquitin ligases. In CHIP-depleted cells, SirT6 K170 mutation increases SirT6 half-life and prevents proteasome-mediated degradation. The global decrease in SirT6 expression in the absence of CHIP is associated with decreased SirT6 promoter occupancy, which increases histone acetylation and promotes downstream gene transcription in CHIP-depleted cells. Cells lacking CHIP are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but DNA repair and cell viability are rescued by enforced expression of SirT6. The discovery of this CHIP-SirT6 interaction represents a novel protein-stabilizing mechanism and defines an intersection between protein quality control and epigenetic regulation to influence pathways that regulate the biology of aging. PMID:24043303

  11. A viral ubiquitin ligase has substrate preferential SUMO targeted ubiquitin ligase activity that counteracts intrinsic antiviral defence.

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    Chris Boutell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic antiviral resistance represents the first line of intracellular defence against virus infection. During herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 infection this response can lead to the repression of viral gene expression but is counteracted by the viral ubiquitin ligase ICP0. Here we address the mechanisms by which ICP0 overcomes this antiviral response. We report that ICP0 induces the widespread proteasome-dependent degradation of SUMO-conjugated proteins during infection and has properties related to those of cellular SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs. Mutation of putative SUMO interaction motifs within ICP0 not only affects its ability to degrade SUMO conjugates, but also its capacity to stimulate HSV-1 lytic infection and reactivation from quiescence. We demonstrate that in the absence of this viral countermeasure the SUMO conjugation pathway plays an important role in mediating intrinsic antiviral resistance and the repression of HSV-1 infection. Using PML as a model substrate, we found that whilst ICP0 preferentially targets SUMO-modified isoforms of PML for degradation, it also induces the degradation of PML isoform I in a SUMO modification-independent manner. PML was degraded by ICP0 more rapidly than the bulk of SUMO-modified proteins in general, implying that the identity of a SUMO-modified protein, as well as the presence of SUMO modification, is involved in ICP0 targeting. We conclude that ICP0 has dual targeting mechanisms involving both SUMO- and substrate-dependent targeting specificities in order to counteract intrinsic antiviral resistance to HSV-1 infection.

  12. ATLs and BTLs, plant-specific and general eukaryotic structurally-related E3 ubiquitin ligases.

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    Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-02-01

    Major components of the ubiquitin proteasome system are the enzymes that operate on the transfer of ubiquitin to selected target substrate, known as ubiquitin ligases. The RING finger is a domain that is present in key classes of ubiquitin ligases. This domain coordinates the interaction with a suitable E2 conjugase and the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to protein targets. Additional domains coupled to the same polypeptide are important for modulating the function of these ubiquitin ligases. Plants contain several types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that in many cases have expanded as multigene families. Some families are specific to the plant lineage, whereas others may have a common ancestor among plants and other eukaryotic lineages. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATLs) and BCA2 zinc finger ATLs (BTLs) are two families of ubiquitin ligases that share some common structural features. These are intronless genes that encode a highly related RING finger domain, and yet during evolutionary history, their mode of gene expansion and function is rather different. In each of these two families, the co-occurrence of transmembrane helices or C2/C2 (BZF finger) domains with a selected variation on the RING finger has been subjected to strong selection pressure in order to preserve their unique domain architectures during evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comprehensive Atlas of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutations in Neurological Disorders

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    Arlene J. George

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that plays an integral part in mediating diverse cellular functions. The process of protein ubiquitination requires an enzymatic cascade that consists of a ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2 and an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3. There are an estimated 600–700 E3 ligase genes representing ~5% of the human genome. Not surprisingly, mutations in E3 ligase genes have been observed in multiple neurological conditions. We constructed a comprehensive atlas of disrupted E3 ligase genes in common (CND and rare neurological diseases (RND. Of the predicted and known human E3 ligase genes, we found ~13% were mutated in a neurological disorder with 83 total genes representing 70 different types of neurological diseases. Of the E3 ligase genes identified, 51 were associated with an RND. Here, we provide an updated list of neurological disorders associated with E3 ligase gene disruption. We further highlight research in these neurological disorders and discuss the advanced technologies used to support these findings.

  14. Inhibitors of ubiquitin E3 ligase as potential new antimalarial drug leads

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    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is the principal system for degradation of proteins in eukaryotes. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved polypeptide that covalently attaches to target proteins through the combined action ofubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), conjugating enzyme (E2) and a protein ligase (E...

  15. Inhibitors of ubiquitin E3 ligase as potential new antimalarial drug leads.

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    Jain, Jagrati; Jain, Surendra K; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2017-06-02

    Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational regulation, which has been shown to be necessary for life cycle progression and survival of Plasmodium falciparum. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76 amino acid polypeptide, which attaches covalently to target proteins through combined action of three classes of enzymes namely, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Ubiquitin E1 and E2 are highly conserved within eukaryotes. However, the P. falciparum E3 ligase is substantially variable and divergent compared to the homologs from other eukaryotes, which make the E3 ligase a parasite-specific target. A set of selected E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitors was tested in vitro against a chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum D6 strain (PfD6) and a chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum W2 strain (PfW2). The inhibitors were also tested against Vero and transformed THP1 cells for cytotoxicity. The lead antimalarial E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitors were further evaluated for the stage-specific antimalarial action and effects on cellular development of P. falciparum in vitro. Statistics analysis was done by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey and Sidak multiple comparison test using GraphPad Prism 6. E3 ligase inhibitors namely, JNJ 26854165, HLI 373 and Nutlin 3 showed prominent antimalarial activity against PfD6 and PfW2. These inhibitors were considerably less cytotoxic to mammalian Vero cells. JNJ 26854165, HLI 373 and Nutlin 3 blocked the development of P. falciparum parasite at the trophozoite and schizont stages, resulting in accumulation of distorted trophozoites and immature schizonts. Interruption of trophozoites and schizont maturation by the antimalarial E3 ligase inhibitors suggest the role of ubiquitin/proteasome functions in the intraerythrocytic development of malaria parasite. The ubiquitin/proteasome functions may be critical for schizont maturation. Further investigations on the lead E3 ligase

  16. USP19-Mediated Deubiquitination Facilitates the Stabilization of HRD1 Ubiquitin Ligase

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    Kumi Harada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, misfolded and unfolded proteins are eliminated by a process called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD in order to maintain cell homeostasis. In the ERAD pathway, several ER-localized E3 ubiquitin ligases target ERAD substrate proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. However, little is known about how the functions of the ERAD ubiquitin ligases are regulated. Recently, USP19, an ER-anchored deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB, has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of ERAD. In this study, HRD1, an ERAD ubiquitin ligase, is shown to be a novel substrate for USP19. We demonstrate that USP19 rescues HRD1 from proteasomal degradation by deubiquitination of K48-linked ubiquitin chains. In addition, the altered expression of USP19 affects the steady-state levels of HRD1. These results suggest that USP19 regulates the stability of HRD1 and provide insight into the regulatory mechanism of the ERAD ubiquitin ligases.

  17. Interplays between Sumoylation, SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases, and the Ubiquitin-Adaptor Protein Ufd1 in Fission Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Julie Bonne

    their conformation or interactions with other macromolecules. Though, whereas the downstream consequence of ubiquitin conjugation is often protein degradation, the functional outcomes of sumoylation are less unifiable. A class of ubiquitin E3 ligases able to target sumoylated proteins for degradation by the 26S...... proteasome mediates direct cross-talk between the two modification systems. By contributing to the dynamic turnover of SUMO conjugated species these SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) fulfills essential roles in both yeast and man. However, the specific sumoylated proteins affected by STUbL activity...... and the specific molecular interactions and sequence of events linking sumoylation, ubiquitylation and substrate degradation, has been largely uncovered. Using the fission yeast model organism I here present evidence for a role of the Ufd1 (ubiquitinfusion degradation 1) protein, and by extension of the Cdc48-Ufd1...

  18. Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme Cdc34 and Ubiquitin Ligase Skp1-Cullin-F-box Ligase (SCF) Interact through Multiple Conformations*

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    Sandoval, Daniella; Hill, Spencer; Ziemba, Amy; Lewis, Steven; Kuhlman, Brian; Kleiger, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In the ubiquitin-proteasome system, protein substrates are degraded via covalent modification by a polyubiquitin chain. The polyubiquitin chain must be assembled rapidly in cells, because a chain of at least four ubiquitins is required to signal for degradation, and chain-editing enzymes in the cell may cleave premature polyubiquitin chains before achieving this critical length. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 and ubiquitin ligase SCF are capable of building polyubiquitin chains onto protein substrates both rapidly and processively; this may be explained at least in part by the atypically fast rate of Cdc34 and SCF association. This rapid association has been attributed to electrostatic interactions between the acidic C-terminal tail of Cdc34 and a feature on SCF called the basic canyon. However, the structural aspects of the Cdc34-SCF interaction and how they permit rapid complex formation remain elusive. Here, we use protein cross-linking to demonstrate that the Cdc34-SCF interaction occurs in multiple conformations, where several residues from the Cdc34 acidic tail are capable of contacting a broad region of the SCF basic canyon. Similar patterns of cross-linking are also observed between Cdc34 and the Cul1 paralog Cul2, implicating the same mechanism for the Cdc34-SCF interaction in other members of the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. We discuss how these results can explain the rapid association of Cdc34 and SCF. PMID:25425648

  19. Membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase ATL15 functions in sugar-responsive growth regulation in Arabidopsis.

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    Aoyama, Shoki; Terada, Saki; Sanagi, Miho; Hasegawa, Yoko; Lu, Yu; Morita, Yoshie; Chiba, Yukako; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2017-09-09

    Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in regulating various cellular processes by modulating the protein function of specific ubiquitination targets. The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family is a group of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases that localize to membranes via their N-terminal transmembrane-like domains. To date, 91 ATL isoforms have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, with several ATLs reported to be involved in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the functions of most ATLs remain unknown. This study, involving transcriptome database analysis, identifies ATL15 as a sugar responsive ATL gene in Arabidopsis. ATL15 expression was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of sugar. The ATL15 protein showed ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and localized to plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments. Further genetic analyses demonstrated that the atl15 knockout mutants are insensitive to high glucose concentrations, whereas ATL15 overexpression depresses plant growth. In addition, endogenous glucose and starch amounts were reciprocally affected in the atl15 knockout mutants and the ATL15 overexpressors. These results suggest that ATL15 protein plays a significant role as a membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase that regulates sugar-responsive plant growth in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Angelman Syndrome-associated ubiquitin ligase Ube3A regulates synapse development by ubiquitinating Arc

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    Greer, Paul L.; Hanayama, Rikinari; Bloodgood, Brenda L.; Mardinly, Alan R.; Lipton, David M.; Flavell, Steven W.; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Griffith, Eric C.; Waldon, Zachary; Maehr, Rene; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Worley, Paul F.; Steen, Judith; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome is a debilitating neurological disorder caused by mutation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ube3A, a gene whose mutation has also recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The function of Ube3A during nervous system development, and how Ube3A mutations give rise to cognitive impairment in individuals with Angleman Syndrome and ASDs are not clear. We report here that experience-driven neuronal activity induces Ube3A transcription and that Ube3A then regulates excitatory synapse development by controlling the degradation of Arc, a synaptic protein that promotes the internalization of the AMPA sub-type of glutamate receptors. We find that disruption of Ube3A function in neurons leads to an increase in Arc expression and a concomitant decrease in the number of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. We propose that this deregulation of AMPA receptor expression at synapses may contribute to the cognitive dysfunction that occurs in Angelman Syndrome and possible other ASDs. PMID:20211139

  1. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases: Ubiquitous Actors in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses.

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    Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the precise regulatory mechanisms of plant development and stress responses at the post-translational level is currently a topic of intensive research. Protein ubiquitination, including the sequential performances of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, is a refined post-translational modification ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem and, as sessile organisms, the ability to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt well to various environmental challenges is crucial for their survival. Over recent decades, extensive studies have demonstrated that protein ubiquitination plays key roles in multiple plant developmental stages (e.g. seed dormancy and germination, root growth, flowering time control, self-incompatibility and chloroplast development) and several abiotic stress responses (e.g. drought and high salinity), by regulating the abundance, activities or subcellular localizations of a variety of regulatory polypeptides and enzymes. Importantly, diverse E3 ligases are involved in these regulatory pathways by mediating phytohormone and light signaling or other pathways. In this updated review, we mainly summarize recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory roles of protein ubiquitination in plant development and plant-environment interactions, and primarily focus on different types of E3 ligases because they play critical roles in determining substrate specificity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transactivation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdt2+ stimulates a Pcu4-Ddb1-CSN ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, C.; Poitelea, M.; Watson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cullin-4 forms a scaffold for multiple ubiquitin ligases. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Cullin-4 homologue (Pcu4) physically associates with Ddb1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN). One target of this complex is Spd1. Spd1 regulates ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity. Spd1 degradation during S...

  3. Composition, roles, and regulation of cullin-based ubiquitin e3 ligases.

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    Choi, Christina M; Gray, William M; Mooney, Sutton; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2014-01-01

    Due to their sessile nature, plants depend on flexible regulatory systems that allow them to adequately regulate developmental and physiological processes in context with environmental cues. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which targets a great number of proteins for degradation, is cellular tool that provides the necessary flexibility to accomplish this task. Ubiquitin E3 ligases provide the needed specificity to the pathway by selectively binding to particular substrates and facilitating their ubiquitylation. The largest group of E3 ligases known in plants is represented by CULLIN-REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) E3 ligases (CRLs). In recent years, a great amount of knowledge has been generated to reveal the critical roles of these enzymes across all aspects of plant life. This review provides an overview of the different classes of CRLs in plants, their specific complex compositions, the variety of biological processes they control, and the regulatory steps that can affect their activities.

  4. Regulation of DNA topoisomerase IIalpha stability by the ECV ubiquitin ligase complex.

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    Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Yong-Il; Tomida, Akihiro; Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2009-11-06

    In this study, we attempted to elucidate the E3 ubiquitin ligase for topo IIalpha. When cullins and VHL were ectopically expressed in HT1080 and HEK293T cells, topo IIalpha was degraded most prominently in cullin 2- and VHL-expressing cells. Cullin 2 and the beta domain (aa 114-123) of VHL, a subunit of the ECV (Elongin B/C-cullin 2-VHL protein) complex, specifically interact with the ATPase domain of topo IIalpha. We identified that topo IIalpha associated with endogenous Elongin C. In HT1080 cells co-transfected with deletion mutants of topo IIalpha GRDD (glucose-regulated destruction domain) and VHL, topo IIalpha was degraded by VHL expression. These results demonstrate that ECV acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting GRDD-independent topo IIalpha to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  5. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases.

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    Vriend, Jerry; Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J

    2017-01-01

    A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine. Using the Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Conjugation Database (UUCA) we identified ubiquitin ligases and conjugases, and deubiquitinases in the Hartley dataset for the purpose of determining whether expression of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were significantly influenced by day/night variations and if these variations were regulated by autonomic innervation of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglia. In the Hartley experiments pineal glands groups of rats sacrificed during the day and groups sacrificed during the night were examined for gene expression. Additional groups of rats had their superior cervical ganglia removed surgically or surgically decentralized and the pineal glands likewise examined for gene expression. The genes with at least a 2-fold day/night significant difference in expression included genes for 5 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, genes for 58 ubiquitin E3 ligases and genes for 6 deubiquitinases. A 35-fold day/night difference was noted in the expression of the gene Sik1, which codes for a protein containing both an ubiquitin binding domain (UBD) and an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain. Most of the significant differences in these genes were prevented by surgical removal, or disconnection, of the superior cervical ganglia, and most were responsive, in vitro, to treatment with

  6. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Vriend

    Full Text Available A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset. The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine.Using the Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Conjugation Database (UUCA we identified ubiquitin ligases and conjugases, and deubiquitinases in the Hartley dataset for the purpose of determining whether expression of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were significantly influenced by day/night variations and if these variations were regulated by autonomic innervation of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglia.In the Hartley experiments pineal glands groups of rats sacrificed during the day and groups sacrificed during the night were examined for gene expression. Additional groups of rats had their superior cervical ganglia removed surgically or surgically decentralized and the pineal glands likewise examined for gene expression.The genes with at least a 2-fold day/night significant difference in expression included genes for 5 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, genes for 58 ubiquitin E3 ligases and genes for 6 deubiquitinases. A 35-fold day/night difference was noted in the expression of the gene Sik1, which codes for a protein containing both an ubiquitin binding domain (UBD and an ubiquitin-associated (UBA domain. Most of the significant differences in these genes were prevented by surgical removal, or disconnection, of the superior cervical ganglia, and most were responsive, in vitro, to

  7. A palmitoylated RING finger ubiquitin ligase and its homologue in the brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kazuaki; Kawamura, Meiko; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Kanbe, Daiji; Ishii, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Tomio; Kumanishi, Toshiro; Chiba, Tomoki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) ligation is implicated in active protein metabolism and subcellular trafficking and its impairment is involved in various neurologic diseases. In rat brain, we identified two novel Ub ligases, Momo and Sakura, carrying double zinc finger motif and RING finger domain. Momo expression is enriched in the brain gray matter and testis, and Sakura expression is more widely detected in the brain white matter as well as in many peripheral organs. Both proteins associate with the cell membranes of neuronal and/or glial cells. We examined their Ub ligase activity in vivo and in vitro using viral expression vectors carrying myc-tagged Momo and Sakura. Overexpression of either Momo or Sakura in mixed cortical cultures increased total polyubiquitination levels. In vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that the combination of Momo and UbcH4 and H5c, or of Sakura and UbcH4, H5c and H6 is required for the reaction. Deletion mutagenesis suggested that the E3 Ub ligase activity of Momo and Sakura depended on their C-terminal domains containing RING finger structure, while their N-terminal domains influenced their membrane association. In agreement, Sakura associating with the membrane was specifically palmitoylated. Although the molecular targets of their Ub ligation remain to be identified, these findings imply a novel function of the palmitoylated E3 Ub ligase(s).

  8. Ube2w and ataxin-3 coordinately regulate the ubiquitin ligase CHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, K. Matthew; Zavodszky, Eszter; Todi, Sokol V.; Patury, Srikanth; Xu, Ping; Rodríguez-Lebrón, Edgardo; Fischer, Svetlana; Konen, John; Djarmati, Ana; Peng, Junmin; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Paulson, Henry L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which ubiquitin ligases are regulated remain poorly understood. Here we describe a series of molecular events that coordinately regulate CHIP, a neuroprotective E3 implicated in protein quality control. Through their opposing activities, the initiator E2, Ube2w, and the specialized deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), ataxin-3, participate in initiating, regulating and terminating the CHIP ubiquitination cycle. Monoubiquitination of CHIP by Ube2w stabilizes the interaction between CHIP and ataxin-3, which through its DUB activity limits the length of chains attached to CHIP substrates. Upon completion of substrate ubiquitination ataxin-3 deubiquitinates CHIP, effectively terminating the reaction. Our results suggest that functional pairing of E3s with ataxin-3 or similar DUBs represents an important point of regulation in ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control. In addition, the results shed light on disease pathogenesis in SCA3, a neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in ataxin-3. PMID:21855799

  9. Proteomic analysis reveals novel ligands and substrates for LNX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan A Lenihan

    Full Text Available Ligand of Numb protein X1 (LNX1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a catalytic RING (Really Interesting New Gene domain and four PDZ (PSD-95, DlgA, ZO-1 domains. LNX1 can ubiquitinate Numb, as well as a number of other ligands. However, the physiological relevance of these interactions in vivo remain unclear. To gain functional insights into the LNX family, we have characterised the LNX1 interactome using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. This approach identified a large number of novel LNX1-interacting proteins, as well as confirming known interactions with NUMB and ERC2. Many of the novel interactions mapped to the LNX PDZ domains, particularly PDZ2, and many showed specificity for LNX1 over the closely related LNX2. We show that PPFIA1 (liprin-α1, KLHL11, KIF7 and ERC2 are substrates for ubiquitination by LNX1. LNX1 ubiquitination of liprin-α1 is dependent on a PDZ binding motif containing a carboxyl terminal cysteine that binds LNX1 PDZ2. Surprisingly, the neuronally-expressed LNX1p70 isoform, that lacks the RING domain, was found to promote ubiquitination of PPFIA1 and KLHL11, albeit to a lesser extent than the longer RING-containing LNX1p80 isoform. Of several E3-ligases identified in the LNX1 interactome we confirm interactions of LNX1 with MID2/TRIM1 and TRIM27. On this basis we propose a model whereby LNX1p70, despite lacking a catalytic RING domain, may function as a scaffold to promote ubiquitination of its ligands through recruitment of other E3-ligases. These findings provide functional insights into the LNX protein family, particularly the neuronal LNX1p70 isoform.

  10. Characterization and identification of ubiquitin conjugation sites with E3 ligase recognition specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Bretaña, Neil; Lai, K; Weng, Julia; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitin-conjugation is an important mechanism underlying proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins, and as such, plays an essential role in the regulation of many cellular processes. In the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, E3 ligases play important roles by recognizing a specific protein substrate and catalyzing the attachment of ubiquitin to a lysine (K) residue. As more and more experimental data on ubiquitin conjugation sites become available, it becomes possible to develop prediction models that can be scaled to big data. However, no development that focuses on the investigation of ubiquitinated substrate specificities has existed. Herein, we present an approach that exploits an iteratively statistical method to identify ubiquitin conjugation sites with substrate site specificities. In this investigation, totally 6259 experimentally validated ubiquitinated proteins were obtained from dbPTM. After having filtered out homologous fragments with 40% sequence identity, the training data set contained 2658 ubiquitination sites (positive data) and 5532 non-ubiquitinated sites (negative data). Due to the difficulty in characterizing the substrate site specificities of E3 ligases by conventional sequence logo analysis, a recursively statistical method has been applied to obtain significant conserved motifs. The profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) was adopted to construct the predictive models learned from the identified substrate motifs. A five-fold cross validation was then used to evaluate the predictive model, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 73.07%, 65.46%, and 67.93%, respectively. Additionally, an independent testing set, completely blind to the training data of the predictive model, was used to demonstrate that the proposed method could provide a promising accuracy (76.13%) and outperform other ubiquitination site prediction tool. A case study demonstrated the effectiveness of the characterized substrate motifs for

  11. Structure and catalytic activation of the TRIM23 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase: DAWIDZIAK et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawidziak, Daria M. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Sanchez, Jacint G. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Wagner, Jonathan M. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Pornillos, Owen [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia

    2017-07-24

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins comprise a large family of RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate important biological processes. An emerging general model is that TRIMs form elongated antiparallel coiled-coil dimers that prevent interaction of the two attendant RING domains. The RING domains themselves bind E2 conjugating enzymes as dimers, implying that an active TRIM ligase requires higher-order oligomerization of the basal coiled-coil dimers. Here, we report crystal structures of the TRIM23 RING domain in isolation and in complex with an E2–ubiquitin conjugate. Our results indicate that TRIM23 enzymatic activity requires RING dimerization, consistent with the general model of TRIM activation.

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CTRIP controls CLOCK levels and PERIOD oscillations in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaze, Angélique; Lamouroux, Annie; Vias, Carine; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank; Rouyer, François

    2011-06-01

    In the Drosophila circadian clock, the CLOCK/CYCLE complex activates the period and timeless genes that negatively feedback on CLOCK/CYCLE activity. The 24-h pace of this cycle depends on the stability of the clock proteins. RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases have been shown to destabilize PERIOD or TIMELESS. Here we identify a clock function for the circadian trip (ctrip) gene, which encodes a HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. ctrip expression in the brain is mostly restricted to clock neurons and its downregulation leads to long-period activity rhythms in constant darkness. This altered behaviour is associated with high CLOCK levels and persistence of phosphorylated PERIOD during the subjective day. The control of CLOCK protein levels does not require PERIOD. Thus, CTRIP seems to regulate the pace of the oscillator by controlling the stability of both the activator and the repressor of the feedback loop.

  13. The substrate binding domains of human SIAH E3 ubiquitin ligases are now crystal clear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhongduo; Hou, Feng; Harding, Rachel; Huang, Xinyi; Dong, Aiping; Walker, John R.; Tong, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function. Much effort has been made to find selective inhibitors of the SIAHs E3 ligases. Menadione was reported to inhibit SIAH2 specifically. We used X-ray crystallography, peptide array, bioinformatic analysis, and biophysical techniques to characterize the structure and interaction of SIAHs with deubiquitinases and literature reported compounds. We solved the crystal structures of SIAH1 in complex with a USP19 peptide and of the apo form SIAH2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SIAH/USP19 complex is conserved in evolution. We demonstrated that menadione destabilizes both SIAH1 and SIAH2 non-specifically through covalent modification. The SBDs of SIAH E3 ligases are structurally similar with a subtle stability difference. USP19 is the only deubiquitinase that directly binds to SIAHs through the substrate binding pocket. Menadione is not a specific inhibitor for SIAH2. The crystallographic models provide structural insights into the substrate binding of the SIAH family E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critically involved in regulating cancer-related pathways. Our results suggest caution should be taken when using menadione as a specific SIAH2 inhibitor.

  14. Siah1/2 Ubiquitin Ligases in ER Stress Signaling in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    resistance to vemurafenib, a major obstacle in clinical management of melanoma today. Our search led to identify RNF125, which we found to regulate...is the most significant in melanoma. Among these splice variants we identified Siah1L to be expressed in a way that is best linked to the resistant ... changes that are regulated by ubiquitin ligases was initiated with a focus on Siah1/2, which led to a distinct understanding of these ligases’ impact

  15. Datasets from an interaction proteomics screen for substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Peng, Mao; Mohammed, Shabaz; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Heck, Albert J R; Low, Teck Yew

    2015-01-01

    An affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) method was employed to identify novel substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. A FLAG-HA tagged version of the F-box protein βTrCP2, the substrate recognition subunit of SCFβTrCP, was used as bait. βTrCP2 wild type and the two mutants

  16. Distinct functional domains contribute to degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible Degrader of the LDLR (IDOL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Scheer, Lilith; Santos, Ana; Reits, Eric; Bleijlevens, Boris; Zelcer, Noam

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified the liver X receptor-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDL receptor (IDOL) as a modulator of lipoprotein metabolism. Acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, IDOL triggers ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR).

  17. BRCA1 Is a Histone-H2A-Specific Ubiquitin Ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kalb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The RING domain proteins BRCA1 and BARD1 comprise a heterodimeric ubiquitin (E3 ligase that is required for the accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates at sites of DNA damage and for silencing at DNA satellite repeat regions. Despite its links to chromatin, the substrate and underlying function of the BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin ligase remain unclear. Here, we show that BRCA1/BARD1 specifically ubiquitylates histone H2A in its C-terminal tail on lysines 127 and 129 in vitro and in vivo. The specificity for K127-129 is acquired only when H2A is within a nucleosomal context. Moreover, site-specific targeting of the BRCA1/BARD1 RING domains to chromatin is sufficient for H2Aub foci formation in vivo. Our data establish BRCA1/BARD1 as a histone-H2A-specific E3 ligase, helping to explain its localization and activities on chromatin in cells.

  18. Arkadia, a Novel SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Involved in PML Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Yigit; Neyret-Kahn, Helene; Seeler, Jacob S.; Dejean, Anne; Atfi, Azeddine

    2013-01-01

    Arkadia is a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway by inducing degradation of the inhibitor SnoN/Ski. Here we show that Arkadia contains three successive SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) that mediate noncovalent interaction with poly-SUMO2. We identify the third SIM (VVDL) of Arkadia to be the most relevant one in this interaction. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Arkadia can function as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUBL) by ubiquitinating SUMO chains. While the SIMs of Arkadia are not essential for SnoN/Ski degradation in response to TGF-β, we show that they are necessary for the interaction of Arkadia with polysumoylated PML in response to arsenic and its concomitant accumulation into PML nuclear bodies. Moreover, Arkadia depletion leads to accumulation of polysumoylated PML in response to arsenic, highlighting a requirement of Arkadia for arsenic-induced degradation of polysumoylated PML. Interestingly, Arkadia homodimerizes but does not heterodimerize with RNF4, the other STUBL involved in PML degradation, suggesting that these two E3 ligases do not act synergistically but most probably act independently during this process. Altogether, these results identify Arkadia to be a novel STUBL that can trigger degradation of signal-induced polysumoylated proteins. PMID:23530056

  19. The prolific ATL family of RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2012-01-01

    An abundant class of E3 ubiquitin ligases encodes the RING-finger domain. The RING finger binds to the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and brings together both the E2 and substrate. It is predicted that 477 RING finger E3 ligases exist in Arabidopsis thaliana. A particular family among them, named Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), consists of 91 members that contain the RING-H2 variation and a hydrophobic domain located at the N-terminal end. Transmembrane E3 ligases are important in several biological processes. For instance, some transmembrane RING finger E3 ligases are main participants in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway that targets misfolded proteins. Functional analysis of a number of ATLs has shown that some of them regulate distinct pathways in plants. Several ATLs have been shown to participate in defense responses, while others play a role in the regulation of the carbon/nitrogen response during post-germinative seedling growth transition, in the regulation of cell death during root development, in endosperm development, or in the transition to flowering under short day conditions. The ATL family has also been instrumental in evolution studies for showing how gene families are expanded in plant genomes. PMID:22827943

  20. Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is required for protein trafficking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae COPI mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jarmoszewicz

    Full Text Available Retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER depends on the formation of vesicles coated with the multiprotein complex COPI. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitinated derivatives of several COPI subunits have been identified. The importance of this modification of COPI proteins is unknown. With the exception of the Sec27 protein (β'COP neither the ubiquitin ligase responsible for ubiquitination of COPI subunits nor the importance of this modification are known. Here we find that the ubiquitin ligase mutation, rsp5-1, has a negative effect that is additive with ret1-1 and sec28Δ mutations, in genes encoding α- and ε-COP, respectively. The double ret1-1 rsp5-1 mutant is also more severely defective in the Golgi-to-ER trafficking compared to the single ret1-1, secreting more of the ER chaperone Kar2p, localizing Rer1p mostly to the vacuole, and increasing sensitivity to neomycin. Overexpression of ubiquitin in ret1-1 rsp5-1 mutant suppresses vacuolar accumulation of Rer1p. We found that the effect of rsp5 mutation on the Golgi-to-ER trafficking is similar to that of sla1Δ mutation in a gene encoding actin cytoskeleton proteins, an Rsp5p substrate. Additionally, Rsp5 and Sla1 proteins were found by co-immunoprecipitation in a complex containing COPI subunits. Together, our results show that Rsp5 ligase plays a role in regulating retrograde Golgi-to-ER trafficking.

  1. Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligases in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Plant Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Furniss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant immune responses against biotrophic pathogens are regulated by the signaling hormone salicylic acid (SA. SA establishes immunity by regulating a variety of cellular processes, including programmed cell death (PCD to isolate and kill invading pathogens, and development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR which provides long-lasting, broad-spectrum resistance throughout the plant. Central to these processes is post-translational modification of SA-regulated signaling proteins by ubiquitination, i.e. the covalent addition of small ubiquitin proteins. Emerging evidence indicates SA-induced protein ubiquitination is largely orchestrated by Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs, which recruit specific substrates for ubiquitination using interchangeable adaptors. Ligation of ubiquitin chains interlinked at lysine 48 leads to substrate degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss how CRL-mediated degradation of both nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR immune receptors and SA-induced transcription regulators are critical for functional PCD and SAR responses, respectively. By placing these recent findings in context of knowledge gained in other eukaryotic model species, we highlight potential alternative roles for processive ubiquitination in regulating the activity of SA-mediated immune responses.

  2. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  3. Identification of HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase family genes involved in stem cell regulation and regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jordana M; Nisperos, Sean V; Weeks, Joi; Ghulam, Mahjoobah; Marín, Ignacio; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2015-08-15

    E3 ubiquitin ligases constitute a large family of enzymes that modify specific proteins by covalently attaching ubiquitin polypeptides. This post-translational modification can serve to regulate protein function or longevity. In spite of their importance in cell physiology, the biological roles of most ubiquitin ligases remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the function of the HECT domain family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration in planarians. Using bioinformatic searches, we identified 17 HECT E3 genes that are expressed in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments showed that HECT genes were expressed in diverse tissues and most were expressed in the stem cell population (neoblasts) or in their progeny. To investigate the function of all HECT E3 ligases, we inhibited their expression using RNA interference (RNAi) and determined that orthologs of huwe1, wwp1, and trip12 had roles in tissue regeneration. We show that huwe1 RNAi knockdown led to a significant expansion of the neoblast population and death by lysis. Further, our experiments showed that wwp1 was necessary for both neoblast and intestinal tissue homeostasis as well as uncovered an unexpected role of trip12 in posterior tissue specification. Taken together, our data provide insights into the roles of HECT E3 ligases in tissue regeneration and demonstrate that planarians will be a useful model to evaluate the functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The novel E3 ubiquitin ligase Tiul1 associates with TGIF to target Smad2 for degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Su Ryeon; Lallemand, François; Ferrand, Nathalie; Pessah, Marcia; L'Hoste, Sébastien; Camonis, Jacques; Atfi, Azeddine

    2004-01-01

    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation plays an important role in the negative regulation of TGF-β signaling. Here, we identify Tiul1 (for TGIF interacting ubiquitin ligase 1), a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that inhibits TGF-β signaling by targeting both the activated receptor and Smad2 for degradation. Tiul1 associates constitutively with Smad7 and induces degradation of the activated type I receptor without affecting the expression levels of Smad7. Tiul1 can also interact with Smad2 and the nuclear ...

  5. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Pellinos as Regulators of Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling and Immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei E.; Murphy, Michael; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pellinos are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases discovered for their role in catalyzing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Pelle, an IL-1 receptor-associated kinase homologue in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Subsequent studies have revealed the central and non-redundant roles of mammalian Pellino-1, Pellino-2 and Pelino-3 in signaling pathways emanating from IL-1 receptors, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, T- and B-cell receptors. While Pellinos ability to interact with many signaling intermediates suggested their scaffolding roles, recent findings in mice expressing ligase-inactive Pellinos demonstrated the importance of Pellino ubiquitin ligase activity. Cell-specific functions of Pellinos have emerged, e.g., Pellino-1 being a negative regulator in T-lymphocytes and a positive regulator in myeloid cells, and details of molecular regulation of receptor signaling by various members of the Pellino family have been revealed. In this review, we have summarized current information about Pellino-mediated regulation of signaling by pattern recognition receptors, T-cell and B-cell receptors and TNF receptors, and discuss Pellino’s role in sepsis and infectious diseases, as well as in autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disorders. We also provide our perspective on the potential of targeting Pellinos with peptide- or small molecule-based drug compounds as a new therapeutic approach for septic shock and autoimmune pathologies. PMID:26085210

  6. The Itch ubiquitin ligase is required for KSHV RTA induced vFLIP degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jennifer C; Herold, Kevin; Ruffin, Ayana; Atuobi, Trudymae; Fabiyi, Yetunde; Mitchell, Ashley E; Choi, Young Bong; Ehrlich, Elana S

    2017-01-15

    Expression of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus vFLIP, a potent activator of NFkB signaling, promotes latency. Inhibition of NFkB signaling promotes lytic reactivation. We previously reported that lytic inducer, RTA, inhibits vFLIP induced NFkB signaling by inducing the degradation of vFLIP via the proteasome. Here we report that the cellular ubiquitin ligase, Itch, is required for RTA induced degradation of vFLIP. Expression of either Itch targeting shRNA or a dominant negative mutant of the ubiquitin ligase both increased the stability of vFLIP in the presence of RTA. Itch potently ubiquitinated vFLIP in vivo and in vitro. We provide evidence for interaction between RTA, vFLIP and Itch and we identified an RTA resistant mutant of vFLIP that is unable to interact with Itch. These observations contribute to our understanding of how RTA counteracts the activities of vFLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Campos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contractile proteins are expressed as a series of developmental isoforms that are in constant dynamic remodeling during embryogenesis, but how obsolete molecules are recognized and removed is not known. Ozz is a developmentally regulated protein that functions as the adaptor component of a RING-type ubiquitin ligase complex specific to striated muscle. Ozz(-/- mutants exhibit defects in myofibrillogenesis and myofiber differentiation. Here we show that Ozz targets the rod portion of embryonic myosin heavy chain and preferentially recognizes the sarcomeric rather than the soluble pool of myosin. We present evidence that Ozz binding to the embryonic myosin isoform within sarcomeric thick filaments marks it for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation, allowing its replacement with neonatal or adult isoforms. This unique function positions Ozz within a system that facilitates sarcomeric myosin remodeling during muscle maturation and regeneration. Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure.

  8. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eric S.; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R.; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B.; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M.; Tichkule, Ritesh B.; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C.; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Ottl, Johannes; Hild, Marc; Beckwith, Rohan E. J.; Harper, J. Wade; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Thomä, Nicolas H.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (together known as Immunomodulatory Drugs: IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase and promote the ubiquitination of Ikaros/Aiolos transcription factors by CRL4CRBN. Here we present the crystal structure of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes CRBN as a CRL4CRBN substrate receptor, which enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Through an unbiased screen we identify the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4CRBN. Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4CRBN when recruiting Ikaros/Aiolos for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can principally modulate a ligase to up- or down-regulate the ubiquitination of proteins. PMID:25043012

  9. Post-translationally modified muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases as circulating biomarkers in experimental cancer cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Roberto; Rodríguez, Jessica E; Bonetto, Andrea; O’Connell, Thomas M; Asher, Scott A; Parry, Traci L; Lockyer, Pamela; McCudden, Christopher R; Couch, Marion E; Willis, Monte S

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a severe wasting syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of lean body mass and systemic inflammation. Up to 80% of cancer patients experience cachexia, with 20-30% of cancer-related deaths directly linked to cachexia. Despite efforts to identify early cachexia and cancer relapse, clinically useful markers are lacking. Recently, we identified the role of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 (MAFbx, FBXO32) and Muscle Ring Finger-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac atrophy and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that during cachexia, the Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 ubiquitin ligases are released from muscle and migrate to the circulation where they could be detected and serve as a cachexia biomarker. To test this, we induced cachexia in mice using the C26 adenocarcinoma cells or vehicle (control). Body weight, tumor volume, and food consumption were measured from inoculation until ~day 14 to document cachexia. Western blot analysis of serum identified the presence of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 with unique post-translational modifications consistent with mono- and poly- ubiquitination of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 found only in cachectic serum. These findings suggest that both increased Atrogin-1 and the presence of unique post-translational modifications may serve as a surrogate marker specific for cachexia. PMID:28979816

  10. The bacterial effector Cif interferes with SCF ubiquitin ligase function by inhibiting deneddylation of Cullin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Hanako; Kim, Minsoo; Mimuro, Hitomi; Punginelli, Claire; Koyama, Tomohiro; Nagai, Shinya; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2010-10-15

    Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of the effectors delivered into epithelial cells by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) via the type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif family proteins, which inhibit host cell-cycle progression via mechanisms not yet precisely understood, are highly conserved among EPEC, EHEC, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Photorhabdus luminescens and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Levels of several proteins relevant to cell-cycle progression are modulated by Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which in turn are activated by conjugation and deconjugation of NEDD8 to Cullins. Here we show that Cif interacts with NEDD8 and interferes with SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complex ubiquitin ligase function. We found that neddylated Cullin family proteins accumulated and ubiquitination of p27 decreased in cells infected with EPEC. Consequently, Cif stabilized SCF substrates such as CyclinD1, Cdt1, and p27, and caused G1 cell-cycle arrest. Using time-lapse-imaging of fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (Fucci)-expressing cells, we were able to monitor cell-cycle progression during EPEC infection and confirmed the arrest of infected cells at G1. Our in vitro and in vivo data show that Cif-NEDD8 interaction inhibits deneddylation of Cullins, suppresses CRL activity and induces G1 arrest. We thus conclude that the bacterial effector Cif interferes with neddylation-mediated cell-cycle control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Juston C; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Boeing, Stefan; Hall, Shawn M; McLaird, Merry B; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Svejstrup, Jesper Q; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C

    2017-04-21

    Elongin A performs dual functions as the transcriptionally active subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitylates Pol II in response to DNA damage. Assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage is a tightly regulated process induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin, a drug that induces Pol II stalling. In this study, we demonstrate (i) that Elongin A and the ubiquitin ligase subunit CUL5 associate in cells with the Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein and (ii) that this interaction is also induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin. In addition, we present evidence that the CSB protein promotes stable recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage. Our findings are consistent with the model that the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and the CSB protein function together in a common pathway in response to Pol II stalling and DNA damage. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Juston C.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.; Boeing, Stefan; Hall, Shawn M.; McLaird, Merry B.; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.; Conaway, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Elongin A performs dual functions as the transcriptionally active subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitylates Pol II in response to DNA damage. Assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage is a tightly regulated process induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin, a drug that induces Pol II stalling. In this study, we demonstrate (i) that Elongin A and the ubiquitin ligase subunit CUL5 associate in cells with the Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein and (ii) that this interaction is also induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin. In addition, we present evidence that the CSB protein promotes stable recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage. Our findings are consistent with the model that the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and the CSB protein function together in a common pathway in response to Pol II stalling and DNA damage. PMID:28292928

  13. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    Cellular genomes are highly vulnerable to perturbations to chromosomal DNA replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor for DNA replication, plays a central role as a platform for recruitment of genome surveillance and DNA repair factors to replication forks......, allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes...... ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced...

  14. Characterization and promoter analysis of a cotton RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Meng-Hsuan; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Ma, Din-Pow

    2010-10-01

    A cotton fiber cDNA, GhRING1, and its corresponding gene have been cloned and characterized. The GhRING1 gene encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) containing 338 amino acids (aa). The GhRING1 protein contains a RING finger motif with conserved cysteine and histine residues at the C-terminus, and is classified as a C(3)H(2)C(3)-type RING protein. Blast searches show that GhRING1 has the highest homology to At3g19950, a zinc finger family protein from Arabidopsis. Real time RT-PCR analysis indicates that the GhRING1 gene is expressed in cotton fibers in a developmental manner. The transcript level of GhRING1 gene reaches a maximum in elongating fibers at 15 days post-anthesis (DPA). In vitro auto-ubiquitination assays using wheat germ extract and a reconstitution system demonstrate that GhRING1 has the ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. The histochemical GUS assay was performed to analyze tissue specificity of the GhRING1 and At3g19950 promoters in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The GUS assay shows that the promoter of At3g19950 is highly activated in leaves, roots, trichomes, and also in anthers and stigma of flowers. In contrast, the GUS expression directed by the GhRING1 promoter is only located at stipules and anthers. The expression pattern of GhRING1 suggests that protein ubiquitination and turnover may be involved in transition to different stages of cotton fiber development.

  15. The ubiquitin E3 ligase TRAF6 exacerbates pathological cardiac hypertrophy via TAK1-dependent signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Deng, Ke-Qiong; Jiang, Xi; Wang, Pi-Xiao; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates important biological processes. However, the role of TRAF6 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here, we show that TRAF6 levels are increased in human and murine hypertrophied hearts, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Cardiac-specific Traf6 overexpression exacerbates cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or angiotensin II (Ang II) challenge, whereas Traf6 deficiency causes an alleviated hypertrophic phenotype in mice. Mechanistically, we show that ROS, generated during hypertrophic progression, triggers TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination that facilitates recruitment of TAB2 and its binding to transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which, in turn, enables the direct TRAF6-TAK1 interaction and promotes TAK1 ubiquitination. The binding of TRAF6 to TAK1 and the induction of TAK1 ubiquitination and activation are indispensable for TRAF6-regulated cardiac remodelling. Taken together, we define TRAF6 as an essential molecular switch leading to cardiac hypertrophy in a TAK1-dependent manner.

  16. Activity-enhancing mutations in an E3 ubiquitin ligase identified by high-throughput mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Lo, Russell S; Fowler, Douglas M; Kim, Helen J; Hiatt, Joseph B; Shendure, Jay; Brzovic, Peter S; Fields, Stanley; Klevit, Rachel E

    2013-04-02

    Although ubiquitination plays a critical role in virtually all cellular processes, mechanistic details of ubiquitin (Ub) transfer are still being defined. To identify the molecular determinants within E3 ligases that modulate activity, we scored each member of a library of nearly 100,000 protein variants of the murine ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) U-box domain for auto-ubiquitination activity in the presence of the E2 UbcH5c. This assay identified mutations that enhance activity both in vitro and in cellular p53 degradation assays. The activity-enhancing mutations fall into two distinct mechanistic classes: One increases the U-box:E2-binding affinity, and the other allosterically stimulates the formation of catalytically active conformations of the E2∼Ub conjugate. The same mutations enhance E3 activity in the presence of another E2, Ube2w, implying a common allosteric mechanism, and therefore the general applicability of our observations to other E3s. A comparison of the E3 activity with the two different E2s identified an additional variant that exhibits E3:E2 specificity. Our results highlight the general utility of high-throughput mutagenesis in delineating the molecular basis of enzyme activity.

  17. Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Weems, Juston C.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.; Boeing, Stefan; Hall, Shawn M.; McLaird, Merry B.; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Elongin A performs dual functions as the transcriptionally active subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitylates Pol II in response to DNA damage. Assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage is a tightly regulated process induced by DNA-damaging agents and ?-amanitin, a drug that induces Pol II stalling. In this study, we demonstrate (i) t...

  18. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcH10 competes with UbcH3 for binding to the SCF complex, a ubiquitin ligase involved in cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiquitylation, which regulates most biological pathways, occurs through an enzymatic cascade involving a ubiquitin (ub) activating enzyme (E1), a ub conjugating enzyme (E2) and a ub ligase (E3). UbcH3 is the E2 that interacts with SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and ubiquitylates many protein...

  19. The novel E3 ubiquitin ligase Tiul1 associates with TGIF to target Smad2 for degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Su Ryeon; Lallemand, François; Ferrand, Nathalie; Pessah, Marcia; L'Hoste, Sébastien; Camonis, Jacques; Atfi, Azeddine

    2004-01-01

    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation plays an important role in the negative regulation of TGF-β signaling. Here, we identify Tiul1 (for TGIF interacting ubiquitin ligase 1), a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that inhibits TGF-β signaling by targeting both the activated receptor and Smad2 for degradation. Tiul1 associates constitutively with Smad7 and induces degradation of the activated type I receptor without affecting the expression levels of Smad7. Tiul1 can also interact with Smad2 and the nuclear corepressor TGIF upon activation of TGF-β signaling. Like Smad7, the steady-state levels of TGIF are not affected by Tiul1, but the interaction of Tiul1 with TGIF allows this ubiquitin ligase to target Smad2 for degradation. Consistent with this, overexpression of Tiul1 suppressed TGF-β-induced growth arrest and transcriptional responses. In addition, silencing of Tiul1 or TGIF genes by siRNA resulted in suppression of the TGF-β-dependent degradation of Smad2 and an enhancement of TGF-β-mediated gene expression. These results reveal a new role for TGIF as a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the degradation of Smad2 in response to TGF-β signaling. PMID:15359284

  20. Differential recruitment of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes regulates RET isoform internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brandy D; Crupi, Mathieu J F; Peng, Susan; Bone, Leslie N; Rekab, Aisha N; Lian, Eric Y; Wagner, Simona M; Antonescu, Costin N; Mulligan, Lois M

    2017-10-01

    The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in normal development and cancer. RET is expressed as two isoforms, RET9 and RET51, with unique C-terminal tail sequences that recruit distinct protein complexes to mediate signals. Upon activation, RET isoforms are internalized with distinct kinetics, suggesting differences in regulation. Here, we demonstrate that RET9 and RET51 differ in their abilities to recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases to their unique C-termini. RET51, but not RET9, interacts with, and is ubiquitylated by CBL, which is recruited through interactions with the GRB2 adaptor protein. RET51 internalization was not affected by CBL knockout but was delayed in GRB2-depleted cells. In contrast, RET9 ubiquitylation requires phosphorylation-dependent changes in accessibility of key RET9 C-terminal binding motifs that facilitate interactions with multiple adaptor proteins, including GRB10 and SHANK2, to recruit the NEDD4 ubiquitin ligase. We showed that NEDD4-mediated ubiquitylation is required for RET9 localization to clathrin-coated pits and subsequent internalization. Our data establish differences in the mechanisms of RET9 and RET51 ubiquitylation and internalization that may influence the strength and duration of RET isoform signals and cellular outputs.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Yin; Goh, Germaine; Chia, Joanne; Boey, Adrian; Gunko, Natalia V; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC's regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC's action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase.

  2. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 targets unglycosylated prion protein PrP for ubiquitylation and degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Shao

    Full Text Available Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase gp78, known for its role in protein quality control, is critical for unglycosylated PrP ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, C-terminal sequences of PrP protein are crucial for its ubiquitylation and degradation. Our study reveals the first ubiquitin ligase specifically involved in prion protein PrP degradation and PrP sequences crucial for its turnover. Our data may lead to a new avenue to control PrP level and pathogenesis.

  3. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yin Lee

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC's regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC's action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase.

  4. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF125 Activates Interleukin-36 Receptor Signaling and Contributes to Its Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Siddhartha S; Caviness, Gary; Yi, Guanghui; Raymond, Ernest L; Mbow, M Lamine; Kao, C Cheng

    2017-11-25

    Signaling by the interleukin-36 receptor (IL-36R) is linked to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. However, the regulation of IL-36R signaling is poorly understood. Activation of IL-36R signaling in cultured cells results in an increased polyubiquitination of the receptor subunit, IL-1Rrp2. Treatment with deubiquitinases shows that the receptor subunit of IL-36R, IL-1Rrp2, is primarily polyubiquitinated at the K63 position, which is associated with endocytic trafficking and signal transduction. A minor amount of ubiquitination is at the K48 position that is associated with protein degradation. A focused siRNA screen identified RNF125, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to ubiquitinate IL-1Rrp2 upon activation of IL-36R signaling while not affecting the activated IL-1 receptor. Knockdown of RNF125 decreases signal transduction by the IL-36R. Overexpression of RNF125 in HEK293T cells activates IL-36R signaling and increases the ubiquitination of IL-1Rrp2 and its subsequent turnover. RNF125 can coimmunoprecipitate with the IL-36R, and it traffics with IL-1Rrp2 from the cell surface to lysosomes. Mutations of Lys568 and Lys569 in the C-terminal tail of IL-1Rrp2 decrease ubiquitination by RNF125 and increase the steady-state levels of IL-1Rrp2. These results demonstrate that RNF125 has multiple regulatory roles in the signaling, trafficking, and turnover of the IL-36R. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS, which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143 of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and

  6. Regulation of EGFR Protein Stability by the HECT-type Ubiquitin Ligase SMURF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ray

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial tumors and is considered to be an important therapeutic target. Although gene amplification is responsible for EGFR overexpression in certain human malignancies including lung and head and neck cancers, additional molecular mechanisms are likely. Here, we report a novel interaction of EGFR with an HECT-type ubiquitin ligase SMURF2, which can ubiquitinate, but stabilize EGFR by protecting it from c-Cbl-mediated degradation. Conversely, small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of SMURF2 destabilized EGFR, induced an autophagic response and reduced the clonogenic survival of EGFR-expressing cancer cell lines, with minimal effects on EGFR-negative cancer cells, normal fibroblasts, and normal epithelial cells. UMSCC74B head and neck squamous cancer cells, which form aggressive tumors in nudemice, significantly lost in vivo tumor-forming ability on siRNA-mediated SMURF2 knockdown. Gene expressionmicroarray data from 443 lung adenocarcinoma patients, and tissue microarray data from 67 such patients, showed a strong correlation of expression between EGFR and SMURF2 at the messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Our findings suggest that SMURF2-mediated protective ubiquitination of EGFR may be responsible for EGFR overexpression in certain tumors and support targeting SMURF2-EGFR interaction as a novel therapeutic approach in treating EGFR-addicted tumors.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Cul2-Rbx1-EloBC-VHL Ubiquitin Ligase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardote, Teresa A F; Gadd, Morgan S; Ciulli, Alessio

    2017-06-06

    Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) function in the ubiquitin proteasome system to catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 conjugating enzymes to specific substrate proteins. CRLs are large dynamic complexes and attractive drug targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors and chemical inducers of protein degradation. The atomic details of whole CRL assembly and interactions that dictate subunit specificity remain elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of a pentameric CRL2VHL complex, composed of Cul2, Rbx1, Elongin B, Elongin C, and pVHL. The structure traps a closed state of full-length Cul2 and a new pose of Rbx1 in a trajectory from closed to open conformation. We characterize hotspots and binding thermodynamics at the interface between Cul2 and pVHL-EloBC and identify mutations that contribute toward a selectivity switch for Cul2 versus Cul5 recognition. Our findings provide structural and biophysical insights into the whole Cul2 complex that could aid future drug targeting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. E4 ligase-specific ubiquitination hubs coordinate DNA double-strand-break repair and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Leena; Schell, Michael; Pokrzywa, Wojciech; Kevei, Éva; Gartner, Anton; Schumacher, Björn; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Multiple protein ubiquitination events at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) regulate damage recognition, signaling and repair. It has remained poorly understood how the repair process of DSBs is coordinated with the apoptotic response. Here, we identified the E4 ubiquitin ligase UFD-2 as a mediator of DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, after initiation of homologous recombination by RAD-51, UFD-2 forms foci that contain substrate-processivity factors including the ubiquitin-selective segregase CDC-48 (p97), the deubiquitination enzyme ATX-3 (Ataxin-3) and the proteasome. In the absence of UFD-2, RAD-51 foci persist, and DNA damage-induced apoptosis is prevented. In contrast, UFD-2 foci are retained until recombination intermediates are removed by the Holliday-junction-processing enzymes GEN-1, MUS-81 or XPF-1. Formation of UFD-2 foci also requires proapoptotic CEP-1 (p53) signaling. Our findings establish a central role of UFD-2 in the coordination between the DNA-repair process and the apoptotic response.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus IE1 downregulates Hes1 in neural progenitor cells as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Juan Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is the leading cause of neurological disabilities in children worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying these disorders are far from well-defined. HCMV infection has been shown to dysregulate the Notch signaling pathway in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs. As an important downstream effector of Notch signaling, the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1 is essential for governing NPC fate and fetal brain development. In the present study, we report that HCMV infection downregulates Hes1 protein levels in infected NPCs. The HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 protein (IE1 is involved in Hes1 degradation by assembling a ubiquitination complex and promoting Hes1 ubiquitination as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase, followed by proteasomal degradation of Hes1. Sp100A, an important component of PML nuclear bodies, is identified to be another target of IE1-mediated ubiquitination. A C-terminal acidic region in IE1, spanning amino acids 451 to 475, is required for IE1/Hes1 physical interaction and IE1-mediated Hes1 ubiquitination, but is dispensable for IE1/Sp100A interaction and ubiquitination. Our study suggests a novel mechanism linking downregulation of Hes1 protein to neurodevelopmental disorders caused by HCMV infection. Our findings also complement the current knowledge of herpesviruses by identifying IE1 as the first potential HCMV-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus IE1 downregulates Hes1 in neural progenitor cells as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Juan; Yang, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wu, Cong-Cong; Li, Xiao-Jun; Cheng, Shuang; Jiang, Xuan; Hu, Fei; Ming, Ying-Zi; Nevels, Michael; Britt, William J; Rayner, Simon; Tang, Qiyi; Zeng, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Min-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the leading cause of neurological disabilities in children worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying these disorders are far from well-defined. HCMV infection has been shown to dysregulate the Notch signaling pathway in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). As an important downstream effector of Notch signaling, the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1) is essential for governing NPC fate and fetal brain development. In the present study, we report that HCMV infection downregulates Hes1 protein levels in infected NPCs. The HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is involved in Hes1 degradation by assembling a ubiquitination complex and promoting Hes1 ubiquitination as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase, followed by proteasomal degradation of Hes1. Sp100A, an important component of PML nuclear bodies, is identified to be another target of IE1-mediated ubiquitination. A C-terminal acidic region in IE1, spanning amino acids 451 to 475, is required for IE1/Hes1 physical interaction and IE1-mediated Hes1 ubiquitination, but is dispensable for IE1/Sp100A interaction and ubiquitination. Our study suggests a novel mechanism linking downregulation of Hes1 protein to neurodevelopmental disorders caused by HCMV infection. Our findings also complement the current knowledge of herpesviruses by identifying IE1 as the first potential HCMV-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  11. A novel ubiquitin mark at the N-terminal tail of histone H2As targeted by RNF168 ubiquitin ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Marco; Pinato, Sabrina; Maspero, Elena; Soffientini, Paolo; Polo, Simona; Penengo, Lorenza

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitination of histones plays a critical role in the regulation of several processes within the nucleus, including maintenance of genome stability and transcriptional regulation. The only known ubiquitination site on histones is represented by a conserved Lys residue located at the C terminus of the protein. Here, we describe a novel ubiquitin mark at the N-terminal tail of histone H2As consisting of two Lys residues at positions 13 and 15 (K13/K15). This “bidentate” site is a target of the DNA damage response (DDR) ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Histone mutants lacking the K13/K15 site impair RNF168- and DNA damage-dependent ubiquitination. Conversely, inactivation of the canonical C-terminal site prevents the constitutive monoubiquitination of histone H2As but does not abolish the ubiquitination induced by RNF168. A ubiquitination-defective mutant is obtained by inactivating both the N- and the C-terminal sites, suggesting that these are unique, non-redundant acceptors of ubiquitination on histone H2As. This unprecedented result implies that RNF168 generates a qualitatively different Ub mark on chromatin. PMID:22713238

  12. Cyclin F: A component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with roles in neurodegeneration and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, Jasmin; Rayner, Stephanie L; Hogan, Alison L; Fifita, Jennifer A; Lee, Albert; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Yang, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Cyclin F, encoded by CCNF, is the substrate recognition component of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF(cyclin F). E3 ubiquitin ligases play a key role in ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation, an essential component of protein homeostatic mechanisms within the cell. By recognising and regulating the availability of several protein substrates, SCF(cyclin F) plays a role in regulating various cellular processes including replication and repair of DNA and cell cycle checkpoint control. Cyclin F dysfunction has been implicated in various forms of cancer and CCNF mutations were recently linked to familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, offering a new lead to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on the function of cyclin F with an emphasis on its roles in cancer and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of APC/C (Cdh1) ubiquitin ligase in differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Ortal; Shapira, Ma'anit; Skorecki, Karl; Hershko, Avram; Hershko, Dan D

    2010-05-15

    We have recently shown that Skp2 levels are high in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, but decline rapidly following induction of differentiation, thereby leading to accumulation of p27. Changes in Skp2 levels were found to be caused mainly by its rate of degradation. Here we show that the activity of APC/C (Cdh1), the ubiquitin ligase that targets Skp2 for degradation, increases markedly during the differentiation process of human embryonic stem cells. APC/C (Cdh1) is present but inactive in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and becomes active in the differentiated state. The rise in APC/C (Cdh1) activity with differentiation appears to be due, at least in part, to a dramatic decline in the levels of its inhibitor Emi1. In addition, protein kinase activity also appears to contribute to the suppression of APC/C (Cdh1) activity in undifferentiated stem cells, possibly by inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdh1.

  14. Ret Finger Protein: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Juxtaposed to the XY Body in Meiosis

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    Isabelle Gillot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During prophase I of male meiosis, the sex chromosomes form a compact structure called XY body that associates with the nuclear membrane of pachytene spermatocytes. Ret Finger Protein is a transcriptional repressor, able to interact with both nuclear matrix-associated proteins and double-stranded DNA. We report the precise and unique localization of Ret Finger Protein in pachytene spermatocytes, in which Ret Finger Protein takes place of lamin B1, between the XY body and the inner nuclear membrane. This localization of Ret Finger Protein does not seem to be associated with O-glycosylation or sumoylation. In addition, we demonstrate that Ret Finger Protein contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. These observations lead to an attractive hypothesis in which Ret Finger Protein would be involved in the positioning and the attachment of XY body to the nuclear lamina of pachytene spermatocytes.

  15. The ubiquitin E3 ligase NOSIP modulates protein phosphatase 2A activity in craniofacial development.

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    Meike Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly is a common developmental disorder in humans characterised by incomplete brain hemisphere separation and midface anomalies. The etiology of holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous with environmental and genetic causes, but for a majority of holoprosencephaly cases the genes associated with the pathogenesis could not be identified so far. Here we report the generation of knockout mice for the ubiquitin E3 ligase NOSIP. The loss of NOSIP in mice causes holoprosencephaly and facial anomalies including cleft lip/palate, cyclopia and facial midline clefting. By a mass spectrometry based protein interaction screen we identified NOSIP as a novel interaction partner of protein phosphatase PP2A. NOSIP mediates the monoubiquitination of the PP2A catalytic subunit and the loss of NOSIP results in an increase in PP2A activity in craniofacial tissue in NOSIP knockout mice. We conclude, that NOSIP is a critical modulator of brain and craniofacial development in mice and a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly in humans.

  16. UBE3B Is a Calmodulin-regulated, Mitochondrion-associated E3 Ubiquitin Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, Andrea; Li, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xuemei; Yates, Nathan A; Dey, Nupur B; Andrews, Joel; Clark, Jennifer; Zamani, Leila; Wang, Xiao-Hong; St Croix, Claudette; O'Sullivan, Roderick; Garcia-Exposito, Laura; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Sobol, Robert W

    2017-02-10

    Recent genome-wide studies found that patients with hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, congenital anomalies, characteristic facial dysmorphic features, and low cholesterol levels suffer from Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome (KOS, also reported as blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual disability syndrome). The primary cause of KOS is autosomal recessive mutations in the gene UBE3B However, to date, there are no studies that have determined the cellular or enzymatic function of UBE3B. Here, we report that UBE3B is a mitochondrion-associated protein with homologous to the E6-AP Cterminus (HECT) E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutating the catalytic cysteine (C1036A) or deleting the entire HECT domain (amino acids 758-1068) results in loss of UBE3B's ubiquitylation activity. Knockdown of UBE3B in human cells induces changes in mitochondrial morphology and physiology, a decrease in mitochondrial volume, and a severe suppression of cellular proliferation. We also discovered that UBE3B interacts with calmodulin via its N-terminal isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif. Deletion of the IQ motif (amino acids 29-58) results in loss of calmodulin binding and a significant increase in the in vitro ubiquitylation activity of UBE3B. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels in vitro disrupt the calmodulin-UBE3B interaction. These studies demonstrate that UBE3B is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and reveal that the enzyme is regulated by calmodulin. Furthermore, the modulation of UBE3B via calmodulin and calcium implicates a role for calcium signaling in mitochondrial protein ubiquitylation, protein turnover, and disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  18. SVIP regulates Z variant alpha-1 antitrypsin retro-translocation by inhibiting ubiquitin ligase gp78.

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    Nazli Khodayari

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD is an inherited disorder characterized by early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common disease-causing mutation is a single amino acid substitution (Glu/Lys at amino acid 342 of the mature protein, resulting in disruption of the 290-342 salt bridge (an electrophoretic abnormality defining the mutation [Z allele, or ZAAT], protein misfolding, polymerization, and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and monocytes. The Z allele causes a toxic gain of function, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 promotes degradation and increased solubility of endogenous ZAAT. We hypothesized that the accumulation of ZAAT is influenced by modulation of gp78 E3 ligase and SVIP (small VCP-interacting protein interaction with p97/VCP in ZAAT-expressing hepatocytes. We showed that the SVIP inhibitory effect on ERAD due to overexpression causes the accumulation of ZAAT in a human Z hepatocyte-like cell line (AT01. Overexpression of gp78, as well as SVIP suppression, induces gp78-VCP/p97 interaction in AT01 cells. This interaction leads to retro-translocation of ZAAT and reduction of the SVIP inhibitory role in ERAD. In this context, overexpression of gp78 or SVIP suppression may eliminate the toxic gain of function associated with polymerization of ZAAT, thus providing a potential new therapeutic approach to the treatment of AATD.

  19. The SCF ubiquitin ligase Slimb controls Nerfin-1 turnover in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Wang, Feng; Li, Yuanpei; Zhai, Chaojun; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Xiaoting; Gao, Yang; Yi, Tao; Sun, Dan; Wu, Shian

    2018-01-01

    The C2H2 type zinc-finger transcription factor Nerfin-1 expresses dominantly in Drosophila nervous system and plays an important role in early axon guidance decisions and preventing neurons dedifferentiation. Recently, increasing reports indicated that INSM1 (homologue to nerfin-1 in mammals) is a useful marker for prognosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The dynamic expression of Nerfin-1 is regulated post-transcriptionally by multiple microRNAs; however, its post-translational regulation is still unclear. Here we showed that the protein turnover of Nerfin-1 is regulated by Slimb, the substrate adaptor of SCFSlimb ubiquitin ligase complex. Mechanistically, Slimb associates with Nerfin-1 and promotes it ubiquitination and degradation in Drosophila S2R+ cells. Furthermore, we determined that the C-terminal half of Nerfin-1 (Nerfin-1CT) is required for its binding to Slimb. Genetic epistasis assays showed that Slimb misexpression antagonizes, while knock-down enhances the activity of Nerfin-1CT in Drosophila eyes. Our data revealed a new link to understand the underlying mechanism for Nerfin-1 turnover in post-translational level, and provided useful insights in animal development and disease treatment by manipulating the activity of Slimb and Nerfin-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Centromere binding and a conserved role in chromosome stability for SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligases.

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    Loes A L van de Pasch

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs. Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5Δ and slx8Δ mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis.

  1. Centromere binding and a conserved role in chromosome stability for SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pasch, Loes A L; Miles, Antony J; Nijenhuis, Wilco; Brabers, Nathalie A C H; van Leenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Brown, Markus K; Ouellet, Jimmy; Barral, Yves; Kops, Geert J P L; Holstege, Frank C P

    2013-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5Δ and slx8Δ mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis.

  2. Ubiquitin chain specificities of E6AP E3 ligase and its HECT domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Takaki, Kento; Konno, Hiroki

    2018-02-05

    Ubiquitination of target proteins is accomplished by isopeptide bond formation between the carboxy group of the C-terminal glycine (Gly) residue of ubiquitin (Ub) and the ɛ-amino group of lysine (Lys) on the target proteins. The formation of an isopeptide bond between Ubs that gives rise to a poly-Ub chain on the target proteins and the types of poly-Ub chains formed depend on which of the seven Lys residues or N-terminal methionine (Met) residue on Ub is used for chain elongation. To understand the linkage specificity mechanism of Ub chains on E3, the previous study established an assay to monitor the formation of a free diubiquitin chain (Ub 2 chain synthesis assay) by HECT type E3 ligase. In this study, we investigated Ub 2 chain specificity using E6AP HECT domain. We here demonstrate the importance of the N-terminal domain of full length E6AP for Ub 2 chain specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pseudosubstrate regulation of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase by hnRNP-U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Matti; Hatzubai, Ada; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    beta-TrCP/E3RS (E3RS) is the F-box protein that functions as the receptor subunit of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase (E3). Surprisingly, although its two recognized substrates, IkappaB(alpha) and beta-catenin, are present in the cytoplasm, we have found that E3RS is located predominantly...... by competition with a pIkappaB(alpha) peptide, or by a specific point mutation in the E3RS WD region, indicating an E3-substrate-type interaction. However, unlike pI(kappa)Balpha, which is targeted by SCF(beta-TrCP) for degradation, the E3-bound hnRNP-U is stable and is, therefore, a pseudosubstrate....... Consequently, hnRNP-U engages a highly neddylated active SCF(beta-TrCP), which dissociates in the presence of a high-affinity substrate, resulting in ubiquitination of the latter. Our study points to a novel regulatory mechanism, which secures the localization, stability, substrate binding threshold...

  4. Soy Glycinin Contains a Functional Inhibitory Sequence against Muscle-Atrophy-Associated Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b

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    Tomoki Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unloading stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. We have reported that Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase is a master regulator of unloading-associated muscle atrophy. The present study was designed to elucidate whether dietary soy glycinin protein prevents denervation-mediated muscle atrophy, based on the presence of inhibitory peptides against Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase in soy glycinin protein. Methods. Mice were fed either 20% casein diet, 20% soy protein isolate diet, 10% glycinin diet containing 10% casein, or 20% glycinin diet. One week later, the right sciatic nerve was cut. The wet weight, cross sectional area (CSA, IGF-1 signaling, and atrogene expression in hindlimb muscles were examined at 1, 3, 3.5, or 4 days after denervation. Results. 20% soy glycinin diet significantly prevented denervation-induced decreases in muscle wet weight and myofiber CSA. Furthermore, dietary soy protein inhibited denervation-induced ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 in tibialis anterior muscle. Dietary soy glycinin partially suppressed the denervation-mediated expression of atrogenes, such as MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, through the protection of IGF-1 signaling estimated by phosphorylation of Akt-1. Conclusions. Soy glycinin contains a functional inhibitory sequence against muscle-atrophy-associated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b. Dietary soy glycinin protein significantly prevented muscle atrophy after denervation in mice.

  5. Spartin activates atrophin-1-interacting protein 4 (AIP4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promotes ubiquitination of adipophilin on lipid droplets

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    Shekhtman Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spartin protein is involved in degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor and turnover of lipid droplets and a lack of expression of this protein is responsible for hereditary spastic paraplegia type 20 (SPG20. Spartin is a multifunctional protein that associates with many cellular organelles, including lipid droplets. Recent studies showed that spartin interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligases that belong to the neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene (Nedd4 family, including atrophin-1-interacting protein 4 (AIP4/ITCH. However, the biological importance of the spartin-AIP4 interaction remains unknown. Results In this study, we show that spartin is not a substrate for AIP4 activity and that spartin's binding to AIP4 significantly increases self-ubiquitination of this E3 ligase, indicating that spartin disrupts the AIP4 autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction. Correspondingly, spartin has a seven times higher binding affinity to the WW region of AIP4 than the binding of the WW region has to the catalytic homologues of the E6-associated protein C-terminus (HECT domain, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also show that spartin recruits AIP4 to lipid droplets and promotes ubiquitination of lipid droplet-associated protein, adipophilin, which regulates turnover of lipid droplets. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that spartin acts as an adaptor protein that activates and recruits AIP4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to lipid droplets and by this means regulates the level of ubiquitination of adipophilin and potentially other lipid-associated proteins. We propose that this is one of the mechanisms by which spartin regulates lipid droplet turnover and might contribute to the pathology of SPG20.

  6. The human EKC/KEOPS complex is recruited to Cullin2 ubiquitin ligases by the human tumour antigen PRAME.

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    Adalberto Costessi

    Full Text Available The human tumour antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma is frequently overexpressed during oncogenesis, and high PRAME levels are associated with poor clinical outcome in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular pathways in which PRAME is implicated are not well understood. We recently characterized PRAME as a BC-box subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we mined the PRAME interactome to a deeper level and identified specific interactions with OSGEP and LAGE3, which are human orthologues of the ancient EKC/KEOPS complex. By characterizing biochemically the human EKC complex and its interactions with PRAME, we show that PRAME recruits a Cul2 ubiquitin ligase to EKC. Moreover, EKC subunits associate with PRAME target sites on chromatin. Our data reveal a novel link between the oncoprotein PRAME and the conserved EKC complex and support a role for both complexes in the same pathways.

  7. The human EKC/KEOPS complex is recruited to Cullin2 ubiquitin ligases by the human tumour antigen PRAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costessi, Adalberto; Mahrour, Nawel; Sharma, Vikram; Stunnenberg, Rieka; Stoel, Marieke A; Tijchon, Esther; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2012-01-01

    The human tumour antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) is frequently overexpressed during oncogenesis, and high PRAME levels are associated with poor clinical outcome in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular pathways in which PRAME is implicated are not well understood. We recently characterized PRAME as a BC-box subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we mined the PRAME interactome to a deeper level and identified specific interactions with OSGEP and LAGE3, which are human orthologues of the ancient EKC/KEOPS complex. By characterizing biochemically the human EKC complex and its interactions with PRAME, we show that PRAME recruits a Cul2 ubiquitin ligase to EKC. Moreover, EKC subunits associate with PRAME target sites on chromatin. Our data reveal a novel link between the oncoprotein PRAME and the conserved EKC complex and support a role for both complexes in the same pathways.

  8. Viral Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Selective Host MicroRNA Expression by Targeting ZEB Transcriptional Repressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Youn; Leader, Andrew; Stoller, Michelle L.; Coen, Donald M.; Wilson, Angus C.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) brings numerous changes in cellular gene expression. Levels of most host mRNAs are reduced, limiting synthesis of host proteins, especially those involved in antiviral defenses. The impact of HSV-1 on host microRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive network of short non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability/translation, remains largely unexplored. Here we show that transcription of the miR-183 cluster (miR-183, miR-96, and miR-182) is selectively induced by HSV-1 during productive infection of primary fibroblasts and neurons. ICP0, a viral E3 ubiquitin ligase expressed as an immediate-early protein, is both necessary and sufficient for this induction. Nuclear exclusion of ICP0 or removal of the RING (really interesting new gene) finger domain that is required for E3 ligase activity prevents induction. ICP0 promotes the degradation of numerous host proteins and for the most part, the downstream consequences are unknown. Induction of the miR-183 cluster can be mimicked by depletion of host transcriptional repressors zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1)/δ-crystallin enhancer binding factor 1 (δEF1) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2)/Smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), which we establish as new substrates for ICP0-mediated degradation. Thus, HSV-1 selectively stimulates expression of the miR-183 cluster by ICP0-mediated degradation of ZEB transcriptional repressors. PMID:28783105

  9. Expansion and diversification of BTL ring-H2 ubiquitin ligases in angiosperms: putative Rabring7/BCA2 orthologs.

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    Victor Aguilar-Hernández

    Full Text Available RING finger E3 ligases are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Single-subunit RING finger E3s binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and contains recognition sequences for the substrate within the same polypeptide. Here we describe the characterization of a class of RING finger E3 ligases that is conserved among eukaryotes. This class encodes a RING-H2 domain related in sequence to the ATL RING-H2 domain, another class of E3 ligases, and a C2/C2 zing finger at the amino-terminus, formerly described as BZF. In viridiplantae (green algae and land plants, we designed this family as BTL for BZF ATLs. BTLs are putative orthologs of the mammalian Rabring7/BCA2 RING-H2 E3s that have expanded in angiosperms. They are found in numbers ranging from three to thirty-one, which is in contrast to the one to three members normally found in animals, fungi, and protists. Furthermore, the number of sequence LOGOs generated in angiosperms is four times greater than that in other eukaryotes. In contrast to ATLs, which show expansion by tandem duplication, tandemly duplicated BTLs are scarce. The mode of action of Rabring7/BCA2 and BTLs may be similar since both the Rabring7/BCA2 BZF and the ath|BTL4 BZF are likely to mediate the binding of ubiquitin. This study introduces valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of the Rabring7/BCA2/BTL class of E3 ligases which may be important for core eukaryotic genes.

  10. Expansion and Diversification of BTL Ring-H2 Ubiquitin Ligases in Angiosperms: Putative Rabring7/BCA2 Orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Guzmán, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    RING finger E3 ligases are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Single-subunit RING finger E3s binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and contains recognition sequences for the substrate within the same polypeptide. Here we describe the characterization of a class of RING finger E3 ligases that is conserved among eukaryotes. This class encodes a RING-H2 domain related in sequence to the ATL RING-H2 domain, another class of E3 ligases, and a C2/C2 zing finger at the amino-terminus, formerly described as BZF. In viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), we designed this family as BTL for BZF ATLs. BTLs are putative orthologs of the mammalian Rabring7/BCA2 RING-H2 E3s that have expanded in angiosperms. They are found in numbers ranging from three to thirty-one, which is in contrast to the one to three members normally found in animals, fungi, and protists. Furthermore, the number of sequence LOGOs generated in angiosperms is four times greater than that in other eukaryotes. In contrast to ATLs, which show expansion by tandem duplication, tandemly duplicated BTLs are scarce. The mode of action of Rabring7/BCA2 and BTLs may be similar since both the Rabring7/BCA2 BZF and the ath|BTL4 BZF are likely to mediate the binding of ubiquitin. This study introduces valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of the Rabring7/BCA2/BTL class of E3 ligases which may be important for core eukaryotic genes. PMID:23951330

  11. Datasets from an interaction proteomics screen for substrates of the SCF(βTrCP) ubiquitin ligase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Peng, Mao; Mohammed, Shabaz; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Heck, Albert J R; Low, Teck Yew

    An affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) method was employed to identify novel substrates of the SCF(βTrCP) ubiquitin ligase. A FLAG-HA tagged version of the F-box protein βTrCP2, the substrate recognition subunit of SCF(βTrCP), was used as bait. βTrCP2 wild type and the two mutants

  12. The Deubiquitylase USP2 Regulates the LDLR Pathway by Counteracting the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica Kristine; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Avagliano Trezza, Rossella; Heride, Claire; Urbe, Sylvie; Distel, Ben; Zelcer, Noam

    2016-02-05

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is a central determinant of circulating LDL-cholesterol and as such subject to tight regulation. Recent studies and genetic evidence implicate the inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL) as a regulator of LDLR abundance and of circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol in humans. Acting as an E3-ubiquitin ligase, IDOL promotes ubiquitylation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of the LDLR. Consequently, inhibition of IDOL-mediated degradation of the LDLR represents a potential strategy to increase hepatic LDL-cholesterol clearance. To establish whether deubiquitylases counteract IDOL-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of the LDLR. Using a genetic screening approach, we identify the ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) as a post-transcriptional regulator of IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation. We demonstrate that both USP2 isoforms, USP2-69 and USP2-45, interact with IDOL and promote its deubiquitylation. IDOL deubiquitylation requires USP2 enzymatic activity and leads to a marked stabilization of IDOL protein. Paradoxically, this also markedly attenuates IDOL-mediated degradation of the LDLR and the ability of IDOL to limit LDL uptake into cells. Conversely, loss of USP2 reduces LDLR protein in an IDOL-dependent manner and limits LDL uptake. We identify a tri-partite complex encompassing IDOL, USP2, and LDLR and demonstrate that in this context USP2 promotes deubiquitylation of the LDLR and prevents its degradation. Our findings identify USP2 as a novel regulator of lipoprotein clearance owing to its ability to control ubiquitylation-dependent degradation of the LDLR by IDOL. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. RPM-1 uses both ubiquitin ligase and phosphatase-based mechanisms to regulate DLK-1 during neuronal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T Baker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development that function in axon extension and guidance, termination of axon outgrowth, and synapse formation. Outside of development, the PHR proteins also regulate axon regeneration and Wallerian degeneration. The PHR proteins function in part by acting as ubiquitin ligases that degrade the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans PHR protein, Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology 1 (RPM-1, also utilizes a phosphatase-based mechanism to regulate DLK-1. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Protein Phosphatase Magnesium/Manganese dependent 2 (PPM-2 as a novel RPM-1 binding protein. Genetic, transgenic, and biochemical studies indicated that PPM-2 functions coordinately with the ubiquitin ligase activity of RPM-1 and the F-box protein FSN-1 to negatively regulate DLK-1. PPM-2 acts on S874 of DLK-1, a residue implicated in regulation of DLK-1 binding to a short, inhibitory isoform of DLK-1 (DLK-1S. Our study demonstrates that PHR proteins function through both phosphatase and ubiquitin ligase mechanisms to inhibit DLK. Thus, PHR proteins are potentially more accurate and sensitive regulators of DLK than originally thought. Our results also highlight an important and expanding role for the PP2C phosphatase family in neuronal development.

  14. Central role of E3 ubiquitin ligase MG53 in insulin resistance and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruisheng; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Fengxiang; Wu, Hong-Kun; Guo, Jiaojiao; Cao, Yongxing; Pi, Yanbin; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Li; Zhang, Mao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fenghua; Meng, Shaoshuai; Zhang, Xiuqin; Jiang, Ping; Cao, Chun-Mei; Xiao, Rui-Ping

    2013-02-21

    Insulin resistance is a fundamental pathogenic factor present in various metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although skeletal muscle accounts for 70-90% of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, the mechanism underlying muscle insulin resistance is poorly understood. Here we show in mice that muscle-specific mitsugumin 53 (MG53; also called TRIM72) mediates the degradation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and when upregulated, causes metabolic syndrome featuring insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. MG53 expression is markedly elevated in models of insulin resistance, and MG53 overexpression suffices to trigger muscle insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome sequentially. Conversely, ablation of MG53 prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome by preserving the insulin receptor, IRS1 and insulin signalling integrity. Mechanistically, MG53 acts as an E3 ligase targeting the insulin receptor and IRS1 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, comprising a central mechanism controlling insulin signal strength in skeletal muscle. These findings define MG53 as a novel therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders and associated cardiovascular complications.

  15. The Mub1/Ubr2 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates the conserved Dsn1 kinetochore protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bungo Akiyoshi

    Full Text Available The kinetochore is the macromolecular complex that assembles onto centromeric DNA and orchestrates the segregation of duplicated chromosomes. More than 60 components make up the budding yeast kinetochore, including inner kinetochore proteins that bind to centromeric chromatin and outer proteins that directly interact with microtubules. However, little is known about how these components assemble into a functional kinetochore and whether there are quality control mechanisms that monitor kinetochore integrity. We previously developed a method to isolate kinetochore particles via purification of the conserved Dsn1 kinetochore protein. We find that the Mub1/Ubr2 ubiquitin ligase complex associates with kinetochore particles through the CENP-C(Mif2 protein. Although Mub1/Ubr2 are not stable kinetochore components in vivo, they regulate the levels of the conserved outer kinetochore protein Dsn1 via ubiquitylation. Strikingly, a deletion of Mub1/Ubr2 restores the levels and viability of a mutant Dsn1 protein, reminiscent of quality control systems that target aberrant proteins for degradation. Consistent with this, Mub1/Ubr2 help to maintain viability when kinetochores are defective. Together, our data identify a previously unknown regulatory mechanism for the conserved Dsn1 kinetochore protein. We propose that Mub1/Ubr2 are part of a quality control system that monitors kinetochore integrity, thus ensuring genomic stability.

  16. The evolutionarily conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase AtCHIP contributes to plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to recognize and respond to microbial threats in their environment. The level of immune signaling must be tightly regulated so that immune responses can be quickly activated in the presence of pathogens, while avoiding autoimmunity. HSP90s, along with their diverse array of co-chaperones, forms chaperone complexes that have been shown to play both positive and negative roles in regulating the accumulation of immune receptors and regulators. In this study, we examined the role of AtCHIP, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that was known to interact with chaperones including HSP90s in multicellular organisms including fruit fly, C. elegans, plants and human. Atchip knockout mutants display enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen, and overexpression of AtCHIP causes enhanced disease resistance at low temperature. Although CHIP was reported to target HSP90 for ubiquitination and degradation, accumulation of HSP90.3 was not affected in Atchip plants. In addition, protein accumulation of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat domain immune receptor (NLR SNC1 is not altered in Atchip mutant. Thus, while AtCHIP plays a role in immunity, it does not seem to regulate the turnover of HSP90 or SNC1. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the exact mechanism behind AtCHIP’s role in regulating plant immune responses.

  17. Mutation in mouse hei10, an e3 ubiquitin ligase, disrupts meiotic crossing over.

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    Jeremy O Ward

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crossing over during meiotic prophase I is required for sexual reproduction in mice and contributes to genome-wide genetic diversity. Here we report on the characterization of an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced, recessive allele called mei4, which causes sterility in both sexes owing to meiotic defects. In mutant spermatocytes, chromosomes fail to congress properly at the metaphase plate, leading to arrest and apoptosis before the first meiotic division. Mutant oocytes have a similar chromosomal phenotype but in vitro can undergo meiotic divisions and fertilization before arresting. During late meiotic prophase in mei4 mutant males, absence of cyclin dependent kinase 2 and mismatch repair protein association from chromosome cores is correlated with the premature separation of bivalents at diplonema owing to lack of chiasmata. We have identified the causative mutation, a transversion in the 5' splice donor site of exon 1 in the mouse ortholog of Human Enhancer of Invasion 10 (Hei10; also known as Gm288 in mouse and CCNB1IP1 in human, a putative B-type cyclin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, orthologs of Hei10 are found exclusively in deuterostomes and not in more ancestral protostomes such as yeast, worms, or flies. The cloning and characterization of the mei4 allele of Hei10 demonstrates a novel link between cell cycle regulation and mismatch repair during prophase I.

  18. News from the PUB: plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Marco

    2018-01-23

    Plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases (PUBs) are well known for their functions in a variety of stress responses, including immune responses and the adaptation to abiotic stresses. First linked to pollen self-incompatibility, their repertoire of roles has grown to encompass also the regulation of developmental processes. Notably, new studies provide clues to their mode of action, underline the existence of conserved PUB-kinase modules, and suggest new links to G-protein signalling, placing PUBs at the crossroads of major signalling hubs. The frequent association with membranes, by interacting and/or targeting membrane proteins, as well as through a recently reported direct interaction with phospholipids, indicates a general function in the control of vesicle transport and their cargoes. This review aims to give an overview of the most significant advances in the field, while also trying to identify common themes of PUB function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Real Estate in the DNA Damage Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Ligases Home in on DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantuma, Nico P; Pfeiffer, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO are intimately connected with the cellular response to various types of DNA damage. A striking feature is the local accumulation of these proteinaceous post-translational modifications in the direct vicinity to DNA double-strand breaks, which plays a critical role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci. The functional significance of these modifications is the coordinated recruitment and removal of proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair in a timely manner. The central orchestrators of these processes are the ubiquitin and SUMO ligases that are responsible for accurately tagging a broad array of chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins thereby changing their behavior or destination. Despite many differences in the mode of action of these enzymes, they share some striking features that are of direct relevance for their function in the DNA damage response. In this review, we outline the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the recruitment of ubiquitin and SUMO ligases and discuss the importance of chromatin proximity in this process.

  20. Tsg101 and Alix interact with murine leukemia virus Gag and cooperate with Nedd4 ubiquitin ligases during budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Morales, Carolina; Pescia, Christina; Chatellard-Causse, Christine; Sadoul, Remy; Bertrand, Edouard; Basyuk, Eugenia

    2005-07-22

    Retroviruses use endosomal machinery to bud out of infected cells, and various Gag proteins recruit this machinery by interacting with either of three cellular factors as follows: ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, Tsg101, or Alix/Aip1. Here we show that the murine leukemia virus Gag has the unique ability to interact with all three factors. Small interfering RNAs against Tsg101 or Alix and dominant-negative forms of Nedd4 can all reduce production of virus-like particles. However, inactivating the Nedd4-binding site abolishes budding, whereas disrupting Tsg101 or Alix binding has milder effects. Nedd4 ubiquitin ligases are therefore essential, and Tsg101 and Alix play auxiliary roles. Most interestingly, overexpression of Alix can stimulate the release of Gag, and this occurs independently of most Alix partners Tsg101, Cin85, Alg-2, and endophilins. In addition, Gag mutants that do not bind Tsg101 or Alix concentrate on late endosomes and become very sensitive to dominant-negative forms of Nedd4 that do not conjugate ubiquitin. This suggests that the direct interaction of Gag with Tsg101 and Alix favors budding from the plasma membrane and relieves a requirement for ubiquitination by Nedd4.1. Other Nedd4-dependent Gag proteins also contain binding sites for Tsg101 or Alix, suggesting that this could be a common feature of retroviruses.

  1. Targeted ubiquitination and degradation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 by the DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex.

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    Ziyan Wu

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs phosphorylate agonist occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and desensitize GPCR-mediated signaling. Recent studies indicate they also function non-catalytically via interaction with other proteins. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to screen interacting proteins of GRK5 in MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVEC cells. Mass spectrometry analysis reveals several proteins in the GRK5 immunocomplex including damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1, an adaptor subunit of the CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the association of GRK5 with DDB1-CUL4 complex, and reveal that DDB1 acts as an adapter to link GRK5 to CUL4 to form the complex. Overexpression of DDB1 promoted, whereas knockdown of DDB1 inhibited the ubiquitination of GRK5, and the degradation of GRK5 was reduced in cells deficient of DDB1. Furthermore, the depletion of DDB1 decreased Hsp90 inhibitor-induced GRK5 destabilization and UV irradiation-induced GRK5 degradation. Thus, our study identified potential GRK5 interacting proteins, and reveals the association of GRK5 with DDB1 in cell and the regulation of GRK5 level by DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex-dependent proteolysis pathway.

  2. K48-linked KLF4 ubiquitination by E3 ligase Mule controls T-cell proliferation and cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Duncan, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    T-cell proliferation is regulated by ubiquitination but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we report that Lys-48-linked ubiquitination of the transcription factor KLF4 mediated by the E3 ligase Mule promotes T-cell entry into S phase. Mule is elevated in T cells upon TCR...... engagement, and Mule deficiency in T cells blocks proliferation because KLF4 accumulates and drives upregulation of its transcriptional targets E2F2 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. T-cell-specific Mule knockout (TMKO) mice develop exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...... (EAE), show impaired generation of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells with reduced cytokine production, and fail to clear LCMV infections. Thus, Mule-mediated ubiquitination of the novel substrate KLF4 regulates T-cell proliferation, autoimmunity and antiviral immune responses in vivo....

  3. The checkpoint protein Chfr is a ligase that ubiquitinates Plk1 and inhibits Cdc2 at the G2 to M transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongmin; Chen, James; Wong, Jim; Fang, Guowei

    2002-01-01

    The checkpoint protein Chfr delays entry into mitosis, in the presence of mitotic stress (Scolnick, D.M., and T.D. Halazonetis. 2000. Nature. 406:430–435). We show here that Chfr is a ubiquitin ligase, both in vitro and in vivo. When transfected into HEK293T cells, Myc–Chfr promotes the formation of high molecular weight ubiquitin conjugates. The ring finger domain in Chfr is required for the ligase activity; this domain auto-ubiquitinates, and mutations of conserved residues in this domain a...

  4. The Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 regulates the localization and function of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryrear, Kimberly A.; Guo, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The Really Interesting New Gene (RING) Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) represents a class of ubiquitin ligases that target Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)–modified proteins for ubiquitin modification. To date, the regulatory function of RNF4 appears to be ubiquitin-mediated degradation of sumoylated cellular proteins. In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro. We mapped the RNF4-binding site to a region adjacent to the Tax ubiquitin/SUMO modification sites K280/K284. Interestingly, RNF4 modification of Tax protein results in relocalization of the oncoprotein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Overexpression of RNF4, but not the RNF4 RING mutant, resulted in cytoplasmic enrichment of Tax. The RNF4-induced nucleus-to-cytoplasm relocalization was associated with increased NF-κB–mediated and decreased cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)–mediated Tax activity. Finally, depletion of RNF4 by RNAi prevented the DNA damage–induced nuclear/cytoplasmic translocation of Tax. These results provide important new insight into STUbL-mediated pathways that regulate the subcellular localization and functional dynamics of viral oncogenes. PMID:22106342

  5. Lnx2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for exocrine cell differentiation in the early zebrafish pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Minho; Ro, Hyunju; Dawid, Igor B

    2015-10-06

    The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ligand of Numb protein-X (Lnx)2a is expressed in the ventral-anterior pancreatic bud of zebrafish embryos in addition to its expression in the brain. Knockdown of Lnx2a by using an exon 2/intron 2 splice morpholino resulted in specific inhibition of the differentiation of ventral bud derived exocrine cell types, with little effect on endocrine cell types. A frame shifting null mutation in lnx2a did not mimic this phenotype, but a mutation that removed the exon 2 splice donor site did. We found that Lnx2b functions in a redundant manner with its paralog Lnx2a. Inhibition of lnx2a exon 2/3 splicing causes exon 2 skipping and leads to the production of an N-truncated protein that acts as an interfering molecule. Thus, the phenotype characterized by inhibition of exocrine cell differentiation requires inactivation of both Lnx2a and Lnx2b. Human LNX1 is known to destabilize Numb, and we show that inhibition of Numb expression rescues the Lnx2a/b-deficient phenotype. Further, Lnx2a/b inhibition leads to a reduction in the number of Notch active cells in the pancreas. We suggest that Lnx2a/b function to fine tune the regulation of Notch through Numb in the differentiation of cell types in the early zebrafish pancreas. Further, the complex relationships among genotype, phenotype, and morpholino effect in this case may be instructive in the ongoing consideration of morpholino use.

  6. Model of the Ankyrin and SOCS Box Protein, ASB9, E3 Ligase Reveals a Mechanism for Dynamic Ubiquitin Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Jamie M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Parnell, Jonathan; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Cesar; Reyes, Javiera; Amaro, Rommie E; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-02

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are elongated and bowed protein complexes that transfer ubiquitin over 60 Å to proteins targeted for proteasome degradation. One such CRL contains the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 9 (ASB9), which binds to and partially inhibits creatine kinase (CK). While current models for the ASB9-CK complex contain some known interface residues, the overall structure and precise interface of the ASB9-CK complex remains unknown. Through an integrative modeling approach, we report a third-generation model that reveals precisely the interface interactions and also fits the shape of the ASB9-CK complex as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. We constructed an atomic model for the entire CK-targeting CRL to uncover dominant modes of motion that could permit ubiquitin transfer. Remarkably, only the correctly docked CK-containing E3 ligase and not incorrectly docked structures permitted close approach of ubiquitin to the CK substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The activities of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA, a key repressor in light signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Ute

    2017-06-01

    Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA. Moreover, we summarize how COP1 activity is regulated by other interacting proteins, such as a SUMO E3 ligase and Phytochrome-Interacting Factors (PIFs), as well as by hormones. At last, several novel functions of COP1 that were recently revealed are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl Proteins in Interleukin-2-Induced Jurkat T-Cell Activation

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    Ming-Fang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 2 is the major growth factor for T-cell activation and proliferation. IL-2 has multiple functions in the regulation of immunological processes. Although most studies focus on T-cell immunomodulation, T-cell activation by IL-2 is the foundation of priming the feedback loop. Here, we investigated the effect of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways on IL-2-induced cell activation and the regulatory mechanisms of upstream ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b and c-Cbl. Morphological analysis of Jurkat T cells was performed by cytospin preparations with Wright-Giemsa stain. CD25 expression on Jurkat T cells was determined by flow cytometry. Changes in cell activation proteins such as p-ERK, ERK, p-Akt, Akt, and ubiquitin ligase Casitas B-cell Lymphoma (Cbl proteins were analyzed by western blot. Following IL-2-induced activation of Jurkat T cells, p-ERK expression was upregulated, while there was no change in p-Akt, ERK, or Akt expression. Thus, the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, but not PI3K/Akt, was involved in IL-2-induced T-cell activation. Either using PD98059 (a specific inhibitor for p-ERK or depletion of ERK with small interfering RNA (siRNA reduced the expression of CD25. This study also showed that ubiquitin ligase proteins Cbl-b and c-Cbl might be involved in IL-2-induced Jurkat T-cell activation by negatively regulating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

  9. A new non-catalytic role for ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in unfolding higher-order chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Acs, Klara; Ackermann, Leena

    2012-01-01

    . Our data show that CHD4, the catalytic subunit of the NuRD complex, interacts with RNF8 and is essential for RNF8-mediated chromatin unfolding. The chromatin remodelling activity of CHD4 promotes efficient ubiquitin conjugation and assembly of RNF168 and BRCA1 at DNA double-strand breaks....... Interestingly, RNF8-mediated recruitment of CHD4 and subsequent chromatin remodelling were independent of the ubiquitin-ligase activity of RNF8, but involved a non-canonical interaction with the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. Our study reveals a new mechanism of chromatin remodelling-assisted ubiquitylation......, which involves the cooperation between CHD4 and RNF8 to create a local chromatin environment that is permissive to the assembly of checkpoint and repair machineries at DNA lesions....

  10. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase WWP1 Selectively Targets HER4 and Its Proteolytically Derived Signaling Isoforms for Degradation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-Mang; Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Hunter, Debra; Sandahl, Melissa A.; Caskey, Laura S.; Miyazawa, Keiji; Atfi, Azeddine; Earp, H. Shelton

    2009-01-01

    In general, epidermal growth factor receptor family members stimulate cell proliferation. In contrast, at least one HER4 isoform, JM-a/Cyt1, inhibits cell growth after undergoing a two-step proteolytic cleavage that first produces a membrane-anchored 80-kDa fragment (m80HER4) and subsequently liberates a soluble 80-kDa fragment, s80HER4. Here we report that s80HER4 Cyt1 action increased the expression of WWP1 (for WW domain-containing protein 1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, but not other members of the Nedd4 E3 ligase family. The HER4 Cyt1 isoform contains three proline-rich tyrosine (PY) WW binding motifs, while Cyt2 has only two. WWP1 binds to all three Cyt1 PY motifs; the interaction with PY2 found exclusively in Cyt1 was strongest. WWP1 ubiquitinated and caused the degradation of HER4 but not of EGFR, HER2, or HER3. The HER4-WWP1 interaction also accelerated WWP1 degradation. Membrane HER4 (full length and m80HER4, the product of the first proteolytic cleavage) were the preferred targets of WWP1, correlating with the membrane localization of WWP1. Conversely s80HER4, a poorer WWP1 substrate, was found in the cell nucleus, while WWP1 was not. Deletion of the C2 membrane association domain of WWP1 allowed more efficient s80HER4 degradation, suggesting that WWP1 is normally part of a membrane complex that regulates HER4 membrane species levels, with a predilection for the growth-inhibitory Cyt1 isoform. Finally, WWP1 expression diminished HER4 biologic activity in MCF-7 cells. We previously showed that nuclear s80HER4 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex, suggesting that HER4 ubiquitination within specific cellular compartments helps regulate the unique HER4 signaling capabilities. PMID:19047365

  11. Ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p is involved in the gene expression changes during nutrient limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, F; Aranda, A; del Olmo, M

    2009-01-01

    Rsp5p is an essential ubiquitin ligase involved in many different cellular events, including amino acid transporters degradation, transcription initiation and mRNA export. It plays important role in both stress resistance and adaptation to the change of nutrients. We have found that ubiquitination machinery is necessary for the correct induction of the stress response SPI1 gene at the entry of the stationary phase. SPI1 is a gene whose expression is regulated by the nutritional status of the cell and whose deletion causes hypersensitivity to various stresses, such as heat shock, alkaline stress and oxidative stress. Its regulation is mastered by Rsp5p, as mutations in this gene lead to a lower SPI1 expression. In this process, Rsp5p is helped by several proteins, such as Rsp5p-interacting proteins Bul1p/2p, the ubiquitin conjugating protein Ubc1p and ubiquitin proteases Ubp4p and Ubp16p. Moreover, a mutation in the RSP5 gene has a global effect at the gene expression level when cells enter the stationary phase. Rsp5p particularly controls the levels of the ribosomal proteins mRNAs at this stage. Rsp5p is also necessary for a correct induction of p-bodies under stress conditions, indicating that this protein plays an important role in the post-transcriptional fate of mRNA under nutrient starvation.

  12. E3 ubiquitin ligases as drug targets and prognostic biomarkers in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bielskienė

    2015-01-01

    E3 ligases are of interest as drug targets for their ability to regulate proteins stability and functions. Compared to the general proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which blocks the entire protein degradation, drugs that target a particular E3 ligase are expected to have better selectivity with less associated toxicity. Components of different E3 ligases complexes (FBW7, MDM2, RBX1/ROC1, RBX2/ROC2, cullins and many others are known as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in melanomagenesis. These proteins participate in regulation of different cellular pathways and such important proteins in cancer development as p53 and Notch. In this review we summarized published data on the role of known E3 ligases in the development of melanoma and discuss the inhibitors of E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of malignant melanomas.

  13. Ezrin Ubiquitylation by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, WWP1, and Consequent Regulation of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Laurence Del; Daviet, Laurent; Atfi, Azeddine; Louvard, Daniel; Arpin, Monique

    2012-01-01

    The membrane cytoskeleton linker ezrin participates in several functions downstream of the receptor Met in response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) stimulation. Here we report a novel interaction of ezrin with a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, WWP1/Aip5/Tiul1, a potential oncogene that undergoes genomic amplification and overexpression in human breast and prostate cancers. We show that ezrin binds to the WW domains of WWP1 via the consensus motif PPVY477 present in ezrin’s C-terminus. This association results in the ubiquitylation of ezrin, a process that requires an intact PPVY477 motif. Interestingly ezrin ubiquitylation does not target the protein for degradation by the proteasome. We find that ezrin ubiquitylation by WWP1 in epithelial cells leads to the upregulation of Met level in absence of HGF stimulation and increases the response of Met to HGF stimulation as measured by the ability of the cells to heal a wound. Interestingly this effect requires ubiquitylated ezrin since it can be rescued, after depletion of endogenous ezrin, by wild type ezrin but not by a mutant of ezrin that cannot be ubiquitylated. Taken together our data reveal a new role for ezrin in Met receptor stability and activity through its association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1. Given the role of Met in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, our results may provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the role of ezrin in tumor progression. PMID:22629406

  14. Ezrin ubiquitylation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, WWP1, and consequent regulation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania F Zaarour

    Full Text Available The membrane cytoskeleton linker ezrin participates in several functions downstream of the receptor Met in response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF stimulation. Here we report a novel interaction of ezrin with a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, WWP1/Aip5/Tiul1, a potential oncogene that undergoes genomic amplification and overexpression in human breast and prostate cancers. We show that ezrin binds to the WW domains of WWP1 via the consensus motif PPVY(477 present in ezrin's C-terminus. This association results in the ubiquitylation of ezrin, a process that requires an intact PPVY(477 motif. Interestingly ezrin ubiquitylation does not target the protein for degradation by the proteasome. We find that ezrin ubiquitylation by WWP1 in epithelial cells leads to the upregulation of Met level in absence of HGF stimulation and increases the response of Met to HGF stimulation as measured by the ability of the cells to heal a wound. Interestingly this effect requires ubiquitylated ezrin since it can be rescued, after depletion of endogenous ezrin, by wild type ezrin but not by a mutant of ezrin that cannot be ubiquitylated. Taken together our data reveal a new role for ezrin in Met receptor stability and activity through its association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1. Given the role of Met in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, our results may provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the role of ezrin in tumor progression.

  15. Structural basis for c-KIT inhibition by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Pike, Ashley C W; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    interaction with c-KIT pY568. The 1.45-Å crystal structure of SOCS6 SH2 domain bound to the c-KIT substrate peptide (c-KIT residues 564-574) revealed a highly complementary and specific interface giving rise to a high affinity interaction (K(d) = 0.3 µm). Interestingly, the SH2 binding pocket extends...... to substrate residue position pY+6 and envelopes the c-KIT phosphopeptide with a large BG loop insertion that contributes significantly to substrate interaction. We demonstrate that SOCS6 has ubiquitin ligase activity toward c-KIT and regulates c-KIT protein turnover in cells. Our data support a role of SOCS6...... of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) is a member of the SOCS family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that can interact with c-KIT and suppress c-KIT-dependent pathways. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms that determine SOCS6 substrate recognition. Our results show that the SH2 domain of SOCS6 is essential for its...

  16. A MARCH6 and IDOL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Circuit Uncouples Cholesterol Synthesis from Lipoprotein Uptake in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loregger, Anke; Cook, Emma Claire Laura; Nelson, Jessica Kristin; Moeton, Martina; Sharpe, Laura Jane; Engberg, Susanna; Karimova, Madina; Lambert, Gilles; Brown, Andrew John; Zelcer, Noam

    2015-11-02

    Cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein uptake are tightly coordinated to ensure that the cellular level of cholesterol is adequately maintained. Hepatic dysregulation of these processes is associated with pathological conditions, most notably cardiovascular disease. Using a genetic approach, we have recently identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 as a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, owing to its ability to promote degradation of the rate-limiting enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene epoxidase (SQLE). Here, we present evidence for MARCH6 playing a multifaceted role in the control of cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes. We identify MARCH6 as an endogenous inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional program. Accordingly, loss of MARCH6 increases expression of SREBP-regulated genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake. Unexpectedly, this is associated with a decrease in cellular lipoprotein uptake, induced by enhanced lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Finally, we provide evidence that induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL represents the molecular mechanism underlying this MARCH6-induced phenotype. Our study thus highlights a MARCH6-dependent mechanism to direct cellular cholesterol accretion that relies on uncoupling of cholesterol synthesis from lipoprotein uptake. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. NleG Type 3 effectors from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli are U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available NleG homologues constitute the largest family of Type 3 effectors delivered by pathogenic E. coli, with fourteen members in the enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC O157:H7 strain alone. Identified recently as part of the non-LEE-encoded (Nle effector set, this family remained uncharacterised and shared no sequence homology to other proteins including those of known function. The C-terminal domain of NleG2-3 (residues 90 to 191 is the most conserved region in NleG proteins and was solved by NMR. Structural analysis of this structure revealed the presence of a RING finger/U-box motif. Functional assays demonstrated that NleG2-3 as well as NleG5-1, NleG6-2 and NleG9' family members exhibited a strong autoubiquitination activity in vitro; a characteristic usually expressed by eukaryotic ubiquitin E3 ligases. When screened for activity against a panel of 30 human E2 enzymes, the NleG2-3 and NleG5-1 homologues showed an identical profile with only UBE2E2, UBE2E3 and UBE2D2 enzymes supporting NleG activity. Fluorescence polarization analysis yielded a binding affinity constant of 56+/-2 microM for the UBE2D2/NleG5-1 interaction, a value comparable with previous studies on E2/E3 affinities. The UBE2D2 interaction interface on NleG2-3 defined by NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutagenesis was shown to be generally similar to that characterised for human RING finger ubiquitin ligases. The alanine substitutions of UBE2D2 residues Arg5 and Lys63, critical for activation of eukaryotic E3 ligases, also significantly decreased both NleG binding and autoubiquitination activity. These results demonstrate that bacteria-encoded NleG effectors are E3 ubiquitin ligases analogous to RING finger and U-box enzymes in eukaryotes.

  18. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101(Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101(Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1's replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS complex at stalled forks.

  19. RING-type ubiquitin ligase McCPN1 catalyzes UBC8-dependent protein ubiquitination and interacts with Argonaute 4 in halophyte ice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Hua; Chiang, Chih-Pin; Yang, Jun-Yi; Ma, Chia-Jou; Chen, Yu-Chan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2014-07-01

    RING-type copines are a small family of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases. They contain an N-terminal myristoylation site for membrane anchoring, a central copine domain for substrate recognition, and a C-terminal RING domain for E2 docking. RING-type copine McCPN1 (copine1) from halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) was previously identified from a salt-induced cDNA library. In this work, we characterize the activity, expression, and localization of McCPN1 in ice plant. An in vitro ubiquitination assay of McCPN1 was performed using two ice plant UBCs, McUBC1 and McUBC2, characterized from the same salt-induced cDNA library. The results showed that McUBC2, a member of the UBC8 family, stimulated the autoubiquitination activity of McCPN1, while McUBC1, a homolog of the UBC35 family, did not. The results indicate that McCPN1 has selective E2-dependent E3 ligase activity. We found that McCPN1 localizes primarily on the plasma membrane and in the nucleus of plant cells. Under salt stress, the accumulation of McCPN1 in the roots increases. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to search for potential McCPN1-interacting partners using a library constructed from salt-stressed ice plants. Screening with full-length McCPN1 identified several independent clones containing partial Argonaute 4 (AGO4) sequence. Subsequent agro-infiltration, protoplast two-hybrid analysis, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that McCPN1 and AGO4 interacted in vivo in the nucleus of plant cells. The possible involvement of a catalyzed degradation of AGO4 by McCPN1 in response to salt stress is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The transcription factor STAT2 enhances proteasomal degradation of RCAN1 through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jae Youn; Lee, Eun Jung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Yoon, Joo Heon; Seo, Su Ryeon; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2012-04-06

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder and is characterized by three copies of chromosome 21. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located close to the Down syndrome critical region (distal part of chromosome 21), and its product functions as an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling. RCAN1 protein stability is regulated by several inflammatory signaling factors, though the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that RCAN1 interacts with the inflammation-linked transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) in mammalian cells. STAT2 overexpression decreased levels of RCAN1 protein. Decreases in RCAN1 were blocked by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that STAT2 regulates RCAN1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblot analyses showed that STAT2 enhanced RCAN1 ubiquitination through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7. This pathway appeared to be physiologically relevant, as treatment of cells with interferon-α reduced RCAN1 levels through the activation of STAT2 and FBW7. Together, these results suggest that STAT2 influences diverse cellular processes linked to RCAN1 by negatively affecting RCAN1 protein stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. REUL is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase and stimulator of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Gao

    Full Text Available RIG-I and MDA5 are cytoplasmic sensors that recognize different species of viral RNAs, leads to activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappaB, which collaborate to induce type I interferons. In this study, we identified REUL, a RING-finger protein, as a specific RIG-I-interacting protein. REUL was associated with RIG-I, but not MDA5, through its PRY and SPRY domains. Overexpression of REUL potently potentiated RIG-I-, but not MDA5-mediated downstream signalling and antiviral activity. In contrast, the RING domain deletion mutant of REUL suppressed Sendai virus (SV-induced, but not cytoplasmic polyI:C-induced activation of IFN-beta promoter. Knockdown of endogenous REUL by RNAi inhibited SV-triggered IFN-beta expression, and also increased VSV replication. Full-length RIG-I, but not the CARD domain deletion mutant of RIG-I, underwent ubiquitination induced by REUL. The Lys 154, 164, and 172 residues of the RIG-I CARD domain were critical for efficient REUL-mediated ubiquitination, as well as the ability of RIG-I to induce activation of IFN-beta promoter. These findings suggest that REUL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of RIG-I and specifically stimulates RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral activity.

  2. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP44 counteracts the DNA double-strand break response mediated by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anna; Lukas, Claudia; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect...... considerable functional redundancy among cellular DUBs that restrict ubiquitin-dependent protein assembly at DSBs. Our findings implicate USP44 in negative regulation of the RNF8/RNF168 pathway and illustrate the usefulness of DUB overexpression screens for identification of antagonizers of ubiquitin...

  3. Deficiency of UBE2T, the E2 Ubiquitin Ligase Necessary for FANCD2 and FANCI Ubiquitination, Causes FA-T Subtype of Fanconi Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rickman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from pathogenic mutations in genes encoding proteins participating in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. Mutations in 17 genes (FANCA-FANCS have been identified in FA patients, defining 17 complementation groups. Here, we describe an individual presenting with typical FA features who is deficient for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, UBE2T. UBE2T is known to interact with FANCL, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase component of the multiprotein FA core complex, and is necessary for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Proband fibroblasts do not display FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, do not form FANCD2 foci following treatment with mitomycin C, and are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents. These cellular defects are complemented by expression of wild-type UBE2T, demonstrating that deficiency of the protein UBE2T can lead to Fanconi anemia. UBE2T gene gains an alias of FANCT.

  4. Dynamic in vivo interaction of DDB2 E3 ubiquitin ligase with UV-damaged DNA is independent of damage-recognition protein XPC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, M.S.; Goedhart, J.; Moser, J.; Kool, H.; Geverts, B.; Houtsmuller, A.B.; Mullenders, L.H.; Vermeulen, W.; van Driel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Damage DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2) has a high affinity for UV-damaged DNA and has been implicated in the initial steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammals. DDB2 binds to CUL4A and forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we have analyzed the properties of DDB2 and CUL4A

  5. Dynamic in vivo interaction of DDB2 E3 ubiquitin ligase with UV-damaged DNA is independent of damage-recognition protein XPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Goedhart, Joachim; Moser, Jill; Kool, Hanneke; Geverts, Bart; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Vermeulen, Wim; van Driel, Roel

    2007-01-01

    Damage DNA binding protein 2 ( DDB2) has a high affinity for UV-damaged DNA and has been implicated in the initial steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammals. DDB2 binds to CUL4A and forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we have analyzed the properties of DDB2 and

  6. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL Induces the Degradation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Family Members VLDLR and ApoER2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Cynthia; Duit, Sarah; Jalonen, Pilvi; Out, Ruud; Scheer, Lilith; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Boyadjian, Rima; Rodenburg, Kees C. W.; Foley, Edan; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan; Nimpf, Johannes; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Tontonoz, Peter; Zelcer, Noam

    2010-01-01

    We have previously identified the E3-ubiquitin ligase Inducible Degrader of the LDLR (Idol)1 as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by Liver X Receptors (LXRs) and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the

  7. Protein Interaction Screening for the Ankyrin Repeats and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Box (ASB) Family Identify Asb11 as a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Ubiquitin Ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Christina Aaen; Smedegaard, Stine; Sylvestersen, Kathrine Beck

    2014-01-01

    The Ankyrin and SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) box (ASB) family of proteins function as the substrate recognition subunit in a subset of Elongin-Cullin-SOCS (ECS) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Despite counting with 18 members in humans, the identity of the physiological targets of the Asb protei...

  8. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is a substrate for the NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Song

    Full Text Available Ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes form around nascent RNA during transcription to facilitate proper transcriptional elongation, RNA processing, and nuclear export. RNPs are highly heterogeneous, and different types of RNPs tend to package functionally related transcripts. These observations have inspired the hypothesis that RNP mediated mechanisms help specify coordinated gene expression. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in RNP components can cause defects in specific developmental pathways. How RNP biogenesis itself is regulated, however, is not well understood. The evolutionarily conserved THO RNP complex functions early during transcription to package nascent transcripts and facilitate subsequent RNP biogenesis. THO deficiency compromises transcriptional elongation as well as RNP mediated events like 3' end formation and nuclear export for some transcripts. Using molecularly manipulated cells and in vitro reconstituted biochemical reactions, we demonstrate that the essential THO protein component encoded by the Thoc1 gene is poly-ubiquitinated by the NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Poly-ubiquitinated pThoc1 is degraded by the proteasome. These results indicate THO activity is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and that this regulation is evolutionarily conserved between yeast and mammals. Manipulation of NEDD4-1 levels has modest effects on Thoc1 protein levels under steady state conditions, but destabilization of Thoc1 protein upon treatment with a transcriptional elongation inhibitor is dependent on NEDD4-1. This suggests NEDD4-1 functions in conjunction with other post-translational mechanisms to regulate Thoc1 protein and THO activity.

  9. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP and NBR1-Mediated Selective Autophagy Protect Additively against Proteotoxicity in Plant Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingxia; Chi, Yingjin; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Plant stress responses require both protective measures that reduce or restore stress-inflicted damage to cellular structures and mechanisms that efficiently remove damaged and toxic macromolecules, such as misfolded and damaged proteins. We have recently reported that NBR1, the first identified plant autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-association domain, plays a critical role in plant stress tolerance by targeting stress-induced, ubiquitinated protein aggregates for degradation by autophagy. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of CHIP, a chaperone-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in mediating degradation of nonnative proteins by 26S proteasomes. We isolated two chip knockout mutants and discovered that they had the same phenotypes as the nbr1 mutants with compromised tolerance to heat, oxidative and salt stresses and increased accumulation of insoluble proteins under heat stress. To determine their functional interactions, we generated chip nbr1 double mutants and found them to be further compromised in stress tolerance and in clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates, indicating additive roles of CHIP and NBR1. Furthermore, stress-induced protein aggregates were still ubiquitinated in the chip mutants. Through proteomic profiling, we systemically identified heat-induced protein aggregates in the chip and nbr1 single and double mutants. These experiments revealed that highly aggregate-prone proteins such as Rubisco activase and catalases preferentially accumulated in the nbr1 mutant while a number of light-harvesting complex proteins accumulated at high levels in the chip mutant after a relatively short period of heat stress. With extended heat stress, aggregates for a large number of intracellular proteins accumulated in both chip and nbr1 mutants and, to a greater extent, in the chip nbr1 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that CHIP and NBR1 mediate two distinct but complementary anti

  10. Haploinsufficiency of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene TRIP12 causes intellectual disability with or without autism spectrum disorders, speech delay, and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Gambin, Tomasz; Yuan, Bo; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Balwi, Mohammed Al; Alswaid, Abdulrahman; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Shamsi, Aisha M Al; Komara, Makanko; Ali, Bassam R; Roeder, Elizabeth; McAuley, Laura; Roy, Daniel S; Manchester, David K; Magoulas, Pilar; King, Lauren E; Hannig, Vickie; Bonneau, Dominique; Denommé-Pichon, Anne-Sophie; Charif, Majida; Besnard, Thomas; Bézieau, Stéphane; Cogné, Benjamin; Andrieux, Joris; Zhu, Wenmiao; He, Weimin; Vetrini, Francesco; Ward, Patricia A; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Eng, Christine M; Lupski, James R; Yang, Yaping; Patel, Ankita; Lalani, Seema R; Xia, Fan; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2017-04-01

    Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.

  11. H2B ubiquitination: Conserved molecular mechanism, diverse physiologic functions of the E3 ligase during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Cao, Chunwei; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Wei

    2017-09-03

    RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures. In the current extra view, we not only elucidate the evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub, but also discuss the diverse physiologic functions of RNF20 during meiosis.

  12. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN+/− mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN+/+ mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  13. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology...

  14. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SCF(Cyclin F) Transmits AKT Signaling to the Cell-Cycle Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Bonacci, Thomas; Wang, Xianxi; Truong, Andrew; Arceci, Anthony; Zhang, Yanqiong; Mills, Christine A; Kernan, Jennifer L; Liu, Pengda; Emanuele, Michael J

    2017-09-26

    The oncogenic AKT kinase is a key regulator of apoptosis, cell growth, and cell-cycle progression. Despite its important role in proliferation, it remains largely unknown how AKT is mechanistically linked to the cell cycle. We show here that cyclin F, a substrate receptor F-box protein for the SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, is a bona fide AKT substrate. Cyclin F expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, a rare feature among the 69 human F-box proteins, and all of its known substrates are involved in proliferation. AKT phosphorylation of cyclin F enhances its stability and promotes assembly into productive E3 ligase complexes. Importantly, expression of mutant versions of cyclin F that cannot be phosphorylated by AKT impair cell-cycle entry. Our data suggest that cyclin F transmits mitogen signaling through AKT to the core cell-cycle machinery. This discovery has potential implications for proliferative control in malignancies where AKT is activated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trade-off and flexibility in the dynamic regulation of the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Straube

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs catalyze the ubiquitylation of substrates many of which are degraded by the 26S proteasome. Their modular architecture enables recognition of numerous substrates via exchangeable substrate receptors that competitively bind to a cullin scaffold with high affinity. Due to the plasticity of these interactions there is ongoing uncertainty how cells maintain a flexible CRL repertoire in view of changing substrate loads. Based on a series of in vivo and in vitro studies, different groups proposed that the exchange of substrate receptors is mediated by a protein exchange factor named Cand1. Here, we have performed mathematical modeling to provide a quantitative underpinning of this hypothesis. First we show that the exchange activity of Cand1 necessarily leads to a trade-off between high ligase activity and fast receptor exchange. Supported by measurements we argue that this trade-off yields an optimal Cand1 concentration in cells where the time scale for substrate degradation becomes minimal. In a second step we show through simulations that (i substrates bias the CRL repertoire leading to preferential assembly of ligases for which substrates are available and (ii differences in binding affinities or substrate receptor abundances create a temporal hierarchy for the degradation of substrates. Finally, we compare the Cand1-mediated exchange cycle with an alternative architecture lacking Cand1 which indicates superiority of a system with exchange factor if substrate receptors bind substrates and the cullin scaffold in a random order. Together, our results provide general constraints for the operating regimes of molecular exchange systems and suggest that Cand1 endows the CRL network with the properties of an "on demand" system allowing cells to dynamically adjust their CRL repertoire to fluctuating substrate abundances.

  16. Inactivation of SAG E3 ubiquitin ligase blocks embryonic stem cell differentiation and sensitizes leukemia cells to retinoid acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    Full Text Available Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG, also known as RBX2 (RING box protein-2, is the RING component of SCF (SKP1, Cullin, and F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SAG is an anti-apoptotic protein and an attractive anti-cancer target. We also found recently that Sag knockout sensitized mouse embryonic stem cells (mES to radiation and blocked mES cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. Here, we reported that compared to wild-type mES cells, the Sag(-/- mES cells were much more sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (RA-induced suppression of cell proliferation and survival. While wild-type mES cells underwent differentiation upon exposure to RA, Sag(-/- mES cells were induced to death via apoptosis instead. The cell fate change, reflected by cellular stiffness, can be detected as early as 12 hrs post RA exposure by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy. We then extended this novel finding to RA differentiation therapy of leukemia, in which the resistance often develops, by testing our hypothesis that SAG inhibition would sensitize leukemia to RA. Indeed, we found a direct correlation between SAG overexpression and RA resistance in multiple leukemia lines. By using MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme (NAE, that inactivates SAG-SCF E3 ligase by blocking cullin neddylation, we were able to sensitize two otherwise resistant leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1 to RA. Mechanistically, RA sensitization by MLN4924 was mediated via enhanced apoptosis, likely through accumulation of pro-apoptotic proteins NOXA and c-JUN, two well-known substrates of SAG-SCF E3 ligase. Taken together, our study provides the proof-of-concept evidence for effective treatment of leukemia patients by RA-MLN4924 combination.

  17. Distinct functional domains contribute to degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible Degrader of the LDLR (IDOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Scheer, Lilith; Santos, Ana; Reits, Eric; Bleijlevens, Boris; Zelcer, Noam

    2011-08-26

    We recently identified the liver X receptor-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDL receptor (IDOL) as a modulator of lipoprotein metabolism. Acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, IDOL triggers ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). We demonstrate here that this outcome requires the conserved FERM and RING domains present in IDOL. The RING domain promotes ubiquitination in vitro and Lys-63-specific ubiquitination of the LDLR in vivo in response to IDOL or liver X receptor activation. We further identify RING residues that differentially influence ubiquitination of the LDLR or stability of IDOL. The FERM domain interacts with the LDLR and in living cells co-localizes with the receptor at the plasma membrane. Homology modeling revealed a phosphotyrosine-binding element embedded in the FERM domain. Mutating residues within this region or residues in the LDLR preceding the NPVY endocytosis motif abrogate LDLR degradation by IDOL. Collectively, our results indicate that both the FERM and RING domains are required for promoting lysosomal degradation of the LDLR by IDOL. Our findings may facilitate development of structure-based IDOL inhibitors aimed at increasing LDLR abundance in therapeutic strategies to treat cardiovascular disease.

  18. An OBSL1-Cul7Fbxw8 Ubiquitin Ligase Signaling Mechanism Regulates Golgi Morphology and Dendrite Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterman, Nadia; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Gallardo, Gilbert; O'Connell, Brenda C.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Harper, J. Wade; Bonni, Azad

    2011-01-01

    The elaboration of dendrites in neurons requires secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus, but the mechanisms that govern Golgi function in neuronal morphogenesis in the brain have remained largely unexplored. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul7Fbxw8 localizes to the Golgi complex in mammalian brain neurons. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 by independent approaches including Fbxw8 knockdown reveals that Cul7Fbxw8 is selectively required for the growth and elaboration of dendrites but not axons in primary neurons and in the developing rat cerebellum in vivo. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 also dramatically impairs the morphology of the Golgi complex, leading to deficient secretory trafficking in neurons. Using an immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screening approach, we also uncover the cytoskeletal adaptor protein OBSL1 as a critical regulator of Cul7Fbxw8 in Golgi morphogenesis and dendrite elaboration. OBSL1 forms a physical complex with the scaffold protein Cul7 and thereby localizes Cul7 at the Golgi apparatus. Accordingly, OBSL1 is required for the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and the elaboration of dendrites. Finally, we identify the Golgi protein Grasp65 as a novel and physiologically relevant substrate of Cul7Fbxw8 in the control of Golgi and dendrite morphogenesis in neurons. Collectively, these findings define a novel OBSL1-regulated Cul7Fbxw8 ubiquitin signaling mechanism that orchestrates the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and patterning of dendrites, with fundamental implications for our understanding of brain development. PMID:21572988

  19. A Cullin1-based SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase targets the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway to regulate neuronal pruning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Jing Lin Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruning that selectively eliminates unnecessary axons/dendrites is crucial for sculpting the nervous system during development. During Drosophila metamorphosis, dendrite arborization neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites in response to the steroid hormone ecdysone, whereas mushroom body γ neurons specifically eliminate their axon branches within dorsal and medial lobes. However, it is unknown which E3 ligase directs these two modes of pruning. Here, we identified a conserved SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in pruning of both ddaC dendrites and mushroom body γ axons. The SCF E3 ligase consists of four core components Cullin1/Roc1a/SkpA/Slimb and promotes ddaC dendrite pruning downstream of EcR-B1 and Sox14, but independently of Mical. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Cullin1-based E3 ligase facilitates ddaC dendrite pruning primarily through inactivation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway. We show that the F-box protein Slimb forms a complex with Akt, an activator of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway, and promotes Akt ubiquitination. Activation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway is sufficient to inhibit ddaC dendrite pruning. Thus, our findings provide a novel link between the E3 ligase and the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway during dendrite pruning.

  20. The Role of Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SCF-SKP2 in Prostate Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    domain for DDB1 binding8 and DDB1 also directly interacts with WDR proteins DDB2 and the Cockayne syndrome protein, CSA11. The CSA- containing CUL4A...et al. CSA-dependent degradation of CSB by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway establishes a link between complementation factors of the Cockayne ... syndrome . Genes Dev. 20, 1429–1434 (2006). 13. Wang, Q. E., Zhu, Q., Wani, G., Chen, J. & Wani, A. A. UV radiation-induced XPC translocation within

  1. Transferable Domain in the G1 Cyclin Cln2 Sufficient To Switch Degradation of Sic1 from the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SCFCdc4 to SCFGrr1

    OpenAIRE

    Berset, Catherine; Griac, Peter; Tempel, Rebecca; La Rue, Janna; Wittenberg, Curt; Lanker, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and involves the SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex containing the F-box protein Grr1 (SCFGrr1). Here we identify the domain of Cln2 that confers instability and describe the signals in Cln2 that result in binding to Grr1 and rapid degradation. We demonstrate that mutants of Cln2 that lack a cluster of four Cdc28 consensus phosphorylation sites are highly stabilized and fail to intera...

  2. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K

    2013-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is essential for the function of cellular membranes and requires feedback inhibition of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. As HMGR acts at the beginning of the pathway, its regulation affects the synthesis of sterols and of other essential mevalonate...... ligase implicated in a branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. Since the other branch of ERAD is required for HMGR regulation, our results reveal a fundamental role for ERAD in sterol homeostasis, with the two branches of this pathway acting together...

  3. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Safdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Notch-type signaling mediates cell−cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell−cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCFSEL-10 E3 ubiquitin–ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components.

  4. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 mediates cell migration signaling of EGFR in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Genbao; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Peng, Ke; Dai, Qian; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2018-02-19

    EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines. Effects of the NEDD4 knockdown on the EGFR-dependent or independent lung cancer cell migration were determined using the wound-healing and transwell assays. Association of NEDD4 with activated EGFR was assayed by co-immunoprecipitation. Co-expression of NEDD4 with EGFR or PTEN was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 63 lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Effects of NEDD4 ectopic expression or knockdown on PTEN ubiquitination and down-regulation, AKT activation and lysosomal secretion were examined using the GST-Uba pulldown assay, immunoblotting, immunofluorescent staining and a human cathepsin B ELISA assay respectively. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me was used for assessing the role of cathepsin B in lung cancer cell migration. Knockdown of NEDD4 significantly reduced EGF-stimulated cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assay found that NEDD4 is associated with EGFR complex upon EGF stimulation, and IHC staining indicates that NEDD4 is co-expressed with EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues, suggesting that NEDD4 might mediate lung cancer cell migration by interaction with the EGFR signaling complex. Interestingly, NEDD4 promotes the EGF-induced cathepsin B secretion, possibly through lysosomal exocytosis, as overexpression of the ligase-dead mutant of NEDD4 impedes lysosomal secretion, and knockdown of NEDD4

  5. Arabidopsis CBL-Interacting Protein Kinases Regulate Carbon/Nitrogen-Nutrient Response by Phosphorylating Ubiquitin Ligase ATL31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Aoyama, Shoki; Hasegawa, Yoko; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2017-04-03

    In response to the ratio of available carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrients, plants regulate their metabolism, growth, and development, a process called the C/N-nutrient response. However, the molecular basis of C/N-nutrient signaling remains largely unclear. In this study, we identified three CALCINEURIN B-LIKE (CBL)-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASES (CIPKs), CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14, as key regulators of the C/N-nutrient response during the post-germination growth in Arabidopsis. Single-knockout mutants of CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14 showed hypersensitivity to high C/low N conditions, which was enhanced in their triple-knockout mutant, indicating that they play a negative role and at least partly function redundantly in the C/N-nutrient response. Moreover, these CIPKs were found to regulate the function of ATL31, a ubiquitin ligase involved in the C/N-nutrient response via the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of 14-3-3 proteins. CIPK7, CIPK12, and CIPK14 physically interacted with ATL31, and CIPK14, acting with CBL8, directly phosphorylated ATL31 in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Further analyses showed that these CIPKs are required for ATL31 phosphorylation and stabilization, which mediates the degradation of 14-3-3 proteins in response to C/N-nutrient conditions. These findings provide new insights into C/N-nutrient signaling mediated by protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity in the architecture of ATLs, a family of plant ubiquitin-ligases, leads to recognition and targeting of substrates in different cellular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hernández, Victor; Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Guzmán, Plinio

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin-ligases or E3s are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) that coordinate the transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. A major class of ubiquitin-ligases consists of RING-finger domain proteins that include the substrate recognition sequences in the same polypeptide; these are known as single-subunit RING finger E3s. We are studying a particular family of RING finger E3s, named ATL, that contain a transmembrane domain and the RING-H2 finger domain; none of the member of the family contains any other previously described domain. Although the study of a few members in A. thaliana and O. sativa has been reported, the role of this family in the life cycle of a plant is still vague. To provide tools to advance on the functional analysis of this family we have undertaken a phylogenetic analysis of ATLs in twenty-four plant genomes. ATLs were found in all the 24 plant species analyzed, in numbers ranging from 20-28 in two basal species to 162 in soybean. Analysis of ATLs arrayed in tandem indicates that sets of genes are expanding in a species-specific manner. To get insights into the domain architecture of ATLs we generated 75 pHMM LOGOs from 1815 ATLs, and unraveled potential protein-protein interaction regions by means of yeast two-hybrid assays. Several ATLs were found to interact with DSK2a/ubiquilin through a region at the amino-terminal end, suggesting that this is a widespread interaction that may assist in the mode of action of ATLs; the region was traced to a distinct sequence LOGO. Our analysis provides significant observations on the evolution and expansion of the ATL family in addition to information on the domain structure of this class of ubiquitin-ligases that may be involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  7. Diversity in the architecture of ATLs, a family of plant ubiquitin-ligases, leads to recognition and targeting of substrates in different cellular environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Aguilar-Hernández

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-ligases or E3s are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS that coordinate the transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. A major class of ubiquitin-ligases consists of RING-finger domain proteins that include the substrate recognition sequences in the same polypeptide; these are known as single-subunit RING finger E3s. We are studying a particular family of RING finger E3s, named ATL, that contain a transmembrane domain and the RING-H2 finger domain; none of the member of the family contains any other previously described domain. Although the study of a few members in A. thaliana and O. sativa has been reported, the role of this family in the life cycle of a plant is still vague. To provide tools to advance on the functional analysis of this family we have undertaken a phylogenetic analysis of ATLs in twenty-four plant genomes. ATLs were found in all the 24 plant species analyzed, in numbers ranging from 20-28 in two basal species to 162 in soybean. Analysis of ATLs arrayed in tandem indicates that sets of genes are expanding in a species-specific manner. To get insights into the domain architecture of ATLs we generated 75 pHMM LOGOs from 1815 ATLs, and unraveled potential protein-protein interaction regions by means of yeast two-hybrid assays. Several ATLs were found to interact with DSK2a/ubiquilin through a region at the amino-terminal end, suggesting that this is a widespread interaction that may assist in the mode of action of ATLs; the region was traced to a distinct sequence LOGO. Our analysis provides significant observations on the evolution and expansion of the ATL family in addition to information on the domain structure of this class of ubiquitin-ligases that may be involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  8. Two Distinct E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Have Complementary Functions in the Regulation of Delta and Serrate Signaling in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Borgne Roland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling by the Notch ligands Delta (Dl and Serrate (Ser regulates a wide variety of essential cell-fate decisions during animal development. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, Neuralized (Neur and Mind bomb (Mib, have been shown to regulate Dl signaling in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio, respectively. While the neur and mib genes are evolutionarily conserved, their respective roles in the context of a single organism have not yet been examined. We show here that the Drosophila mind bomb (D-mib gene regulates a subset of Notch signaling events, including wing margin specification, leg segmentation, and vein determination, that are distinct from those events requiring neur activity. D-mib also modulates lateral inhibition, a neur- and Dl-dependent signaling event, suggesting that D-mib regulates Dl signaling. During wing development, expression of D-mib in dorsal cells appears to be necessary and sufficient for wing margin specification, indicating that D-mib also regulates Ser signaling. Moreover, the activity of the D-mib gene is required for the endocytosis of Ser in wing imaginal disc cells. Finally, ectopic expression of neur in D-mib mutant larvae rescues the wing D-mib phenotype, indicating that Neur can compensate for the lack of D-mib activity. We conclude that D-mib and Neur are two structurally distinct proteins that have similar molecular activities but distinct developmental functions in Drosophila.

  9. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases have complementary functions in the regulation of delta and serrate signaling in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Le Borgne

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Signaling by the Notch ligands Delta (Dl and Serrate (Ser regulates a wide variety of essential cell-fate decisions during animal development. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, Neuralized (Neur and Mind bomb (Mib, have been shown to regulate Dl signaling in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio, respectively. While the neur and mib genes are evolutionarily conserved, their respective roles in the context of a single organism have not yet been examined. We show here that the Drosophila mind bomb (D-mib gene regulates a subset of Notch signaling events, including wing margin specification, leg segmentation, and vein determination, that are distinct from those events requiring neur activity. D-mib also modulates lateral inhibition, a neur- and Dl-dependent signaling event, suggesting that D-mib regulates Dl signaling. During wing development, expression of D-mib in dorsal cells appears to be necessary and sufficient for wing margin specification, indicating that D-mib also regulates Ser signaling. Moreover, the activity of the D-mib gene is required for the endocytosis of Ser in wing imaginal disc cells. Finally, ectopic expression of neur in D-mib mutant larvae rescues the wing D-mib phenotype, indicating that Neur can compensate for the lack of D-mib activity. We conclude that D-mib and Neur are two structurally distinct proteins that have similar molecular activities but distinct developmental functions in Drosophila.

  10. Loss of JAK2 regulation via a heterodimeric VHL-SOCS1 E3 ubiquitin ligase underlies Chuvash polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ryan C; Sufan, Roxana I; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S; Greer, Samantha N; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A; Chow, Vinca W K; Boba, Lukasz M; Richmond, Terri D; Hickey, Michele M; Barber, Dwayne L; Cheresh, David A; Simon, M Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S; Kim, William Y; Ohh, Michael

    2011-06-19

    Chuvash polycythemia is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) gene, whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark abnormalities of Chuvash polycythemia, such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin, are unclear. Here we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated JAK2 (pJAK2) for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, Chuvash polycythemia-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and do not engage with and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reversed the disease phenotype in Vhl(R200W/R200W) knock-in mice, an experimental model that recapitulates human Chuvash polycythemia. These results show that VHL is a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide biochemical and preclinical support for JAK2-targeted therapy in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia.

  11. The Arabidopsis E3 ubiquitin ligase HOS1 negatively regulates CONSTANS abundance in the photoperiodic control of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A

    2012-03-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the high expression of osmotically responsive genes1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased flowering locus C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of flowering locus T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with constitutive photomorphogenic1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis.

  12. The Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Negatively Regulates CONSTANS Abundance in the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:22408073

  13. Red Light-Mediated Degradation of CONSTANS by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Regulates Photoperiodic Flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Ana; Mouriz, Alfonso; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A

    2015-09-01

    The regulation of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression is crucial to accurately measure changes in daylength, which influences flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. CO expression is under both transcriptional and posttranslational control mechanisms. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) physically interacts with CO in Arabidopsis. This interaction is required to precisely modulate the timing of CO accumulation and, consequently, to maintain low levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T expression during the first part of the day. The data presented here demonstrate that HOS1 is involved in the red light-mediated degradation of CO that takes place in the early stages of the daylight period. Our results show that phytochrome B (phyB) is able to regulate flowering time, acting in the phloem companion cells, as previously described for CO and HOS1. Moreover, we reveal that phyB physically interacts with HOS1 and CO, indicating that the three proteins may be present in a complex in planta that is required to coordinate a correct photoperiodic response in Arabidopsis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Arabidopsis ubiquitin ligase PUB12 interacts with and negatively regulates Chitin Elicitor Receptor Kinase 1 (CERK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, fungal chitin is recognized as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP by the chitin receptor complex containing the lysin-motif (LysM receptor-like kinases CERK1 and LYK5. Upon the perception of chitin, CERK1 phosphorylates the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, PBL27, which activates the intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. However, the mechanisms by which the CERK1-PBL27 complex is regulated remain largely unknown. We identified ubiquitin ligase PUB12 as a component of the PBL27 complex using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. However, PUB12 did not interact directly with PBL27. Instead, the ARM domains of PUB12 and its paralog PUB13 interacted with the intracellular domain of CERK1 in a manner that was dependent on its autophosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation-based auto-activation of CERK1 may be required for its interaction with PUB12. The co-expression of PUB12 in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced the accumulation of CERK1. The pub12 pub13 mutant exhibited enhanced chitin-induced immune responses such as ROS production, MAPK activation, and callose deposition. These results suggest that PUB12 and PUB13 are involved in the negative regulation of the chitin receptor complex, which may contribute to the transient desensitization of chitin-induced responses.

  15. Mkrn3 functions as a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase to inhibit Nptx1 during puberty initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Kong, Xiangxin; Chen, Fengling

    2017-10-17

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is attributed to the disorder of some trigger factors those can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controlled by GnRH neurons. Many recent studies reveal one of those trigger factors, Makorin ring finger protein 3 (Mkrn3), whose loss-of-function mutations are implicated in CPP. Although Mkrn3 contained zinc Ring finger domain is considered as a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, its actual function is never reported. Here, our results demonstrated that in mice hypothalamus before and when puberty initiated, Mkrn3 expressed the reversed tendency with Nptx1, which is an important secreted protein for neuron development. Furthermore, our data manifested that Mkrn3 interacted and suppressed Nptx1 activity. And the Ring finger domain of Mkrn3 contained was determined to be essential for binding with Nptx1 for its polyubiquitination during the puberty initiation. Our study shed light on the molecular insights into the function of Mkrn3 in the events of puberty initiation.

  16. Merlin/NF2 suppresses tumorigenesis by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; You, Liru; Cooper, Jonathan; Schiavon, Gaia; Pepe-Caprio, Angela; Zhou, Lu; Ishii, Ryohei; Giovannini, Marco; Hanemann, C Oliver; Long, Stephen B; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Zhou, Pengbo; Tempst, Paul; Giancotti, Filippo G

    2010-02-19

    Current models imply that the FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the tumor suppressor NF2, inhibits mitogenic signaling at or near the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the closed, growth-inhibitory form of Merlin accumulates in the nucleus, binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1), and suppresses its activity. Depletion of DCAF1 blocks the promitogenic effect of inactivation of Merlin. Conversely, enforced expression of a Merlin-insensitive mutant of DCAF1 counteracts the antimitogenic effect of Merlin. Re-expression of Merlin and silencing of DCAF1 implement a similar, tumor-suppressive program of gene expression. Tumor-derived mutations invariably disrupt Merlin's ability to interact with or inhibit CRL4(DCAF1). Finally, depletion of DCAF1 inhibits the hyperproliferation of Schwannoma cells from NF2 patients and suppresses the oncogenic potential of Merlin-deficient tumor cell lines. We propose that Merlin suppresses tumorigenesis by translocating to the nucleus to inhibit CRL4(DCAF1). 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural basis of the binding of Merlin FERM domain to the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhang, Junyi; Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-05-23

    The tumor suppressor gene Nf2 product, Merlin, plays vital roles in controlling proper development of organ sizes by specifically binding to a large number of target proteins localized both in cytoplasm and nuclei. The FERM domain of Merlin is chiefly responsible for its binding to target proteins, although the molecular basis governing these interactions are poorly understood due to lack of structural information. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Merlin FERM domain in complex with its binding domain derived from the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 (also known as VPRBP). Unlike target binding modes found in ERM proteins, the Merlin-FERM binding domain of DCAF1 folds as a β-hairpin and binds to the α1/β5-groove of the F3 lobe of Merlin-FERM via extensive hydrophobic interactions. In addition to providing the first structural glimpse of a Merlin-FERM·target complex, the structure of the Merlin·DCAF1 complex is likely to be valuable for understanding the interactions of Merlin with its binding partners other than DCAF1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. SPA Proteins Affect the Subcellular Localization of COP1 in the COP1/SPA Ubiquitin Ligase Complex during Photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerowicz, Martin; Kerner, Konstantin; Schenkel, Christian; Hoecker, Ute

    2017-07-01

    The Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase is a central repressor that suppresses light signaling in darkness by targeting positive regulators of the light response, mainly transcription factors, for degradation. Light inactivates COP1/SPA, in part by excluding COP1 from the nucleus. SPA proteins are essential cofactors of COP1, but their exact role in the COP1/SPA complex is thus far unknown. To unravel a potential role of SPA proteins in COP1 nucleocytoplasmic partitioning, we monitored the subcellular localization of COP1 in a spa1234 quadruple mutant ( spaQn ). We analyzed a YFP-COP1-expressing transgenic line and endogenous COP1 after subcellular fractionation. In dark-grown seedlings, both YFP-COP1 and endogenous COP1 accumulated in the nucleus in the absence and presence of SPA proteins, indicating that SPA proteins are not required for nuclear localization of COP1 in darkness. In contrast, in white light-grown seedlings, spaQn mutants failed to relocalize COP1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Hence, SPA proteins are necessary for the light-controlled change in COP1 subcellular localization. We conclude that SPA proteins have a dual role: (1) they are required for light-responsiveness of COP1 subcellular localization, and (2) they promote COP1 activity in darkness in a fashion that is independent of the nuclear import/nuclear retention of COP1. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  20. An Atypical SCF-like Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Promotes Wallerian Degeneration through Regulation of Axonal Nmnat2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Yamagishi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a, a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo. We demonstrate that Skp1a regulates the protein level of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2 in axons. Loss of axonal Nmnat2 contributes to a local ATP deficit that triggers axon degeneration. Knockdown of Skp1a elevates basal levels of axonal Nmnat2, thereby delaying axon degeneration through prolonged maintenance of axonal ATP. Consistent with Skp1a functioning through regulation of Nmnat2, Skp1a knockdown fails to protect axons from Nmnat2 knockdown. These results illuminate the molecular mechanism underlying Skp1a-dependent axonal destruction.

  1. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Idol controls brain LDL receptor expression, ApoE clearance, and Aβ amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinkuk; Gao, Jie; Kim, Jaekwang; Hong, Cynthia; Kim, Jungsu; Tontonoz, Peter

    2015-11-18

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an important modifier of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and its abundance has been linked to the clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The pathways that control the clearance of ApoE in the brain are incompletely understood. We report that Idol, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) for degradation, is a critical determinant of brain ApoE metabolism and Aβ plaque biogenesis. Previous work has shown that Idol contributes minimally to the regulation of hepatic LDLR expression in mice. By contrast, we demonstrate that Idol is a primary physiological regulator of LDLR protein in the brain, controlling the clearance of both ApoE-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and Aβ. We studied the consequences of loss of Idol expression in a transgenic mouse model of Aβ amyloidosis. Idol deficiency increased brain LDLR, decreased ApoE, decreased soluble and insoluble Aβ, reduced amyloid plaque burden, and ameliorated neuroinflammation. These findings identify Idol as a gatekeeper of LDLR-dependent ApoE and Aβ clearance in the brain and a potential enzyme target for therapeutic intervention in AD. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL regulates synaptic ApoER2 levels and is important for plasticity and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Marosi, Mate; Choi, Jinkuk; Achiro, Jennifer M; Kim, Sangmok; Li, Sandy; Otis, Klara; Martin, Kelsey C; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-09-11

    Neuronal ApoE receptors are linked to learning and memory, but the pathways governing their abundance, and the mechanisms by which they affect the function of neural circuits are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL determines synaptic ApoER2 protein levels in response to neuronal activation and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis and plasticity. IDOL-dependent changes in ApoER2 abundance modulate dendritic filopodia initiation and synapse maturation. Loss of IDOL in neurons results in constitutive overexpression of ApoER2 and is associated with impaired activity-dependent structural remodeling of spines and defective LTP in primary neuron cultures and hippocampal slices. IDOL-deficient mice show profound impairment in experience-dependent reorganization of synaptic circuits in the barrel cortex, as well as diminished spatial and associative learning. These results identify control of lipoprotein receptor abundance by IDOL as a post-transcriptional mechanism underlying the structural and functional plasticity of synapses and neural circuits.

  3. Structures of SPOP-Substrate Complexes: Insights into Molecular Architectures of BTB-Cul3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Min; Calabrese, Matthew F.; Liu, Jiang; Waddell, M. Brett; Nourse, Amanda; Hammel, Michal; Miller, Darcie J.; Walden, Helen; Duda, David M.; Seyedin, Steven N.; Hoggard, Timothy; Harper, J. Wade; White, Kevin P.; Schulman, Brenda A.; (Harvard-Med); (UW); (UC); (LBNL); (SJCH)

    2009-11-17

    In the largest E3 ligase subfamily, Cul3 binds a BTB domain, and an associated protein-interaction domain such as MATH recruits substrates for ubiquitination. Here, we present biochemical and structural analyses of the MATH-BTB protein, SPOP. We define a SPOP-binding consensus (SBC) and determine structures revealing recognition of SBCs from the phosphatase Puc, the transcriptional regulator Ci, and the chromatin component MacroH2A. We identify a dimeric SPOP-Cul3 assembly involving a conserved helical structure C-terminal of BTB domains, which we call '3-box' due to its facilitating Cul3 binding and its resemblance to F-/SOCS-boxes in other cullin-based E3s. Structural flexibility between the substrate-binding MATH and Cul3-binding BTB/3-box domains potentially allows a SPOP dimer to engage multiple SBCs found within a single substrate, such as Puc. These studies provide a molecular understanding of how MATH-BTB proteins recruit substrates to Cul3 and how their dimerization and conformational variability may facilitate avid interactions with diverse substrates.

  4. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting proteasomal degradation of NLRP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Liu, Bingyu; Huai, Wanwan; Yu, Zhongxia; Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Jing; Han, Lihui; Jiang, Guosheng; Zhang, Lining; Gao, Chengjiang; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome has a fundamental role in host defence against microbial pathogens and its deregulation may cause diverse inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 protein expression is a rate-limiting step for inflammasome activation, thus its expression must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis and avoid detrimental effects. However, how NLRP3 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. In this study, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 as a feedback suppressor of NLRP3 inflammasome. TRIM31 directly binds to NLRP3, promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NLRP3. Consequently, TRIM31 deficiency enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activation and aggravates alum-induced peritonitis in vivo. Furthermore, TRIM31 deficiency attenuates the severity of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, an inflammatory bowel diseases model in which NLRP3 possesses protective roles. Thus, our research describes a mechanism by which TRIM31 limits NLRP3 inflammasome activity under physiological conditions and suggests TRIM31 as a potential therapeutic target for the intervention of NLRP3 inflammasome related diseases. PMID:27929086

  5. E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 couples sister chromatid cohesion establishment to DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yeung, Clarence Hue Lok; Wu, Liwen; Yuen, Karen Wing Yee

    2017-10-23

    Bre1, a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with its interacting partner Lge1, are responsible for histone H2B monoubiquitination, which regulates transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair, ensuring the structural integrity of the genome. Deletion of BRE1 or LGE1 also results in whole chromosome instability. We discovered a novel role for Bre1, Lge1 and H2Bub1 in chromosome segregation and sister chromatid cohesion. Bre1's function in G1 and S phases contributes to cohesion establishment, but it is not required for cohesion maintenance in G2 phase. Bre1 is dispensable for the loading of cohesin complex to chromatin in G1, but regulates the localization of replication factor Mcm10 and cohesion establishment factors Ctf4, Ctf18 and Eco1 to early replication origins in G1 and S phases, and promotes cohesin subunit Smc3 acetylation for cohesion stabilization. H2Bub1 epigenetically marks the origins, potentially signaling the coupling of DNA replication and cohesion establishment.

  6. Regulation of mitosis-meiosis transition by the ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP in male germ cells.

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    Nakagawa, Tadashi; Zhang, Teng; Kushi, Ryo; Nakano, Seiji; Endo, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Makiko; Yanagihara, Noriko; Zarkower, David; Nakayama, Keiko

    2017-11-15

    The mitosis-meiosis transition is essential for spermatogenesis. Specific and timely downregulation of the transcription factor DMRT1, and consequent induction of Stra8 expression, is required for this process in mammals, but the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we show that β-TrCP, the substrate recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, targets DMRT1 for degradation and thereby controls the mitosis-meiosis transition in mouse male germ cells. Conditional inactivation of β-TrCP2 in male germ cells of β-TrCP1 knockout mice resulted in sterility due to a lack of mature sperm. The β-TrCP-deficient male germ cells did not enter meiosis, but instead underwent apoptosis. The induction of Stra8 expression was also attenuated in association with the accumulation of DMRT1 at the Stra8 promoter in β-TrCP-deficient testes. DMRT1 contains a consensus β-TrCP degron sequence that was found to bind β-TrCP. Overexpression of β-TrCP induced the ubiquitylation and degradation of DMRT1. Heterozygous deletion of Dmrt1 in β-TrCP-deficient spermatogonia increased meiotic cells with a concomitant reduction of apoptosis. Collectively, our data indicate that β-TrCP regulates the transition from mitosis to meiosis in male germ cells by targeting DMRT1 for degradation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 accounts for the Warburg effect by linking glycolysis to cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P; Moncada, Salvador

    2010-01-12

    Cell proliferation is known to be accompanied by activation of glycolysis. We have recently discovered that the glycolysis-promoting enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3), is degraded by the E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1, which also degrades cell-cycle proteins. We now show in two different cell types (neoplastic and nonneoplastic) that both proliferation and aerobic glycolysis are prevented by overexpression of Cdh1 and enhanced by its silencing. Furthermore, we have coexpressed Cdh1 with PFKFB3--either wild-type or a mutant form resistant to ubiquitylation by APC/C-Cdh1--or with the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and demonstrated that whereas glycolysis is essential for cell proliferation, its initiation in the presence of active Cdh1 does not result in proliferation. Our experiments indicate that the proliferative response, regardless of whether it occurs in normal or neoplastic cells, is dependent on a decrease in the activity of APC/C-Cdh1, which activates both proliferation and glycolysis. These observations have implications for cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  8. Mutation in the gene encoding ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1 in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

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    Duane L Guernsey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT represents a family of related sensorimotor neuropathies. We studied a large family from a rural eastern Canadian community, with multiple individuals suffering from a condition clinically most similar to autosomal recessive axonal CMT, or AR-CMT2. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping of six affected individuals from the family excluded 23 known genes for various subtypes of CMT and instead identified a single homozygous region on chromosome 9, at 122,423,730-129,841,977 Mbp, shared identical by state in all six affected individuals. A homozygous pathogenic variant was identified in the gene encoding leucine rich repeat and sterile alpha motif 1 (LRSAM1 by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region in affected DNA samples. The single nucleotide change mutates an intronic consensus acceptor splicing site from AG to AA. Direct analysis of RNA from patient blood demonstrated aberrant splicing of the affected exon, causing an obligatory frameshift and premature truncation of the protein. Western blotting of immortalized cells from a homozygous patient showed complete absence of detectable protein, consistent with the splice site defect. LRSAM1 plays a role in membrane vesicle fusion during viral maturation and for proper adhesion of neuronal cells in culture. Other ubiquitin ligases play documented roles in neurodegenerative diseases. LRSAM1 is a strong candidate for the causal gene for the genetic disorder in our kindred.

  9. Hey bHLH Proteins Interact with a FBXO45 Containing SCF Ubiquitin Ligase Complex and Induce Its Translocation into the Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Daniela; Winkler, Anja; Urlaub, Henning; Gessler, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Hey protein family, comprising Hey1, Hey2 and HeyL in mammals, conveys Notch signals in many cell types. The helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain as well as the Orange domain, mediate homo- and heterodimerization of these transcription factors. Although distinct interaction partners have been identified so far, their physiological relevance for Hey functions is still largely unclear. Using a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry analysis we identified members of an ubiquitin E3-ligase complex consisting of FBXO45, PAM and SKP1 as novel Hey1 associated proteins. There is a direct interaction between Hey1 and FBXO45, whereas FBXO45 is needed to mediate indirect Hey1 binding to SKP1. Expression of Hey1 induces translocation of FBXO45 and PAM into the nucleus. Hey1 is a short-lived protein that is degraded by the proteasome, but there is no evidence for FBXO45-dependent ubiquitination of Hey1. On the contrary, Hey1 mediated nuclear translocation of FBXO45 and its associated ubiquitin ligase complex may extend its spectrum to additional nuclear targets triggering their ubiquitination. This suggests a novel mechanism of action for Hey bHLH factors.

  10. A conserved ubiquitin ligase of the nuclear envelope/endoplasmic reticulum that functions in both ER-associated and Matα2 repressor degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Robert; Locher, Martin; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Substrate discrimination in the ubiquitin–proteasome system is believed to be dictated by specific combinations of ubiquitin–protein ligases (E3s) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s). Here we identify Doa10/Ssm4 as a yeast E3 that is embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear envelope yet can target the soluble transcription factor Matα2. Doa10 contains an unusual RING finger, which has ubiquitin-ligase activity in vitro and is essential in vivo for degradation of α2 via its Deg1 degradation signal. Doa10 functions with two E2s, Ubc6 and Ubc7, to ubiquitinate Deg1-bearing substrates, and it is also required for the degradation of at least one ER membrane protein. Interestingly, different short-lived ER proteins show distinct requirements for Doa10 and another ER-localized E3, Hrd1. Nevertheless, the two E3s overlap in function: A doa10Δ hrd1Δ mutant is far more sensitive to cadmium relative to either single mutant and displays strong constitutive induction of the unfolded protein response; this suggests a role for both E3s in eliminating aberrant ER proteins. The likely human ortholog of DOA10 is in the cri-du-chat syndrome critical region on chromosome 5p, suggesting that defective ubiquitin ligation might contribute to this common genetic disorder. PMID:11641273

  11. Post-transcriptional regulation of lipoprotein receptors by the E3-ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Zelcer, Noam

    2012-06-01

    The hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is essential for clearing circulating LDL and is an important therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular disease. Abundance of the LDLR is subject to both transcriptional and nontranscriptional control. Here, we highlight a new post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling LDLR function via ubiquitination of the receptor by the E3-ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). IDOL is a recently identified transcriptional target of the liver X receptors. Acting as an E3-ubiquitin ligase IDOL promotes ubiquitination of the LDLR, thereby marking it for lysosomal degradation. The determinants required for degradation of the LDLR by IDOL have been largely identified. IDOL also targets two related lipoprotein receptors, the very low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein E receptor 2. Despite several similarities, the IDOL, and PCSK9 pathways for controlling LDLR abundance seem independent of each other. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified IDOL as a locus influencing variability in circulating levels of LDL, thereby highlighting the possible role of IDOL in human lipoprotein metabolism. Transcriptional induction of IDOL by liver X receptor defines a new post-transcriptional pathway for controlling LDLR abundance and LDL uptake independent of sterol regulatory element binding proteins. Targeting IDOL activity may offer a novel therapeutic approach complementary to statins for treating cardiovascular disease.

  12. Protein–Protein Interactions Modulate the Docking-Dependent E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of Carboxy-Terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein (CHIP)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vikram; Landré, Vivien; Ning, Jia; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Verma, Chandra; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    CHIP is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein that functions as an E3-ubiquitin ligase. As well as linking the molecular chaperones to the ubiquitin proteasome system, CHIP also has a docking-dependent mode where it ubiquitinates native substrates, thereby regulating their steady state levels and/or function. Here we explore the effect of Hsp70 on the docking-dependent E3-ligase activity of CHIP. The TPR-domain is revealed as a binding site for allosteric modulators involved in determining CHIP's dynamic conformation and activity. Biochemical, biophysical and modeling evidence demonstrate that Hsp70-binding to the TPR, or Hsp70-mimetic mutations, regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and IRF-1 through effects on U-box activity and substrate binding. HDX-MS was used to establish that conformational-inhibition-signals extended from the TPR-domain to the U-box. This underscores inter-domain allosteric regulation of CHIP by the core molecular chaperones. Defining the chaperone-associated TPR-domain of CHIP as a manager of inter-domain communication highlights the potential for scaffolding modules to regulate, as well as assemble, complexes that are fundamental to protein homeostatic control. PMID:26330542

  13. LIN-23, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Is Required for the Repression of CDC-25.2 Activity during Intestinal Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-11-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25.2. Nevertheless, LIN-23 targeting CDC-25.2 for ubiquitination as a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase has not yet been tested. In this study, LIN-23 is shown to be the major E3 ubiquitin ligase component, recognizing CDC-25.2 to repress their activities for proper transition of cell-cycle modes during the C. elegans postembryonic intestinal development. In addition, for the first time that LIN-23 physically interacts with both CDC-25.1 and CDC-25.2 and facilitates ubiquitination for timely regulation of their activities during the intestinal development.

  14. The homeodomain transcription factor Hoxa2 interacts with and promotes the proteasomal degradation of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase RCHY1.

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    Isabelle Bergiers

    Full Text Available Hox proteins are conserved homeodomain transcription factors known to be crucial regulators of animal development. As transcription factors, the functions and modes of action (co-factors, target genes of Hox proteins have been very well studied in a multitude of animal models. However, a handful of reports established that Hox proteins may display molecular activities distinct from gene transcription regulation. Here, we reveal that Hoxa2 interacts with 20S proteasome subunits and RCHY1 (also known as PIRH2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. We further show that Hoxa2 promotes proteasome-dependent degradation of RCHY1 in an ubiquitin-independent manner. Correlatively, Hoxa2 alters the RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and promotes p53 stabilization. Together, our data establish that Hoxa2 can regulate the proteasomal degradation of RCHY1 and stabilization of p53.

  15. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection.

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    Smita Srivastava

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vpx is a small virion-associated adaptor protein encoded by viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm lineage of primate lentiviruses that enables these viruses to transduce monocyte-derived cells. This probably reflects the ability of Vpx to overcome an as yet uncharacterized block to an early event in the virus life cycle in these cells, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches, we have found that Vpx protein of the pathogenic SIVmac 239 strain associates with a ternary protein complex comprising DDB1 and VprBP subunits of Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and DDA1, which has been implicated in the regulation of E3 catalytic activity, and that Vpx participates in the Cullin 4 E3 complex comprising VprBP. We further demonstrate that the ability of SIVmac as well as HIV-2 Vpx to interact with VprBP and its associated Cullin 4 complex is required for efficient reverse transcription of SIVmac RNA genome in primary macrophages. Strikingly, macrophages in which VprBP levels are depleted by RNA interference resist SIVmac infection. Thus, our observations reveal that Vpx interacts with both catalytic and regulatory components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and demonstrate that these interactions are critical for Vpx ability to enable efficient SIVmac replication in primary macrophages. Furthermore, they identify VprBP/DCAF1 substrate receptor for Cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and its associated protein complex as immediate downstream effector of Vpx for this function. Together, our findings suggest a model in which Vpx usurps VprBP-associated Cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase to enable efficient reverse transcription and thereby overcome a block to lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived cells, and thus provide novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanism.

  16. SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Pro-Caspase-3 Degradation as a Mechanism of Apoptosis Protection

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    Mingjia Tan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Skp1-cullin-F-box protein (SCF is a multicomponent E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligase that ubiquitinates a number of important biologic molecules such as p27, β-catenin, and lκB for proteasomal degradation, thus regulating cell proliferation and survival. One SCF component, SAG/ROC2/Rbx2/Hrt2, a RING finger protein, was first identified as a redox-inducible protein, which, when overexpressed, inhibited apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. We report here that sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG, as well as its family member ROC1/Rbxi, bound to the proinactive form of caspase-3 (pro-caspase-3. Binding was likely mediated through F-box protein, β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP, which binds to the first 38 amino acids of pro-caspase-3. Importantly, β-TrCP1 expression significantly shortened the protein half-life of pro-caspase-3, whereas expression of a dominant-negative β-TrCP1 mutant with the F-box domain deleted extended it. An in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that SAG/ROC-SCF -Trcp promoted ubiquitination of pro-caspase-3. Furthermore, endogenous levels of pro-caspase-3 were decreased by overexpression of SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ub ligases, but increased on siRNA silencing of SAG, regulator of cullin-1 (ROC1, or β-TrCPs, leading to increased apoptosis by etoposide and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through increased activation of caspase-3. Thus, pro-caspase-3 appears to be a substrate of SAG/ROC-SCFβ-TrCP E3 Ub ligase, which protects cells from apoptosis through increased apoptosis threshold by reducing the basal level of pro-caspase-3.

  17. Establishment of a Wheat Cell-Free Synthesized Protein Array Containing 250 Human and Mouse E3 Ubiquitin Ligases to Identify Novel Interaction between E3 Ligases and Substrate Proteins.

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    Hirotaka Takahashi

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination is a key post-translational modification in the regulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. The primary roles of ubiquitination are thought to be the triggering of protein degradation and the regulation of signal transduction. During protein ubiquitination, substrate specificity is mainly determined by E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3. Although more than 600 genes in the human genome encode E3, the E3s of many target proteins remain unidentified owing to E3 diversity and the instability of ubiquitinated proteins in cell. We demonstrate herein a novel biochemical analysis for the identification of E3s targeting specific proteins. Using wheat cell-free protein synthesis system, a protein array containing 227 human and 23 mouse recombinant E3s was synthesized. To establish the high-throughput binding assay using AlphaScreen technology, we selected MDM2 and p53 as the model combination of E3 and its target protein. The AlphaScreen assay specifically detected the binding of p53 and MDM2 in a crude translation mixture. Then, a comprehensive binding assay using the E3 protein array was performed. Eleven of the E3s showed high binding activity, including four previously reported E3s (e.g., MDM2, MDM4, and WWP1 targeting p53. This result demonstrated the reliability of the assay. Another interactors, RNF6 and DZIP3-which there have been no report to bind p53-were found to ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. Further analysis showed that RNF6 decreased the amount of p53 in H1299 cells in E3 activity-dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that the RNF6 ubiquitinates and degrades p53 in cells. The novel in vitro screening system established herein is a powerful tool for finding novel E3s of a target protein.

  18. The Expression of the Ubiquitin Ligase SIAH2 (Seven In Absentia Homolog 2 Is Increased in Human Lung Cancer.

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    Paula Moreno

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Overall 5-year survival has shown little improvement over the last decades. Seven in absentia homolog (SIAH proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate proteasomal protein degradation by poly-ubiquitination. Even though SIAH proteins play a key role in several biological processes, their role in human cancer remains controversial. The aim of the study was to document SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (mRNA, protein level and immunohistochemistry in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC samples compared to surrounding healthy tissue from the same patient, and to analyse the association with clinicopathological features.One hundred and fifty-two samples from a patient cohort treated surgically for primary lung cancer were obtained for the study. Genic and protein expression levels of SIAH2 were analysed and compared with clinic-pathologic variables.The present study is the first to analyze the SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (RNA, protein expression and immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We found that SIAH2 protein expression is significantly enhanced in human lung adenocarcinoma (ADC and squamous cell lung cancer (SCC. Paradoxically, non-significant changes at RNA level were found, suggesting a post-traductional regulatory mechanism. More importantly, an increased correlation between SIAH2 expression and tumor grade was detected, suggesting that this protein could be used as a prognostic biomarker to predict lung cancer progression. Likewise, SIAH2 protein expression showed a strong positive correlation with fluorodeoxyglucose (2-deoxy-2(18Ffluoro-D-glucose uptake in primary NSCLC, which may assist clinicians in stratifying patients at increased overall risk of poor survival. Additionally, we described an inverse correlation between the expression of SIAH2 and the levels of one of its substrates, the serine/threonine kinase

  19. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

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    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  20. Deubiquitylase Inhibition Reveals Liver X Receptor-independent Transcriptional Regulation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL and Lipoprotein Uptake*

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    Nelson, Jessica Kristine; Cook, Emma Clare Laura; Loregger, Anke; Hoeksema, Marten Anne; Scheij, Saskia; Kovacevic, Igor; Hordijk, Peter Lodewijk; Ovaa, Huib; Zelcer, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is subject to complex transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation. Herein, the role of ubiquitylation is emerging as an important post-translational modification that regulates cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Similar to other post-translational modifications, ubiquitylation is reversible in a process dependent on activity of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Yet whether these play a role in cholesterol metabolism is largely unknown. As a first step to test this possibility, we used pharmacological inhibition of cellular DUB activity. Short term (2 h) inhibition of DUBs resulted in accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitylated proteins. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in abundance of the LDLR and attenuated LDL uptake into hepatic cells. Importantly, this occurred in the absence of changes in the mRNA levels of the LDLR or other SREBP2-regulated genes, in line with this phenotype being a post-transcriptional event. Mechanistically, we identify transcriptional induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL in human and rodent cells as the underlying cause for ubiquitylation-dependent lysosomal degradation of the LDLR following DUB inhibition. In contrast to the established transcriptional regulation of IDOL by the sterol-responsive liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors, induction of IDOL by DUB inhibition is LXR-independent and occurs in Lxrαβ−/− MEFs. Consistent with the role of DUBs in transcriptional regulation, we identified a 70-bp region in the proximal promoter of IDOL, distinct from that containing the LXR-responsive element, which mediates the response to DUB inhibition. In conclusion, we identify a sterol-independent mechanism to regulate IDOL expression and IDOL-mediated lipoprotein receptor degradation. PMID:26719329

  1. Deubiquitylase Inhibition Reveals Liver X Receptor-independent Transcriptional Regulation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL and Lipoprotein Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica Kristine; Cook, Emma Clare Laura; Loregger, Anke; Hoeksema, Marten Anne; Scheij, Saskia; Kovacevic, Igor; Hordijk, Peter Lodewijk; Ovaa, Huib; Zelcer, Noam

    2016-02-26

    Cholesterol metabolism is subject to complex transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation. Herein, the role of ubiquitylation is emerging as an important post-translational modification that regulates cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Similar to other post-translational modifications, ubiquitylation is reversible in a process dependent on activity of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Yet whether these play a role in cholesterol metabolism is largely unknown. As a first step to test this possibility, we used pharmacological inhibition of cellular DUB activity. Short term (2 h) inhibition of DUBs resulted in accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitylated proteins. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in abundance of the LDLR and attenuated LDL uptake into hepatic cells. Importantly, this occurred in the absence of changes in the mRNA levels of the LDLR or other SREBP2-regulated genes, in line with this phenotype being a post-transcriptional event. Mechanistically, we identify transcriptional induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL in human and rodent cells as the underlying cause for ubiquitylation-dependent lysosomal degradation of the LDLR following DUB inhibition. In contrast to the established transcriptional regulation of IDOL by the sterol-responsive liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors, induction of IDOL by DUB inhibition is LXR-independent and occurs in Lxrαβ(-/-) MEFs. Consistent with the role of DUBs in transcriptional regulation, we identified a 70-bp region in the proximal promoter of IDOL, distinct from that containing the LXR-responsive element, which mediates the response to DUB inhibition. In conclusion, we identify a sterol-independent mechanism to regulate IDOL expression and IDOL-mediated lipoprotein receptor degradation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol prevents skeletal muscle atrophy: role of p38 MAPKinase and E3 ubiquitin ligases.

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    Frederic Derbre

    Full Text Available Alterations in muscle play an important role in common diseases and conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated during hindlimb unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO. The major aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which XO activation causes unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats, and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. For this purpose we studied one of the main redox sensitive signalling cascades involved in skeletal muscle atrophy i.e. p38 MAPKinase, and the expression of two well known muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in proteolysis, the Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFbx; also known as atrogin-1 and Muscle RING (Really Interesting New Gene Finger-1 (MuRF-1. We found that hindlimb unloading induced a significant increase in XO activity and in the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes CuZnSOD and Catalase in skeletal muscle. The most relevant new fact reported in this paper is that inhibition of XO with allopurinol, a drug widely used in clinical practice, prevents soleus muscle atrophy by ~20% after hindlimb unloading. This was associated with the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-MAFbx pathway. Our data suggest that XO was involved in the loss of muscle mass via the activation of the p38MAPK-MAFbx pathway in unloaded muscle atrophy. Thus, allopurinol may have clinical benefits to combat skeletal muscle atrophy in bedridden, astronauts, sarcopenic, and cachexic patients.

  3. p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog regulates p53 in vivo in the adult mouse eye lens

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    Jaramillo-Rangel, Gilberto; Ortega-Martínez, Marta; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, Julio; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose p53 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in preventing cancer development. p53 participates in relevant aspects of cell biology, including apoptosis and cell cycle control and must be strictly regulated to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (Mdm2) is an important negative regulator of p53. The purpose of this study was to determine if Mdm2 regulates p53 in vivo in the adult lens. Methods We analyzed mice expressing human p53 transgene (Tgp53) selectively in the lens in the presence or absence of Mdm2. Mice with the required genotypes were obtained by crossing transgenic, mdm2+/−, and p53−/− mice. Eye phenotype and lens histology and ultrastructure were analyzed in adult mice. Results In a wild-type genetic background (mdm2+/+), lens damage and microphthalmia were observed only in mice homozygous for Tgp53 (t/t). However, in an mdm2 null background, just one allele of Tgp53 (mdm2−/−/Tgp53t/0 mice) was sufficient to cause lens damage and microphthalmia. Furthermore, Mdm2 in only one allele was sufficient to rescue these deleterious effects, since the mdm2+/−/Tgp53t/0 mice had eye size and lens morphology similar to the control mice. Conclusions Mdm2 regulates p53 in the adult lens in vivo. This information may have relevance for analyzing normal and pathological conditions of the lens, and designing cancer therapies targeting Mdm2–p53 interaction. PMID:24339722

  4. Proteomic Analysis of the E3 Ubiquitin-Ligase Hakai Highlights a Role in Plasticity of the Cytoskeleton Dynamics and in the Proteasome System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Díaz, Andrea; Casas-Pais, Alba; Calamia, Valentina; Castosa, Raquel; Martinez-Iglesias, Olaia; Roca-Lema, Daniel; Santamarina, Isabel; Valladares-Ayerbes, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Chantada, Venancio; Figueroa, Angélica

    2017-08-04

    Carcinoma, the most common type of cancer, arises from epithelial cells. The transition from adenoma to carcinoma is associated with the loss of E-cadherin and, in consequence, the disruption of cell-cell contacts. E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor, and it is down-regulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); indeed, its loss is a predictor of poor prognosis. Hakai is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase protein that mediates E-cadherin ubiquitination, endocytosis and finally degradation, leading the alterations of cell-cell contacts. Although E-cadherin is the most established substrate for Hakai activity, other regulated molecular targets for Hakai may be involved in cancer cell plasticity during tumor progression. In this work we employed an iTRAQ approach to explore novel molecular pathways involved in Hakai-driven EMT during tumor progression. Our results show that Hakai may have an important influence on cytoskeleton-related proteins, extracellular exosome-associated proteins, RNA-related proteins and proteins involved in metabolism. Moreover, a profound decreased expression in several proteasome subunits during Hakai-driven EMT was highlighted. Since proteasome inhibitors are becoming increasingly used in cancer treatment, our findings suggest that the E3 ubiquitin-ligase, such as Hakai, may be a better target than proteasome for using novel specific inhibitors in tumor subtypes that follow EMT.

  5. The ubiquitin ligase Ubr2, a recognition E3 component of the N-end rule pathway, stabilizes Tex19.1 during spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin E3 ligases target their substrates for ubiquitination, leading to proteasome-mediated degradation or altered biochemical properties. The ubiquitin ligase Ubr2, a recognition E3 component of the N-end rule proteolytic pathway, recognizes proteins with N-terminal destabilizing residues and plays an important role in spermatogenesis. Tex19.1 (also known as Tex19 has been previously identified as a germ cell-specific protein in mouse testis. Here we report that Tex19.1 forms a stable protein complex with Ubr2 in mouse testes. The binding of Tex19.1 to Ubr2 is independent of the second position cysteine of Tex19.1, a putative target for arginylation by the N-end rule pathway R-transferase. The Tex19.1-null mouse mutant phenocopies the Ubr2-deficient mutant in three aspects: heterogeneity of spermatogenic defects, meiotic chromosomal asynapsis, and embryonic lethality preferentially affecting females. In Ubr2-deficient germ cells, Tex19.1 is transcribed, but Tex19.1 protein is absent. Our results suggest that the binding of Ubr2 to Tex19.1 metabolically stabilizes Tex19.1 during spermatogenesis, revealing a new function for Ubr2 outside the conventional N-end rule pathway.

  6. Quantitative Lys-ϵ-Gly-Gly (diGly) proteomics coupled with inducible RNAi reveals ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) by the E3 ligase HUWE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joel W; Nagel, Jane; Hoving, Sjouke; Gerrits, Bertran; Bauer, Andreas; Thomas, Jason R; Kirschner, Marc W; Schirle, Markus; Luchansky, Sarah J

    2014-10-17

    Targeted degradation of proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via the activities of E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular processes, and misregulation of these enzymes contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases. One of the challenges facing the UPS field is to delineate the complete cohort of substrates for a particular E3 ligase. Advances in mass spectrometry and the development of antibodies recognizing the Lys-ϵ-Gly-Gly (diGly) remnant from ubiquitinated proteins following trypsinolysis have provided a tool to address this question. We implemented an inducible loss of function approach in combination with quantitative diGly proteomics to find novel substrates of HUWE1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), an E3 ligase implicated in cancer and intellectual disabilities. diGly proteomics results led to the identification of DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) as a putative HUWE1 substrate. Cell-based assays demonstrated that HUWE1 interacts with and regulates ubiquitination and stability of DDIT4. Together these data suggest a model in which HUWE1 mediates DDIT4 proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate proof of concept that inducible knockdown of an E3 ligase in combination with diGly proteomics provides a potentially advantageous method for identifying novel E3 substrates that may help to identify candidates for therapeutic modulation in the UPS. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Time-of-day- and light-dependent expression of ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 4 (UBR4 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrod H Ling

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are driven by the biological clock that operates endogenously but can also be entrained to the light-dark cycle of the environment. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, which is composed of individual cellular oscillators that are driven by a set of core clock genes interacting in transcriptional/translational feedback loops. Light signals can trigger molecular events in the SCN that ultimately impact on the phase of expression of core clock genes to reset the master pacemaker. While transcriptional regulation has received much attention in the field of circadian biology in the past, other mechanisms including targeted protein degradation likely contribute to the clock timing and entrainment process. In the present study, proteome-wide screens of the murine SCN led to the identification of ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 4 (UBR4, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase component of the N-end rule pathway, as a time-of-day-dependent and light-inducible protein. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of UBR4 in the SCN was subsequently characterized by immunofluorescence microscopy. UBR4 is expressed across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the SCN in a time-of-day-dependent fashion. UBR4 is localized exclusively to arginine vasopressin (AVP-expressing neurons of the SCN shell. Upon photic stimulation in the early subjective night, the number of UBR4-expressing cells within the SCN increases. This study is the first to identify a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase component, UBR4, in the murine SCN and to implicate the N-end rule degradation pathway as a potential player in regulating core clock mechanisms and photic entrainment.

  8. Functional analysis of NopM, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL domain effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Xin

    Full Text Available Type 3 effector proteins secreted via the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS are not only virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, but also influence symbiotic interactions between nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria (rhizobia and leguminous host plants. In this study, we characterized NopM (nodulation outer protein M of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, which shows sequence similarities with novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL domain effectors from the human pathogens Shigella flexneri and Salomonella enterica. NopM expressed in Escherichia coli, but not the non-functional mutant protein NopM-C338A, showed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. In vivo, NopM, but not inactive NopM-C338A, promoted nodulation of the host plant Lablab purpureus by NGR234. When NopM was expressed in yeast, it inhibited mating pheromone signaling, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway. When expressed in the plant Nicotiana benthamiana, NopM inhibited one part of the plant's defense response, as shown by a reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in response to the flagellin peptide flg22, whereas it stimulated another part, namely the induction of defense genes. In summary, our data indicate the potential for NopM as a functional NEL domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our findings that NopM dampened the flg22-induced ROS burst in N. benthamiana but promoted defense gene induction are consistent with the concept that pattern-triggered immunity is split in two separate signaling branches, one leading to ROS production and the other to defense gene induction.

  9. RB1CC1 Protein Positively Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling through the Modulation of Arkadia E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Koinuma, Daizo; Shinozaki, Masahiko; Nagano, Yoshiko; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Kana; Goto, Kouichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Saitoh, Masao; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyazono, Kohei; Miyazawa, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is controlled by a variety of regulators, of which Smad7, c-Ski, and SnoN play a pivotal role in its negative regulation. Arkadia is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets these negative regulators for degradation to enhance TGF-β signaling. In the present study we identified a candidate human tumor suppressor gene product RB1CC1/FIP200 as a novel positive regulator of TGF-β signaling that functions as a substrate-selective cofactor of Arka...

  10. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  11. The role of HERC2 and RNF8 ubiquitin E3 ligases in the promotion of translesion DNA synthesis in the chicken DT40 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Keka, Islam Shamima

    2016-01-01

    , the HERC2(-/-) and RNF8(-/-) cells and HERC2(-/-)/RNF8(-/-) double mutant cells exhibit a significant reduction in the rate of immunoglobulin (Ig) hypermutation, compared to wild-type cells. Further, the HERC2(-/-) and RNF8(-/-) mutants exhibit defective maintenance of replication fork progression...... immediately after exposure to UV while retaining proficient post-replicative gap filling. These mutants are both proficient in mono-ubiquitination of PCNA. Taken together, these results suggest that HERC2 and RNF8 promote TLS past abasic sites and UV-lesions at or very close to stalled replication forks.......The replicative DNA polymerases are generally blocked by template DNA damage. The resulting replication arrest can be released by one of two post-replication repair (PRR) pathways, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and template switching by homologous recombination (HR). The HERC2 ubiquitin ligase...

  12. The ESCRT-associated protein Alix recruits the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release through the LYPXnL L domain motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Paola; Jadwin, Joshua A; Dussupt, Vincent; Bello, Nana F; Bouamr, Fadila

    2010-08-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPX(n)L, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. Interactions with these two cellular proteins recruit members of the host's fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Other retroviruses gain access to the host ESCRT components by utilizing a PPXY-type L domain that interacts with cellular Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases. Despite the absence of a PPXY motif in HIV-1 Gag, interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 was recently shown to stimulate HIV-1 release. We show here that another Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-1, corrected release defects resulting from the disruption of PTAP (PTAP(-)), suggesting that HIV-1 Gag also recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate virus release. Notably, Nedd4-1 remediation of HIV-1 PTAP(-) budding defects is independent of cellular Tsg101, implying that Nedd4-1's function in HIV-1 release does not involve ESCRT-I components and is therefore distinct from that of Nedd4-2. Consistent with this finding, deletion of the p6 region decreased Nedd4-1-Gag interaction, and disruption of the LYPX(n)L motif eliminated Nedd4-1-mediated restoration of HIV-1 PTAP(-). This result indicated that both Nedd4-1 interaction with Gag and function in virus release occur through the Alix-binding LYPX(n)L motif. Mutations of basic residues located in the NC domain of Gag that are critical for Alix's facilitation of HIV-1 release, also disrupted release mediated by Nedd4-1, further confirming a Nedd4-1-Alix functional interdependence. In fact we found that Nedd4-1 binds Alix in both immunoprecipitation and yeast-two-hybrid assays. In addition, Nedd4-1 requires its catalytic activity to promote virus release. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of cellular Nedd4-1 eliminated Alix ubiquitination in the cell and impeded its ability to function in HIV-1 release. Together our data support a model in which Alix recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release mediated through the LYPX(n)L/Alix budding

  13. The ESCRT-Associated Protein Alix Recruits the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1 To Facilitate HIV-1 Release through the LYPXnL L Domain Motif▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Paola; Jadwin, Joshua A.; Dussupt, Vincent; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila

    2010-01-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPXnL, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. Interactions with these two cellular proteins recruit members of the host's fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Other retroviruses gain access to the host ESCRT components by utilizing a PPXY-type L domain that interacts with cellular Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases. Despite the absence of a PPXY motif in HIV-1 Gag, interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 was recently shown to stimulate HIV-1 release. We show here that another Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-1, corrected release defects resulting from the disruption of PTAP (PTAP−), suggesting that HIV-1 Gag also recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate virus release. Notably, Nedd4-1 remediation of HIV-1 PTAP− budding defects is independent of cellular Tsg101, implying that Nedd4-1's function in HIV-1 release does not involve ESCRT-I components and is therefore distinct from that of Nedd4-2. Consistent with this finding, deletion of the p6 region decreased Nedd4-1-Gag interaction, and disruption of the LYPXnL motif eliminated Nedd4-1-mediated restoration of HIV-1 PTAP−. This result indicated that both Nedd4-1 interaction with Gag and function in virus release occur through the Alix-binding LYPXnL motif. Mutations of basic residues located in the NC domain of Gag that are critical for Alix's facilitation of HIV-1 release, also disrupted release mediated by Nedd4-1, further confirming a Nedd4-1-Alix functional interdependence. In fact we found that Nedd4-1 binds Alix in both immunoprecipitation and yeast-two-hybrid assays. In addition, Nedd4-1 requires its catalytic activity to promote virus release. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of cellular Nedd4-1 eliminated Alix ubiquitination in the cell and impeded its ability to function in HIV-1 release. Together our data support a model in which Alix recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release mediated through the LYPXnL/Alix budding pathway

  14. Fission yeast arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, Arn1/Any1, is ubiquitinated by Pub1 E3 ligase and regulates endocytosis of Cat1 amino acid transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Nakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tsc1–Tsc2 complex homologous to human tuberous sclerosis complex proteins governs amino acid uptake by regulating the expression and intracellular distribution of amino acid transporters in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we performed a genetic screening for molecules that are involved in amino acid uptake and found Arn1 (also known as Any1. Arn1 is homologous to ART1, an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor (ART in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains a conserved arrestin motif, a ubiquitination site, and two PY motifs. Overexpression of arn1+ confers canavanine resistance on cells, whereas its disruption causes hypersensitivity to canavanine. We also show that Arn1 regulates endocytosis of the Cat1 amino acid transporter. Furthermore, deletion of arn1+ suppresses a defect of amino acid uptake and the aberrant Cat1 localization in tsc2Δ. Arn1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by the Pub1 ubiquitin ligase, which is necessary to regulate Cat1 endocytosis. Cat1 undergoes ubiquitinations on lysine residues within the N-terminus, which are mediated, in part, by Arn1 to determine Cat1 localization. Correctively, Arn1 is an ART in S. pombe and contributes to amino acid uptake through regulating Cat1 endocytosis in which Tsc2 is involved.

  15. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Min [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Zhu, Yunye [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Qiao, Maiju [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Xiaofeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Wei [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xiao, Fangming [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: liuyongsheng1122@hfut.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  16. The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL induces the degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor family members VLDLR and ApoER2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Duit, Sarah; Jalonen, Pilvi; Out, Ruud; Scheer, Lilith; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Boyadjian, Rima; Rodenburg, Kees W; Foley, Edan; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan; Nimpf, Johannes; van Berkel, Theo J C; Tontonoz, Peter; Zelcer, Noam

    2010-06-25

    We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that Idol also targets two closely related LDLR family members, VLDLR and ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), proteins implicated in both neuronal development and lipid metabolism. Idol triggers ubiquitination of the VLDLR and ApoER2 on their cytoplasmic tails, leading to their degradation. We further show that the level of endogenous VLDLR is sensitive to cellular sterol content, Idol expression, and activation of the LXR pathway. Pharmacological activation of the LXR pathway in mice leads to increased Idol expression and to decreased Vldlr levels in vivo. Finally, we establish an unexpected functional link between LXR and Reelin signaling. We demonstrate that LXR activation results in decreased Reelin binding to VLDLR and reduced Dab1 phosphorylation. The identification of VLDLR and ApoER2 as Idol targets suggests potential roles for this LXR-inducible E3 ligase in the central nervous system in addition to lipid metabolism.

  17. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL Induces the Degradation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Family Members VLDLR and ApoER2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Duit, Sarah; Jalonen, Pilvi; Out, Ruud; Scheer, Lilith; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Boyadjian, Rima; Rodenburg, Kees W.; Foley, Edan; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan; Nimpf, Johannes; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Tontonoz, Peter; Zelcer, Noam

    2010-01-01

    We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that Idol also targets two closely related LDLR family members, VLDLR and ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), proteins implicated in both neuronal development and lipid metabolism. Idol triggers ubiquitination of the VLDLR and ApoER2 on their cytoplasmic tails, leading to their degradation. We further show that the level of endogenous VLDLR is sensitive to cellular sterol content, Idol expression, and activation of the LXR pathway. Pharmacological activation of the LXR pathway in mice leads to increased Idol expression and to decreased Vldlr levels in vivo. Finally, we establish an unexpected functional link between LXR and Reelin signaling. We demonstrate that LXR activation results in decreased Reelin binding to VLDLR and reduced Dab1 phosphorylation. The identification of VLDLR and ApoER2 as Idol targets suggests potential roles for this LXR-inducible E3 ligase in the central nervous system in addition to lipid metabolism. PMID:20427281

  18. Structure/function implications in a dynamic complex of the intrinsically disordered Sic1 with the Cdc4 subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Tanja; Marsh, Joseph; Grishaev, Alexander; Orlicky, Stephen; Lin, Hong; Sicheri, Frank; Tyers, Mike; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Intrinsically disordered proteins can form highly dynamic complexes with partner proteins. One such dynamic complex involves the intrinsically disordered Sic1 with its partner Cdc4 in regulation of yeast cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of six N-terminal Sic1 sites leads to equilibrium engagement of each phosphorylation site with the primary binding pocket in Cdc4, the substrate recognition subunit of a ubiquitin ligase. ENSEMBLE calculations utilizing experimental NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering data reveal significant transient structure in both phosphorylation states of the isolated ensembles (Sic1 and pSic1) that modulates their electrostatic potential, suggesting a structural basis for the proposed strong contribution of electrostatics to binding. A structural model of the dynamic pSic1-Cdc4 complex demonstrates the spatial arrangements in the ubiquitin ligase complex. These results provide a physical picture of a protein that is predominantly disordered in both its free and bound states, enabling aspects of its structure/function relationship to be elucidated. PMID:20399186

  19. SYVN1, an ERAD E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Is Involved in GABAAα1 Degradation Associated with Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Liang Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of methamphetamine (METH, a powerful addictive amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS, is becoming a global public health problem. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic system plays a critical role in METH use disorders. By using rat METH conditioned place preference (CPP model, we previously demonstrated that METH-associated rewarding memory formation was associated with the reduction of GABAAα1 expression in the dorsal straitum (Dstr, however, the underlying mechanism was unclear. In the present study, we found that METH-induced CPP formation was accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of Synovial apoptosis inhibitor 1 (SYVN1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated degradation (ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligase, in the Dstr. The siRNA knockdown of SYVN1 significantly increased GABAAα1 protein levels in both primary cultured neurons and rodent Dstr. Inhibition of proteasomal activity by MG132 and Lactacystin significantly increased GABAAα1 protein levels. We further found that SYVN1 knockdown increased GABAAα1 in the intra-ER, but not in the extra-ER. Accordingly, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS-associated Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP increased. Thus, this study revealed that SYVN1, as the ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligase, was associated with Dstr GABAAα1 degradation induced by METH conditioned pairing.

  20. Two ubiquitin ligases, APC/C-Cdh1 and SKP1-CUL1-F (SCF)-beta-TrCP, sequentially regulate glycolysis during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudzarova, Slavica; Colombo, Sergio L; Stoeber, Kai; Carcamo, Saul; Williams, Gareth H; Moncada, Salvador

    2011-03-29

    During cell proliferation, the abundance of the glycolysis-promoting enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3), is controlled by the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 via a KEN box. We now demonstrate in synchronized HeLa cells that PFKFB3, which appears in mid-to-late G1, is essential for cell division because its silencing prevents progression into S phase. In cells arrested by glucose deprivation, progression into S phase after replacement of glucose occurs only when PFKFB3 is present or is substituted by the downstream glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. PFKFB3 ceases to be detectable during late G1/S despite the absence of Cdh1; this disappearance is prevented by proteasomal inhibition. PFKFB3 contains a DSG box and is therefore a potential substrate for SCF-β-TrCP, a ubiquitin ligase active during S phase. In synchronized HeLa cells transfected with PFKFB3 mutated in the KEN box, the DSG box, or both, we established the breakdown routes of the enzyme at different stages of the cell cycle and the point at which glycolysis is enhanced. Thus, the presence of PFKFB3 is tightly controlled to ensure the up-regulation of glycolysis at a specific point in G1. We suggest that this up-regulation of glycolysis and its associated events represent the nutrient-sensitive restriction point in mammalian cells.

  1. Identification of factors required for m6 A mRNA methylation in Arabidopsis reveals a role for the conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Kamil; Zhang, Mi; Campilho, Ana; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Kashif, Muhammad; Saleh, Mária; Eeckhout, Dominique; El-Showk, Sedeer; Li, Hongying; Zhong, Silin; De Jaeger, Geert; Mongan, Nigel P; Hejátko, Jan; Helariutta, Ykä; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-07-01

    N6-adenosine methylation (m6 A) of mRNA is an essential process in most eukaryotes, but its role and the status of factors accompanying this modification are still poorly understood. Using combined methods of genetics, proteomics and RNA biochemistry, we identified a core set of mRNA m6 A writer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The components required for m6 A in Arabidopsis included MTA, MTB, FIP37, VIRILIZER and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI. Downregulation of these proteins led to reduced relative m6 A levels and shared pleiotropic phenotypes, which included aberrant vascular formation in the root, indicating that correct m6 A methylation plays a role in developmental decisions during pattern formation. The conservation of these proteins amongst eukaryotes and the demonstration of a role in writing m6 A for the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI is likely to be of considerable relevance beyond the plant sciences. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. SCF Ubiquitin Ligase F-box Protein Fbx15 Controls Nuclear Co-repressor Localization, Stress Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Jöhnk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available F-box proteins share the F-box domain to connect substrates of E3 SCF ubiquitin RING ligases through the adaptor Skp1/A to Cul1/A scaffolds. F-box protein Fbx15 is part of the general stress response of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Oxidative stress induces a transient peak of fbx15 expression, resulting in 3x elevated Fbx15 protein levels. During non-stress conditions Fbx15 is phosphorylated and F-box mediated interaction with SkpA preferentially happens in smaller subpopulations in the cytoplasm. The F-box of Fbx15 is required for an appropriate oxidative stress response, which results in rapid dephosphorylation of Fbx15 and a shift of the cellular interaction with SkpA to the nucleus. Fbx15 binds SsnF/Ssn6 as part of the RcoA/Tup1-SsnF/Ssn6 co-repressor and is required for its correct nuclear localization. Dephosphorylated Fbx15 prevents SsnF/Ssn6 nuclear localization and results in the derepression of gliotoxin gene expression. fbx15 deletion mutants are unable to infect immunocompromised mice in a model for invasive aspergillosis. Fbx15 has a novel dual molecular function by controlling transcriptional repression and being part of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, which is essential for stress response, gliotoxin production and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus.

  3. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase activity can either suppress or promote genome instability, depending on the nature of the DNA lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The posttranslational modifiers SUMO and ubiquitin critically regulate the DNA damage response (DDR. Important crosstalk between these modifiers at DNA lesions is mediated by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL, which ubiquitinates SUMO chains to generate SUMO-ubiquitin hybrids. These SUMO-ubiquitin hybrids attract DDR proteins able to bind both modifiers, and/or are degraded at the proteasome. Despite these insights, specific roles for SUMO chains and STUbL in the DDR remain poorly defined. Notably, fission yeast defective in SUMO chain formation exhibit near wild-type resistance to genotoxins and moreover, have a greatly reduced dependency on STUbL activity for DNA repair. Based on these and other data, we propose that a critical role of STUbL is to antagonize DDR-inhibitory SUMO chain formation at DNA lesions. In this regard, we identify a SUMO-binding Swi2/Snf2 translocase called Rrp2 (ScUls1 as a mediator of the DDR defects in STUbL mutant cells. Therefore, in support of our proposal, SUMO chains attract activities that can antagonize STUbL and other DNA repair factors. Finally, we find that Taz1TRF1/TRF2-deficiency triggers extensive telomeric poly-SUMOylation. In this setting STUbL, together with its cofactor Cdc48p97, actually promotes genomic instability caused by the aberrant processing of taz1Δ telomeres by DNA repair factors. In summary, depending on the nature of the initiating DNA lesion, STUbL activity can either be beneficial or harmful.

  4. Ubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, T.; Simonsen, A. H.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finding early and dynamic biomarkers in Huntington's disease is a key to understanding the early pathology of Huntington's disease and potentially to tracking disease progression. This would benefit the future evaluation of potential neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapies......, as well as aid in identifying an optimal time point for initiating a potential therapeutic intervention. METHODS: This explorative proteomics study evaluated cerebrospinal fluid from 94 Huntington's disease gene-expansion carriers (39 premanifest and 55 manifest) and 27 Huntington's disease gene...... and controls. One of them identified as ubiquitin was shown to be dependent on the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale Total Functional Capacity, a pseudo-measure of disease severity (P = 0.001), and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (0.04) in manifest and CAG-age product score (P = 0.019) in all gene...

  5. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Triad3A negatively regulates the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway by targeting TRAF3 for degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Nakhaei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of the innate immune response is to limit the spread of infectious pathogens, with activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR and RIG-like receptor (RLR pathways resulting in a pro-inflammatory response required to combat infection. Limiting the activation of these signaling pathways is likewise essential to prevent tissue injury in the host. Triad3A is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with several components of TLR signaling and modulates TLR activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that Triad3A negatively regulates the RIG-I RNA sensing pathway through Lys48-linked, ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3 adapter. Triad3A was induced following dsRNA exposure or virus infection and decreased TRAF3 levels in a dose-dependent manner; moreover, Triad3A expression blocked IRF-3 activation by Ser-396 phosphorylation and inhibited the expression of type 1 interferon and antiviral genes. Lys48-linked ubiquitination of TRAF3 by Triad3A increased TRAF3 turnover, whereas reduction of Triad3A expression by stable shRNA expression correlated with an increase in TRAF3 protein expression and enhancement of the antiviral response following VSV or Sendai virus infection. Triad3A and TRAF3 physically interacted together, and TRAF3 residues Y440 and Q442--previously shown to be important for association with the MAVS adapter--were also critical for Triad3A. Point mutation of the TRAF-Interacting-Motif (TIM of Triad3A abrogated its ability to interact with TRAF3 and modulate RIG-I signaling. TRAF3 appears to undergo sequential ubiquitin "immuno-editing" following virus infection that is crucial for regulation of RIG-I-dependent signaling to the antiviral response. Thus, Triad3A represents a versatile E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates RIG-like receptor signaling by targeting TRAF3 for degradation following RNA virus infection.

  6. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 (FGF21) Regulates Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Levels in Cells via the E3-ubiquitin Ligase Mylip/Idol and the Canopy2 (Cnpy2)/Mylip-interacting Saposin-like Protein (Msap)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Hai Thi; Tselykh, Timofey V.; Mäkelä, Johanna; Ho, Tho Huu; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Bornhauser, Beat C.; Korhonen, Laura; Zelcer, Noam; Lindholm, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The LDLR is a critical factor in the regulation of blood cholesterol levels that are altered in different human diseases. The level of LDLR in the cell is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein

  7. Ubiquitin ligase RNF123 mediates degradation of heterochromatin protein 1α and β in lamin A/C knock-down cells.

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    Pankaj Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The nuclear lamina is a key determinant of nuclear architecture, integrity and functionality in metazoan nuclei. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly debilitating genetic diseases termed as laminopathies. Expression of lamin A mutations or reduction in levels of endogenous A-type lamins leads to nuclear defects such as abnormal nuclear morphology and disorganization of heterochromatin. This is accompanied by increased proteasomal degradation of certain nuclear proteins such as emerin, nesprin-1α, retinoblastoma protein and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1. However, the pathways of proteasomal degradation have not been well characterized.To investigate the mechanisms underlying the degradation of HP1 proteins upon lamin misexpression, we analyzed the effects of shRNA-mediated knock-down of lamins A and C in HeLa cells. Cells with reduced levels of expression of lamins A and C exhibited proteasomal degradation of HP1α and HP1β but not HP1γ. Since specific ubiquitin ligases are upregulated in lamin A/C knock-down cells, further studies were carried out with one of these ligases, RNF123, which has a putative HP1-binding motif. Ectopic expression of GFP-tagged RNF123 directly resulted in degradation of HP1α and HP1β. Mutational analysis showed that the canonical HP1-binding pentapeptide motif PXVXL in the N-terminus of RNF123 was required for binding to HP1 proteins and targeting them for degradation. The role of endogenous RNF123 in the degradation of HP1 isoforms was confirmed by RNF123 RNAi experiments. Furthermore, FRAP analysis suggested that HP1β was displaced from chromatin in laminopathic cells.Our data support a role for RNF123 ubiquitin ligase in the degradation of HP1α and HP1β upon lamin A/C knock-down. Hence lamin misexpression can cause degradation of mislocalized proteins involved in key nuclear processes by induction of specific components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  8. The ubiquitin ligase HectH9 regulates transcriptional activation by Myc and is essential for tumor cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sovana; Marinoni, Federica; Hock, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    polyubiquitin chain. Miz1 inhibits this ubiquitination. HectH9-mediated ubiquitination of Myc is required for transactivation of multiple target genes, recruitment of the coactivator p300, and induction of cell proliferation by Myc. HectH9 is overexpressed in multiple human tumors and is essential...... for proliferation of a subset of tumor cells. Our results suggest that site-specific ubiquitination regulates the switch between an activating and a repressive state of the Myc protein, and they suggest a strategy to interfere with Myc function in vivo....

  9. Progressive Purkinje cell degeneration in tambaleante mutant mice is a consequence of a missense mutation in HERC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

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    Tomoji Mashimo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The HERC gene family encodes proteins with two characteristic domains: HECT and RCC1-like. Proteins with HECT domains have been described to function as ubiquitin ligases, and those that contain RCC1-like domains have been reported to function as GTPases regulators. These two activities are essential in a number of important cellular processes such as cell cycle, cell signaling, and membrane trafficking. Mutations affecting these domains have been found associated with retinitis pigmentosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cancer. In humans, six HERC genes have been reported which encode two subgroups of HERC proteins: large (HERC1-2 and small (HERC3-6. The giant HERC1 protein was the first to be identified. It has been involved in membrane trafficking and cell proliferation/growth through its interactions with clathrin, M2-pyruvate kinase, and TSC2 proteins. Mutations affecting other members of the HERC family have been found to be associated with sterility and growth retardation. Here, we report the characterization of a recessive mutation named tambaleante, which causes progressive Purkinje cell degeneration leading to severe ataxia with reduced growth and lifespan in homozygous mice aged over two months. We mapped this mutation in mouse chromosome 9 and then performed positional cloning. We found a GA transition at position 1448, causing a Gly to Glu substitution (Gly483Glu in the highly conserved N-terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein. Successful transgenic rescue, with either a mouse BAC containing the normal copy of Herc1 or with the human HERC1 cDNA, validated our findings. Histological and biochemical studies revealed extensive autophagy associated with an increase of the mutant protein level and a decrease of mTOR activity. Our observations concerning this first mutation in the Herc1 gene contribute to the functional annotation of the encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase and underline the crucial and unexpected role of this protein

  10. The ubiquitin ligase Cullin5(SOCS2) regulates NDR1/STK38 stability and NF-κB transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Indranil; Batth, Tanveer S; Iglesias-Gato, Diego

    2017-01-01

    SOCS2 is a pleiotropic E3 ligase. Its deficiency is associated with gigantism and organismal lethality upon inflammatory challenge. However, mechanistic understanding of SOCS2 function is dismal due to our unawareness of its protein substrates. We performed a mass spectrometry based proteomic pro...

  11. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Prevents Tumor Metastasis by Maintaining the Epithelial Phenotype in Multiple Drug-Resistant Gastric and Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Che, Xiaofang; Guo, Tianshu; Cai, Ying; Li, Aodi; Li, Danni; Li, Ce; Wen, Ti; Fan, Yibo; Hou, Kezuo; Ma, Yanju; Hu, Xuejun; Liu, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis are two major factors that contribute to the failure of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Additionally, the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in metastasis of MDR gastric and breast cancer is not well known. In the present study, we found that MDR gastric and breast cancer cells possess a typical mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced cell migration capacity. Additionally, Cbl-b is poorly expressed in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. In MDR gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, gastric cancer patients with low Cbl-b expression were more likely to have tumor invasion (P=.016) and lymph node metastasis (P=.007). Moreover, overexpression of Cbl-b reduced cell migration in MDR cell cultures both in vitro and in vivo. Cbl-b overexpression also prevented EMT by inducing ubiquitination and degradation of EGFR, leading to inhibition of the EGFR-ERK/Akt-miR-200c-ZEB1 axis. However, further overexpression of EGFR on a background of Cbl-b overexpression restored both the mesenchymal phenotype and cell migration capacity of MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that Cbl-b is an important factor for maintenance of the epithelial phenotype and inhibition of cell migration in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnù, Stefano; Mateo, María Inés; Palomer, Ernest; Jurado-Arjona, Jerónimo; Dotti, Carlos G

    2017-05-04

    A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic interactions between the ESS1 prolyl-isomerase and the RSP5 ubiquitin ligase reveal opposing effects on RNA polymerase II function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, A; Sudol, M; Hanes, S D

    2001-12-01

    Transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a highly coordinated process that requires the stepwise association of distinct protein complexes with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpbl, the largest subunit of RNA pol II. Interaction of these complexes with the CTD might be subject to regulation by proteins such as Ess1 and Rsp5. Ess1, a prolyl-isomerase, binds the CTD and is thought to play a positive role in pol II transcription by generating conformational isomers of the CTD. Rsp5, a ubiquitin ligase, binds the CTD and is thought to play a negative role in transcription by mediating Rpbl ubiquitination and degradation. In this paper, we demonstrate that ESS1 and RSP5 interact genetically and that these interactions occur via RPBI. We show that over-expression of RSP5 enhances the growth defect of ess1ts cells and this effect is reversed by introducing extra copies of RPB1. Over-expression of RSP5 also mimics the sensitivity of ess1ts mutant cells to the toxicity of plasmids carrying dominant-negative CTD mutations, whereas mutations in RSP5 suppress this effect. Using a modified two-hybrid assay, we also demonstrate that Essl and Rsp5 compete directly for binding to the CTD. The results suggest a model in which Essl and Rsp5 act opposingly on pol II function to control the level of pol II available for transcription.

  14. Role of SCF ubiquitin-ligase and the COP9 signalosome in the N gene-mediated resistance response to Tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yule; Schiff, Michael; Serino, Giovanna; Deng, Xing-Wang; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

    2002-07-01

    The tobacco N gene confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and encodes a toll-interleukin-1 receptor/nucleotide binding/Leu-rich repeat class protein. Recent evidence indicates that the Nicotiana benthamiana Rar1 gene (NbRar1), which encodes a protein with a zinc finger motif called CHORD (Cys- and His-rich domain), is required for the function of N. To investigate the role of NbRar1 in plant defense, we identified its interaction partners. We show that the NbRar1 protein interacts with NbSGT1, a highly conserved component of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in protein degradation. In addition, we show that NbSGT1 interacts with NbSKP1. Suppression of NbSGT1 and NbSKP1 shows that these genes play an important role in the N-mediated resistance response to TMV. Both NbRar1 and NbSGT1 associate with the COP9 signalosome, another multiprotein complex involved in protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Silencing of the NbCOP9 signalosome also compromises N-mediated resistance to TMV. Our results reveal new roles for SCF and the COP9 signalosome in plant defense signaling.

  15. The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Pardieu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin (CD317/BST2 is an interferon-induced membrane protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped viral particles. Several mammalian viruses have evolved countermeasures that inactivate tetherin, with the prototype being the HIV-1 Vpu protein. Here we show that the human herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is sensitive to tetherin restriction and its activity is counteracted by the KSHV encoded RING-CH E3 ubiquitin ligase K5. Tetherin expression in KSHV-infected cells inhibits viral particle release, as does depletion of K5 protein using RNA interference. K5 induces a species-specific downregulation of human tetherin from the cell surface followed by its endosomal degradation. We show that K5 targets a single lysine (K18 in the cytoplasmic tail of tetherin for ubiquitination, leading to relocalization of tetherin to CD63-positive endosomal compartments. Tetherin degradation is dependent on ESCRT-mediated endosomal sorting, but does not require a tyrosine-based sorting signal in the tetherin cytoplasmic tail. Importantly, we also show that the ability of K5 to substitute for Vpu in HIV-1 release is entirely dependent on K18 and the RING-CH domain of K5. By contrast, while Vpu induces ubiquitination of tetherin cytoplasmic tail lysine residues, mutation of these positions has no effect on its antagonism of tetherin function, and residual tetherin is associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN in Vpu-expressing cells. Taken together our results demonstrate that K5 is a mechanistically distinct viral countermeasure to tetherin-mediated restriction, and that herpesvirus particle release is sensitive to this mode of antiviral inhibition.

  16. Ubiquitin ligase SYVN1/HRD1 facilitates degradation of the SERPINA1 Z variant/α-1-antitrypsin Z variant via SQSTM1/p62-dependent selective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lijie; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Na; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Xiaojie; Yu, Jishuang; Qiang, Weimin; Zhang, Zhetao; Ma, Yuyang; Huang, Dake; Shen, Yujun; Fang, Shengyun; Yu, Yifan; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Yuxian

    2017-04-03

    SERPINA1/AAT/α-1-antitrypsin (serpin family A member 1) deficiency (SERPINA1/ AAT-D) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the retention of misfolded SERPINA1/AAT in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes and a significant reduction of serum SERPINA1/AAT level. The Z variant of SERPINA1/AAT, containing a Glu342Lys (E342K) mutation (SERPINA1E342K/ATZ), the most common form of SERPINA1/AAT-D, is prone to misfolding and polymerization, which retains it in the ER of hepatocytes and leads to liver injury. Both proteasome and macroautophagy/autophagy pathways are responsible for disposal of SERPINA1E342K/ATZ after it accumulates in the ER. However, the mechanisms by which SERPINA1E342K/ATZ is selectively degraded by autophagy remain unknown. Here, we showed that ER membrane-spanning ubiquitin ligase (E3) SYVN1/HRD1 enhances the degradation of SERPINA1E342K/ATZ through the autophagy-lysosome pathway. We found that SYVN1 promoted SERPINA1E342K/ATZ, especially Triton X 100-insoluble SERPINA1E342K/ATZ clearance. However, the effect of SYVN1 in SERPINA1E342K/ATZ clearance was impaired after autophagy inhibition, as well as in autophagy-related 5 (atg5) knockout cells. On the contrary, autophagy induction enhanced SYVN1-mediated SERPINA1E342K/ATZ degradation. Further study showed that SYVN1 mediated SERPINA1E342K/ATZ ubiquitination, which is required for autophagic degradation of SERPINA1E342K/ATZ by promoting the interaction between SERPINA1E342K/ATZ and SQSTM1/p62 for formation of the autophagy complex. Interestingly, SYVN1-mediated lysine 48 (K48)-linked polyubiquitin chains that conjugated onto SERPINA1E342K/ATZ might predominantly bind to the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain of SQSTM1 and couple the ubiquitinated SERPINA1E342K/ATZ to the lysosome for degradation. In addition, autophagy inhibition attenuated the suppressive effect of SYVN1 on SERPINA1E342K/ATZ cytotoxicity, and the autophagy inducer rapamycin enhanced the suppressive effect of SYVN1

  17. Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL80 is negatively involved in phosphate mobilization and cold stress response in sufficient phosphate growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-08-07

    Phosphate (Pi) remobilization in plants is critical to continuous growth and development. AtATL80 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized RING E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that belongs to the Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family. AtATL80 was upregulated by long-term low Pi (0-0.02 mM KH2PO4) conditions in Arabidopsis seedlings. AtATL80-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:AtATL80-sGFP) displayed increased phosphorus (P) accumulation in the shoots and lower biomass, as well as reduced P-utilization efficiency (PUE) under high Pi (1 mM KH2PO4) conditions compared to wild-type plants. The loss-of-function atatl80 mutant line exhibited opposite phenotypic traits. The atatl80 mutant line bolted earlier than wild-type plants, whereas AtATL80-overexpressors bloomed significantly later and produced lower seed yields than wild-type plants under high Pi conditions. Thus, AtATL80 is negatively correlated not only with P content and PUE, but also with biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. In addition, AtATL80-overexpressors were significantly more sensitive to cold stress than wild-type plants, while the atatl80 mutant line exhibited an increased tolerance to cold stress. Taken together, our results suggest that AtATL80, a PM-localized ATL-type RING E3 Ub ligase, participates in the Pi mobilization and cold stress response as a negative factor in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Haploinsufficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase C-terminus of heat shock cognate 70 interacting protein (CHIP produces specific behavioral impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethann McLaughlin

    Full Text Available The multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is an essential interacting partner of HSP70, which together promote the proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Acute CHIP overexpression provides neuroprotection against neurotoxic mitochondrial stress, glucocorticoids, and accumulation of toxic amyloid fragments, as well as genetic mutations in other E3 ligases, which have been shown to result in familial Parkinson's disease. These studies have created a great deal of interest in understanding CHIP activity, expression and modulation. While CHIP knockout mice have the potential to provide essential insights into the molecular control of cell fate and survival, the animals have been difficult to characterize in vivo due to severe phenotypic and behavioral dysfunction, which have thus far been poorly characterized. Therefore, in the present study we conducted a battery of neurobehavioral and physiological assays of adult CHIP heterozygotic (HET mutant mice to provide a better understanding of the functional consequence of CHIP deficiency. We found that CHIP HET mice had normal body and brain weight, body temperature, muscle tone and breathing patterns, but do have a significant elevation in baseline heart rate. Meanwhile basic behavioral screens of sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive functions were normative. We observed no alterations in performance in the elevated plus maze, light-dark preference and tail suspension assays, or two simple cognitive tasks: novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Significant deficits were found, however, when CHIP HET mice performed wire hang, inverted screen, wire maneuver, and open field tasks. Taken together, our data indicate a clear subset of behaviors that are altered at baseline in CHIP deficient animals, which will further guide whole animal studies of the effects of CHIP dysregulation on cardiac function, brain circuitry and function, and responsiveness to environmental and

  19. Lys-63-linked Ubiquitination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), Type B1, at Multiple Sites by the E3 Ligase Mind Bomb-2 Targets GABAB Receptors to Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemoura, Khaled; Trümpler, Claudia; Benke, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    GABAB receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors, which control neuronal excitability by mediating prolonged inhibition. The magnitude of GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition essentially depends on the amount of receptors in the plasma membrane. However, the factors regulating cell surface expression of GABAB receptors are poorly characterized. Cell surface GABAB receptors are constitutively internalized and either recycled to the plasma membrane or degraded in lysosomes. The signal that sorts GABAB receptors to lysosomes is currently unknown. Here we show that Mind bomb-2 (MIB2)-mediated Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of the GABAB1 subunit at multiple sites is the lysosomal sorting signal for GABAB receptors. We found that inhibition of lysosomal activity in cultured rat cortical neurons increased the fraction of Lys-63-linked ubiquitinated GABAB receptors and enhanced the expression of total as well as cell surface GABAB receptors. Mutational inactivation of four putative ubiquitination sites in the GABAB1 subunit significantly diminished Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of GABAB receptors and prevented their lysosomal degradation. We identified MIB2 as the E3 ligase triggering Lys-63-linked ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of GABAB receptors. Finally, we show that sustained activation of glutamate receptors, a condition occurring in brain ischemia that down-regulates GABAB receptors, considerably increased the expression of MIB2 and Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of GABAB receptors. Interfering with Lys-63-linked ubiquitination by overexpressing ubiquitin mutants or GABAB1 mutants deficient in Lys-63-linked ubiquitination prevented glutamate-induced down-regulation of the receptors. These findings indicate that Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of GABAB1 at multiple sites by MIB2 controls sorting of GABAB receptors to lysosomes for degradation under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27573246

  20. Genome-wide characterisation and expression profile of the grapevine ATL ubiquitin ligase family reveal biotic and abiotic stress-responsive and development-related members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Pietro; Regaiolo, Alice; Lovato, Arianna; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Porceddu, Andrea; Camiolo, Salvatore; Wong, Darren; Castellarin, Simone; Vandelle, Elodie; Polverari, Annalisa

    2016-12-02

    The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes. Most of the grapevine ATL genes lacked introns and were scattered among the 19 chromosomes, with a high level of duplication retention. Expression profiling revealed that some ATL genes are expressed specifically during early or late development and may participate in the juvenile to mature plant transition, whereas others may play a role in pathogen and/or abiotic stress responses, making them key candidates for further functional analysis. Our data offer the first genome-wide overview and annotation of the grapevine ATL family, and provide a basis for investigating the roles of specific family members in grapevine physiology and stress responses, as well as potential biotechnological applications.

  1. Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Itch Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Formation by Promoting Deubiquitination of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-associated Factor 6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengwei; Wu, Chengwu; Matesic, Lydia E.; Li, Xing; Wang, Zhiyu; Boyce, Brendan F.; Xing, Lianping

    2013-01-01

    Itch is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates protein stability. Itch−/− mice develop an autoimmune disease phenotype characterized by itchy skin and multiorgan inflammation. The role of Itch in the regulation of osteoclast function has not been examined. We report that Itch−/− bone marrow and spleen cells formed more osteoclasts than cells from WT littermates in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and was associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic transcription factors c-fos and Nfatc1. Overexpression of Itch in Itch−/− cells rescued increased osteoclastogenesis. RANKL increased Itch expression, which can be blocked by a NF-κB inhibitor. The murine Itch promoter contains NF-κB binding sites. Overexpression of NF-κB p65 increased Itch expression, and RANKL promoted the binding of p65 onto the NF-κB binding sites in the Itch promoter. Itch−/− osteoclast precursors had prolonged RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and delayed TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) deubiquitination. In WT osteoclast precursors, Itch bound to TRAF6 and the deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis. Adult Itch−/− mice had normal bone volume, but they had significantly increased LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, Itch is a new RANKL target gene that is induced during osteoclastogenesis. Itch interacts with the deubiquitinating enzyme and is required for deubiquitination of TRAF6, thus limiting RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. PMID:23782702

  2. Merlin/NF2 functions upstream of the nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4DCAF1 to suppress oncogenic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Li, Wei; You, Liru; Schiavon, Gaia; Pepe-Caprio, Angela; Zhou, Lu; Ishii, Ryohei; Giovannini, Marco; Hanemann, C Oliver; Long, Stephen B; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Zhou, Pengbo; Tempst, Paul; Giancotti, Filippo G

    2011-08-23

    Integrin-mediated activation of PAK (p21-activated kinase) causes phosphorylation and inactivation of the FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain-containing protein Merlin, which is encoded by the NF2 (neurofibromatosis type 2) tumor suppressor gene. Conversely, cadherin engagement inactivates PAK, thus leading to accumulation of unphosphorylated Merlin. Current models imply that Merlin inhibits cell proliferation by inhibiting mitogenic signaling at or near the plasma membrane. We have recently shown that the unphosphorylated, growth-inhibiting form of Merlin accumulates in the nucleus and binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) to suppress its activity. Depletion of DCAF1 blocks the hyperproliferation caused by inactivation of Merlin. Conversely, expression of a Merlin-insensitive DCAF1 mutant counteracts the antimitogenic effect of Merlin. Expression of Merlin or silencing of DCAF1 in Nf2-deficient cells induce an overlapping, tumor-suppressive program of gene expression. Mutations present in some tumors from NF2 patients disrupt Merlin's ability to interact with or inhibit CRL4(DCAF1). Lastly, depletion of DCAF1 inhibits the hyperproliferation of Schwannoma cells isolated from NF2 patients and suppresses the oncogenic potential of Merlin-deficient tumor cell lines. Current studies are aimed at identifying the substrates and mechanism of action of CRL4(DCAF1) and examining its role in NF2-dependent tumorigenesis in mouse models. We propose that Merlin mediates contact inhibition and suppresses tumorigenesis by translocating to the nucleus to inhibit CRL4(DCAF1).

  3. Genome-wide and functional annotation of human E3 ubiquitin ligases identifies MULAN, a mitochondrial E3 that regulates the organelle's dynamics and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Specificity of protein ubiquitylation is conferred by E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligases. We have annotated approximately 617 putative E3s and substrate-recognition subunits of E3 complexes encoded in the human genome. The limited knowledge of the function of members of the large E3 superfamily prompted us to generate genome-wide E3 cDNA and RNAi expression libraries designed for functional screening. An imaging-based screen using these libraries to identify E3s that regulate mitochondrial dynamics uncovered MULAN/FLJ12875, a RING finger protein whose ectopic expression and knockdown both interfered with mitochondrial trafficking and morphology. We found that MULAN is a mitochondrial protein - two transmembrane domains mediate its localization to the organelle's outer membrane. MULAN is oriented such that its E3-active, C-terminal RING finger is exposed to the cytosol, where it has access to other components of the Ub system. Both an intact RING finger and the correct subcellular localization were required for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting that MULAN's downstream effectors are proteins that are either integral to, or associated with, mitochondria and that become modified with Ub. Interestingly, MULAN had previously been identified as an activator of NF-kappaB, thus providing a link between mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling. These findings suggest the existence of a new, Ub-mediated mechanism responsible for integration of mitochondria into the cellular environment.

  4. Overexpression of the human ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Can [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Zhang, Li-Yang [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, 110 Xiang Ya Road, Changsha 410078 (China); Chen, Hong [Department of Developmental Biology, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Xiao, Ling [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Xian-Peng, E-mail: xliu@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Zhang, Jian-Xiang, E-mail: jianxiangzhang@yahoo.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Department of Developmental Biology, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of human CUL4A (hCUL4A) in PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of hCUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage and thus promotes cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A regulates apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A plays important roles in diverse cellular processes including carcinogenesis and proliferation. It has been reported that the expression of CUL4A can be induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. However, the effect of elevated expression of CUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is currently unclear. In this study, human CUL4A (hCUL4A) was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, and the effects of hCUL4A expression on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. In PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, we found that hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage by regulating apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53 and p27); consequently, hCUL4A promotes cell survival. Taken together, our results reveal the beneficial effects of hCUL4A in PC12 cells upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  5. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL blocks S-nitrosylated MAP1B-light chain 1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro, Ryo; Kimijima, Yuya; Shimura, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Inatome, Ryoko; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2012-02-14

    Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in neuronal cell survival. However, excessive NO production mediates neuronal cell death, in part via mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we report that the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, MITOL, protects neuronal cells from mitochondrial damage caused by accumulation of S-nitrosylated microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 1 (LC1). S-nitrosylation of LC1 induces a conformational change that serves both to activate LC1 and to promote its ubiquination by MITOL, indicating that microtubule stabilization by LC1 is regulated through its interaction with MITOL. Excessive NO production can inhibit MITOL, and MITOL inhibition resulted in accumulation of S-nitrosylated LC1 following stimulation of NO production by calcimycin and N-methyl-D-aspartate. LC1 accumulation under these conditions resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. Thus, the balance between LC1 activation by S-nitrosylation and down-regulation by MITOL is critical for neuronal cell survival. Our findings may contribute significantly to an understanding of the mechanisms of neurological diseases caused by nitrosative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Rice root curling, a response to mechanosensing, is modulated by the rice E3-ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, T F; Serra, T S; Cordeiro, A M; Swanson, S J; Gilroy, S; Saibo, N J M; Oliveira, M M

    2016-08-02

    Plant development depends on the perception of external cues, such as light, gravity, touch, wind or nutrients, among others. Nevertheless, little is known regarding signal transduction pathways integrating these stimuli. Recently, we have reported the involvement of a rice E3-ubiquitin ligase (OsHOS1, HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1), previously associated with abiotic stress response, in root responses to mechanical stimuli. We showed that OsHOS1 is involved in the regulation of root curling after mechanosensing and that RNAi::OsHOS1 plants failed to exhibit the root curling phenotype observed in WT. Interestingly, the straight root phenotype of these transgenics correlated with the up-regulation of rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC, a negative regulator of rice root curling) and was reverted by the exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Altogether, our results highlight the role of the proteasome modulating plant responses to mechanical stimuli and suggest that OsHOS1 is a hub integrating environmental and hormonal signaling into plant growth and development.

  7. Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligases PUB22 and PUB23 Negatively Regulate Drought Tolerance by Targeting ABA Receptor PYL9 for Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhao, Linlin; Zhang, Ming; Zafar, Syed Adeel; Fang, Jingjing; Li, Ming; Zhang, Wenhui; Li, Xueyong

    2017-08-24

    Drought causes osmotic stress and rapidly triggers abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in plants. The roles of various ABA receptors in drought tolerance and molecular mechanisms regulating ABA receptor stability needs to be elucidated. Here, we report that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PYL9, one of the 14 pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/pyrabactin resistance-like (PYL)/regulatory component of ABA receptors (RCAR) family ABA receptors, gained drought tolerance trait. Osmotic stress induced accumulation of the PYL9 protein, which was regulated by the 26S proteasome. PYL9 interacted with two highly homologous plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases PUB22 and PUB23. In the cell-free degradation assay, the degradation of GST-PYL9 was accelerated in protein extract from plants overexpressing PUB22 but slowed down in protein extract from the pub22 pub23 double mutant. The in vivo decay of Myc-PYL9 was significantly reduced in the pub22 pub23 double mutant as compared with the wild-type. Additionally, PUB22 also interacted with other ABA receptors such as PYL5, PYL7 and PYL8. Considering the improved drought tolerance in the pub22 pub23 double mutant in previous studies, our results suggest that PUB22 and PUB23 negatively regulate drought tolerance in part by facilitating ABA receptors degradation.

  8. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik-Khuan Ho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1, contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8, and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  9. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Hein, Marco Y; Müller, Marcel A; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-08-30

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes.

  10. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J N Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  11. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A.; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PLpro), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95–144 of RCHY1 and 389–652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PLpros from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD–PLpro fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PLpro alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes. PMID:27519799

  12. In silico analysis identifies a C3HC4-RING finger domain of a putative E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase located at the C-terminus of a polyglutamine-containing protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Scior

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost identical polyglutamine-containing proteins with unknown structures have been found in human, mouse and rat genomes (GenBank AJ277365, AF525300, AY879229. We infer that an identical new gene (RING finger domain of real interest is located in each C-terminal segment. A three-dimensional (3-D model was generated by remote homology modeling and the functional implications are discussed. The model consists of 65 residues from terminal position 707 to 772 of the human protein with a total length of 796 residues. The 3-D model predicts a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3 as a binding site for ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2. Both enzymes are part of the ubiquitin pathway to label unwanted proteins for subsequent enzymatic degradation. The molecular contact specificities are suggested for both the substrate recognition and the residues at the possible E2-binding surface. The predicted structure, of a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3, enzyme class number 6.3.2.19, CATH code 3.30.40.10.4 may contribute to explain the process of ubiquitination. The 3-D model supports the idea of a C3HC4-RING finger with a partially new pattern. The putative E2-binding site is formed by a shallow hydrophobic groove on the surface adjacent to the helix and one zinc finger (L722, C739, P740, P741, R744. Solvent-exposed hydrophobic amino acids lie around both zinc fingers (I717, L722, F738, or P765, L766, V767, V733, P734. The 3-D structure was deposited in the protein databank theoretical model repository (2B9G, RCSB Protein Data Bank, NJ.

  13. Forkhead box O3 plays a role in skeletal muscle atrophy through expression of E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Hee; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kim, Mina; Lee, Eunjo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Kim, Inkyeom

    2017-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by overproduction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal grand to make cortisol. Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in pathophysiological response to Cushing's syndrome. The forkhead box (FOX) protein family has been implicated as a key regulator of muscle loss under conditions such as diabetes and sepsis. However, the mechanistic role of the FOXO family in ACTH-induced muscle atrophy is not understood. We hypothesized that FOXO3a plays a role in muscle atrophy through expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome. For establishment of a Cushing's syndrome animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing ACTH (40 ng·kg(-1)·day(-1)). ACTH infusion significantly reduced muscle weight. In ACTH-infused rats, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, and FOXO3a were upregulated and the FOXO3a promoter was targeted by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Transcriptional activity and expression of FOXO3a were significantly decreased by the GR antagonist RU486. Treatment with RU486 reduced MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression in accordance with reduced enrichment of FOXO3a and Pol II on the promoters. Knockdown of FOXO3a prevented dexamethasone-induced MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression. These results indicate that FOXO3a plays a role in muscle atrophy through expression of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. O2 sensing associated glycosylation exposes the F-box combining site of the Dictyostelium Skp1 subunit in E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, M Osman; Thieker, David; Chalmers, Gordon; Schafer, Christopher M; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Woods, Robert J; Glushka, John N; Bendiak, Brad; Prestegard, James H; West, Christopher M

    2017-09-19

    Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box binding domain. Prolyl hydroxylation of Skp1 contributes to O2-dependent Dictyostelium development, but full glycosylation at that position is required for optimal O2 sensing. Previous studies have shown that the glycan promotes organization of the F-box binding region in Skp1, and aids in Skp1's association with F-box proteins. Here, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry approaches were used to determine the glycan structure, and then a combination of NMR and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to characterize the impact of the glycan on the conformation and motions of the intrinsically flexible F-box binding domain of Skp1. MD trajectories of glycosylated Skp1 whose calculated monosaccharide relaxation kinetics and rotational correlation times agreed with the NMR data indicated that the glycan interacts with the loop connecting two alpha-helices of the F-box combining site. In these trajectories, the helices separated from one another to create a more accessible and dynamic F-box interface. These results offer an unprecedented view of how a glycan modification influences a disordered region of a full-length protein. The increased sampling of an open Skp1 conformation can explain how glycosylation enhances interactions with F-box proteins in cells. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. The putative E3 ubiquitin ligase ECERIFERUM9 regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and response during seed germination and postgermination growth in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2014-05-08

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Notch signaling is antagonized by SAO-1, a novel GYF-domain protein that interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SEL-10 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Valerie A; Guiney, Evan L; Goldberg, Lindsey Y; Haduong, Josephine H; Kwartler, Callie S; Scangos, Katherine W; Goutte, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Notch signaling pathways can be regulated through a variety of cellular mechanisms, and genetically compromised systems provide useful platforms from which to search for the responsible modulators. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene aph-1 encodes a component of γ-secretase, which is essential for Notch signaling events throughout development. By looking for suppressors of the incompletely penetrant aph-1(zu147) mutation, we identify a new gene, sao-1 (suppressor of aph-one), that negatively regulates aph-1(zu147) activity in the early embryo. The sao-1 gene encodes a novel protein that contains a GYF protein-protein interaction domain and interacts specifically with SEL-10, an Fbw7 component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. We demonstrate that the embryonic lethality of aph-1(zu147) mutants can be suppressed by removing sao-1 activity or by mutations that disrupt the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction. Decreased sao-1 activity also influences Notch signaling events when they are compromised at different molecular steps of the pathway, such as at the level of the Notch receptor GLP-1 or the downstream transcription factor LAG-1. Combined analysis of the SAO-1-SEL-10 protein interaction and comparisons of sao-1 and sel-10 genetic interactions suggest a possible role for SAO-1 as an accessory protein that participates with SEL-10 in downregulation of Notch signaling. This work provides the first mutant analysis of a GYF-domain protein in either C. elegans or Drosophila and introduces a new type of Fbw7-interacting protein that acts in a subset of Fbw7 functions.

  17. The mRNA decay factor tristetraprolin (TTP) induces senescence in human papillomavirus-transformed cervical cancer cells by targeting E6-AP ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduja, Sandhya; Kaza, Vimala; Dixon, Dan A

    2009-09-10

    The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates expression of many cancer-associated and proinflammatory factors through binding AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and facilitating rapid mRNA decay. Here we report on the ability of TTP to act in an anti-proliferative capacity in HPV18-positive HeLa cells by inducing senescence. HeLa cells maintain a dormant p53 pathway and elevated telomerase activity resulting from HPV-mediated transformation, whereas TTP expression counteracted this effect by stabilizing p53 protein and inhibiting hTERT expression. Presence of TTP did not alter E6 and E7 viral mRNA levels indicating that these are not TTP targets. It was found that TTP promoted rapid mRNA decay of the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein (E6-AP). RNA-binding studies demonstrated TTP and E6-AP mRNA interaction and deletion of the E6-AP mRNA ARE-containing 3'UTR imparts resistance to TTP-mediated downregulation. Similar results were obtained with high-risk HPV16-positive cells that employ the E6-AP pathway to control p53 and hTERT levels. Furthermore, loss of TTP expression was consistently observed in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. These findings demonstrate the ability of TTP to act as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the E6-AP pathway and indicate TTP loss to be a critical event during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis.

  18. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase- and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-binding Domains of the Alpha4 Protein Are Both Required for Alpha4 to Inhibit PP2A Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele; Watkins, Guy R.; Zou, Ping; Germane, Katherine L.; McCorvey, Lisa R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Spiller, Benjamin W. (Vanderbilt)

    2012-04-30

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including post-translational modifications and association with regulatory proteins. Alpha4 is one such regulatory protein that binds the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and protects it from polyubiquitination and degradation. Alpha4 is a multidomain protein with a C-terminal domain that binds Mid1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, and an N-terminal domain containing the PP2Ac-binding site. In this work, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain of mammalian Alpha4 determined by x-ray crystallography and use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy to show that it is a flexible tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein. Structurally, Alpha4 differs from its yeast homolog, Tap42, in two important ways: (1) the position of the helix containing the PP2Ac-binding residues is in a more open conformation, showing flexibility in this region; and (2) Alpha4 contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif. The effects of wild-type and mutant Alpha4 on PP2Ac ubiquitination and stability were examined in mammalian cells by performing tandem ubiquitin-binding entity precipitations and cycloheximide chase experiments. Our results reveal that both the C-terminal Mid1-binding domain and the PP2Ac-binding determinants are required for Alpha4-mediated protection of PP2Ac from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  19. Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Ikeda Ankyrin Repeat-Containing Proteins Recruit SCF1 Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery via Poxvirus-Like F-Box Motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrea R.; VieBrock, Lauren; Rodino, Kyle G.; Miller, Daniel P.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Marconi, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A rising theme among intracellular microbes is the delivery of ankyrin repeat-containing effectors (Anks) that interact with target proteins to co-opt host cell functions. Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, encodes one of the largest Ank repertoires of any sequenced microorganism. They have been previously identified as type 1 secretion system substrates. Here, in silico and manual sequence analyses revealed that a large proportion of O. tsutsugamushi strain Ikeda Anks bear a eukaryotic/poxvirus-like F-box motif, which is known to recruit host cell SCF1 ubiquitin ligase machinery. We assessed the Anks for the ability to serve as F-box proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that F-box-containing Anks interact with overexpressed and/or endogenous SCF1 components. When coexpressed with FLAG-Ank4_01 or FLAG-Ank9, a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged version of the SCF1 component SKP1 localized to subcellular sites of FLAG-Ank accumulation. The abilities of recombinant Anks to interact and colocalize with SKP1 were F-box dependent. GST-SKP1 precipitated O. tsutsugamushi-derived Ank9 from infected host cells, verifying both that the pathogen expresses Ank9 during infection and the protein's capability to bind SKP1. Aligning O. tsutsugamushi, poxviral, and eukaryotic F-box sequences delineated three F-box residues that are highly conserved and likely to be functionally important. Substitution of these residues ablated the ability of GFP-Ank9 to interact with GST-SKP1. These results demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi strain Ikeda Anks can co-opt host cell polyubiquitination machinery, provide the first evidence that an O. tsutsugamushi Ank does so during infection, and advance overall understanding of microbial F-box proteins. IMPORTANCE Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (Anks) are important virulence factors of intracellular bacteria that mediate protein-protein interactions with

  20. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bharaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I system. Nipah virus (NiV, a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus, is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M, which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε. We previously showed that the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 catalyzes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, and activate IKKε for induction of IFN-I mediated antiviral responses. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy we show here that the NiV-M protein interacts with TRIM6 and promotes TRIM6 degradation. Consequently, NiV-M expression results in reduced levels of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains associated with IKKε leading to impaired IKKε oligomerization, IKKε autophosphorylation and reduced IFN-mediated responses. This IFN antagonist function of NiV-M requires a conserved lysine residue (K258 in the bipartite nuclear localization signal that is found in divergent henipaviruses. Consistent with this, the matrix proteins of Ghana, Hendra and Cedar viruses were also able to inhibit IFNβ induction. Live NiV infection, but not a recombinant NiV lacking the M protein, reduced the levels of endogenous TRIM6 protein expression. To our knowledge, matrix proteins of paramyxoviruses have never been reported to be involved in innate immune antagonism. We report here a novel mechanism of viral innate immune evasion by targeting TRIM6, IKKε and unanchored polyubiquitin chains. These findings expand the universe of viral IFN antagonism strategies and provide a new

  1. The E3 ubiquitin ligases β-TrCP and FBXW7 cooperatively mediates GSK3-dependent Mcl-1 degradation induced by the Akt inhibitor API-1, resulting in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui; Koo, Junghui; Guan, Baoxiang; Yue, Ping; Deng, Xingming; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2013-11-22

    The novel Akt inhibitor, API-1, induces apoptosis through undefined mechanisms. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which API-1 induces apoptosis. API-1 rapidly and potently reduced the levels of Mcl-1 primarily in API-1-senstive lung cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 protected cells from induction of apoptosis by API-1. API-1 treatment decreased the half-life of Mcl-1, whereas inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. API-1 decreased Mcl-1 levels accompanied with a rapid increase in Mcl-1 phosphorylation (S159/T163). Moreover, inhibition of GSK3 inhibited Mcl-1 phosphorylation and reduction induced by API-1 and antagonized the effect of API-1 on induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of either FBXW7 or β-TrCP alone, both of which are E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in Mcl-1 degradation, only partially rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. However, double knockdown of both E3 ubiquitin ligases enhanced the rescue of API-1-induced Mcl-1 reduction. API-1 induces GSK3-dependent, β-TrCP- and FBXW7-mediated Mcl-1 degradation, resulting in induction of apoptosis.

  2. Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Petra; Versteeg, Gijs A; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-08-01

    Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses.

  3. Pressure-induced endocytic degradation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae low-affinity tryptophan permease Tat1 is mediated by Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and functionally redundant PPxY motif proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Asaha; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Uemura, Satoshi; Hiraki, Toshiki; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae express two tryptophan permeases, Tat1 and Tat2, which have different characteristics in terms of their affinity for tryptophan and intracellular localization. Although the high-affinity permease Tat2 has been well documented in terms of its ubiquitin-dependent degradation, the low-affinity permease Tat1 has not yet been characterized fully. Here we show that a high hydrostatic pressure of 25 MPa triggers a degradation of Tat1 which depends on Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and the EH domain-containing protein End3. Tat1 was resistant to a 3-h cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that it is highly stable under normal growth conditions. The ubiquitination of Tat1 most likely occurs at N-terminal lysines 29 and 31. Simultaneous substitution of arginine for the two lysines prevented Tat1 degradation, but substitution of either of them alone did not, indicating that the roles of lysines 29 and 31 are redundant. When cells were exposed to high pressure, Tat1-GFP was completely lost from the plasma membrane, while substantial amounts of Tat1(K29R-K31R)-GFP remained. The HPG1-1 (Rsp5(P514T)) and rsp5-ww3 mutations stabilized Tat1 under high pressure, but any one of the rsp5-ww1, rsp5-ww2, and bul1Δ bul2Δ mutations or single deletions of genes encoding arrestin-related trafficking adaptors did not. However, simultaneous loss of 9-arrestins and Bul1/Bul2 prevented Tat1 degradation at 25 MPa. The results suggest that multiple PPxY motif proteins share some essential roles in regulating Tat1 ubiquitination in response to high hydrostatic pressure.

  4. Cyclin F/FBXO1 Interacts with HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif) and Restricts Progeny Virion Infectivity by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation of Vif Protein through SCF(cyclin F) E3 Ligase Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Tracy; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Gupta, Kailash; Islam, Sehbanul; Ghosh, Payel; Santra, Manas Kumar; Mitra, Debashis

    2017-03-31

    Cyclin F protein, also known as FBXO1, is the largest among all cyclins and oscillates in the cell cycle like other cyclins. Apart from being a G2/M cyclin, cyclin F functions as the substrate-binding subunit of SCF(cyclin F) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In a gene expression analysis performed to identify novel gene modulations associated with cell cycle dysregulation during HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, we observed down-regulation of the cyclin F gene (CCNF). Later, using gene overexpression and knockdown studies, we identified cyclin F as negatively influencing HIV-1 viral infectivity without any significant impact on virus production. Subsequently, we found that cyclin F negatively regulates the expression of viral protein Vif (viral infectivity factor) at the protein level. We also identified a novel host-pathogen interaction between cyclin F and Vif protein in T cells during HIV-1 infection. Mutational analysis of a cyclin F-specific amino acid motif in the C-terminal region of Vif indicated rescue of the protein from cyclin F-mediated down-regulation. Subsequently, we showed that Vif is a novel substrate of the SCF(cyclin F) E3 ligase, where cyclin F mediates the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Vif through physical interaction. Finally, we showed that cyclin F augments APOBEC3G expression through degradation of Vif to regulate infectivity of progeny virions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cyclin F is a novel F-box protein that functions as an intrinsic cellular regulator of HIV-1 Vif and has a negative regulatory effect on the maintenance of viral infectivity by restoring APOBEC3G expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The Rice E3-Ubiquitin Ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Modulates the Expression of ROOT MEANDER CURLING, a Gene Involved in Root Mechanosensing, through the Interaction with Two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Transcription Factors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Tiago F.; Serra, Tânia S.; Cordeiro, André M.; Swanson, Sarah J.; Gilroy, Simon; Saibo, Nelson J.M.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots can sense and respond to a wide diversity of mechanical stimuli, including touch and gravity. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathways involved in mechanical stimuli responses in rice (Oryza sativa). This work shows that rice root responses to mechanical stimuli involve the E3-ubiquitin ligase rice HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1), which mediates protein degradation through the proteasome complex. The morphological analysis of the roots in transgenic RNA interference::OsHOS1 and wild-type plants, exposed to a mechanical barrier, revealed that the OsHOS1 silencing plants keep a straight root in contrast to wild-type plants that exhibit root curling. Moreover, it was observed that the absence of root curling in response to touch can be reverted by jasmonic acid. The straight root phenotype of the RNA interference::OsHOS1 plants was correlated with a higher expression rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC), which encodes a receptor-like kinase characterized as a negative regulator of rice root curling mediated by jasmonic acid. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we showed that OsHOS1 interacts with two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors, rice ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsEREBP1) and rice OsEREBP2, known to regulate OsRMC gene expression. In addition, we showed that OsHOS1 affects the stability of both transcription factors in a proteasome-dependent way, suggesting that this E3-ubiquitin ligase targets OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2 for degradation. Our results highlight the function of the proteasome in rice response to mechanical stimuli and in the integration of these signals, through hormonal regulation, into plant growth and developmental programs. PMID:26381316

  6. The Rice E3-Ubiquitin Ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Modulates the Expression of ROOT MEANDER CURLING, a Gene Involved in Root Mechanosensing, through the Interaction with Two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Tiago F; Serra, Tânia S; Cordeiro, André M; Swanson, Sarah J; Gilroy, Simon; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2015-11-01

    Plant roots can sense and respond to a wide diversity of mechanical stimuli, including touch and gravity. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathways involved in mechanical stimuli responses in rice (Oryza sativa). This work shows that rice root responses to mechanical stimuli involve the E3-ubiquitin ligase rice HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1), which mediates protein degradation through the proteasome complex. The morphological analysis of the roots in transgenic RNA interference::OsHOS1 and wild-type plants, exposed to a mechanical barrier, revealed that the OsHOS1 silencing plants keep a straight root in contrast to wild-type plants that exhibit root curling. Moreover, it was observed that the absence of root curling in response to touch can be reverted by jasmonic acid. The straight root phenotype of the RNA interference::OsHOS1 plants was correlated with a higher expression rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC), which encodes a receptor-like kinase characterized as a negative regulator of rice root curling mediated by jasmonic acid. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we showed that OsHOS1 interacts with two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors, rice ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsEREBP1) and rice OsEREBP2, known to regulate OsRMC gene expression. In addition, we showed that OsHOS1 affects the stability of both transcription factors in a proteasome-dependent way, suggesting that this E3-ubiquitin ligase targets OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2 for degradation. Our results highlight the function of the proteasome in rice response to mechanical stimuli and in the integration of these signals, through hormonal regulation, into plant growth and developmental programs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. RING E3 ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Hum

    2017-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flood, and salinity. To survive under such unfavorable conditions, plants have evolutionarily developed their own resistant-mechanisms. For several decades, many studies have clarified specific stress...... response pathways of plants through various molecular and genetic studies. In particular, it was recently discovered that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), a regulatory mechanism for protein turn over, is greatly involved in the stress responsive pathways. In the UPS, many E3 ligases play key roles...... in recognizing and tethering poly-ubiquitins on target proteins for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of RING ligases that have been defined in related to abiotic stress responses in plants....

  8. The ubiquitin ligase Cullin5SOCS2 regulates NDR1/STK38 stability and NF-κB transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Indranil; Batth, Tanveer S; Iglesias-Gato, Diego

    2017-01-01

    SOCS2 is a pleiotropic E3 ligase. Its deficiency is associated with gigantism and organismal lethality upon inflammatory challenge. However, mechanistic understanding of SOCS2 function is dismal due to our unawareness of its protein substrates. We performed a mass spectrometry based proteomic pro...

  9. Ubiquitination of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM by different membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) protein family E3 ligases targets different endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Martin; Trowsdale, John; Kelly, Adrian P

    2012-03-02

    HLA-DM plays an essential role in the peptide loading of classical class II molecules and is present both at the cell surface and in late endosomal peptide-loading compartments. Trafficking of DM within antigen-presenting cells is complex and is, in part, controlled by a tyrosine-based targeting signal present in the cytoplasmic tail of DMβ. Here, we show that DM also undergoes post-translational modification through ubiquitination of a single lysine residue present in the cytoplasmic tail of the α chain, DMα. Ubiquitination of DM by MARCH1 and MARCH9 induced loss of DM molecules from the cell surface by a mechanism that cumulatively involved both direct attachment of ubiquitin chains to DMα and a functional tyrosine-based signal on DMβ. In contrast, MARCH8-induced loss of surface DM was entirely dependent upon the tyrosine signal on DMβ. In the absence of this tyrosine residue, levels of DM remained unchanged irrespective of whether DMα was ubiquitinated by MARCH8. The influence of MARCH8 was indirect and may have resulted from modification of components of the endocytic machinery by ubiquitination.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) regulates low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cells via the E3-ubiquitin ligase Mylip/Idol and the Canopy2 (Cnpy2)/Mylip-interacting saposin-like protein (Msap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Thi; Tselykh, Timofey V; Mäkelä, Johanna; Ho, Tho Huu; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Bornhauser, Beat C; Korhonen, Laura; Zelcer, Noam; Lindholm, Dan

    2012-04-13

    The LDLR is a critical factor in the regulation of blood cholesterol levels that are altered in different human diseases. The level of LDLR in the cell is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (Mylip)/inducible degrader of the LDL-R (Idol) was shown to induce degradation of LDLR via protein ubiquitination. We have here studied novel factors and mechanisms that may regulate Mylip/Idol in human hepatocyte cells and in mouse macrophages. We observed that FGF21 that is present in serum in different conditions reduced Mylip/Idol at the RNA and protein level, and increased LDLR levels and stability in the cells. FGF21 also enhanced expression of Canopy2 (Cnpy2)/MIR-interacting Saposin-like protein (Msap) that is known to interact with Mylip/Idol. Overexpression of Cnpy2/Msap increased LDLRs, and knockdown experiments showed that Cnpy2/Msap is crucial for the FGF21 effect on LDLRs. Experiments using DiI-labeled LDL particles showed that FGF21 increased lipoprotein uptake and the effect of FGF21 was additive to that of statins. Our results are consistent with an important role of FGF21 and Cnpy2/Msap in the regulation of LDLRs in cultured cells, which warrants further studies using human samples.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 (FGF21) Regulates Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Levels in Cells via the E3-ubiquitin Ligase Mylip/Idol and the Canopy2 (Cnpy2)/Mylip-interacting Saposin-like Protein (Msap)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Thi; Tselykh, Timofey V.; Mäkelä, Johanna; Ho, Tho Huu; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Bornhauser, Beat C.; Korhonen, Laura; Zelcer, Noam; Lindholm, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The LDLR is a critical factor in the regulation of blood cholesterol levels that are altered in different human diseases. The level of LDLR in the cell is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (Mylip)/inducible degrader of the LDL-R (Idol) was shown to induce degradation of LDLR via protein ubiquitination. We have here studied novel factors and mechanisms that may regulate Mylip/Idol in human hepatocyte cells and in mouse macrophages. We observed that FGF21 that is present in serum in different conditions reduced Mylip/Idol at the RNA and protein level, and increased LDLR levels and stability in the cells. FGF21 also enhanced expression of Canopy2 (Cnpy2)/MIR-interacting Saposin-like protein (Msap) that is known to interact with Mylip/Idol. Overexpression of Cnpy2/Msap increased LDLRs, and knockdown experiments showed that Cnpy2/Msap is crucial for the FGF21 effect on LDLRs. Experiments using DiI-labeled LDL particles showed that FGF21 increased lipoprotein uptake and the effect of FGF21 was additive to that of statins. Our results are consistent with an important role of FGF21 and Cnpy2/Msap in the regulation of LDLRs in cultured cells, which warrants further studies using human samples. PMID:22378787

  12. The novel ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF(Fbxw4, interacts with the COP9 signalosome in an F-box dependent manner, is mutated, lost and under-expressed in human cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Lockwood

    Full Text Available Identification of novel proteins that can potentially contribute to carcinogenesis is a requisite venture. Herein, we report the first biochemical characterization of the novel F-box and WD40 containing protein, FBXW4. We have identified interacting protein partners and demonstrated that FBXW4 is part of a ubiquitin ligase complex. Furthermore, the Fbxw4 locus is a common site of proviral insertion in a variety of retroviral insertional mutagenesis murine cancer models and Fbxw4 mRNA is highly expressed in the involuting murine mammary gland. To begin to characterize the biochemical function of Fbxw4, we used proteomic analysis to demonstrate that Fbxw4 interacts with Skp1 (SKP1, Cullin1 (CUL1, Ring-box1 (RBX1 and all components of the COP9 signalosome. All of these interactions are dependent on an intact F-box domain of Fbxw4. Furthermore, Fbxw4 is capable of interacting with ubiquitinated proteins within cells in an F-box dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that FBXW4 is mutated, lost and under-expressed in a variety of human cancer cell lines and clinical patient samples. Importantly, expression of FBXW4 correlates with survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Taken together, we suggest that FBXW4 may be a novel tumor suppressor that regulates important cellular processes.

  13. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-05-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1-SnRK1-CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed.

  14. The Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases SGK1 and SGK3 Regulate hERG Channel Expression via Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-2 and GTPase Rab11*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-01-01

    The hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) encodes the α subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). Dysfunction of hERG channels due to mutations or certain medications causes long QT syndrome, which can lead to fatal ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death. Although the abundance of hERG in the plasma membrane is a key determinant of hERG functionality, the mechanisms underlying its regulation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that overexpression of the stress-responsive serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) isoforms SGK1 and SGK3 increased the current and expression level of the membrane-localized mature proteins of hERG channels stably expressed in HEK 293 (hERG-HEK) cells. Furthermore, the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, increased the current and abundance of mature ERG proteins in both hERG-HEK cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes through the enhancement of SGK1 but not SGK3 expression. We have previously shown that mature hERG channels are degraded by ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 via enhanced channel ubiquitination. Here, we showed that SGK1 or SGK3 overexpression increased Nedd4-2 phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit Nedd4-2 activity. Nonetheless, disruption of the Nedd4-2 binding site in hERG channels did not eliminate the SGK-induced increase in hERG expression. Additional disruption of Rab11 proteins led to a complete elimination of SGK-mediated increase in hERG expression. These results show that SGK enhances the expression level of mature hERG channels by inhibiting Nedd4-2 as well as by promoting Rab11-mediated hERG recycling. PMID:23589291

  15. Cell Surface Expression of Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channels Is Regulated by Caveolin-3 Protein via the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Li, Xian; Shallow, Heidi; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Xu, Jianmin; Fridman, Michael D.; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shetuan

    2012-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) which plays an important role in cardiac repolarization. A reduction or increase in hERG current can cause long or short QT syndrome, respectively, leading to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The channel density in the plasma membrane is a key determinant of the whole cell current amplitude. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of hERG density at the plasma membrane, we used whole cell voltage clamp, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical methods to investigate the effects of an integral membrane protein, caveolin-3 (Cav3) on hERG expression levels. Our data demonstrate that Cav3, hERG, and ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4-2 interact with each other and form a complex. Expression of Cav3 thus enhances the hERG-Nedd4-2 interaction, leading to an increased ubiquitination and degradation of mature, plasma-membrane localized hERG channels. Disrupting Nedd4-2 interaction with hERG by mutations eliminates the effects of Cav3 on hERG channels. Knockdown of endogenous Cav3 or Nedd4-2 in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes using siRNA led to an increase in native IKr. Our data demonstrate that hERG expression in the plasma membrane is regulated by Cav3 via Nedd4-2. These findings extend our understanding of the regulation of hERG channels and cardiac electrophysiology. PMID:22879586

  16. MdCOP1 ubiquitin E3 ligases interact with MdMYB1 to regulate light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and red fruit coloration in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-10-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species.

  17. AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31, F-box subunits of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, mediate the degradation of 14-3-3 proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Pil; Adams, Eri; Yanagawa, Yuki; Matsui, Minami; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-03-25

    14-3-3 proteins regulate numerous cellular processes through interaction with their target proteins in a phosphorylation dependent manner. Although proteins that are regulated by 14-3-3s have been studied, the regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3s is poorly understood. In the present study, F-box proteins, a component of Skp1-Cullin-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, were identified as 14-3-3 targets using yeast two-hybrid screening. Among them, AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31, were shown to mediate the degradation of Arabidopsis 14-3-3s. Mutational analyses of AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31 indicated that the phosphorylation of AtSKIPs is critical for interaction and degradation of 14-3-3s. The loss-of-function mutation in AtSKIP31 resulted in enhanced primary root growth under nitrogen deficient conditions. These findings suggest that AtSKIP31 regulates the primary root growth in nitrogen deficiency via degrading 14-3-3s. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Unique Morgue Ubiquitination Protein Is Conserved in a Diverse but Restricted Set of Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W.; Brennan, Gregory; Nambu, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain w...

  19. Overexpression of a maize E3 ubiquitin ligase gene enhances drought tolerance through regulating stomatal aperture and antioxidant system in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Xia, Zongliang; Wang, Meiping; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Yang, Tiezhao; Wu, Jianyu

    2013-12-01

    Drought is one of the most important limiting factors in crop production. In our previous study, a putative Arabidopsis thaliana SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1 (AtSDIR1) homolog encoding a RING-finger protein from Zea mays (ZmRFP1) was cloned and its expression pattern and Ub E3 ligase activity were characterized. However, it is uncertain that ZmRFP1 acts as a positive regulator during drought stress. In this study, we further characterized ZmRFP1 in transgenic tobacco to investigate drought tolerance and possible function mechanisms. Overexpression of ZmRFP1 enhanced drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had more closed stomatal pores, higher proline accumulation, but lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) when compared with the wild type (WT) under drought stress. Further investigation showed that ZmRFP1 transgenic plants displayed higher SOD and CAT activities, increased NtSOD and NtCAT transcript levels, and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ZmRFP1 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco not only by increasing the ability to retain water, but also by reducing ROS accumulation and membrane damage through enhancing the antioxidant system. ZmRFP1 might serve as a candidate gene in genetic improvement for drought tolerance engineering in cereal crop plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schrader, Andrea; Kokkelink, Leonie; Falke, Christian; Welter, Bastian; Iniesto, Elisa; Rubio, Vicente; Uhrig, Joachim F; Hülskamp, Martin; Hoecker, Ute

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that accumulate only in light-grown and not in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants. Repression of anthocyanin accumulation in darkness requires the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (COP1/SPA) ubiquitin ligase, as cop1 and spa mutants produce anthocyanins also in the dark. Here, we show that COP1 and SPA proteins interact with the myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP)1 and PAP2, two members of a small protein family that is required for anthocyanin accumulation and for the expression of structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family. PAP1 and PAP2 proteins are degraded in the dark and this degradation is dependent on the proteasome and on COP1. Hence, the light requirement for anthocyanin biosynthesis results, at least in part, from the light-mediated stabilization of PAP1 and PAP2. Consistent with this conclusion, moderate overexpression of PAP1 leads to an increase in anthocyanin levels only in the light and not in darkness. Here we show that SPA genes are also required for reducing PAP1 and PAP2 transcript levels in dark-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that the COP1/SPA complex affects PAP1 and PAP2 both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Thus, our findings have identified mechanisms via which the COP1/SPA complex controls anthocyanin levels in Arabidopsis that may be useful for applications in biotechnology directed towards increasing anthocyanin content in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Rebecca; Jonsson, Samuel; Novikova, Liudmila N; Kingham, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury.

  2. Selectivity of E2-E3 interactions in the human ubiquitin system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, S.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Highly selective interactions between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and RING-type E3 ligases are crucial for the adequate and efficient action of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like pathways. Within these cascades, E2 enzymes provide a connecting link between activation and the final covalent conjugation,

  3. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D. (SKI)

    2012-02-16

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences.

  4. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Gilad [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ziv, Tamar [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Braten, Ori [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Admon, Arie [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Udasin, Ronald G. [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: aaroncie@tx.technion.ac.il [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel)

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  5. Cooperativity of the SUMO and Ubiquitin Pathways in Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Nie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub or SUMO to DNA repair proteins plays critical roles in maintaining genome stability. These structurally related polypeptides can be viewed as distinct road signs, with each being read by specific protein interaction motifs. Therefore, via their interactions with selective readers in the proteome, ubiquitin and SUMO can elicit distinct cellular responses, such as directing DNA lesions into different repair pathways. On the other hand, through the action of the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL family proteins, ubiquitin and SUMO can cooperate in the form of a hybrid signal. These mixed SUMO-ubiquitin chains recruit “effector” proteins such as the AAA+ ATPase Cdc48/p97-Ufd1-Npl4 complex that contain both ubiquitin and SUMO interaction motifs. This review will summarize recent key findings on collaborative and distinct roles that ubiquitin and SUMO play in orchestrating DNA damage responses.

  6. Ubiquitination in Periodontal Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sachio; Satoh, Mamoru; Takiwaki, Masaki; Nomura, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease (periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory condition initiated by microbial infection that leads to gingival tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. The periodontal tissue’s response to dental plaque is characterized by the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes, all of which release inflammatory mediators and cytokines to orchestrate the immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease. Ubiquitination is achieved by a mechanism that involves a number of factors, including an ubiquitin-activating enzyme, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and ubiquitin–protein ligase. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification restricted to eukaryotes that are involved in essential host processes. The ubiquitin system has been implicated in the immune response, development, and programmed cell death. Increasing numbers of recent reports have provided evidence that many approaches are delivering promising reports for discovering the relationship between ubiquitination and periodontal disease. The scope of this review was to investigate recent progress in the discovery of ubiquitinated protein in diseased periodontium and to discuss the ubiquitination process in periodontal diseases. PMID:28698506

  7. Mcl-1 Ubiquitination: Unique Regulation of an Essential Survival Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mojsa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. Under physiological conditions, Mcl-1 expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. In the last decade, a number of studies have elucidated different pathways controlling Mcl-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Four different E3 ubiquitin-ligases (e.g., Mule, SCFβ-TrCP, SCFFbw7 and Trim17 and one deubiquitinase (e.g., USP9X, that respectively mediate and oppose Mcl-1 ubiquitination, have been formerly identified. The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. The protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are involved in the regulation of Mcl-1 stability vary depending on the cellular context, highlighting the complexity and pivotal role of Mcl-1 regulation. In this review, we attempt to recapitulate progress in understanding Mcl-1 regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  8. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  9. Cellular contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Cinnamon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular contractility, essential for cell movement and proliferation, is regulated by microtubules, RhoA and actomyosin. The RhoA dependent kinase ROCK ensures the phosphorylation of the regulatory Myosin II Light Chain (MLC Ser19, thereby activating actomyosin contractions. Microtubules are upstream inhibitors of contractility and their depolymerization or depletion cause cells to contract by activating RhoA. How microtubule dynamics regulates RhoA remains, a major missing link in understanding contractility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that contractility is inhibited by microtubules not only, as previously reported, in adherent cells, but also in non-adhering interphase and mitotic cells. Strikingly we observed that contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis by a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Inhibition of proteolysis, ubiquitination and neddylation all led to complete cessation of contractility and considerably reduced MLC Ser19 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that cells express a contractility inhibitor that is degraded by ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, either constitutively or in response to microtubule depolymerization. This degradation seems to depend on a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase and is required for cellular contractions.

  10. Simple and efficient knockdown of His-tagged proteins by ternary molecules consisting of a His-tag ligand, a ubiquitin ligase ligand, and a cell-penetrating peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takayuki; Okitsu, Koyo; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Shibata, Norihito; Misawa, Takashi; Kurihara, Masaaki; Demizu, Yosuke; Naito, Mikihiko

    2017-09-15

    We designed and synthesized hybrid molecules for a protein knockdown method based on the recognition of a His-tag fused to a protein of interest (POI). The synthesized target protein degradation inducers contained three functional moieties: a His-tag ligand (nickel nitrilotriacetic acid [Ni-NTA]), an E3 ligand (bestatin [BS] or MV1), and a carrier peptide (Tat or nonaarginine [R9]). The designed hybrid molecules, BS-Tat-Ni-NTA, MV1-Tat-Ni-NTA, BS-R9-Ni-NTA, and MV1-R9-Ni-NTA, efficiently degraded His-tagged cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This system will become a useful tool for research into selective protein degradation inducers that act via the UPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CaPUB1, a Hot Pepper U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Confers Enhanced Cold Stress Tolerance and Decreased Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hye Jo; Jung, Ye Jin; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought and low temperature critically restrict plant growth, reproduction, and productivity. Higher plants have developed various defense strategies against these unfavorable conditions. CaPUB1 (Capsicum annuum Putative U-box protein 1) is a hot pepper U-box E3 Ub ligase. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed CaPUB1 exhibited drought-sensitive phenotypes, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response. In this study, CaPUB1 was over-expressed in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and the phenotypic properties of transgenic rice plants were examined in terms of their drought and cold stress tolerance. Ubi:CaPUB1 T3 transgenic rice plants displayed phenotypes hypersensitive to dehydration, suggesting that its role in the negative regulation of drought stress response is conserved in dicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice plants. In contrast, Ubi:CaPUB1 progeny exhibited phenotypes markedly tolerant to prolonged low temperature (4°C) treatment, compared to those of wild-type plants, as determined by survival rates, electrolyte leakage, and total chlorophyll content. Cold stress-induced marker genes, including DREB1A, DREB1B, DREB1C, and Cytochrome P450, were more up-regulated by cold treatment in Ubi:CaPUB1 plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that CaPUB1 serves as both a negative regulator of the drought stress response and a positive regulator of the cold stress response in transgenic rice plants. This raises the possibility that CaPUB1 participates in the cross-talk between drought and low-temperature signaling pathways.

  12. Mechanisms of mono- and poly-ubiquitination: Ubiquitination specificity depends on compatibility between the E2 catalytic core and amino acid residues proximal to the lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Martin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ubiquitination involves the attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues on substrate proteins or itself, which can result in protein monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination. Ubiquitin attachment to different lysine residues can generate diverse substrate-ubiquitin structures, targeting proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection are not well understood. Ubiquitination by the largest group of E3 ligases, the RING-family E3 s, is catalyzed through co-operation between the non-catalytic ubiquitin-ligase (E3 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, where the RING E3 binds the substrate and the E2 catalyzes ubiquitin transfer. Previous studies suggest that ubiquitination sites are selected by E3-mediated positioning of the lysine toward the E2 active site. Ultimately, at a catalytic level, ubiquitination of lysine residues within the substrate or ubiquitin occurs by nucleophilic attack of the lysine residue on the thioester bond linking the E2 catalytic cysteine to ubiquitin. One of the best studied RING E3/E2 complexes is the Skp1/Cul1/F box protein complex, SCFCdc4, and its cognate E2, Cdc34, which target the CDK inhibitor Sic1 for K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Our recent studies of this model system demonstrated that residues surrounding Sic1 lysines or lysine 48 in ubiquitin are critical for ubiquitination. This sequence-dependence is linked to evolutionarily conserved key residues in the catalytic region of Cdc34 and can determine if Sic1 is mono- or poly-ubiquitinated. Our studies indicate that amino acid determinants in the Cdc34 catalytic region and their compatibility to those surrounding acceptor lysine residues play important roles in lysine selection. This may represent a general mechanism in directing the mode of ubiquitination in E2 s.

  13. Atrogin-1 inhibits Akt-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in mice via ubiquitin-dependent coactivation of Forkhead proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Hui-Hua; Willis, Monte S; Lockyer, Pamela; Miller, Nathaniel; McDonough, Holly; Glass, David J; Patterson, Cam

    2007-01-01

    .... Atrogin-1, also known as muscle atrophy F-box, is an F-box protein that inhibits pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by participating in a ubiquitin ligase complex that triggers degradation of calcineurin...

  14. Puromycin induces SUMO and ubiquitin redistribution upon proteasome inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hotaru [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-07-29

    We have previously reported the co-localization of O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro) with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying a role for the ubiquitin family in sequestering OP-puromycylated immature polypeptides to the nucleus during impaired proteasome activity. Here, we found that as expected puromycin induced SUMO-1/2/3 accumulation with ubiquitin at multiple nuclear foci in HeLa cells when co-exposed to MG132. Co-administration of puromycin and MG132 also facilitated redistribution of PML and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 concurrently with SUMO-2/3. As removal of the drugs from the medium led to disappearance of the SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin nuclear foci, our findings indicated that nuclear assembly/disassembly of SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin was pharmacologically manipulable, supporting our previous observation on OP-Puro, which predicted the ubiquitin family function in sequestrating aberrant proteins to the nucleus. -- Highlights: •Puromycin exhibits the O-propargyl-puromycin effect. •Puromycin induces SUMO redistribution upon proteasome inhibition. •Ubiquitin and RNF4 accumulate at PML-nuclear bodies with SUMO-2/3. •The ubiquitin family may function in nuclear sequestration of immature proteins.

  15. Ubiquitination of stalled ribosome triggers ribosome-associated quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Ken; Saeki, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Schmidt, Christian; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Fumiya; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Becker, Thomas; Tanaka, Keiji; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Beckmann, Roland; Inada, Toshifumi

    2017-07-31

    Translation arrest by polybasic sequences induces ribosome stalling, and the arrest product is degraded by the ribosome-mediated quality control (RQC) system. Here we report that ubiquitination of the 40S ribosomal protein uS10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2 (or RQT1) is required for RQC. We identify a RQC-trigger (RQT) subcomplex composed of the RNA helicase-family protein Slh1/Rqt2, the ubiquitin-binding protein Cue3/Rqt3, and yKR023W/Rqt4 that is required for RQC. The defects in RQC of the RQT mutants correlate with sensitivity to anisomycin, which stalls ribosome at the rotated form. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis reveals that Hel2-bound ribosome are dominantly the rotated form with hybrid tRNAs. Ribosome profiling reveals that ribosomes stalled at the rotated state with specific pairs of codons at P-A sites serve as RQC substrates. Rqt1 specifically ubiquitinates these arrested ribosomes to target them to the RQT complex, allowing subsequent RQC reactions including dissociation of the stalled ribosome into subunits.Several protein quality control mechanisms are in place to trigger the rapid degradation of aberrant polypeptides and mRNAs. Here the authors describe a mechanism of ribosome-mediated quality control that involves the ubiquitination of ribosomal proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2/RQT1.

  16. Functional interchangeability of late domains, late domain cofactors and ubiquitin in viral budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zhadina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L- domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1. It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV, where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed.

  17. DNA methylation requires a DNMT1 ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) and histone ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weihua; Wolf, Patricia; Liu, Nan; Link, Stephanie; Smets, Martha; La Mastra, Federica; Forné, Ignasi; Pichler, Garwin; Hörl, David; Fellinger, Karin; Spada, Fabio; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Imhof, Axel; Harz, Hartmann; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-08-01

    DNMT1 is recruited by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. UHRF1 recognizes hemimethylated DNA substrates via the SRA domain, but also repressive H3K9me3 histone marks with its TTD. With systematic mutagenesis and functional assays, we could show that chromatin binding further involved UHRF1 PHD binding to unmodified H3R2. These complementation assays clearly demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase activity of the UHRF1 RING domain is required for maintenance DNA methylation. Mass spectrometry of UHRF1-deficient cells revealed H3K18 as a novel ubiquitination target of UHRF1 in mammalian cells. With bioinformatics and mutational analyses, we identified a ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) in the N-terminal regulatory domain of DNMT1 that binds to ubiquitinated H3 tails and is essential for DNA methylation in vivo. H3 ubiquitination and subsequent DNA methylation required UHRF1 PHD binding to H3R2. These results show the manifold regulatory mechanisms controlling DNMT1 activity that require the reading and writing of epigenetic marks by UHRF1 and illustrate the multifaceted interplay between DNA and histone modifications. The identification and functional characterization of the DNMT1 UIM suggests a novel regulatory principle and we speculate that histone H2AK119 ubiquitination might also lead to UIM-dependent recruitment of DNMT1 and DNA methylation beyond classic maintenance.

  18. Ubiquitination in the control of photoperiodic flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Triggering flowering at the appropriate time is a key factor for the successful reproduction of plants. Daylength perception allows plants to synchronize flowering with seasonal changes, a process systematically analyzed in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Characterization of molecular components that participate in the photoperiodic control of floral induction has revealed that photoreceptors and the circadian oscillator interact in a complex manner to modulate the floral transition in response to daylength and in fact, photoperiodic flowering can be regarded as an output pathway of the circadian oscillator. Recent observations indicate that besides transcriptional regulation, the promotion of flowering in response to photoperiod appears to be also regulated by modulation of protein stability and degradation. Therefore, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system for targeted protein degradation has emerged as a key element in photoperiodic flowering regulation. Different E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in the proteolysis of a variety of photoperiod-regulated pathway components including photoreceptors, clock elements and flowering time proteins, all of which participate in the control of this developmental process. Given the large variety of plant ubiquitin ligase complexes, it is likely that new factors involved in mechanisms of protein-targeted degradation will soon be ascribed to various aspects of flowering time control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitinate phosphorylated RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Horwitz, Andrew A; Keogh, Michael-Christopher; Ishioka, Chikashi; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Chiba, Natsuko

    2005-07-01

    The breast- and ovarian-specific tumor suppressor BRCA1, when associated with BARD1, is an ubiquitin ligase. We have shown here that this heterodimer ubiquitinates a hyperphosphorylated form of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Two major phosphorylation sites have been identified in the Rpb1 carboxyl terminal domain, serine 2 (Ser-2) or serine 5 (Ser-5) of the YSPTSPS heptapeptide repeat. Only the Ser-5 hyperphosphorylated form is ubiquitinated by BRCA1/BARD1. Overexpression of BRCA1 in cells stimulated the DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of Rpb1. Similar to the in vitro reaction, the stimulation of Rpb1 ubiquitination by BRCA1 in cells occurred only on those molecules hyperphosphorylated on Ser-5 of the heptapeptide repeat. In vitro, the carboxyl terminus of BRCA1 (amino acids 501-1863) was dispensable for the ubiquitination of hyperphosphorylated Rpb1. In cells, however, efficient Rpb1 ubiquitination required the carboxyl terminus of BRCA1, suggesting that interactions mediated by this region were essential in the complex milieu of the nucleus. These results link the BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination of the polymerase with DNA damage.

  20. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in ABA Signaling: From Perception to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Wu, Yaorong; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-04

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) by ubiquitination has been observed during many aspects of plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ubiquitin-proteasome system precisely regulates phytohormone signaling by affecting protein activity, localization, assembly, and interaction ability. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone, and plays important roles in plants under normal or stressed growth conditions. The ABA signaling pathway is composed of phosphatases, kinases, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. It has been reported that multiple ABA signaling transducers are subjected to the regulations by ubiquitination. In particular, recent studies have identified different types of E3 ligases that mediate ubiquitination of ABA receptors in different cell compartments. This review focuses on modulation of these components by monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination that occurs in the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and from the cytosol to the nucleus; this implies the existence of retrograde and trafficking processes that are regulated by ubiquitination in ABA signaling. A number of single-unit E3 ligases, components of multi-subunit E3 ligases, E2s, and specific subunits of the 26S proteasome involved in ABA signal regulation are discussed. Dissecting the precise functions of ubiquitination in the ABA pathway may help us understand key factors in the signaling of other phytohormones regulated by ubiquitination and other types of PTMs. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel ubiquitin ligase is deficient in Fanconi anemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meetei, AR; Winter, de J.P.; Medhurst, A.L. dr.; Wallisch, M; Waisfisz, Q.; Vrugt, van der H.J.; Oostra, A.B.; Yan, Z; Ling, C; Bishop, CE; Hoatlin, M.E.; Joenje, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. Cells from individuals with Fanconi anemia are highly sensitive to DNA-crosslinking drugs, such as mitomycin C (MMC). Fanconi anemia proteins function in a DNA damage

  2. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen; Tan, Yunhao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Das, Chittaranjan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2016-04-06

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiquitin via an isopeptide bond mostly to the ε-amino group of a lysine of the substrate. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents 2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signaling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases 3 or as enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin 4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a niche permissive for its replication in phagocytes 5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family (SidEs) of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalyzing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalyzed by these enzymes requires NAD but not ATP and Mg2+. A putative mono ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of SidEs in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalyzed by a single enzyme.

  3. The Ubiquitin System and Jasmonate Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Nagels Durand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin (Ub system is involved in most, if not all, biological processes in eukaryotes. The major specificity determinants of this system are the E3 ligases, which bind and ubiquitinate specific sets of proteins and are thereby responsible for target recruitment to the proteasome or other cellular processing machineries. The Ub system contributes to the regulation of the production, perception and signal transduction of plant hormones. Jasmonic acid (JA and its derivatives, known as jasmonates (JAs, act as signaling compounds regulating plant development and plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. We provide here an overview of the current understanding of the Ub system involved in JA signaling.

  4. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in the nucleolus: multitasking tools for a ribosome factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbik, Natalia; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis of new ribosomes is an essential process upregulated during cell growth and proliferation. Here, we review our current understanding of the role that ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) play in ribosome biogenesis, with a focus on mammalian cells. One important function of the nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system is to control the supply of ribosomal proteins for the assembly of new ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus. Mutations in ribosomal proteins or ribosome assembly factors, stress, and many anticancer drugs have been shown to disrupt normal ribosome biogenesis, triggering a p53-dependent response. We discuss how p53 can be activated by the aberrant ribosome formation, centering on the current models of the interaction between ribosomal proteins released from the nucleolus and the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. Recent studies also revealed multiple ubiquitin- and UBL-conjugated forms of nucleolar proteins with largely unknown functions, indicating that many new details about the role of these modifications in the nucleolus await to be discovered.

  5. Patented small molecule inhibitors in the ubiquitin proteasome system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colland Frédéric

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The recent approval of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade® (bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma establishes this system as a valid target for cancer treatment. We review here new patented proteasome inhibitors and patented small molecule inhibitors targeting more specific UPS components, such as E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitylating enzymes. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  6. Posttranslational Modification of HOIP Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Linear-Ubiquitin-Chain Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James; Rodgers, Mary A; Shi, Mude; Amatya, Rina; Hostager, Bruce; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Jung, Jae U

    2015-11-17

    Linear ubiquitination is an atypical posttranslational modification catalyzed by the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC), containing HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin. LUBAC facilitates NF-κB activation and inflammation upon receptor stimulation by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to critical signaling molecules. Indeed, linear-ubiquitination-dependent signaling is essential to prevent pyogenic bacterial infections that can lead to death. While linear ubiquitination is essential for intracellular receptor signaling upon microbial infection, this response must be measured and stopped to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. While LUBAC is activated upon bacterial stimulation, the mechanisms regulating LUBAC activity in response to bacterial stimuli have remained elusive. We demonstrate that LUBAC activity itself is downregulated through ubiquitination, specifically, ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit HOIP at the carboxyl-terminal lysine 1056. Ubiquitination of Lys1056 dynamically altered HOIP conformation, resulting in the suppression of its catalytic activity. Consequently, HOIP Lys1056-to-Arg mutation led not only to persistent LUBAC activity but also to prolonged NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, whereas it showed no effect on NF-κB activation induced by CD40 stimulation. This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. Posttranslational modification of proteins enables cells to respond quickly to infections and immune stimuli in a tightly controlled manner. Specifically, covalent modification of proteins with the small protein ubiquitin is essential for cells to initiate and terminate immune signaling in response to bacterial and viral infection. This process is controlled by ubiquitin ligase enzymes, which themselves must be regulated to prevent

  7. The CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry and ubiquitylates Aurora-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saili Moghe

    2012-02-01

    The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.

  8. Regulation of Hh/Gli signaling by dual ubiquitin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin

    2006-11-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs cell growth and patterning in animal development. Malfunction of several pathway components, including the key transcriptional effector Ci/Gli proteins, leads to a variety of human disorders including several malignancies. Ci/Gli activity is controlled by multi-layered regulatory mechanisms, the most prominent of which is the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In the absence of Hh, Ci/Gli is proteolytically processed into a truncated form that functions as a transcriptional repressor of the Hh pathway. Ci processing is mediated by an SCF (Skip1/Cul1/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase in which the F-box protein Slimb/beta-TRCP bridges Ci to the ubiquitin ligase. Recent studies in Drosophila and mammalian cultured cells have demonstrated that sequential phosphorylation of Ci/Gli by PKA, GSK3, and CKI creates multiple docking sites that can recruit SCF(Slimb/beta-TRCP), which then promotes Ci/Gli ubiquitination followed by proteasome-mediated processing. Recently, an E3 ubiquitin ligase consisting of the BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric a Brac) protein HIB (Hh induced MATH and BTB protein) and Cullin 3 (Cul3) has been identified that acts in a negative feedback loop to fine-tune Hh signaling responses by degrading full length Ci. In eye imaginal discs where Hh signals coordinate cell proliferation and differentiation, HIB is highly expressed in the differentiating cells to prevent aberrant Hh signaling activity and ensure normal eye development. Tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of HIB and its homologs in vertebrates may provide a conserved mechanism for ensuring precision in spatial and temporal control of Hh signaling.

  9. Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Skieterska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise the largest family of membrane receptors that control many cellular processes and consequently often serve as drug targets. These receptors undergo a strict regulation by mechanisms such as internalization and desensitization, which are strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification with a broad range of functions that is currently gaining increased appreciation as a regulator of GPCR activity. The role of ubiquitination in directing GPCRs for lysosomal degradation has already been well-established. Furthermore, this modification can also play a role in targeting membrane and endoplasmic reticulum-associated receptors to the proteasome. Most recently, ubiquitination was also shown to be involved in GPCR signaling. In this review, we present current knowledge on the molecular basis of GPCR regulation by ubiquitination, and highlight the importance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinating enzymes and β-arrestins. Finally, we discuss classical and newly-discovered functions of ubiquitination in controlling GPCR activity.

  10. Ubiquitin-SUMO Circuitry Controls Activated Fanconi Anemia ID Complex Dosage in Response to DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Rajendra, Eeson

    2015-01-01

    We show that central components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, the tumor suppressor proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (the ID complex), are SUMOylated in response to replication fork stalling. The ID complex is SUMOylated in a manner that depends on the ATR kinase, the FA ubiquitin ligase...

  11. The Role of Ubiquitin and the 26S Proteasome in Plant Abiotic Stress Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone L Sophia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is a small, highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed eukaryotic protein with immensely important and diverse regulatory functions. A well-studied function of ubiquitin is its role in selective proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS. The UPS has emerged as an integral player in plant response and adaptation to environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, cold and nutrient deprivation. The UPS has also been shown to influence the production and signal transduction of stress-related hormones such as abscisic acid. Understanding UPS function has centered mainly on defining the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which are the substrate-recruiting component of the ubiquitination pathway. The recent identification of stress signaling/regulatory proteins that are the subject of ubiquitin-dependent degradation has increased our knowledge of how the UPS facilitate responses to adverse environmental conditions. A brief overview is provided on role of the UPS in modulating protein stability during abiotic stress signaling. E3 ubiquitin ligases for which stress-related substrate proteins have been identified are discussed.

  12. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs: Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Oswald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.

  13. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions. PMID:22069713

  14. Centrosomal microtubule nucleation activity is inhibited by BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Satish; Starita, Lea M; Groen, Aaron C; Ko, Min Ji; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2005-10-01

    In this study we find that the function of BRCA1 inhibits the microtubule nucleation function of centrosomes. In particular, cells in early S phase have quiescent centrosomes due to BRCA1 activity, which inhibits the association of gamma-tubulin with centrosomes. We find that modification of either of two specific lysine residues (Lys-48 and Lys-344) of gamma-tubulin, a known substrate for BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination activity, led to centrosome hyperactivity. Interestingly, mutation of gamma-tubulin lysine 344 had a minimal effect on centrosome number but a profound effect on microtubule nucleation function, indicating that the processes regulating centrosome duplication and microtubule nucleation are distinct. Using an in vitro aster formation assay, we found that BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination activity directly inhibits microtubule nucleation by centrosomes. Mutant BRCA1 protein that was inactive as a ubiquitin ligase did not inhibit aster formation by the centrosome. Further, a BRCA1 carboxy-terminal truncation mutant that was an active ubiquitin ligase lacked domains critical for the inhibition of centrosome function. These experiments reveal an important new functional assay regulated by the BRCA1-dependent ubiquitin ligase, and the results suggest that the loss of this BRCA1 activity could cause the centrosome hypertrophy and subsequent aneuploidy typically found in breast cancers.

  15. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  16. Ubiquitin and ubiquitine-like systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pasch, L.A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers are small proteins that exist in all eukaryotes, from yeast to humans. Ubiquitin(-like) modifiers can be coupled to other proteins, which is mediated specific combinations of enzymes. The attachment of a ubiquitin(-like) modifier to a protein is important for

  17. Multimodal mechanism of action for the Cdc34 acidic loop: a case study for why ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes have loops and tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Amy; Hill, Spencer; Sandoval, Daniella; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J; Kleiger, Gary

    2013-11-29

    Together with ubiquitin ligases (E3), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) are charged with the essential task of synthesizing ubiquitin chains onto protein substrates. Some 75% of the known E2s in the human proteome contain unique insertions in their primary sequences, yet it is largely unclear what effect these insertions impart on the ubiquitination reaction. Cdc34 is an important E2 with prominent roles in cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. The amino acid sequence of Cdc34 contains an insertion distal to the active site that is absent in most other E2s, yet this acidic loop (named for its four invariably conserved acidic residues) is critical for Cdc34 function both in vitro and in vivo. Here we have investigated how the acidic loop in human Cdc34 promotes ubiquitination, identifying two key molecular events during which the acidic loop exerts its influence. First, the acidic loop promotes the interaction between Cdc34 and its ubiquitin ligase partner, SCF. Second, two glutamic acid residues located on the distal side of the loop collaborate with an invariably conserved histidine on the proximal side of the loop to suppress the pKa of an ionizing species on ubiquitin or Cdc34 which greatly contributes to Cdc34 catalysis. These results demonstrate that insertions can guide E2s to their physiologically relevant ubiquitin ligases as well as provide essential modalities that promote catalysis.

  18. Effects of partner proteins on BCA2 RING ligase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacopulos Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCA2 is an E3 ligase linked with hormone responsive breast cancers. We have demonstrated previously that the RING E3 ligase BCA2 has autoubiquitination activity and is a very unstable protein. Previously, only Rab7, tetherin, ubiquitin and UBC9 were known to directly interact with BCA2. Methods Here, additional BCA2 binding proteins were found using yeast two-hybrid and bacterial-II-hybrid screening techniques with Human breast and HeLa cDNA libraries. Co-expression of these proteins was analyzed through IHC of TMAs. Investigation of the molecular interactions and effects were examined through a series of in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Ten unique BCA2 interacting proteins were identified, two of which were hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma. Both hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma are co-expressed with BCA2 in breast cancer cell lines and patient breast tumors (n = 105. hHR23a and BCA2 expression was significantly correlated (P = Conclusions The interaction between BCA2 and hHR23a in breast cancer cells stabilizes BCA2. High expression of BCA2 is correlated with grade in breast cancer, suggesting regulation of this E3 ligase is important to cancer progression.

  19. The α-arrestin ARRDC3 mediates ALIX ubiquitination and G protein–coupled receptor lysosomal sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Michael R.; Lin, Huilan; J. Grimsey, Neil; Mendez, Francisco; Trejo, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    The sorting of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) to lysosomes is critical for proper signaling and cellular responses. We previously showed that the adaptor protein ALIX regulates lysosomal degradation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a GPCR for thrombin, independent of ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and receptor ubiquitination. However, the mechanisms that regulate ALIX function during PAR1 lysosomal sorting are not known. Here we show that the mammalian α-arrestin arrestin domain–containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) regulates ALIX function in GPCR sorting via ubiquitination. ARRDC3 colocalizes with ALIX and is required for PAR1 sorting at late endosomes and degradation. Depletion of ARRDC3 by small interfering RNA disrupts ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and the CHMP4B ESCRT-III subunit, suggesting that ARRDC3 regulates ALIX activity. We found that ARRDC3 is required for ALIX ubiquitination induced by activation of PAR1. A screen of nine mammalian NEDD4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases revealed a critical role for WWP2. WWP2 interacts with ARRDC3 and not ALIX. Depletion of WWP2 inhibited ALIX ubiquitination and blocked ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and CHMP4B. These findings demonstrate a new role for the α-arrestin ARRDC3 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 in regulation of ALIX ubiquitination and lysosomal sorting of GPCRs. PMID:26490116

  20. Functional characterization of the ubiquitin variant encoded by the baculovirus Autographa californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A L; Katzung, D J; Reback, P M; Guarino, L A

    1996-04-30

    The marked evolutionary conservation of ubiquitin is assumed to arise from constraints imposed by folding, stability, and interaction of the polypeptide with various components of the ATP, ubiquitin-dependent degradative pathway. The present studies characterize the most divergent (75% identity) of the species-specific ubiquitin isoforms encoded as a late gene product of the baculovirus Autographa californica [Guarino, L. A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 409-413]. Viral ubiquitin supports 40% of the rate of ATP-dependent degradation exhibited by eukaryotic ubiquitin. Inhibition of proteolysis correlated with a lower steady-state concentration of ubiquitin-conjugated degradative intermediates. Rate studies revealed that viral ubiquitin exerts its effect at the step of isopeptide ligase-catalyzed (E3) ubiquitin conjugation since viral and eukaryotic polypeptides are identical in their abilities to support ATP-coupled activation by E1 and transthiolation to E2 carrier proteins. Other studies demonstrated viral ubiquitin severely attenuated the rate of K48-linked multiubiquitin chain formation in E3-independent conjugation catalyzed by recombination yeast CDC34 or rabbit reticulocyte E232K but not chain elongation of alternate linkages formed by yeast RAD6 or human E2EPF. The latter observations suggest nonconserved positions on viral ubiquitin constitute recognition signals for K48-linked chain formation. Sequence comparison of species-specific ubiquitin isoforms indicates that nonconserved positions localized to a defined region on the polypeptide surface distinct from the basic face required for E1 binding. These results suggest this novel ubiquitin isoform may function in baculoviral replication to block destruction of a short-lived protein(s) by the host degradative pathway, targeted through either E2-catalyzed K48-linked multibiquitin chain formation or general E3-mediated conjugation.

  1. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li

    2016-04-29

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  2. The role of the E3 ligase Not4 in cotranslational quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya O Panasenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotranslational quality control (QC is the mechanism by which the cell checks the integrity of newly synthesized proteins and mRNAs. In the event of mistakes these molecules are degraded. The Ccr4-Not complex has been proposed to play a role in this process. It contains both deadenylation and ubiquitination activities, thus it may target both aberrant proteins and mRNAs. Deadenylation is the first step in mRNA degradation. In yeast it is performed by the Ccr4 subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex. Another complex subunit, namely Not4, is a RING E3 ligase and it provides the ubiquitination activity of the complex. It was found associated with translating ribosomes. Thus, it has been suggested that Not4 is involved in ribosome-associated ubiquitination and degradation of aberrant peptides. However, several other E3 ligases have been associated with peptide ubiquitination on the ribosome and the relevance of Not4 in this process remains unclear. In this review we summarize the recent data and suggest a role for Not4 in cotranslational protein QC.

  3. The role of the E3 ligase Not4 in cotranslational quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenko, Olesya O

    2014-01-01

    Cotranslational quality control (QC) is the mechanism by which the cell checks the integrity of newly synthesized proteins and mRNAs. In the event of mistakes these molecules are degraded. The Ccr4-Not complex has been proposed to play a role in this process. It contains both deadenylation and ubiquitination activities, thus it may target both aberrant proteins and mRNAs. Deadenylation is the first step in mRNA degradation. In yeast it is performed by the Ccr4 subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex. Another complex subunit, namely Not4, is a RING E3 ligase and it provides the ubiquitination activity of the complex. It was found associated with translating ribosomes. Thus, it has been suggested that Not4 is involved in ribosome-associated ubiquitination and degradation of aberrant peptides. However, several other E3 ligases have been associated with peptide ubiquitination on the ribosome and the relevance of Not4 in this process remains unclear. In this review we summarize the recent data and suggest a role for Not4 in cotranslational protein QC.

  4. Human RNF169 is a negative regulator of the ubiquitin-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Maria; Lukas, Claudia; Lukas, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks (DSBs), mediated by the RNF8/RNF168 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in recruiting repair factors, including 53BP1 and BRCA1, to reestablish genome integrity. In this paper, we show that human RNF...

  5. Fbxw5 suppresses nuclear c-Myb activity via DDB1-Cul4-Rbx1 ligase-mediated sumoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanei-Ishii, Chie; Nomura, Teruaki; Egoh, Ayako [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, 3-1-1 Koyadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0074 (Japan); Ishii, Shunsuke, E-mail: sishii@rtc.riken.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, 3-1-1 Koyadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0074 (Japan)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fbxw5 enhances sumoylation of c-Myb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex mediates c-Myb sumoylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fbxw5-DDB1-Cul4A-Rdx1 complex is a dual SUMO/ubiquitin ligase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fbxw5 suppresses the c-Myb trans-activating capacity. -- Abstract: The c-myb proto-oncogene product (c-Myb) is degraded in response to Wnt-1 signaling. In this process, Fbxw7{alpha}, the F-box protein of the SCF complex, binds to c-Myb via its C-terminal WD40 domain, and induces the ubiquitination of c-Myb. Here, we report that Fbxw5, another F-box protein, enhances sumoylation of nuclear c-Myb. Fbxw5 enhanced c-Myb sumoylation via the DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex. Since the Fbxw5-DDB1-Cul4A-Rbx1 complex was shown to act as a ubiquitin ligase for tumor suppressor TSC2, our results suggest that this complex can function as a dual SUMO/ubiquitin ligase. Fbxw5, which is localized to both nucleus and cytosol, enhanced sumoylation of nuclear c-Myb and induced the localization of c-Myb to nuclear dot-like domains. Co-expression of Fbxw5 suppressed the trans-activation of c-myc promoter by wild-type c-Myb, but not by v-Myb, which lacks the sumoylation sites. These results suggest that multiple E3 ligases suppress c-Myb activity through sumoylation or ubiquitination, and that v-Myb is no longer subject to these negative regulations.

  6. UbiGate: a synthetic biology toolbox to analyse ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarschik, Kathrin; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Trujillo, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitination is mediated by an enzymatic cascade that results in the modification of substrate proteins, redefining their fate. This post-translational modification is involved in most cellular processes, yet its analysis faces manifold obstacles due to its complex and ubiquitous nature. Reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascade in bacterial systems circumvents several of these problems and was shown to faithfully recapitulate the process. Here, we present UbiGate - a synthetic biology toolbox, together with an inducible bacterial expression system - to enable the straightforward reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascades of different organisms in Escherichia coli by 'Golden Gate' cloning. This inclusive toolbox uses a hierarchical modular cloning system to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding the multiple genetic elements of the ubiquitination cascade in a predefined order, to generate polycistronic operons for expression. We demonstrate the efficiency of UbiGate in generating a variety of expression elements to reconstitute autoubiquitination by different E3 ligases and the modification of their substrates, as well as its usefulness for dissecting the process in a time- and cost-effective manner. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Tina; Ripplinger, Anita; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions that trigger non-proteolytic ubiquitylation of adjacent chromatin areas to generate binding sites for DNA repair factors. This depends on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 (refs 1-6), and UBC13 (also...... by showing that posttranslational modifications of linker histones can serve as important marks for recognition by factors involved in genome stability maintenance, and possibly beyond....

  8. The Unique Morgue Ubiquitination Protein Is Conserved in a Diverse but Restricted Set of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W.; Brennan, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways. PMID:19602541

  9. The unique Morgue ubiquitination protein is conserved in a diverse but restricted set of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W; Brennan, Gregory; Nambu, John R

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways.

  10. Endocytosis of the IFNAR1 chain of Type 1 interferon receptor is regulated by diverse E2 ubiquitin conjugation enzymes

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    Christopher J. Carbone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination of signaling receptors triggers their endocytosis to restrict the extent of cell signaling. Type 1 interferon (IFN1 eliminates its receptor from cell surface via stimulating the ubiquitination of its IFNAR1 chain. While it was suggested that this ubiquitination aids IFNAR1 internalization via relieving a steric hindrance of a linear motif within IFNAR1 from the endocytic machinery, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we describe a specific role for two disparate ubiquitin acceptor sites within this receptor. These sites, Lys501 and Lys525 / 526, exhibit a preference for polyubiquitination via either Lys63- or Lys48‑linked chains (K63‑Ub and K48‑Ub, respectively. Whereas the SCFβTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase controls either type of ubiquitination-dependent IFNAR1 endocytosis, the specificity of these processes is determined by two different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, Ubc13 and Cdc34. These enzymes can be directly used by SCFβTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase to generate either K63‑Ub or K48‑Ub in vitro. Ubc13 is involved in IFNAR1 endocytosis driven by the K63‑Ub modification of Lys501, whereas the K48‑Ub-specific Cdc34 affects receptor endocytosis via ubiquitin conjugation that occurs onLys525 / 526. Both types of linkages combine to maximize IFNAR1 endocytosis otherwise suppressed by unfavorable conformation dependent on the presence of a conserved Pro470 within the intracellular domain of IFNAR1. We propose a model where alternate utilization of both E2s to assemble diverse polyubiquitin linkages cooperates to achieve IFNAR1 intracellular domain conformations and spatial arrangements that favor a maximal rate of receptor endocytosis.

  11. Endocytosis of the IFNAR1 chain of Type 1 interferon receptor is regulated by diverse E2 ubiquitin conjugation enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination of signaling receptors triggers their endocytosis to restrict the extent of cell signaling. Type 1 interferon (IFN1 eliminates its receptor from cell surface via stimulating the ubiquitination of its IFNAR1 chain. While it was suggested that this ubiquitination aids IFNAR1internalization via relieving a steric hindrance of a linear motif within IFNAR1 from the endocytic machinery, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we describe a specific role for two disparate ubiquitin acceptor sites within this receptor. These sites, Lys501 and Lys525 / 526, exhibit a preference for polyubiquitination via either Lys63- or Lys48‑linked chains (K63‑Ub and K48‑Ub, respectively. Whereas the SCFβTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase controls either type of ubiquitination-dependent IFNAR1 endocytosis, the specificity of these processes is determined by two different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, Ubc13 and Cdc34. These enzymes can be directly used by SCFβTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase to generate either K63‑Ub or K48‑Ub in vitro. Ubc13 is involved in IFNAR1 endocytosis driven by the K63‑Ub modification of Lys501, whereas the K48‑Ub-specific Cdc34 affects receptor endocytosis via ubiquitin conjugation that occurs on Lys525 / 526. Both types of linkages combine to maximize IFNAR1 endocytosis otherwise suppressed by unfavorable conformation dependent on the presence of a conserved Pro470 within the intracellular domain of IFNAR1. We propose a model where alternate utilization of both E2s to assemble diverse polyubiquitin linkages cooperates to achieve IFNAR1 intracellular domain conformations and spatial arrangements that favor a maximal rate of receptor endocytosis.

  12. Ubiquitin-Mediated Response to Microsporidia and Virus Infection in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowski, Malina A.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Smelkinson, Margery G.; Dunbar, Tiffany A.; Lopez-Moyado, Isaac F.; Rifkin, Scott A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Troemel, Emily R.

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia comprise a phylum of over 1400 species of obligate intracellular pathogens that can infect almost all animals, but little is known about the host response to these parasites. Here we use the whole-animal host C. elegans to show an in vivo role for ubiquitin-mediated response to the microsporidian species Nematocida parisii, as well to the Orsay virus, another natural intracellular pathogen of C. elegans. We analyze gene expression of C. elegans in response to N. parisii, and find that it is similar to response to viral infection. Notably, we find an upregulation of SCF ubiquitin ligase components, such as the cullin ortholog cul-6, which we show is important for ubiquitin targeting of N. parisii cells in the intestine. We show that ubiquitylation components, the proteasome, and the autophagy pathway are all important for defense against N. parisii infection. We also find that SCF ligase components like cul-6 promote defense against viral infection, where they have a more robust role than against N. parisii infection. This difference may be due to suppression of the host ubiquitylation system by N. parisii: when N. parisii is crippled by anti-microsporidia drugs, the host can more effectively target pathogen cells for ubiquitylation. Intriguingly, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) increases expression of infection-upregulated SCF ligase components, indicating that a trigger for transcriptional response to intracellular infection by N. parisii and virus may be perturbation of the UPS. Altogether, our results demonstrate an in vivo role for ubiquitin-mediated defense against microsporidian and viral infections in C. elegans. PMID:24945527

  13. A specific E3 ligase/deubiquitinase pair modulates TBP protein levels during muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Martinez, Silvia Sanchez; Hu, Wenxin; Liu, Zhe; Tjian, Robert

    2015-09-22

    TFIID-a complex of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFs)-is a central component of the Pol II promoter recognition apparatus. Recent studies have revealed significant downregulation of TFIID subunits in terminally differentiated myocytes, hepatocytes and adipocytes. Here, we report that TBP protein levels are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Using an in vitro ubiquitination assay coupled with biochemical fractionation, we identified Huwe1 as an E3 ligase targeting TBP for K48-linked ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Upregulation of Huwe1 expression during myogenesis induces TBP degradation and myotube differentiation. We found that Huwe1 activity on TBP is antagonized by the deubiquitinase USP10, which protects TBP from degradation. Thus, modulating the levels of both Huwe1 and USP10 appears to fine-tune the requisite degradation of TBP during myogenesis. Together, our study unmasks a previously unknown interplay between an E3 ligase and a deubiquitinating enzyme regulating TBP levels during cellular differentiation.

  14. SCUD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Minho; Jung, Jin Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Dongsup

    2008-09-24

    Ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in diverse biological processes. Therefore, genomewide representation of the ubiquitination system for a species is important. SCUD is a web-based database for the ubiquitination system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast). We first searched for all the known enzymes involved in the ubiquitination process in yeast, including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitination enzymes. Then, ubiquitinated substrates were collected by literature search. Especially, E3 and deubiquitination enzymes are classified into classes and subclasses by their shared domains and unique functions. As a result, 42 different E3 enzymes were grouped into corresponding classes and subclasses, and 940 ubiquitinated substrates including mutant substrates were identified. All the enzyme and substrate information are interconnected by hyperlinks, which makes it easy to view the enzyme-specific ubiquitination information. This database aims to represent a comprehensive yeast ubiquitination system, and is easily expandable with the further experimental data. We expect that this database will be useful for the research on the ubiquitination systems of other higher organisms. SCUD is accessible at http://scud.kaist.ac.kr.

  15. The Met1-Linked Ubiquitin Machinery: Emerging Themes of (De)regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdinka, Matous; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2017-10-19

    The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, LUBAC, is the only known mammalian ubiquitin ligase that makes methionine 1 (Met1)-linked polyubiquitin (also referred to as linear ubiquitin). A decade after LUBAC was discovered as a cellular activity of unknown function, there are now many lines of evidence connecting Met1-linked polyubiquitin to NF-κB signaling, cell death, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. We now know that Met1-linked polyubiquitin has potent signaling functions and that its deregulation is connected to disease. Indeed, mutations and deficiencies in several factors involved in conjugation and deconjugation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin have been implicated in immune-related disorders. Here, we discuss current knowledge and recent insights into the role and regulation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin, with an emphasis on the mechanisms controlling the function of LUBAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine-tuning the ubiquitin code at DNA double-strand breaks: deubiquitinating enzymes at work

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    Elisabetta eCitterio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification broadly implicated in cellular functions. Signaling processes mediated by ubiquitin are crucial for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, one of the most dangerous types of DNA lesions. In particular, the DSB response critically relies on active ubiquitination by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases at the chromatin, which is essential for proper DSB signaling and repair. How this pathway is fine-tuned and what the functional consequences are of its deregulation for genome integrity and tissue homeostasis are subject of intense investigation. One important regulatory mechanism is by reversal of substrate ubiquitination through the activity of specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs, as supported by the implication of a growing number of DUBs in DNA damage response (DDR processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how ubiquitin-mediated signaling at DSBs is controlled by deubiquitinating enzymes, with main focus on DUBs targeting histone H2A and on their recent implication in stem cell biology and cancer.

  17. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

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    Jennifer Hurst-Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5 is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis.

  18. TMEM129 is a Derlin-1 associated ERAD E3 ligase essential for virus-induced degradation of MHC-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boomen, Dick J H; Timms, Richard T; Grice, Guinevere L; Stagg, Helen R; Skødt, Karsten; Dougan, Gordon; Nathan, James A; Lehner, Paul J

    2014-08-05

    The US11 gene product of human cytomegalovirus promotes viral immune evasion by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. US11 initiates dislocation of newly translocated MHC I from the ER to the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation. Despite the critical role for ubiquitin in this degradation pathway, the responsible E3 ligase is unknown. In a forward genetic screen for host ERAD components hijacked by US11 in near-haploid KBM7 cells, we identified TMEM129, an uncharacterized polytopic membrane protein. TMEM129 is essential and rate-limiting for US11-mediated MHC-I degradation and acts as a novel ER resident E3 ubiquitin ligase. TMEM129 contains an unusual cysteine-only RING with intrinsic E3 ligase activity and is recruited to US11 via Derlin-1. Together with its E2 conjugase Ube2J2, TMEM129 is responsible for the ubiquitination, dislocation, and subsequent degradation of US11-associated MHC-I. US11 engages two degradation pathways: a Derlin-1/TMEM129-dependent pathway required for MHC-I degradation and a SEL1L/HRD1-dependent pathway required for "free" US11 degradation. Our data show that TMEM129 is a novel ERAD E3 ligase and the central component of a novel mammalian ERAD complex.

  19. Inhibition of cullin RING ligases by cycle inhibiting factor: evidence for interference with Nedd8-induced conformational control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, Boon Kim; Ng, Mei Ying; Leck, Yee Chin; Shaw, Barry; Long, Jed; Sun, Guang Wen; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Searle, Mark S; Layfield, Robert; Hagen, Thilo

    2011-10-21

    Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is produced by pathogenic intracellular bacteria and injected into the host cells via a type III secretion system. Cif is known to interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the function of cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). Cullin proteins form the scaffold protein of CRLs and are modified with the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8, which exerts important conformational control required for CRL activity. Cif has recently been shown to catalyze the deamidation of Gln40 in Nedd8 to Glu. Here, we addressed how Nedd8 deamidation inhibits CRL activity. Our results indicate that Burkholderia pseudomallei Cif (also known as CHBP) inhibits the deconjugation of Nedd8 in vivo by inhibiting binding of the deneddylating COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex. We provide evidence that the reduced binding of CSN and the inhibition of CRL activity by Cif are due to interference with Nedd8-induced conformational control, which is dependent on the interaction between the Nedd8 hydrophobic patch and the cullin winged-helix B subdomain. Of note, mutation of Gln40 to Glu in ubiquitin, an additional target of Cif, inhibits the interaction between the hydrophobic surface of ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-binding protein p62/SQSTM1, showing conceptually that Cif activity can impair ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like protein non-covalent interactions. Our results also suggest that Cif may exert additional cellular effects by interfering with the association between ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Fanconi anemia pathway and ubiquitin

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    Taniguchi Toshiyasu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare genetic disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, cancer/leukemia susceptibility and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, such as cisplatin. To date, 12 FA gene products have been identified, which cooperate in a common DNA damage-activated signaling pathway regulating DNA repair (the FA pathway. Eight FA proteins form a nuclear complex harboring E3 ubiquitin ligase activity (the FA core complex that, in response to DNA damage, mediates the monoubiquitylation of the FA protein FANCD2. Monoubiquitylated FANCD2 colocalizes in nuclear foci with proteins involved in DNA repair, including BRCA1, FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCN/PALB2 and RAD51. All these factors are required for cellular resistance to DNA crosslinking agents. The inactivation of the FA pathway has also been observed in a wide variety of human cancers and is implicated in the sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA crosslinking agents. Drugs that inhibit the FA pathway may be useful chemosensitizers in the treatment of cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  1. The α-arrestin ARRDC3 mediates ALIX ubiquitination and G protein-coupled receptor lysosomal sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Michael R; Lin, Huilan; J Grimsey, Neil; Mendez, Francisco; Trejo, JoAnn

    2015-12-15

    The sorting of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to lysosomes is critical for proper signaling and cellular responses. We previously showed that the adaptor protein ALIX regulates lysosomal degradation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a GPCR for thrombin, independent of ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and receptor ubiquitination. However, the mechanisms that regulate ALIX function during PAR1 lysosomal sorting are not known. Here we show that the mammalian α-arrestin arrestin domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) regulates ALIX function in GPCR sorting via ubiquitination. ARRDC3 colocalizes with ALIX and is required for PAR1 sorting at late endosomes and degradation. Depletion of ARRDC3 by small interfering RNA disrupts ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and the CHMP4B ESCRT-III subunit, suggesting that ARRDC3 regulates ALIX activity. We found that ARRDC3 is required for ALIX ubiquitination induced by activation of PAR1. A screen of nine mammalian NEDD4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases revealed a critical role for WWP2. WWP2 interacts with ARRDC3 and not ALIX. Depletion of WWP2 inhibited ALIX ubiquitination and blocked ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and CHMP4B. These findings demonstrate a new role for the α-arrestin ARRDC3 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 in regulation of ALIX ubiquitination and lysosomal sorting of GPCRs. © 2015 Dores et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. The Human IL-22 Receptor Is Regulated through the Action of the Novel E3 Ligase Subunit FBXW12, Which Functions as an Epithelial Growth Suppressor

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    Joseph Franz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 22 signaling is protective in animal models of pneumonia and bacteremia by Klebsiella pneumoniae and mediates tissue recovery from influenza and Staph aureus infection. We recently described processing of mouse lung epithelial IL-22 receptor (IL-22R by ubiquitination on the intracellular C-terminal. To identify cellular factors that regulate human IL-22R, we screened receptor abundance while overexpressing constituents of the ubiquitin system and identify that IL-22R can be shuttled for degradation by multiple previously uncharacterized F-box protein E3 ligase subunits. We observe that in human cells IL-22R is destabilized by FBXW12. FBXW12 causes depletion of endogenous and plasmid-derived IL-22R in lung epithelia, binds the E3 ligase constituent Skp-1, and facilitates ubiquitination of IL-22R in vitro. FBXW12 knockdown with shRNA increases IL-22R abundance and STAT3 phosphorylation in response to IL-22 cytokine treatment. FBXW12 shRNA increases human epithelial cell growth and cell cycle progression with enhanced constitutive activity of map kinases JNK and ERK. These findings indicate that the heretofore-undescribed protein FBXW12 functions as an E3 ligase constituent to ubiquitinate and degrade IL-22R and that therapeutic FBXW12 inhibition may enhance IL-22 signaling and bolster mucosal host defense and infection containment.

  3. Ubiquitin conjugation to Gag is essential for ESCRT-mediated HIV-1 budding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 relies on the host ESCRTs for release from cells. HIV-1 Gag engages ESCRTs by directly binding TSG101 or Alix. ESCRTs also sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins through endosomes to facilitate their lysosomal degradation. The ability of ESCRTs to recognize and process ubiquitinated proteins suggests that ESCRT-dependent viral release may also be controlled by ubiquitination. Although both Gag and ESCRTs undergo some level of ubiquitination, definitive demonstration that ubiquitin is required for viral release is lacking. Here we suppress ubiquitination at viral budding sites by fusing the catalytic domain of the Herpes Simplex UL36 deubiquitinating enzyme (DUb) onto TSG101, Alix, or Gag. Results Expressing DUb-TSG101 suppressed Alix-independent HIV-1 release and viral particles remained tethered to the cell surface. DUb-TSG101 had no effect on budding of MoMLV or EIAV, two retroviruses that rely on the ESCRT machinery for exit. Alix-dependent virus release such as EIAV’s, and HIV-1 lacking access to TSG101, was instead dramatically blocked by co-expressing DUb-Alix. Finally, Gag-DUb was unable to support virus release and dominantly interfered with release of wild type HIV-1. Fusion of UL36 did not effect interactions with Alix, TSG101, or Gag and all of the inhibitory effects of UL36 fusion were abolished when its catalytic activity was ablated. Accordingly, Alix, TSG101 and Gag fused to inactive UL36 functionally replaced their unfused counterparts. Interestingly, coexpression of the Nedd4-2s ubiquitin ligase suppressed the ability of DUb-TSG101 to inhibit HIV-1 release while also restoring detectable Gag ubiquitination at the membrane. Similarly, incorporation of Gag-Ub fusion proteins into virions lifted DUb-ESCRT inhibitory effect. In contrast, Nedd4-2s did not suppress the inhibition mediated by Gag-DUb despite restoring robust ubiquitination of TSG101/ESCRT-I at virus budding sites. Conclusions These studies demonstrate a necessary and

  4. Oxidation of the cysteine-rich regions of parkin perturbs its E3 ligase activity and contributes to protein aggregation

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    Ma Yuliang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of aberrant proteins to form Lewy bodies (LBs is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD. Ubiquitination-mediated degradation of aberrant, misfolded proteins is critical for maintaining normal cell function. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative/nitrosative stress compromises the precisely-regulated network of ubiquitination in PD, particularly affecting parkin E3 ligase activity, and contributes to the accumulation of toxic proteins and neuronal cell death. Results To gain insight into the mechanism whereby cell stress alters parkin-mediated ubiquitination and LB formation, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress. We found significant increases in oxidation (sulfonation and subsequent aggregation of parkin in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenlypyridinium (MPP+, representing an in vitro cell-based PD model. Exposure of these cells to direct oxidation via pathological doses of H2O2 induced a vicious cycle of increased followed by decreased parkin E3 ligase activity, similar to that previously reported following S-nitrosylation of parkin. Pre-incubation with catalase attenuated H2O2 accumulation, parkin sulfonation, and parkin aggregation. Mass spectrometry (MS analysis revealed that H2O2 reacted with specific cysteine residues of parkin, resulting in sulfination/sulfonation in regions of the protein similar to those affected by parkin mutations in hereditary forms of PD. Immunohistochemistry or gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in aggregated parkin in rats and primates exposed to mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, as well as in postmortem human brain from patients with PD with LBs. Conclusion These findings show that oxidative stress alters parkin E3 ligase activity, leading to dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and potentially contributing to LB formation.

  5. Ubiquitination of the PI3-kinase VPS-34 promotes VPS-34 stability and phagosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Li, Meijiao; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Wang, Xiaochen

    2017-11-01

    Apoptotic cells generated by programmed cell death are engulfed by phagocytes and enclosed within membrane-bound phagosomes. Maturation of apoptotic cell-containing phagosomes leads to formation of phagolysosomes where cell corpses are degraded. The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) VPS-34 coordinates with PIKI-1, a class II PI3-kinase, to produce PtdIns3P on phagosomes, thus promoting phagosome closure and maturation. Here, we identified UBC-13, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that functions in the same pathway with VPS-34 but in parallel to PIKI-1 to regulate PtdIns3P generation on phagosomes. Loss of ubc-13 affects early steps of phagosome maturation, causing accumulation of cell corpses. We found that UBC-13 functions with UEV-1, a noncatalytic E2 variant, and CHN-1, a U-box-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, to catalyze K63-linked poly-ubiquitination on VPS-34 both in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans Loss of ubc-13, uev-1, or chn-1 disrupts ubiquitin modification of VPS-34 and causes significantly reduced VPS-34 protein levels. Our data suggest that K63-linked ubiquitin modification serves as a general mechanism to modulate VPS-34 stability in multiple processes. © 2018 Liu et al.

  6. A CSF-1 Receptor Phosphotyrosine 559 Signaling Pathway Regulates Receptor Ubiquitination and Tyrosine Phosphorylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Da; Cai, Yunfei; Yu, Wenfeng; Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E. Richard

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation involves ligand-induced receptor dimerization and transphosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-induced CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination were studied in mouse macrophages. Phosphorylation of CSF-1R Tyr-559, required for the binding of Src family kinases (SFKs), was both necessary and sufficient for these responses and for c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation and all three responses were inhibited by SFK inhibitors. In c-Cbl-deficient macrophages, CSF-1R ubiquitination and tyrosine phosphorylation were substantially inhibited. Reconstitution with wild-type, but not ubiquitin ligase-defective C381A c-Cbl rescued these responses, while expression of C381A c-Cbl in wild-type macrophages suppressed them. Analysis of site-directed mutations in the CSF-1R further suggests that activated c-Cbl-mediated CSF-1R ubiquitination is required for a conformational change in the major kinase domain that allows amplification of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and full receptor activation. Thus the results indicate that CSF-1-mediated receptor dimerization leads to a Tyr-559/SFK/c-Cbl pathway resulting in receptor ubiquitination that permits full receptor tyrosine phosphorylation of this class III RTK in macrophages. PMID:21041311

  7. The E3 ligase tripartite motif 8 targets TAK1 to promote insulin resistance and steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Wen-Xin; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Wang, Pi-Xiao; Yang, Yang; Gong, Jun; Shen, Li-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2017-05-01

    Tripartite motif 8 (TRIM8), an E3 ligase ubiquitously expressed in various cells, is closely involved in innate immunity. However, its role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is largely unknown. Here, we report evidence that TRIM8 is a robust enhancer of steatohepatitis and its complications induced by a high-fat diet or a genetic deficiency (ob/ob). Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we observed dramatic exacerbation of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis by hepatocyte-specific TRIM8 overexpression, whereas deletion or down-regulation of TRIM8 in hepatocytes led to a completely opposite phenotype. Furthermore, investigations of the underlying mechanisms revealed that TRIM8 directly binds to and ubiquitinates transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1, thus promoting its phosphorylation and the activation of downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 and nuclear factor κB signaling. Importantly, the participation of TRIM8 in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was verified on the basis of its dramatically increased expression in the livers of these patients, suggesting a promising development of TRIM8 disturbance for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related metabolic disorders. The E3 ligase TRIM8 is a potent regulator that exacerbates steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders dependent on its binding and ubiquitinating capacity on transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1. (Hepatology 2017;65:1492-1511). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Functional Characterization of the Apple RING E3 Ligase MdMIEL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping AN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in various physiological processes, and they play pivotal roles in growth and development. In this study, we identified a previously unknown gene in the apple fruit (Malus × domestica and named it MdMIEL1. The MdMIEL1 gene encoded a protein that contained a zinc-finger domain at its N-terminus and a RING-finger motif at its C-terminus. To investigate MdMIEL1 functions, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing the MdMIEL1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Interestingly, ectopic expression of MdMIEL1 in Arabidopsis produced multiple phenotypes, including early germination, early flowering and a lateral root number increase relative to wild-type plants. Further analysis indicated that MdMIEL1 regulated lateral root initiation by increasing auxin accumulation in the roots. In a word, these results suggest that, MdMIEL1 as a novel RING-finger ubiquitin ligase influences plant growth and development, and highlight that MdMIEL1 regulates lateral root growth.

  9. Identification of domains of BRCA1 critical for the ubiquitin-dependent inhibition of centrosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Satish; Starita, Lea M; Simons, Amanda M; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2006-04-15

    The breast and ovarian cancer specific tumor suppressor BRCA1, bound to BARD1, has multiple functions aimed at maintaining genomic stability in the cell. We have shown earlier that the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity regulates centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation. In this study, we tested which domains of BRCA1 and BARD1 were required to control the centrosome function. In the present study, (a) we confirmed that the ubiquitination activity of BRCA1 regulates centrosome number and function in Hs578T breast cancer cells; (b) we observed that both the amino and carboxyl termini of BRCA1 are required for regulation of centrosome function in vitro; (c) an internal domain (770-1,290) is dispensable for centrosome regulation; (d) BARD1 is required for regulation of centrosome function and protein sequences within the terminal 485 amino acids are necessary for activity; and (e) BARD1 is localized at the centrosome throughout the cell cycle. We conclude that the BRCA1-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase functions to restrain centrosomes in mammary cells, and loss of BRCA1 in the precancerous breast cell leads to centrosomal hypertrophy, a phenotype commonly observed in incipient breast cancer.

  10. Lenalidomide induces ubiquitination and degradation of CK1α in del(5q) MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönke, Jan; Fink, Emma C; Hollenbach, Paul W; MacBeth, Kyle J; Hurst, Slater N; Udeshi, Namrata D; Chamberlain, Philip P; Mani, D R; Man, Hon Wah; Gandhi, Anita K; Svinkina, Tanya; Schneider, Rebekka K; McConkey, Marie; Järås, Marcus; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Wetzler, Meir; Bullinger, Lars; Cathers, Brian E; Carr, Steven A; Chopra, Rajesh; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2015-07-09

    Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1α) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)), resulting in CK1α degradation. CK1α is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic window of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1α. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4(CRBN). These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases.

  11. Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Endocytosis by Proteins of the Arrestin Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Becuwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In metazoans, proteins of the arrestin family are key players of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRS signaling and trafficking. Following stimulation, activated receptors are phosphorylated, thus allowing the binding of arrestins and hence an “arrest” of receptor signaling. Arrestins act by uncoupling receptors from G proteins and contribute to the recruitment of endocytic proteins, such as clathrin, to direct receptor trafficking into the endocytic pathway. Arrestins also serve as adaptor proteins by promoting the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases and participate in the agonist-induced ubiquitylation of receptors, known to have impact on their subcellular localization and stability. Recently, the arrestin family has expanded following the discovery of arrestin-related proteins in other eukaryotes such as yeasts or fungi. Surprisingly, most of these proteins are also involved in the ubiquitylation and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins, thus suggesting that the role of arrestins as ubiquitin ligase adaptors is at the core of these proteins' functions. Importantly, arrestins are themselves ubiquitylated, and this modification is crucial for their function. In this paper, we discuss recent data on the intricate connections between arrestins and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of endocytosis.

  12. Identification of Arabidopsis MYB56 as a novel substrate for CRL3(BPM) E3 ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Bernhardt, Anne; Lee, JooHyun; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2015-02-01

    Controlled stability of proteins is a highly efficient mechanism to direct diverse processes in living cells. A key regulatory system for protein stability is given by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which uses E3 ligases to mark specific proteins for degradation. In this work, MYB56 is identified as a novel target of a CULLIN3 (CUL3)-based E3 ligase. Its stability depends on the presence of MATH-BTB/POZ (BPM) proteins, which function as substrate adaptors to the E3 ligase. Genetic studies have indicated that MYB56 is a negative regulator of flowering, while BPMs positively affect this developmental program. The interaction between BPMs and MYB56 occurs at the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a key regulator in initiating flowering in Arabidopsis, and results in instability of MYB56. Overall the work establishes MYB transcription factors as substrates of BPM proteins, and provides novel information on components that participate in controlling flowering time in plants. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3 as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance.

  14. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Du, Jin; Zhao, Tao-Lan; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Liu, Rui; Xie, Qi; Cao, Xiao-Feng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3) as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance.

  15. RNAi-Based Suppressor Screens Reveal Genetic Interactions Between the CRL2LRR-1 E3-Ligase and the DNA Replication Machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossareh-Nazari, Batool; Katsiarimpa, Anthi; Merlet, Jorge; Pintard, Lionel

    2016-10-13

    Cullin-RING E3-Ligases (CRLs), the largest family of E3 ubiquitin-Ligases, regulate diverse cellular processes by promoting ubiquitination of target proteins. The evolutionarily conserved Leucine Rich Repeat protein 1 (LRR-1) is a substrate-recognition subunit of a CRL2LRR-1 E3-ligase. Here we provide genetic evidence supporting a role of this E3-enzyme in the maintenance of DNA replication integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans Through RNAi-based suppressor screens of lrr-1(0) and cul-2(or209ts) mutants, we identified two genes encoding components of the GINS complex, which is part of the Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase, as well as CDC-7 and MUS-101, which drives the assembly of the CMG helicase during DNA replication. In addition, we identified the core components of the ATR/ATL-1 DNA replication checkpoint pathway (MUS-101, ATL-1, CLSP-1, CHK-1). These results suggest that the CRL2LRR-1 E3-ligase acts to modify or degrade factor(s) that would otherwise misregulate the replisome, eventually leading to the activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Copyright © 2016 Ossareh-Nazari et al.

  16. Lead discovery and chemical biology approaches targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinjiyan, Favour A; Carbonneau, Seth; Ross, Nathan T

    2017-10-15

    Protein degradation is critical for proteostasis, and the addition of polyubiquitin chains to a substrate is necessary for its recognition by the 26S proteasome. Therapeutic intervention in the ubiquitin proteasome system has implications ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. Novel screening methods and chemical biology tools for targeting E1-activating, E2-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes will be discussed in this review. Approaches for targeting E3 ligase-substrate interactions as well as the proteasome will also be covered, with a focus on recently described approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Role of Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteolysis of Cyclin D in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    ligase (E3).3 Cdc34 is an ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBC3) that is required for the G1 to S phase transition in Saccharomyces cerevisae and the...polyubiquitination by Cdc34 1-200 is a general characteristic of Cdc34 1-200 or whether this effect is specific only to the p27Kip1 substrate. Our previous work has...function in the initiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA synthesis. J Mol Biol. 84(3):445-61. 6. Petroski MD, Deshaies RJ. 2005. Mechanism of lysine 48

  18. TRIM28 is a SUMO E3 Ligase and Negative Regulator of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiming; Deng, Hongying; Li, Xiaojuan; Wu, Xianfang; Tang, Qiyi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J.; Ozato, Keiko; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2011-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is a potent transcription factor of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) and is known as the master regulator of type I IFN-dependent immune responses. Because excessive responses could harm the host, IRF7 itself is delicately regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Modification of IRF7 by small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) has been shown to regulate IFN expression and antiviral responses negatively, but the specific E3 ligase needed for IRF7 SUMOylation has remained unknown. As reported here, we have identified the tripartite motif–containing (TRIM) protein 28 (TRIM28) as a binding partner of IRF7. We have demonstrated that TRIM28 also interacts with the SUMO E2 enzyme and increases SUMOylation of IRF7 both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting it acts as a SUMO E3 ligase of IRF7. Unlike the common SUMO E3 ligase, protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1(PIAS1), the E3 activity of TRIM28 is specific to IRF7, because it has little effect on IRF7’s close relative IRF3. TRIM28 is therefore, so far as we know, the first IRF7-specific SUMO E3 reported. TRIM28-mediated SUMOylation of IRF7 is increased during viral infection, and SUMOylation of transcription factors usually results in transcriptional repression. Overexpression of TRIM28 therefore inhibits IRF7 transactivation activity, whereas knockdown of TRIM28 has the opposite effect and potentiates IFN production and antiviral responses. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM28 is a specific SUMO E3 ligase and negative regulator of IRF7. PMID:21940674

  19. Activation of Smurf E3 ligase promoted by smoothened regulates hedgehog signaling through targeting patched turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoujun Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog signaling plays conserved roles in controlling embryonic development; its dysregulation has been implicated in many human diseases including cancers. Hedgehog signaling has an unusual reception system consisting of two transmembrane proteins, Patched receptor and Smoothened signal transducer. Although activation of Smoothened and its downstream signal transduction have been intensively studied, less is known about how Patched receptor is regulated, and particularly how this regulation contributes to appropriate Hedgehog signal transduction. Here we identified a novel role of Smurf E3 ligase in regulating Hedgehog signaling by controlling Patched ubiquitination and turnover. Moreover, we showed that Smurf-mediated Patched ubiquitination depends on Smo activity in wing discs. Mechanistically, we found that Smo interacts with Smurf and promotes it to mediate Patched ubiquitination by targeting the K1261 site in Ptc. The further mathematic modeling analysis reveals that a bidirectional control of activation of Smo involving Smurf and Patched is important for signal-receiving cells to precisely interpret external signals, thereby maintaining Hedgehog signaling reliability. Finally, our data revealed an evolutionarily conserved role of Smurf proteins in controlling Hh signaling by targeting Ptc during development.

  20. A simple and high-sensitivity method for analysis of ubiquitination and polyubiquitination based on wheat cell-free protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki Motoaki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitination is mediated by the sequential action of at least three enzymes: the E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and E3 (ubiquitin ligase proteins. Polyubiquitination of target proteins is also implicated in several critical cellular processes. Although Arabidopsis genome research has estimated more than 1,300 proteins involved in ubiquitination, little is known about the biochemical functions of these proteins. Here we demonstrate a novel, simple and high-sensitive method for in vitro analysis of ubiquitination and polyubiquitination based on wheat cell-free protein synthesis and luminescent detection. Results Using wheat cell-free synthesis, 11 E3 proteins from Arabidopsis full-length cDNA templates were produced. These proteins were analyzed either in the translation mixture or purified recombinant protein from the translation mixture. In our luminescent method using FLAG- or His-tagged and biotinylated ubiquitins, the polyubiquitin chain on AtUBC22, UPL5 and UPL7 (HECT and CIP8 (RING was detected. Also, binding of ubiquitin to these proteins was detected using biotinylated ubiquitin and FLAG-tagged recombinant protein. Furthermore, screening of the RING 6 subgroup demonstrated that At1g55530 was capable of polyubiquitin chain formation like CIP8. Interestingly, these ubiquitinations were carried out without the addition of exogenous E1 and/or E2 proteins, indicating that these enzymes were endogenous to the wheat cell-free system. The amount of polyubiquitinated proteins in the crude translation reaction mixture was unaffected by treatment with MG132, suggesting that our system does not contain 26S proteasome-dependent protein degradation activity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a simple wheat cell-free based luminescence method that could be a powerful tool for comprehensive ubiquitination analysis.

  1. Itch inhibits IL-17-mediated colon inflammation and tumorigenesis by ROR-γt ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathania, Mahesh; Khare, Prashant; Zeng, Minghui; Cantarel, Brandi; Zhang, Haiying; Ueno, Hideki; Venuprasad, K

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulated expression of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the colonic mucosa is associated with colonic inflammation and cancer. However, the cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms by which IL-17 expression is regulated remain unclear. We found that deficiency in the ubiquitin ligase Itch led to spontaneous colitis and increased susceptibility to colon cancer. Itch deficiency in the TH17 subset of helper T cells, innate lymphoid cells and γδ T cells resulted in the production of elevated amounts of IL-17 in the colonic mucosa. Mechanistically, Itch bound to the transcription factor ROR-γt and targeted ROR-γt for ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic inactivation of ROR-γt attenuated IL-17 expression and reduced spontaneous colonic inflammation in Itch(-/-) mice. Thus, we have identified a previously unknown role for Itch in regulating IL-17-mediated colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  2. LXR regulates cholesterol uptake through Idol-dependent ubiquitination of the LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelcer, Noam; Hong, Cynthia; Boyadjian, Rima; Tontonoz, Peter

    2009-07-03

    Cellular cholesterol levels reflect a balance between uptake, efflux, and endogenous synthesis. Here we show that the sterol-responsive nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) helps maintain cholesterol homeostasis, not only through promotion of cholesterol efflux but also through suppression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake. LXR inhibits the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway through transcriptional induction of Idol (inducible degrader of the LDLR), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that triggers ubiquitination of the LDLR on its cytoplasmic domain, thereby targeting it for degradation. LXR ligand reduces, whereas LXR knockout increases, LDLR protein levels in vivo in a tissue-selective manner. Idol knockdown in hepatocytes increases LDLR protein levels and promotes LDL uptake. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated expression of Idol in mouse liver promotes LDLR degradation and elevates plasma LDL levels. The LXR-Idol-LDLR axis defines a complementary pathway to sterol response element-binding proteins for sterol regulation of cholesterol uptake.

  3. Transcriptional profile analysis of E3 ligase and hormone-related genes expressed during wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capron Delphine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat grains are an important source of food, stock feed and raw materials for industry, but current production levels cannot meet world needs. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying wheat grain development will contribute valuable information to improving wheat cultivation. One of the most important mechanisms implicated in plant developmental processes is the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS. Among the different roles of the UPS, it is clear that it is essential to hormone signaling. In particular, E3 ubiquitin ligases of the UPS have been shown to play critical roles in hormone perception and signal transduction. Results A NimbleGen microarray containing 39,179 UniGenes was used to study the kinetics of gene expression during wheat grain development from the early stages of cell division to the mid-grain filling stage. By comparing 11 consecutive time-points, 9284 differentially expressed genes were identified and annotated during this study. A comparison of the temporal profiles of these genes revealed dynamic transcript accumulation profiles with major reprogramming events that occurred during the time intervals of 80-120 and 220-240°Cdays. The list of the genes expressed differentially during these transitions were identified and annotated. Emphasis was placed on E3 ligase and hormone-related genes. In total, 173 E3 ligase coding genes and 126 hormone-related genes were differentially expressed during the cell division and grain filling stages, with each family displaying a different expression profile. Conclusions The differential expression of genes involved in the UPS and plant hormone pathways suggests that phytohormones and UPS crosstalk might play a critical role in the wheat grain developmental process. Some E3 ligase and hormone-related genes seem to be up- or down-regulated during the early and late stages of the grain development.

  4. KLHL7 promotes TUT1 ubiquitination associated with nucleolar integrity: Implications for retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehyun; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Okajima, Tomomi; Yano, Sarasa; Sato, Ban; Chiba, Tomoki

    2017-12-09

    Kelch-like protein 7 (KLHL7) is a component of Cul3-based Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in klhl7 gene cause several disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although KLHL7 is considered to be crucial for regulating the protein homeostasis, little is known about its biological functions. In this study, we report that KLHL7 increases terminal uridylyl transferase 1 (TUT1) ubiquitination involved in nucleolar integrity. TUT1 is normally localized in nucleolus; however, expression of KLHL7 facilitates a vulnerability of nucleolar integrity, followed by a decrease of TUT1 localization in nucleolus. On the other hand, pathogenic KLHL7 mutants, which causes an onset of RP, have little effect on both nucleolar integrity and TUT1 localization. Finally, KLHL7 increases TUT1 ubiquitination levels. Taken together, these results imply that KLHL7 is a novel regulator of nucleolus associated with TUT1 ubiquitination. Our study may provide a valuable information to elucidate a pathogenic mechanism of RP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. APOBEC3G ubiquitination by Nedd4-1 favors its packaging into HIV-1 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussart, Sylvie; Douaisi, Marc; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2005-01-21

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase that limits the replication of many retroviruses. This antiviral host factor is packaged into retrovirus particles, where it targets single-stranded DNA generated during reverse transcription and induces up to 2% of G-to-A mutations, which are lethal for the HIV-1 provirus. Vif protein counteracts this antiviral factor by decreasing its packaging into lentivirus particles. Here, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1, an HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with APOBEC3G, through its WW2 and WW3 domains. As a result of this interaction, APOBEC3G undergoes post-translational modification by addition of ubiquitin moieties. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the dominant negative Nedd4-1 C/S form prevents APOBEC3G ubiquitination. Moreover, the packaging of APOBEC3G into Pr55 Gag virus-like particles and into HIV-1 virions is reduced when Nedd4-1 C/S is expressed. During HIV-1 viral production in the presence of APOBEC3G, Nedd4-1 C/S restores partially the infectivity of Deltavif HIV-1. We conclude that the ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by Nedd4-1 favors its targeting to the virus assembly site where APOBEC3G interacts with Gag and is packaged into HIV-1 particles in the absence of Vif.

  6. The Oncogenic Role of WWP1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase in Prostate Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    screemng method. Drosophila S2 cetls were trall$lenUy transfected with the proteasome UFO substrate UbG76VGFP to Identify transcription factors that...specialanterest were three genes, since knock down of these showed the strongest stabilization of the UFO substrate. These were FOXO, a1c and maf-S

  7. Cloning and characterization of mouse cullin4B/E3 ubiquitin ligase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have cloned, expressed and raised antibodies against the amino and carboxy-terminal halves of cullin4B. Immuno staining of differentiated PCC4 cells with N-terminal Cul4B antibody showed enhanced expression of Cul4B and its translocation into the nucleus upon differentiation. Transient transfection of a chimeric ...

  8. Characterization of an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase that Degrades Neurofibromin in Vitro and Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    glioblastoma multi- forme, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and epithelial cancers in the ovary and lung (Ding et al., 2008; Parsons et al., 2008; Sangha... sheath in type 1 neurofibromatosis. Am. J. Med. Genet. 89, 23–30. Wu, K., Fuchs, S.Y., Chen, A., Tan, P., Gomez, C., Ronai, Z., and Pan, Z.Q. (2000). The... myelin of axons and astrocytes that provide trophic and functional support for neurons (Rowitch and Kriegstein, 2010). The clinical observations that only

  9. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  10. The SOCS2 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Regulates Growth Hormone Receptor Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Mattias; Zadjali, Fahad; Persson, Torbjörn

    2011-01-01

    Growth Hormone is essential for the regulation of growth and the homeostatic control of intermediary metabolism. GH actions are mediated by the Growth Hormone Receptor; a member of the cytokine receptor super family that signals chiefly through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway. Target tissue responsiveness...

  11. Identification of the receptor component of the IkappaBalpha-ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaron, A; Hatzubai, A; Davis, M

    1998-01-01

    NF-kappaB, a ubiquitous, inducible transcription factor involved in immune, inflammatory, stress and developmental processes, is retained in a latent form in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells by inhibitory molecules, IkappaBs. Its activation is a paradigm for a signal-transduction cascade tha...

  12. The Ubiquitin Ligase XIAP Recruits LUBAC for NOD2 Signaling in Inflammation and Innate Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Nachbur, Ueli; Yabal, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors constitute a first line of defense against invading bacteria. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is implicated in the control of bacterial infections, and mutations in XIAP are causally linked to immunodeficiency in X...

  13. Cloning and characterization of mouse cullin4B/E3 ubiquitin ligase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Differentiation of EC cells upon heat shock. (Bisht et al 1994; Maruyama et al 1996) and upon curcumin treatment (Batth et al 2001) has been reported earlier. In the present study we have further characterized the differentiated phenotype of PCC4 cells, and using. DD-RT-PCR, identified several genes that are differentially.

  14. Cullin4B/E3-ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates β-catenin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    line colo205 (data not shown). Interestingly, curcumin, which induces differentiation of PCC4 cells (Batth et al 2001), causes a decrease in the levels of β-catenin in the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 (Jaiswal et al 2002). Curcumin treatment of PCC4 cells consistently caused a decrease in β-catenin levels (data not shown).

  15. Sperm ubiquitination in epididymal feline semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Varesi, Sara; Nonnis, Simona; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Ubiquitin is a 8.5-kDa peptide that tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. It has been proposed that ubiquitination might be responsible for the elimination of defective spermatozoa during transit through the epididymis in humans and cattle, but its exact biological function in seminal plasma has not yet been clarified. In the domestic cat (Felis catus), the percentage of immature, unviable, and abnormal spermatozoa decreases during the epididymal transit, indicating the existence of a mechanism that removes defective spermatozoa. Magnetic cell separation techniques, based on the use of magnetic beads coated with anti-ubiquitin antibodies, may allow the selective capture of ubiquitinated spermatozoa from semen, thus contributing to the identification of a potential correlation between semen quality and ubiquitination process. Moreover, the selective identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins in different epididymal regions could give a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in feline sperm maturation. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to verify the possibility of separating ubiquitinated spermatozoa with magnetic ubiquitin beads and identify the morphological and acrosomal differences between whole sample and unbound gametes, (2) to characterize all the ubiquitinated proteins in spermatozoa retrieved in the three epididymal regions by a proteomic approach. The data indicated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in cat epididymal semen. However, a correlation between abnormal and ubiquitinated spermatozoa has not been found, and ubiquitin cannot be considered as a biomarker of quality of epididymal feline spermatozoa. To the author's knowledge, this is the first identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins of cat spermatozoa collected from different epididymal regions. The proteomic pattern allows a further characterization of cat epididymal semen and represents a contribute to a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in

  16. Chemical approaches to targeted protein degradation through modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ian; Wang, Hannah; Caldwell, John J; Chopra, Raj

    2017-03-15

    Manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to achieve targeted degradation of proteins within cells using chemical tools and drugs has the potential to transform pharmacological and therapeutic approaches in cancer and other diseases. An increased understanding of the molecular mechanism of thalidomide and its analogues following their clinical use has unlocked small-molecule modulation of the substrate specificity of the E3 ligase cereblon (CRBN), which in turn has resulted in the advancement of new immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) into the clinic. The degradation of multiple context-specific proteins by these pleiotropic small molecules provides a means to uncover new cell biology and to generate future drug molecules against currently undruggable targets. In parallel, the development of larger bifunctional molecules that bring together highly specific protein targets in complexes with CRBN, von Hippel-Lindau, or other E3 ligases to promote ubiquitin-dependent degradation has progressed to generate selective chemical compounds with potent effects in cells and in vivo models, providing valuable tools for biological target validation and with future potential for therapeutic use. In this review, we survey recent breakthroughs achieved in these two complementary methods and the discovery of new modes of direct and indirect engagement of target proteins with the proteasome. We discuss the experimental characterisation that validates the use of molecules that promote protein degradation as chemical tools, the preclinical and clinical examples disclosed to date, and the future prospects for this exciting area of chemical biology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The COP1 E3-ligase interacts with FIP200, a key regulator of mammalian autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Saori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin ligase COP1, COnstitutively Photomorphogenic 1, functions in many biological responses in mammalian cells, but its downstream pathway remains unclear. Results Here, we identified FIP200, a key regulator of mammalian autophagy, as a novel COP1-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by a GST-pulldown assay. Split-GFP analysis revealed that interaction between COP1 and FIP200 predominantly occurred in the cytoplasm and was enhanced in cells treated with UV irradiation. Different forms of FIP200 protein were expressed in cultured mammalian cells, and ectopic expression of COP1 reduced one of such forms. Conclusions These data suggest that COP1 modulates FIP200-associated activities, which may contribute to a variety of cellular functions that COP1 is involved in.

  18. Oncogenesis driven by the Ras/Raf pathway requires the SUMO E2 ligase Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Swatkoski, Stephen; Holly, Alesia; Lee, Liam C; Giroux, Valentin; Lee, Chih-Shia; Hsu, Dennis; Smith, Jordan L; Yuen, Garmen; Yue, Junqiu; Ann, David K; Simpson, R Mark; Creighton, Chad J; Figg, William D; Gucek, Marjan; Luo, Ji

    2015-04-07

    The small GTPase KRAS is frequently mutated in human cancer and currently there are no targeted therapies for KRAS mutant tumors. Here, we show that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) pathway is required for KRAS-driven transformation. RNAi depletion of the SUMO E2 ligase Ubc9 suppresses 3D growth of KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells in vitro and attenuates tumor growth in vivo. In KRAS mutant cells, a subset of proteins exhibit elevated levels of SUMOylation. Among these proteins, KAP1, CHD1, and EIF3L collectively support anchorage-independent growth, and the SUMOylation of KAP1 is necessary for its activity in this context. Thus, the SUMO pathway critically contributes to the transformed phenotype of KRAS mutant cells and Ubc9 presents a potential target for the treatment of KRAS mutant colorectal cancer.

  19. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D

    2013-05-03

    Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Su, Xiong [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Liu, Jialiu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Sundaresan, Sinju [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Stahl, Philip D., E-mail: pstahl@wustl.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  1. An E3 Ligase Affects the NLR Receptor Stability and Immunity to Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chang, Cheng; Gu, Cheng; Tang, Sanyuan; Xie, Qi; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Following the detection of pathogen cognate effectors, plant Nod-like receptors (NLRs) trigger isolate-specific immunity that is generally associated with cell death. The regulation of NLR stability is important to ensure effective immunity. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the allelic Mildew locus A (MLA) receptors mediate isolate-specific disease resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Currently, how MLA stability is controlled remains unknown. Here, we identified an MLA-interacting RING-type E3 ligase, MIR1, that interacts with several MLAs. We showed that the carboxyl-terminal TPR domain of MIR1 mediates the interaction with the coiled-coil domain-containing region of functional MLAs, such as MLA1, MLA6, and MLA10, but not with that of the nonfunctional MLA18-1. MIR1 can ubiquitinate the amino-terminal region of MLAs in vitro and promotes the proteasomal degradation of MLAs in vitro and in planta. Both proteasome inhibitor treatment and virus-induced gene silencing-mediated MIR1 silencing significantly increased MLA abundance in barley transgenic lines. Furthermore, overexpression of MIR1 specifically compromised MLA-mediated disease resistance in barley, while coexpression of MIR1 and MLA10 attenuated MLA10-induced cell death signaling in Nicotiana benthamiana Together, our data reveal a mechanism for the control of the stability of MLA immune receptors and for the attenuation of MLA-triggered defense signaling by a RING-type E3 ligase via the ubiquitin proteasome system. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. An E3 Ligase Affects the NLR Receptor Stability and Immunity to Powdery Mildew1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Gu, Cheng; Tang, Sanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Following the detection of pathogen cognate effectors, plant Nod-like receptors (NLRs) trigger isolate-specific immunity that is generally associated with cell death. The regulation of NLR stability is important to ensure effective immunity. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the allelic Mildew locus A (MLA) receptors mediate isolate-specific disease resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Currently, how MLA stability is controlled remains unknown. Here, we identified an MLA-interacting RING-type E3 ligase, MIR1, that interacts with several MLAs. We showed that the carboxyl-terminal TPR domain of MIR1 mediates the interaction with the coiled-coil domain-containing region of functional MLAs, such as MLA1, MLA6, and MLA10, but not with that of the nonfunctional MLA18-1. MIR1 can ubiquitinate the amino-terminal region of MLAs in vitro and promotes the proteasomal degradation of MLAs in vitro and in planta. Both proteasome inhibitor treatment and virus-induced gene silencing-mediated MIR1 silencing significantly increased MLA abundance in barley transgenic lines. Furthermore, overexpression of MIR1 specifically compromised MLA-mediated disease resistance in barley, while coexpression of MIR1 and MLA10 attenuated MLA10-induced cell death signaling in Nicotiana benthamiana. Together, our data reveal a mechanism for the control of the stability of MLA immune receptors and for the attenuation of MLA-triggered defense signaling by a RING-type E3 ligase via the ubiquitin proteasome system. PMID:27780896

  3. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann-Petersen Rasmus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL domain proteins (UDPs. Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite their structural similarity, the UBL domains appear to have a range of different targets, resulting in a considerable diversity with respect to UDP function. Here, we give a short summary of the biochemical and physiological roles of the UDPs, which have been linked to human diseases including neurodegeneration and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  4. Alix Protein Is Substrate of Ozz-E3 Ligase and Modulates Actin Remodeling in Skeletal Muscle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Antonella; Romancino, Daniele P.; Campos, Yvan; Paterniti, Gaetano; Qiu, Xiaohui; Moshiach, Simon; Di Felice, Valentina; Vergani, Naja; Ustek, Duran; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Alix/AIP1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein that participates in basic cellular processes, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton assembly, by binding selectively to a variety of partner proteins. However, the mechanisms regulating Alix turnover, subcellular distribution, and function in muscle cells are unknown. We now report that Alix is expressed in skeletal muscle throughout myogenic differentiation. In myotubes, a specific pool of Alix colocalizes with Ozz, the substrate-binding component of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase complex Ozz-E3. We found that interaction of the two endogenous proteins in the differentiated muscle fibers changes Alix conformation and promotes its ubiquitination. This in turn regulates the levels of the protein in specific subcompartments, in particular the one containing the actin polymerization factor cortactin. In Ozz−/− myotubes, the levels of filamentous (F)-actin is perturbed, and Alix accumulates in large puncta positive for cortactin. In line with this observation, we show that the knockdown of Alix expression in C2C12 muscle cells affects the amount and distribution of F-actin, which consequently leads to changes in cell morphology, impaired formation of sarcolemmal protrusions, and defective cell motility. These findings suggest that the Ozz-E3 ligase regulates Alix at sites where the actin cytoskeleton undergoes remodeling. PMID:22334701

  5. Alix protein is substrate of Ozz-E3 ligase and modulates actin remodeling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Antonella; Romancino, Daniele P; Campos, Yvan; Paterniti, Gaetano; Qiu, Xiaohui; Moshiach, Simon; Di Felice, Valentina; Vergani, Naja; Ustek, Duran; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2012-04-06

    Alix/AIP1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein that participates in basic cellular processes, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton assembly, by binding selectively to a variety of partner proteins. However, the mechanisms regulating Alix turnover, subcellular distribution, and function in muscle cells are unknown. We now report that Alix is expressed in skeletal muscle throughout myogenic differentiation. In myotubes, a specific pool of Alix colocalizes with Ozz, the substrate-binding component of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase complex Ozz-E3. We found that interaction of the two endogenous proteins in the differentiated muscle fibers changes Alix conformation and promotes its ubiquitination. This in turn regulates the levels of the protein in specific subcompartments, in particular the one containing the actin polymerization factor cortactin. In Ozz(-/-) myotubes, the levels of filamentous (F)-actin is perturbed, and Alix accumulates in large puncta positive for cortactin. In line with this observation, we show that the knockdown of Alix expression in C2C12 muscle cells affects the amount and distribution of F-actin, which consequently leads to changes in cell morphology, impaired formation of sarcolemmal protrusions, and defective cell motility. These findings suggest that the Ozz-E3 ligase regulates Alix at sites where the actin cytoskeleton undergoes remodeling.

  6. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aurelia Ball

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  7. PCNA ubiquitination is important, but not essential for translesion DNA synthesis in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayal Hendel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases bypass replication-blocking lesions, and it is usually associated with mutagenesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a key event in TLS is the monoubiquitination of PCNA, which enables recruitment of the specialized polymerases to the damaged site through their ubiquitin-binding domain. In mammals, however, there is a debate on the requirement for ubiquitinated PCNA (PCNA-Ub in TLS. We show that UV-induced Rpa foci, indicative of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA regions caused by UV, accumulate faster and disappear more slowly in Pcna(K164R/K164R cells, which are resistant to PCNA ubiquitination, compared to Pcna(+/+ cells, consistent with a TLS defect. Direct analysis of TLS in these cells, using gapped plasmids with site-specific lesions, showed that TLS is strongly reduced across UV lesions and the cisplatin-induced intrastrand GG crosslink. A similar effect was obtained in cells lacking Rad18, the E3 ubiquitin ligase which monoubiquitinates PCNA. Consistently, cells lacking Usp1, the enzyme that de-ubiquitinates PCNA exhibited increased TLS across a UV lesion and the cisplatin adduct. In contrast, cells lacking the Rad5-homologs Shprh and Hltf, which polyubiquitinate PCNA, exhibited normal TLS. Knocking down the expression of the TLS genes Rev3L, PolH, or Rev1 in Pcna(K164R/K164R mouse embryo fibroblasts caused each an increased sensitivity to UV radiation, indicating the existence of TLS pathways that are independent of PCNA-Ub. Taken together these results indicate that PCNA-Ub is required for maximal TLS. However, TLS polymerases can be recruited to damaged DNA also in the absence of PCNA-Ub, and perform TLS, albeit at a significantly lower efficiency and altered mutagenic specificity.

  8. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory W Baumann

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity. However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle's intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1 document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2 identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6-8 per group. At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling.

  9. Blocking an N-terminal acetylation–dependent protein interaction inhibits an E3 ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Daniel C.; Hammill, Jared T.; Min, Jaeki; Rhee, David Y.; Connelly, Michele; Sviderskiy, Vladislav O.; Bhasin, Deepak; Chen, Yizhe; Ong, Su-Sien; Chai, Sergio C.; Goktug, Asli N.; Huang, Guochang; Monda, Julie K.; Low, Jonathan; Kim, Ho Shin; Paulo, Joao A.; Cannon, Joe R.; Shelat, Anang A.; Chen, Taosheng; Kelsall, Ian R.; Alpi, Arno F.; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin; Singh , Bhuvanesh; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.; Guy, R. Kip (MSKCC); (Dundee); (SJCH); (Harvard-Med); (MXPL)

    2017-06-05

    N-terminal acetylation is an abundant modification influencing protein functions. Because ~80% of mammalian cytosolic proteins are N-terminally acetylated, this modification is potentially an untapped target for chemical control of their functions. Structural studies have revealed that, like lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation converts a positively charged amine into a hydrophobic handle that mediates protein interactions; hence, this modification may be a druggable target. We report the development of chemical probes targeting the N-terminal acetylation–dependent interaction between an E2 conjugating enzyme (UBE2M or UBC12) and DCN1 (DCUN1D1), a subunit of a multiprotein E3 ligase for the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. The inhibitors are highly selective with respect to other protein acetyl-amide–binding sites, inhibit NEDD8 ligation in vitro and in cells, and suppress anchorage-independent growth of a cell line with DCN1 amplification. Overall, our data demonstrate that N-terminal acetyl-dependent protein interactions are druggable targets and provide insights into targeting multiprotein E2–E3 ligases.

  10. Identification of an unconventional E3 binding surface on the UbcH5 Ub conjugate recognized by a pathogenic bacterial E3 ligase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, I.; Eakin, C.; Blanc, M. -P.; Klevit, R. E.; Miller, S. I.; Brzovic, P. S.

    2010-02-01

    Gram-negative bacteria deliver a cadre of virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells to promote pathogenesis and/or commensalism. Recently, families of virulence proteins have been recognized that function as E3 Ubiquitin-ligases. How these bacterial ligases integrate into the ubiquitin (Ub) signaling pathways of the host and how they differ functionally from endogenous eukaryotic E3s is not known. Here we show that the bacterial E3 SspH2 from S. typhimurium selectively binds the human UbcH5Ub conjugate recognizing regions of both UbcH5 and Ub subunits. The surface of the E2 UbcH5 involved in this interaction differs substantially from that defined for other E2/E3 complexes involving eukaryotic E3-ligases. In vitro, SspH2 directs the synthesis of K48-linked poly-Ub chains, suggesting that cellular protein targets of SspH2-catalyzed Ub transfer are destined for proteasomal destruction. Unexpectedly, we found that intermediates in SspH2-directed reactions are activated poly-Ub chains directly tethered to the UbcH5 active site (UbcH5Ubn). Rapid generation of UbcH5Ubn may allow for bacterially directed modification of eukaryotic target proteins with a completed poly-Ub chain, efficiently tagging host targets for destruction.

  11. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Ma, Chengyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Liu, Ying [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Sun, Luyao [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Yu, Zhenxiang, E-mail: zhenxiangyu2015@gmail.com [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. - Highlights: • TRIM65 expression is elevated in NSCLC. • TRIM65 inactivates p53 through mediating p53 ubiquitination and degradation. • TRIM65 attenuates the response of NSCLC cells to cisplatin.

  12. Enhancement of CIITA transcriptional function by ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Susanna F; Zika, Eleni; Conti, Brian; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2003-11-01

    Although increasing evidence indicates that there is a direct link between ubiquitination and mono-ubiquitination and transcription in yeast, this link has not been demonstrated in higher eukaryotes. Here we show that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA), which is required for expression of genes encoding MHC class II molecules, is ubiquitinated. This ubiquitination enhanced the association of CIITA with both MHC class II transcription factors and the MHC class II promoter, resulting in an increase in transactivation function and in the expression of MHC class II mRNA. The degree of CIITA ubiquitination was controlled by histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), indicating that the crucial cellular processes mediated by these enzymes are linked to regulate transcription. Thus, ubiquitin positively regulates a mammalian coactivator by enhancing its assembly at the promoter.

  13. Ubiquitin-binding proteins: similar, but different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Hofmann, Kay; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    described. UBA (ubiquitin-associated) domain-containing proteins is the largest family and includes members involved in different cell processes. The smaller groups of UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif), GAT [GGA (Golgi-associated gamma-adaptin homologous) and Tom1 (target of Myb 1)], CUE (coupling......Covalent modification of proteins with ubiquitin is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Typically, ubiquitinated proteins are targeted for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. However, more recently the ubiquitin signal has also been connected with many other cell processes, including...... endocytosis, vesicle fusion, DNA repair and transcriptional silencing. Hence ubiquitination may be comparable with phosphorylation in its importance as an intracellular switch, controlling various signal-transduction pathways. Similar to the regulation of the extent of phosphorylation by kinases...

  14. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. regulates gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes in skeletal muscle: potential role in the treatment of sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Kilroy, Gail; Day, Britton C; Wang, Zhong Q; Ribnicky, David M; Cefalu, William T; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to insulin resistance, a primary component of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The problem of obesity-related insulin resistance is compounded when age-related skeletal muscle loss, called sarcopenia, occurs with obesity. Skeletal muscle loss results from elevated levels of protein degradation and prevention of obesity-related sarcopenic muscle loss will depend on strategies that target pathways involved in protein degradation. An extract from Artemisia dracunculus, termed PMI 5011, improves insulin signaling and increases skeletal muscle myofiber size in a rodent model of obesity-related insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PMI 5011 on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a central regulator of muscle protein degradation. Gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis skeletal muscle was obtained from KK-A(y) obese diabetic mice fed a control or 1% (w/w) PMI 5011-supplemented diet. Regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Although MuRF-1 ubiquitin ligase gene expression is consistently down-regulated in skeletal muscle, atrogin-1, Fbxo40, and Traf6 expression is differentially regulated by PMI 5011. Genes encoding other enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system ranging from ubiquitin to ubiquitin-specific proteases are also regulated by PMI 5011. Additionally, expression of the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3), a ubiquitin-like protein pivotal to autophagy-mediated protein degradation, is down-regulated by PMI 5011 in the vastus lateralis. PMI 5011 alters the gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes that are essential regulators of skeletal muscle mass. This suggests that PMI 5011 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity-linked sarcopenia by regulating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  15. FERM-dependent E3 ligase recognition is a conserved mechanism for targeted degradation of lipoprotein receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C; Goult, Benjamin T; Zhang, Li; Fairall, Louise; Hong, Cynthia; Schwabe, John W R; Tontonoz, Peter

    2011-12-13

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDL receptor) regulates LDL receptor (LDLR)-dependent cholesterol uptake, but its mechanism of action, including the molecular basis for its stringent specificity, is poorly understood. Here we show that IDOL uses a singular strategy among E3 ligases for target recognition. The IDOL FERM domain binds directly to a recognition sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of lipoprotein receptors. This physical interaction is independent of IDOL's really interesting new gene (RING) domain E3 ligase activity and its capacity for autoubiquitination. Furthermore, IDOL controls its own stability through autoubiquitination of a unique FERM subdomain fold not present in other FERM proteins. Key residues defining the IDOL-LDLR interaction and IDOL autoubiquitination are functionally conserved in their insect homologs. Finally, we demonstrate that target recognition by IDOL involves a tripartite interaction between the FERM domain, membrane phospholipids, and the lipoprotein receptor tail. Our data identify the IDOL-LDLR interaction as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of lipid uptake and suggest that this interaction could potentially be exploited for the pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism.

  16. Neurofibrillary tangles in dementia pugilistica are ubiquitinated.

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, G E; Leigh, P. N.; P. Luthert; Anderton, B H; Roberts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a protein thought to be involved in the ATP-dependent non-lysosomal degradation of abnormal proteins, has already been identified as a component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. We have examined ubiquitin immunoreactivity in a unique collection of brains from 16 ex-boxers including 11 with dementia pugilistica. Neurofibrillary tangles of dementia pugilistica were labelled with an affinity purified antiserum to ubiquitin, and BF10, a monoclonal antibody to a neurof...

  17. Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Lo, Russell S; Eng, Jimmy K; von Haller, Priska D; Fields, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Sites of ubiquitin modification have been identified by mass spectrometry based on the increase in molecular mass of a tryptic peptide carrying two additional glycine residues from the ubiquitin moiety. However, such peptides with GG shifts have been difficult to discover. We identify 870 unique sites of ubiquitin attachment on 438 different proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The FA Core Complex Contains a Homo-dimeric Catalytic Module for the Symmetric Mono-ubiquitination of FANCI-FANCD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Swuec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the main DNA interstrand crosslink repair pathway in higher eukaryotes requires mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 by FANCL, the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia core complex. FANCI and FANCD2 form a stable complex; however, the molecular basis of their ubiquitination is ill defined. FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination by FANCL is stimulated by the presence of the FANCB and FAAP100 core complex components, through an unknown mechanism. How FANCI mono-ubiquitination is achieved remains unclear. Here, we use structural electron microscopy, combined with crosslink-coupled mass spectrometry, to find that FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100 form a dimer of trimers, containing two FANCL molecules that are ideally poised to target both FANCI and FANCD2 for mono-ubiquitination. The FANCC-FANCE-FANCF subunits bridge between FANCB-FANCL-FAAP100 and the FANCI-FANCD2 substrate. A transient interaction with FANCC-FANCE-FANCF alters the FANCI-FANCD2 configuration, stabilizing the dimerization interface. Our data provide a model to explain how equivalent mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 occurs.

  19. Norepinephrine inhibits intercellular coupling in rat cardiomyocytes by ubiquitination of connexin43 gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Hofgaard, Johannes P; Braunstein, Thomas H; Kjenseth, Ane; Leithe, Edward; Rivedal, Edgar; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2011-08-01

    Gαq-stimulation reduces intercellular coupling within 10 min via a decrease in the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), but the mechanism is unknown. Here we show that uncoupling in rat cardiomyocytes after stimulation of α-adrenergic Gαq-coupled receptors with norepinephrine is prevented by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, suggesting that internalization and possibly degradation of connexin43 (Cx43) is involved. Uncoupling was accompanied by increased Triton X-100 solubility of Cx43, which is considered a measure of the non-junctional pool of Cx43. However, inhibition of the proteasome and lysosome further increased solubility while preserving coupling, suggesting that communicating gap junctions can be part of the soluble fraction. Ubiquitination of Cx43 was also increased, and Cx43 co-immunoprecipitated with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Norepinephrine increases ubiquitination of Cx43 in cardiomyocytes, possibly via Nedd4. We suggest that Cx43 is subsequently internalized, which is preceded by acquired solubility in Triton X-100, which does not lead to uncoupling per se.

  20. TRIM5α Promotes Ubiquitination of Rta from Epstein–Barr Virus to Attenuate Lytic Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Hung; Chen, Chien-Sin; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Hsiao-Han; Liu, Shih-Tung; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Replication and transcription activator (Rta), a key protein expressed by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) during the immediate-early stage of the lytic cycle, is responsible for the activation of viral lytic genes. In this study, GST-pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that Rta interacts in vitro and in vivo with TRIM5α, a host factor known to be involved in the restriction of retroviral infections. Confocal microscopy results revealed that Rta colocalizes with TRIM5α in the nucleus during lytic progression. The interaction involves 190 amino acids in the N-terminal of Rta and the RING domain in TRIM5α, and it was further found that TRIM5α acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote Rta ubiquitination. Overexpression of TRIM5α reduced the transactivating capabilities of Rta, while reducing TRIM5α expression enhanced EBV lytic protein expression and DNA replication. Taken together, these results point to a critical role for TRIM5α in attenuating EBV lytic progression through the targeting of Rta for ubiquitination, and suggest that the restrictive capabilities of TRIM5α may go beyond retroviral infections. PMID:28105027

  1. A Critical Role for Ubiquitination in the Endocytosis of Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Ravinder; Sharma, Rohan; Bhattacharyya, Samarjit

    2017-01-27

    Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play important roles in various neuronal processes and elicit changes in synaptic efficacy through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Trafficking of mGluRs plays an important role in controlling the precise localization of these receptors at specific region of the cell; it also regulates the activity of these receptors. Despite this obvious significance, we know very little about the cellular mechanisms that control the trafficking of group I mGluRs. We show here that ligand-mediated internalization of group I mGluRs is ubiquitination-dependent. A lysine residue (Lys 1112 ) at the C-terminal tail of mGluR1 (a member of the group I mGluR family) plays crucial role in this process. Our data suggest that Lys 63 -linked polyubiquitination is involved in the ligand-mediated endocytosis of mGluR1. We also show here that the mGluR1 internalization is dependent on a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, Siah-1A. Furthermore, acute knockdown of Siah-1A enhances the mGluR-mediated AMPAR endocytosis. These studies reveal a novel function of ubiquitination in the regulation of group I mGluRs, as well as its role in mGluR-dependent AMPAR endocytosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussart, Sylvie; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Douaisi, Marc; Duverger, Yohann; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2004-02-27

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif), one of the six HIV-1 auxiliary genes, is absolutely necessary for productive infection in primary CD4-positive T lymphocytes and macrophages. Vif overcomes the antiviral function of the host factor APOBEC3G. To better understand this mechanism, it is of interest to characterize cellular proteins that interact with Vif and may regulate its function. Here, we show that Vif binds to hNedd4 and AIP4, two HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases. WW domains present in those HECT enzymes contribute to the binding of Vif. Moreover, the region of Vif, which includes amino acids 20-128 and interacts with the hNedd4 WW domains, does not contain proline-rich stretches. Lastly, we show that Vif undergoes post-translational modifications by addition of ubiquitin both in cells overexpressing Vif and in cells expressing HIV-1 provirus. Vif is mainly mono-ubiquitinated, a modification known to address the Gag precursor to the virus budding site.

  3. Regulation of neuronal morphogenesis and positioning by ubiquitin-specific proteases in the cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Anckar

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin signaling mechanisms play fundamental roles in the cell-intrinsic control of neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity in the brain. However, whereas specific ubiquitin ligases have been implicated in key steps of neural circuit assembly, the roles of ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs in the establishment of neuronal connectivity have remained unexplored. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of USP family members in granule neuron morphogenesis and positioning in the rodent cerebellum. We identify a set of 32 USPs that are expressed in granule neurons. We also characterize the subcellular localization of the 32 USPs in granule neurons using a library of expression plasmids encoding GFP-USPs. In RNAi screens of the 32 neuronally expressed USPs, we uncover novel functions for USP1, USP4, and USP20 in the morphogenesis of granule neuron dendrites and axons and we identify a requirement for USP30 and USP33 in granule neuron migration in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. These studies reveal that specific USPs with distinct spatial localizations harbor key functions in the control of neuronal morphogenesis and positioning in the mammalian cerebellum, with important implications for our understanding of the cell-intrinsic mechanisms that govern neural circuit assembly in the brain.

  4. Bag1 Co-chaperone Promotes TRC8 E3 Ligase-dependent Degradation of Misfolded Human Ether a Go-Go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, Christine; Williamson, Brittany; Valinsky, William C; Solomon, Joshua; Shrier, Alvin; Young, Jason C

    2017-02-10

    Cardiac long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, many of which cause misfolding and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of normal trafficking to the cell surface. The Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones assist the folding of the hERG cytosolic domains. Here, we demonstrate that the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Bag1 promotes hERG degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system at the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate hERG levels and channel activity. Dissociation of hERG complexes containing Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP requires the interaction of Bag1 with Hsp70, but this does not involve the Bag1 ubiquitin-like domain. The interaction with Bag1 then shifts hERG degradation to the membrane-anchored E3 ligase TRC8 and its E2-conjugating enzyme Ube2g2, as determined by siRNA screening. TRC8 interacts through the transmembrane region with hERG and decreases hERG functional expression. TRC8 also mediates degradation of the misfolded hERG-G601S disease mutant, but pharmacological stabilization of the mutant structure prevents degradation. Our results identify TRC8 as a previously unknown Hsp70-independent quality control E3 ligase for hERG. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across......-progression. We demonstrate a correlation between expression trends and entrapment into PABPN1 insoluble aggregates of OPMD-deregulated E3 ligases. We also show that manipulations of proteasome and immunoproteasome activity specifically affect the accumulation and aggregation of mutant PABPN1. We suggest...

  6. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cecilia R; Patrick, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area.

  7. Functional characterization of DnSIZ1, a SIZ/PIAS-type SUMO E3 ligase from Dendrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Su, Mengying; Yu, Mengyuan; Zhang, Shengchun; Lai, Jianbin; Yang, Chengwei; Wang, Yaqin

    2015-09-17

    SUMOylation is an important post-translational modification of eukaryotic proteins that involves the reversible conjugation of a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) polypeptide to its specific protein substrates, thereby regulating numerous complex cellular processes. The PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription [STAT]) and SIZ (scaffold attachment factor A/B/acinus/PIAS [SAP] and MIZ) proteins are SUMO E3 ligases that modulate SUMO conjugation. The characteristic features and SUMOylation mechanisms of SIZ1 protein in monocotyledon are poorly understood. Here, we examined the functions of a homolog of Arabidopsis SIZ1, a functional SIZ/PIAS-type SUMO E3 ligase from Dendrobium. In Dendrobium, the predicted DnSIZ1 protein has domains that are highly conserved among SIZ/PIAS-type proteins. DnSIZ1 is widely expressed in Dendrobium organs and has a up-regulated trend by treatment with cold, high temperature and wounding. The DnSIZ1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows SUMO E3 ligase activity when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. Moreover, ectopic expression of DnSIZ1 in the Arabidopsis siz1-2 mutant partially complements several phenotypes and results in enhanced levels of SUMO conjugates in plants exposed to heat shock conditions. We observed that DnSIZ1 acts as a negative regulator of flowering transition which may be via a vernalization-induced pathway. In addition, ABA-hypersensitivity of siz1-2 seed germination can be partially suppressed by DnSIZ1. Our results suggest that DnSIZ1 is a functional homolog of the Arabidopsis SIZ1 with SUMO E3 ligase activity and may play an important role in the regulation of Dendrobium stress responses, flowering and development.

  8. Ubiquitination is absolutely required for the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor - 1 alpha protein in hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ronghai [Department of Urology, Linzi District People' s Hospital, Zibo, 255400 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zpskx001@163.com [Department of Gynecology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 266011 (China); Li, Jinhang [Department of Gynecology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 266011 (China); Guan, Hongzai [Laboratory Department, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071 (China); Shi, Guangjun, E-mail: qdmhshigj@yahoo.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, 266071 (China)

    2016-01-29

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is recognized as the master regulator of hypoxia response. HIF-α subunits expression are tightly regulated. In this study, our data show that ts20 cells still expressed detectable E1 protein even at 39.5° C for 12 h, and complete depletion of E1 protein expression at 39.5° C by siRNA enhanced HIF-1α and P53 protein expression. Further inhibition of E1 at 39.5 °C by siRNA, or E1 inhibitor Ube1-41 completely blocked HIF-1α degradation. Moreover, immunoprecipitations of co-transfection of HA-ubiquitin and FLAG–HIF–1α plasmids directly confirmed the involvement of ubiquitin in the hypoxic degradation of HIF-1α. Additionally, hypoxic HIF-1 α degradation is independent of HAF, RACK1, sumoylation or nuclear/cytoplasmic localization. Taken together, our data suggest that constitutive HIF-1α protein degradation in hypoxia is absolutely ubiquitination-dependent, and unidentified E3 ligase may exist for this degradation pathway. - Highlights: • HIF-1α protein is constitutively degraded in hypoxic conditions. • Requirement of ubiquitination for HIF-1α degradation in hypoxia. • Hypoxic HIF-1α degradation is independent of HAF, RACK1, sumoylation or nuclear/cytoplasmic localization.

  9. Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Tina; Ripplinger, Anita; Hoffmann, Saskia; Wild, Thomas; Uckelmann, Michael; Villumsen, Bine; Narita, Takeo; Sixma, Titia K; Choudhary, Chunaram; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2015-11-19

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions that trigger non-proteolytic ubiquitylation of adjacent chromatin areas to generate binding sites for DNA repair factors. This depends on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 (refs 1-6), and UBC13 (also known as UBE2N), an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that specifically generates K63-linked ubiquitin chains. Whereas RNF168 is known to catalyse ubiquitylation of H2A-type histones, leading to the recruitment of repair factors such as 53BP1 (refs 8-10), the critical substrates of RNF8 and K63-linked ubiquitylation remain elusive. Here we elucidate how RNF8 and UBC13 promote recruitment of RNF168 and downstream factors to DSB sites in human cells. We establish that UBC13-dependent K63-linked ubiquitylation at DSB sites is predominantly mediated by RNF8 but not RNF168, and that H1-type linker histones, but not core histones, represent major chromatin-associated targets of this modification. The RNF168 module (UDM1) recognizing RNF8-generated ubiquitylations is a high-affinity reader of K63-ubiquitylated H1, mechanistically explaining the essential roles of RNF8 and UBC13 in recruiting RNF168 to DSBs. Consistently, reduced expression or chromatin association of linker histones impair accumulation of K63-linked ubiquitin conjugates and repair factors at DSB-flanking chromatin. These results identify histone H1 as a key target of RNF8-UBC13 in DSB signalling and expand the concept of the histone code by showing that posttranslational modifications of linker histones can serve as important marks for recognition by factors involved in genome stability maintenance, and possibly beyond.

  10. The nucleolar ubiquitin-specific protease USP36 deubiquitinates and stabilizes c-Myc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Xin; He, Xia; Yin, Li; Komada, Masayuki; Sears, Rosalie C.; Dai, Mu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    c-Myc protein stability and activity are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Aberrant stabilization of c-Myc contributes to many human cancers. c-Myc is ubiquitinated by SCFFbw7 (a SKP1-cullin-1-F-box complex that contains the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7, Fbw7, as the F-box protein) and several other ubiquitin ligases, whereas it is deubiquitinated and stabilized by ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 28. The bulk of c-Myc degradation appears to occur in the nucleolus. However, whether c-Myc is regulated by deubiquitination in the nucleolus is not known. Here, we report that the nucleolar deubiquitinating enzyme USP36 is a novel c-Myc deubiquitinase. USP36 interacts with and deubiquitinates c-Myc in cells and in vitro, leading to the stabilization of c-Myc. This USP36 regulation of c-Myc occurs in the nucleolus. Interestingly, USP36 interacts with the nucleolar Fbw7γ but not the nucleoplasmic Fbw7α. However, it abolished c-Myc degradation mediated both by Fbw7γ and by Fbw7α. Consistently, knockdown of USP36 reduces the levels of c-Myc and suppresses cell proliferation. We further show that USP36 itself is a c-Myc target gene, suggesting that USP36 and c-Myc form a positive feedback regulatory loop. High expression levels of USP36 are found in a subset of human breast and lung cancers. Altogether, these results identified USP36 as a crucial and bono fide deubiquitinating enzyme controlling c-Myc’s nucleolar degradation pathway. PMID:25775507

  11. Galectin-3 Inhibits Galectin-8/Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcus (GAS is an important human pathogen that causes a wide variety of cutaneous and systemic infections. Although originally thought to be an extracellular bacterium, numerous studies have demonstrated that GAS can trigger internalization into nonimmune cells to escape from immune surveillance or antibiotic-mediated killing. Epithelial cells possess a defense mechanism involving autophagy-mediated targeting and killing of GAS within lysosome-fused autophagosomes. In endothelial cells, in contrast, we previously showed that autophagy is not sufficient for GAS killing. In the present study, we showed higher galectin-3 (Gal-3 expression and lower Gal-8 expression in endothelial cells than in epithelial cells. The recruitment of Gal-3 to GAS is higher and the recruitment of Gal-8 to GAS is lower in endothelial cells than in epithelial cells. We further showed that Gal-3 promotes GAS replication and diminishes the recruitment of Gal-8 and ubiquitin, the latter of which is a critical protein for autophagy sequestration. After knockdown of Gal-3 in endothelial cells, the colocalization of Gal-8, parkin, and ubiquitin-decorated GAS is significantly increased, as is the interaction of Gal-8 and parkin, an E3 ligase. Furthermore, inhibition of Gal-8 in epithelial cells attenuates recruitment of parkin; both Gal-8 and parkin contribute to ubiquitin recruitment and GAS elimination. Animal studies confirmed that Gal-3-knockout mice develop less-severe skin damage and that GAS replication can be detected only in the air pouch and not in organs and endothelial cells. These results demonstrate that Gal-3 inhibits ubiquitin recruitment by blocking Gal-8 and parkin recruitment, resulting in GAS replication in endothelial cells.

  12. Lithium Suppresses Hedgehog Signaling via Promoting ITCH E3 Ligase Activity and Gli1–SUFU Interaction in PDA Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is one of the hallmarks of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA. Lithium, a clinical mood stabilizer for the treatment of mental disorders, is known to suppress tumorigenic potential of PDA cells by targeting the Hh/Gli signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of lithium induced down-regulation of Hh/Gli1. Our data show that lithium promotes the poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of Gli1 through activating E3 ligase ITCH. Additionally, lithium enhances interaction between Gli1 and SUFU via suppressing GSK3β, which phosphorylates SUFU and destabilizes the SUFU-Gli1 inhibitory complex. Our studies illustrate a novel mechanism by which lithium suppresses Hh signaling via simultaneously promoting ITCH-dependent Gli1 ubiquitination/degradation and SUFU-mediated Gli1 inhibition.

  13. The ubiquitin system, disease, and drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroski Matthew D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ubiquitin system of protein modification has emerged as a crucial mechanism involved in the regulation of a wide array of cellular processes. As our knowledge of the pathways in this system has grown, so have the ties between the protein ubiquitin and human disease. The power of the ubiquitin system for therapeutic benefit blossomed with the approval of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade in 2003 by the FDA. Current drug discovery activities in the ubiquitin system seek to (i expand the development of new proteasome inhibitors with distinct mechanisms of action and improved bioavailability, and (ii validate new targets. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the ubiquitin system in various human diseases ranging from cancer, viral infection and neurodegenerative disorders to muscle wasting, diabetes and inflammation. I provide an introduction to the ubiquitin system, highlight some emerging relationships between the ubiquitin system and disease, and discuss current and future efforts to harness aspects of this potentially powerful system for improving human health. Publication history Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  14. Atg5-independent sequestration of ubiquitinated mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen A Collins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Like several other intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium marinum (Mm escapes from phagosomes into the host cytosol where it can polymerize actin, leading to motility that promotes spread to neighboring cells. However, only approximately 25% of internalized Mm form actin tails, and the fate of the remaining bacteria has been unknown. Here we show that cytosolic access results in a new and intricate host pathogen interaction: host macrophages ubiquitinate Mm, while Mm shed their ubiquitinated cell walls. Phagosomal escape and ubiquitination of Mm occurred rapidly, prior to 3.5 hours post infection; at the same time, ubiquitinated Mm cell wall material mixed with host-derived dense membrane networks appeared in close proximity to cytosolic bacteria, suggesting cell wall shedding and association with remnants of the lysed phagosome. At 24 hours post-infection, Mm that polymerized actin were not ubiquitinated, whereas ubiquitinated Mm were found within LAMP-1-positive vacuoles resembling lysosomes. Though double membranes were observed which sequestered Mm away from the cytosol, targeting of Mm to the LAMP-1-positive vacuoles was independent of classical autophagy, as demonstrated by absence of LC3 association and by Atg5-independence of their formation. Further, ubiquitination and LAMP-1 association did not occur with mutant avirulent Mm lacking ESX-1 (type VII secretion, which fail to escape the primary phagosome; apart from its function in phagosome escape, ESX-1 was not directly required for Mm ubiquitination in macrophages or in vitro. These data suggest that virulent Mm follow two distinct paths in the cytosol of infected host cells: bacterial ubiquitination is followed by sequestration into lysosome-like organelles via an autophagy-independent pathway, while cell wall shedding may allow escape from this fate to permit continued residence in the cytosol and formation of actin tails.

  15. Met1-linked Ubiquitination in Immune Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how non-degradative ubiquitin modifications control pro-inflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor κB and mitogen......Methionine 1-linked ubiquitin chains (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. Molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled...

  16. F-box protein FBXL2 targets cyclin D2 for ubiquitination and degradation to inhibit leukemic cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bill B.; Glasser, Jennifer R.; Coon, Tiffany A.; Zou, Chunbin; Miller, Hannah L.; Fenton, Moon; McDyer, John F.; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hematologic maligancies exhibit a growth advantage by up-regulation of components within the molecular apparatus involved in cell-cycle progression. The SCF (Skip-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ligase family provides homeostatic feedback control of cell division by mediating ubiquitination and degradation of cell-cycle proteins. By screening several previously undescribed E3 ligase components, we describe the behavior of a relatively new SCF subunit, termed FBXL2, that ubiquitinates and destabilizes cyclin D2 protein leading to G0 phase arrest and apoptosis in leukemic and B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. FBXL2 expression was strongly suppressed, and yet cyclin D2 protein levels were robustly expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patient samples. Depletion of endogenous FBXL2 stabilized cyclin D2 levels, whereas ectopically expressed FBXL2 decreased cyclin D2 lifespan. FBXL2 did not bind a phosphodegron within its substrate, which is typical of other F-box proteins, but uniquely targeted a calmodulin-binding signature within cyclin D2 to facilitate its polyubiquitination. Calmodulin competes with the F-box protein for access to this motif where it bound and protected cyclin D2 from FBXL2. Calmodulin reversed FBXL2-induced G0 phase arrest and attenuated FBXL2-induced apoptosis of lymphoblastoid cells. These results suggest an antiproliferative effect of SCFFBXL2 in lymphoproliferative malignancies. PMID:22323446

  17. Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes form ubiquitin (Ub)-like isopeptide bonds on the lysine residues of proteins by at least two distinct pathways that are reversible and regulated. In mycobacteria, the C-terminal Gln of Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) is deamidated and isopeptide linked to proteins by a mechanism distinct from ubiquitylation in enzymology yet analogous to ubiquitylation in targeting proteins for destruction by proteasomes. Ub-fold proteins of archaea (SAMPs, small archaeal modifier protein...

  18. Vaccinia virus encodes a polypeptide with DNA ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S M; Smith, G L

    1989-11-25

    Vaccinia virus gene SalF 15R potentially encodes a polypeptide of 63 kD which shares 30% amino acid identity with S. pombe and S. cerevisiae DNA ligases. DNA ligase proteins can be identified by incubation with alpha-(32P)ATP, resulting in the formation of a covalent DNA ligase-AMP adduct, an intermediate in the enzyme reaction. A novel radio-labelled polypeptide of approximately 61 kD appears in extracts from vaccinia virus infected cells after incubation with alpha-(32P)ATP. This protein is present throughout infection and is a DNA ligase as the radioactivity is discharged in the presence of either DNA substrate or pyrophosphate. DNA ligase assays show an increase in enzyme activity in cell extracts after vaccinia virus infection. A rabbit antiserum, raised against a bacterial fusion protein of beta-galactosidase and a portion of SalF 15R, immune-precipitates polypeptides of 61 and 54 kD from extracts of vaccinia virus-infected cells. This antiserum also immune-precipitates the novel DNA ligase-AMP adduct, thus proving that the observed DNA ligase is encoded by SalF 15R.

  19. CAR Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Facilitating the Ubiquitination and Degradation of PGC1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yan, Jiong; Xu, Meishu; Ren, Songrong; Xie, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α) are master regulators of drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis, respectively. In supporting the cross talk between drug metabolism and energy metabolism, activation of CAR has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and ameliorate hyperglycemia in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that CAR suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression through posttranslational regulation of the subcellular localization and degradation of PGC1α. Activated CAR translocated into the nucleus and served as an adaptor protein to recruit PGC1α to the Cullin1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination. The interaction between CAR and PGC1α also led to their sequestration within the promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies, where PGC1α and CAR subsequently underwent proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our findings revealed an unexpected function of CAR in recruiting an E3 ligase and targeting the gluconeogenic activity of PGC1α. Both drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis are energy-demanding processes. The negative regulation of PGC1α by CAR may represent a cellular adaptive mechanism to accommodate energy-restricted conditions.

  20. Protein Kinase C-dependent Ubiquitination and Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Bender-Sigel, Julia; Sorkina, Tatiana; Closs, Ellen Ildicho; Sorkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) is responsible for the bulk of the uptake of cationic amino acids in most mammalian cells. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) leads to down-regulation of the cell surface CAT-1. To examine the mechanisms of PKC-induced down-regulation of CAT-1, a functional mutant of CAT-1 (CAT-1-HA-GFP) was generated in which a hemagglutinin antigen (HA) epitope tag was introduced into the second extracellular loop and GFP was attached to the carboxyl terminus. CAT-1-HA-GFP was stably expressed in porcine aorthic endothelial and human epithelial kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Using the HA antibody internalization assay we have demonstrated that PKC-dependent endocytosis was strongly inhibited by siRNA depletion of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that CAT-1-HA-GFP internalization requires clathrin-coated pits. Internalized CAT-1-HA-GFP was accumulated in early, recycling, and late endosomes. PKC activation also resulted in ubiquitination of CAT-1. CAT-1 ubiquitination and endocytosis in phorbol ester-stimulated porcine aorthic endothelial and HEK293 cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of NEDD4-2 and NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligases, respectively. In contrast, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the dopamine transporter was dependent on NEDD4-2 in all cell types tested. Altogether, our data suggest that ubiquitination mediated by NEDD4-2 or NEDD4-1 leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the common mode of regulation of various transporter proteins by PKC. PMID:21212261

  1. STEP61 is a substrate of the E3 ligase parkin and is upregulated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Pradeep K; Xu, Jian; Videira, Rita Alexandra; Ononenyi, Chimezie; Baltazar, Graça; Lombroso, Paul J; Nairn, Angus C

    2015-01-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons affects the plasticity of striatal neurons and leads to significant motor and cognitive disabilities during the progression of the disease. PARK2 encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and is implicated in genetic and sporadic PD. Mutations in PARK2 are a major contributing factor in the early onset of autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), although the mechanisms by which a disruption in parkin function contributes to the pathophysiology of PD remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that parkin is an E3 ligase for STEP61 (striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase), a protein tyrosine phosphatase implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In cellular models, parkin ubiquitinates STEP61 and thereby regulates its level through the proteasome system, whereas clinically relevant parkin mutants fail to do so. STEP61 protein levels are elevated on acute down-regulation of parkin or in PARK2 KO rat striatum. Relevant to PD, STEP61 accumulates in the striatum of human sporadic PD and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mice. The increase in STEP61 is associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of its substrate ERK1/2 and the downstream target of ERK1/2, pCREB [phospho-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)]. These results indicate that STEP61 is a novel substrate of parkin, although further studies are necessary to determine whether elevated STEP61 levels directly contribute to the pathophysiology of PD.

  2. A stable chemical SUMO1-Ubc9 conjugate specifically binds as a thioester mimic to the RanBP2-E3 ligase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Stefanie; Ritterhoff, Tobias; Melchior, Frauke; Mootz, Henning D

    2015-05-26

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers such as SUMO are conjugated to substrate proteins by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. In the presence of an E3 ligase, the E2∼Ubl thioester intermediate becomes highly activated and is prone to chemical decomposition, thus making biochemical and structural studies difficult. Here we explored a stable chemical conjugate of the E2 enzyme from the SUMO pathway, Ubc9, with its modifier SUMO1 as a structural analogue of the Ubc9∼SUMO1 thioester intermediate, by introducing a triazole linkage by biorthogonal click chemistry. The chemical conjugate proved stable against proteolytic cleavage, in contrast to a Ubc9-SUMO1 isopeptide analogue obtained by auto-SUMOylation. Triazole-linked Ubc9-SUMO1 bound specifically to the preassembled E3 ligase complex RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9, thus suggesting that it is a suitable thioester mimic. We anticipate interesting prospects for its use as a research tool to study protein complexes involving E2 and E3 enzymes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. HUWE1 and TRIP12 Collaborate in Degradation of Ubiquitin-Fusion Proteins and Misframed Ubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben G; Steinhauer, Cornelia; Lees, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized. Rec...

  4. Regulation of DNA double-strand break repair by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwertman, Petra; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions. The swift recognition and faithful repair of such damage is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for cell and organismal fitness. Signalling by ubiquitin, SUMO and other ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs...

  5. The Salmonella Effector Protein SopA Modulates Innate Immune Responses by Targeting TRIM E3 Ligase Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kamanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of effector proteins, triggers signaling pathways leading to inflammation. One of these effectors is SopA, a HECT-type E3 ligase, which is required for the efficient stimulation of inflammation in an animal model of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. We show here that SopA contributes to the stimulation of innate immune responses by targeting two host E3 ubiquitin ligases, TRIM56 and TRIM65. We also found that TRIM65 interacts with the innate immune receptor MDA5 enhancing its ability to stimulate interferon-β signaling. Therefore, by targeting TRIM56 and TRIM65, SopA can stimulate signaling through two innate immune receptors, RIG-I and MDA5. These findings describe a Salmonella mechanism to modulate inflammatory responses by directly targeting innate immune signaling mechanisms.

  6. Regulation of primary cilia formation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2016-10-15

    Primary cilia form at the surface of most vertebrate cell types, where they are essential signalling antennae for signal transduction pathways important for development and cancer, including Hedgehog. The importance of primary cilia in development is clearly demonstrated by numerous disorders (known as ciliopathies) associated with disrupted cilia formation (ciliogenesis). Recent advances describing functional regulators of the primary cilium highlight an emerging role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Although there are well-documented examples of E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitases in the regulation of cilia proteins, many putative components remain unvalidated. This review explores current understanding of how the UPS influences primary cilia formation, and also how recent screen data have identified more putative regulators of the UPS. Emerging research has identified many promising leads in the search for regulators of this important organelle and may identify potential novel therapeutic targets for intervention in cancer and other disease contexts. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. COLLABORATIVE ACTION OF CELL CYCLE, MOLECULAR CHAPERONES, AND UBIQUITIN PROTEASOME SYSTEM IN NEUROONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravir Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available he striking feature in tumor biology is uncontrolled cell proliferation and growth. Any alteration in the genetic make up may cause cell cycle deregulation that leads to aberrant cell cycle re-entry. These cascades ultimately cause cancerous situation with unwanted cell growth and division. There are several factors in cell cycle events that can lead to cancerous situations, for instance, checkpoint breach, extracellular signals, malfunctioned protein kinases, re-expression of cyclins and cyclin-CDKs complex. A crucial function of cyclinCDK complex is phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene that inhibits its ability to regulate the action of E2F transcription factor, which induces the gene expression and thus cause cell proliferation. To maintain the cellular homeostasis under tumorous condition, a line of protective mechanism is switched on such as availability of molecular chaperones; and if repair work fails, ubiquitin proteasome system comes in action. These regulatory mechanisms are highly conserved and play a critical role in maintaining several molecular events in the brain tumor or any stress situation. Misfolded proteins in tumor tissues are either rectified by chaperone activity upto a certain threshold or follow a degradation pathway by proteolytic activity of ubiquitinproteasome system. In this review, we have highlighted an extensive explorative potential of molecular chaperones in combination with ubiquitin E3 ligase enzymes activities in brain tumors.

  8. SEL-10 interacts with presenilin 1, facilitates its ubiquitination, and alters A-beta peptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhe; Pauley, Adele M; Myers, Rick L; Shuang, Rongqing; Brashler, John R; Yan, Riqiang; Buhl, Allen E; Ruble, Cara; Gurney, Mark E

    2002-09-01

    Mutations in the human presenilin genes (PS1 or PS2) have been linked to autosomal dominant, early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilins, probably as an essential part of gamma-secretase, modulate gamma-cleavage of the amyloid protein precursor (APP) to the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). Mutations in sel-12, a Caenorhabditis elegans presenilin homologue, cause a defect in egg laying that can be suppressed by loss of function mutations in a second gene, SEL-10. SEL-10 protein is a homologue of yeast Cdc4, a member of the SCF (Skp1-Cdc53/CUL1-F-box protein) E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase family. In this study, we show that human SEL-10 interacts with PS1 and enhances PS1 ubiquitination, thus altering cellular levels of unprocessed PS1 and its N- and C-terminal fragments. Co-transfection of sel-10 and APP cDNAs in HEK293 cells leads to an alteration in the metabolism of APP and to an increase in the production of amyloid beta-peptide, the principal component of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Keratin 6a reorganization for ubiquitin-proteasomal processing is a direct antimicrobial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jonathan K L; Yuen, Don; Too, Priscilla Hiu-Mei; Sun, Yan; Willard, Belinda; Man, David; Tam, Connie

    2017-11-30

    Skin and mucosal epithelia deploy antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to eliminate harmful microbes. We reported that the intermediate filament keratin 6a (K6a) is constitutively processed into antimicrobial fragments in corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we show that K6a network remodeling is a host defense response that directly up-regulates production of keratin-derived AMPs (KAMPs) by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Bacterial ligands trigger K6a phosphorylation at S19, S22, S37, and S60, leading to network disassembly. Mutagenic analysis of K6a confirmed that the site-specific phosphorylation augmented its solubility. K6a in the cytosol is ubiquitinated by cullin-RING E3 ligases for subsequent proteasomal processing. Without an appreciable increase in K6a gene expression and proteasome activity, a higher level of cytosolic K6a results in enhanced KAMP production. Although proteasome-mediated proteolysis is known to produce antigenic peptides in adaptive immunity, our findings demonstrate its new role in producing AMPs for innate immune defense. Manipulating K6a phosphorylation or UPS activity may provide opportunities to harness the innate immunity of epithelia against infection. © 2018 Chan et al.

  10. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1, DNA ligase 3 (Lig3 and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4. While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER, homologous recombination repair (HRR and nucleotide excision repair (NER. Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ. Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase

  11. Increased ubiquitination and reduced plasma membrane trafficking of placental amino acid transporter SNAT-2 in human IUGR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yung; Rosario, Fredrick J; Shehab, Majida Abu; Powell, Theresa L; Gupta, Madhulika B; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Placental amino acid transport is decreased in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have shown that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling regulates system A amino acid transport by modulating the ubiquitination and plasma membrane trafficking of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT-2) in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. We hypothesize that IUGR is associated with (1) inhibition of placental mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling pathways, (2) increased amino acid transporter ubiquitination in placental homogenates and (3) decreased protein expression of SNAT-2 in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (MVM). To test this hypothesis, we collected placental tissue and isolated MVM from women with pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=25) and gestational age-matched women with appropriately grown control infants (n=19, birth weights between the twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentiles). The activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 was decreased whereas the protein expression of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2; +72%, Pcauses down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Cytosolic Pellino-1-Mediated K63-Linked Ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 Macrophages Regulates Glucose Intolerance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IRF5 is a signature transcription factor that induces M1 macrophage polarization. However, little is known regarding cytosolic proteins that induce IRF5 activation for M1 polarization. Here, we report the interaction between ubiquitin E3 ligase Pellino-1 and IRF5 in the cytoplasm, which increased nuclear translocation of IRF5 by K63-linked ubiquitination in human and mouse M1 macrophages. LPS and/or IFN-γ increased Pellino-1 expression, and M1 polarization was attenuated in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Defective M1 polarization in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages improved glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, macrophages in adipose tissues from obese humans exhibited increased Pellino-1 expression and IRF5 nuclear translocation compared with nonobese subjects, and these changes are associated with insulin resistance index. This study demonstrates that cytosolic Pellino-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 macrophages regulates glucose intolerance in obesity, suggesting a cytosolic mediator function of Pellino-1 in TLR4/IFN-γ receptor-IRF5 axis during M1 polarization.

  13. The Cullin-3-Rbx1-KCTD10 complex controls endothelial barrier function via K63 ubiquitination of RhoB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Igor; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Majoleé, Jisca; Pronk, Manon C; Maekawa, Masashi; Geerts, Dirk; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hordijk, Peter L

    2018-01-22

    RhoGTPases control endothelial cell (EC) migration, adhesion, and barrier formation. Whereas the relevance of RhoA for endothelial barrier function is widely accepted, the role of the RhoA homologue RhoB is poorly defined. RhoB and RhoA are 85% identical, but RhoB's subcellular localization and half-life are uniquely different. Here, we studied the role of ubiquitination for the function and stability of RhoB in primary human ECs. We show that the K63 polyubiquitination at lysine 162 and 181 of RhoB targets the protein to lysosomes. Moreover, we identified the RING E3 ligase complex Cullin-3-Rbx1-KCTD10 as key modulator of endothelial barrier integrity via its regulation of the ubiquitination, localization, and activity of RhoB. In conclusion, our data show that ubiquitination controls the subcellular localization and lysosomal degradation of RhoB and thereby regulates the stability of the endothelial barrier through control of RhoB-mediated EC contraction. © 2018 Kovačević et al.

  14. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang, E-mail: gux2002@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement of this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. - Highlights: • Lys27 in NEDD8 is critical for protein neddylation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant impairs the NEDD8 conjugation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant significantly reduces the activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases.

  15. Regulation of STIM1 and SOCE by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jeffrey M; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Patrick, Gentry N

    2010-10-18

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) mediates the majority of protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The UPS has recently emerged as a key degradation pathway involved in synapse development and function. In order to better understand the function of the UPS at synapses we utilized a genetic and proteomic approach to isolate and identify novel candidate UPS substrates from biochemically purified synaptic membrane preparations. Using these methods, we have identified Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). STIM1 is as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium sensor that has been shown to regulate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). We have characterized STIM1 in neurons, finding STIM1 is expressed throughout development with stable, high expression in mature neurons. As in non-excitable cells, STIM1 is distributed in a membranous and punctate fashion in hippocampal neurons. In addition, a population of STIM1 was found to exist at synapses. Furthermore, using surface biotinylation and live-cell labeling methods, we detect a subpopulation of STIM1 on the surface of hippocampal neurons. The role of STIM1 as a regulator of SOCE has typically been examined in non-excitable cell types. Therefore, we examined the role of the UPS in STIM1 and SOCE function in HEK293 cells. While we find that STIM1 is ubiquitinated, its stability is not altered by proteasome inhibitors in cells under basal conditions or conditions that activate SOCE. However, we find that surface STIM1 levels and thapsigargin (TG)-induced SOCE are significantly increased in cells treated with proteasome inhibitors. Additionally, we find that the overexpression of POSH (Plenty of SH3's), an E3 ubiquitin ligase recently shown to be involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, leads to decreased STIM1 surface levels. Together, these results provide evidence for previously undescribed roles of the UPS in the regulation of STIM1 and SOCE function.

  16. Generation and Validation of Intracellular Ubiquitin Variant Inhibitors for USP7 and USP10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Sartori, Maria A.; Makhnevych, Taras; Federowicz, Kelly E.; Dong, Xiaohui; Liu, Li; Nim, Satra; Dong, Aiping; Yang, Jingsong; Li, Yanjun; Haddad, Dania; Ernst, Andreas; Heerding, Dirk; Tong, Yufeng; Moffat, Jason; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2017-11-01

    Post-translational modification of the p53 signaling pathway plays an important role in cell cycle progression and stress-induced apoptosis. Indeed, a large body of work has shown that dysregulation of p53 and its E3 ligase MDM2 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) promotes carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. Thus, drug discovery efforts have focused on the restoration of wild-type p53 activity or inactivation of oncogenic mutant p53 by targeted inhibition of UPS components, particularly key deubiquitinases (DUBs) of the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) class. However, development of selective small-molecule USP inhibitors has been challenging, partly due to the highly conserved structural features of the catalytic sites across the class. To tackle this problem, we devised a protein engineering strategy for rational design of inhibitors for DUBs and other UPS proteins. We employed a phage-displayed ubiquitin variant (UbV) library to develop inhibitors targeting the DUBs USP7 and USP10, which are involved in regulating levels of p53 and MDM2. We were able to identify UbVs that bound USP7 or USP10 with high affinity and inhibited deubiquitination activity. We solved the crystal structure of UbV.7.2 and rationalized the molecular basis for enhanced affinity and specificity for USP7. Finally, cell death was increased significantly by UbV.7.2 expression in a colon cancer cell line that was treated with the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of inhibiting USP7 by this approach

  17. Regulation of STIM1 and SOCE by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Keil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS mediates the majority of protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The UPS has recently emerged as a key degradation pathway involved in synapse development and function. In order to better understand the function of the UPS at synapses we utilized a genetic and proteomic approach to isolate and identify novel candidate UPS substrates from biochemically purified synaptic membrane preparations. Using these methods, we have identified Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1. STIM1 is as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium sensor that has been shown to regulate store-operated Ca(2+ entry (SOCE. We have characterized STIM1 in neurons, finding STIM1 is expressed throughout development with stable, high expression in mature neurons. As in non-excitable cells, STIM1 is distributed in a membranous and punctate fashion in hippocampal neurons. In addition, a population of STIM1 was found to exist at synapses. Furthermore, using surface biotinylation and live-cell labeling methods, we detect a subpopulation of STIM1 on the surface of hippocampal neurons. The role of STIM1 as a regulator of SOCE has typically been examined in non-excitable cell types. Therefore, we examined the role of the UPS in STIM1 and SOCE function in HEK293 cells. While we find that STIM1 is ubiquitinated, its stability is not altered by proteasome inhibitors in cells under basal conditions or conditions that activate SOCE. However, we find that surface STIM1 levels and thapsigargin (TG-induced SOCE are significantly increased in cells treated with proteasome inhibitors. Additionally, we find that the overexpression of POSH (Plenty of SH3's, an E3 ubiquitin ligase recently shown to be involved in the regulation of Ca(2+ homeostasis, leads to decreased STIM1 surface levels. Together, these results provide evidence for previously undescribed roles of the UPS in the regulation of STIM1 and SOCE function.

  18. Functional implications and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the peptide transporter Ptr2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ken; Moriya, Atsuto; Uemura, Satoshi; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2014-11-01

    The peptide transporter Ptr2 plays a central role in di- or tripeptide import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although PTR2 transcription has been extensively analyzed in terms of upregulation by the Ubr1-Cup9 circuit, the structural and functional information for this transporter is limited. Here we identified 14 amino acid residues required for peptide import through Ptr2 based on the crystallographic information of Streptococcus thermophilus peptide transporter PepTst and based on the conservation of primary sequences among the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs). Expression of Ptr2 carrying one of the 14 mutations of which the corresponding residues of PepTst are involved in peptide recognition, salt bridge interaction, or peptide translocation failed to enable ptr2Δtrp1 cell growth in alanyl-tryptophan (Ala-Trp) medium. We observed that Ptr2 underwent rapid degradation after cycloheximide treatment (half-life, approximately 1 h), and this degradation depended on Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. The ubiquitination of Ptr2 most likely occurs at the N-terminal lysines 16, 27, and 34. Simultaneous substitution of arginine for the three lysines fully prevented Ptr2 degradation. Ptr2 mutants of the presumed peptide-binding site (E92Q, R93K, K205R, W362L, and E480D) exhibited severe defects in peptide import and were subjected to Rsp5-dependent degradation when cells were moved to Ala-Trp medium, whereas, similar to what occurs in the wild-type Ptr2, mutant proteins of the intracellular gate were upregulated. These results suggest that Ptr2 undergoes quality control and the defects in peptide binding and the concomitant conformational change render Ptr2 subject to efficient ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Transcriptional effects of E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx on apoptosis, hypertrophy and inflammation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zeng

    Full Text Available Atrogin-1/MAFbx is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates myocardial structure and function through the ubiquitin-dependent protein modification. However, little is known about the effect of atrogin-1 activation on the gene expression changes in cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were infected with adenovirus atrogin-1 (Ad-atrogin-1 or GFP control (Ad-GFP for 24 hours. The gene expression profiles were compared with microarray analysis. 314 genes were identified as differentially expressed by overexpression of atrogin-1, of which 222 were up-regulated and 92 were down-regulated. Atrogin-1 overexpression significantly modulated the expression of genes in 30 main functional categories, most genes clustered around the regulation of cell death, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism and cardiomyoctye structure and function. Moreover, overexpression of atrogin-1 significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte survival, hypertrophy and inflammation under basal condition or in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In contrast, knockdown of atrogin-1 by siRNA had opposite effects. The mechanisms underlying these effects were associated with inhibition of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways. In conclusion, the present microarray analysis reveals previously unappreciated atrogin-1 regulation of genes that could contribute to the effects of atrogin-1 on cardiomyocyte survival, hypertrophy and inflammation in response to endotoxin, and may provide novel insight into how atrogin-1 modulates the programming of cardiac muscle gene expression.

  20. Electron microscopy structure of human APC/C(CDH1)-EMI1 reveals multimodal mechanism of E3 ligase shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jeremiah J; Brown, Nicholas G; Petzold, Georg; Watson, Edmond R; Grace, Christy R R; Nourse, Amanda; Jarvis, Marc A; Kriwacki, Richard W; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A

    2013-07-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ~1.5-MDa multiprotein E3 ligase enzyme that regulates cell division by promoting timely ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of key cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Inhibition of human APC/C(CDH1) during interphase by early mitotic inhibitor 1 (EMI1) is essential for accurate coordination of DNA synthesis and mitosis. Here, we report a hybrid structural approach involving NMR, electron microscopy and enzymology, which reveal that EMI1's 143-residue C-terminal domain inhibits multiple APC/C(CDH1) functions. The intrinsically disordered D-box, linker and tail elements, together with a structured zinc-binding domain, bind distinct regions of APC/C(CDH1) to synergistically both block the substrate-binding site and inhibit ubiquitin-chain elongation. The functional importance of intrinsic structural disorder is explained by enabling a small inhibitory domain to bind multiple sites to shut down various functions of a 'molecular machine' nearly 100 times its size.

  1. EM Structure of human APC/CCDH1-EMI1 reveals multimodal mechanism of E3 ligase shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jeremiah J.; Brown, Nicholas G.; Petzold, Georg; Watson, Edmond R.; Grace, Christy R. R.; Nourse, Amanda; Jarvis, Marc A.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2013-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a ~1.5 MDa multiprotein E3 ligase enzyme that regulates cell division by promoting timely ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of key cell cycle regulatory proteins. Inhibition of human APC/CCDH1 during interphase by Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 (EMI1) is essential for accurate coordination of DNA synthesis and mitosis. Here, we report a hybrid structural approach involving NMR, electron microscopy, and enzymology, which reveal that EMI1’s 143-residue C-terminal domain inhibits multiple APC/CCDH1 functions. The intrinsically disordered D-box, Linker, and Tail elements, together with a structured zinc-binding domain, bind distinct regions of APC/CCDH1 to synergistically both block the substrate-binding site and inhibit ubiquitin chain elongation. The functional importance of intrinsic structural disorder is explained by enabling a small inhibitory domain to bind multiple sites to shut down multiple functions of a “molecular machine” nearly 100 times its size. PMID:23708605

  2. Ubiquitin Accumulation on Disease Associated Protein Aggregates Is Correlated with Nuclear Ubiquitin Depletion, Histone De-Ubiquitination and Impaired DNA Damage Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ben Yehuda

    Full Text Available Deposition of ubiquitin conjugates on inclusion bodies composed of protein aggregates is a definitive cytopathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. We show that accumulation of ubiquitin on polyQ IB, associated with Huntington's disease, is correlated with extensive depletion of nuclear ubiquitin and histone de-ubiquitination. Histone ubiquitination plays major roles in chromatin regulation and DNA repair. Accordingly, we observe that cells expressing IB fail to respond to radiomimetic DNA damage, to induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation and to recruit 53BP1 to damaged foci. Interestingly ubiquitin depletion, histone de-ubiquitination and impaired DNA damage response are not restricted to PolyQ aggregates and are associated with artificial aggregating luciferase mutants. The longevity of brain neurons depends on their capacity to respond to and repair extensive ongoing DNA damage. Impaired DNA damage response, even modest one, could thus lead to premature neuron aging and mortality.

  3. Regulation of GPCR Trafficking by Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Justine E; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-promoted signaling mediates cellular responses to a variety of stimuli involved in diverse physiological processes. In addition, GPCRs are also the largest class of target for many drugs used to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the role of GPCR signaling in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms governing GPCR signaling remain poorly understanding. Classically, GPCR signaling is tightly regulated by GPCR kinases and β-arrestins, which act in a concerted fashion to govern GPCR desensitization and also GPCR trafficking. Ubiquitination has now emerged as an important posttranslational modification that has multiple roles, either directly or indirectly, in governing GPCR trafficking. Recent studies have revealed a mechanistic link between GPCR phosphorylation, β-arrestins, and ubiquitination. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how ubiquitin regulates GPCR trafficking within the endocytic pathway. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.

  5. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ling

    Full Text Available Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance.

  6. MID1 catalyzes the ubiquitination of protein phosphatase 2A and mutations within its Bbox1 domain disrupt polyubiquitination of alpha4 but not of PP2Ac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijuan Du

    Full Text Available MID1 is a microtubule-associated protein that belongs to the TRIM family. MID1 functions as an ubiquitin E3 ligase, and recently was shown to catalyze the polyubiquitination of, alpha4, a protein regulator of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. It has been hypothesized that MID1 regulates PP2A, requiring the intermediary interaction with alpha4. Here we report that MID1 catalyzes the in vitro ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac in the absence of alpha4. In the presence of alpha4, the level of PP2Ac ubiquitination is reduced. Using the MID1 RING-Bbox1-Bbox2 (RB1B2 construct containing the E3 ligase domains, we investigate the functional effects of mutations within the Bbox domains that are identified in patients with X-linked Opitz G syndrome (XLOS. The RB1B2 proteins harboring the C142S, C145T, A130V/T mutations within the Bbox1 domain and C195F mutation within the Bbox2 domain maintain auto-polyubiquitination activity. Qualitatively, the RB1B2 proteins containing these mutations are able to catalyze the ubiquitination of PP2Ac. In contrast, the RB1B2 proteins with mutations within the Bbox1 domain are unable to catalyze the polyubiquitination of alpha4. These results suggest that unregulated alpha4 may be the direct consequence of these natural mutations in the Bbox1 domain of MID1, and hence alpha4 could play a greater role to account for the increased amount of PP2A observed in XLOS-derived fibroblasts.

  7. JS-K, a nitric oxide pro-drug, regulates growth and apoptosis through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guobin; Qiu, Mingning; Chen, Lieqian; Zhang, Sai; Ke, Longzhi; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-05-26

    In view of the fact that JS-K might regulate ubiquitin E3 ligase and that ubiquitin E3 ligase plays an important role in the mechanism of CRPC formation, the goal was to investigate the probable mechanism by which JS-K regulates prostate cancer cells. Proliferation inhibition by JS-K on prostate cancer cells was examined usingCCK-8 assays. Caspase 3/7 activity assays and flow cytometry were performed to examine whether JS-K induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation analyses investigated JS-K's effects on the associated apoptosis mechanism. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to assess JS-K's effect on transcription of specific AR target genes. Western blotting was also performed to detect Siah2 and AR protein concentrations and co-immunoprecipitation to detect interactions of Siah2 and AR, NCoR1 and AR, and p300 and AR. JS-K inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. JS-K increased p53 and Mdm2 concentrations and regulated the caspase cascade reaction-associated protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited transcription of AR target genes and down-regulated PSA protein concentrations. JS-K inhibited Siah2 interactions and also inhibited the ubiquitination of AR. With further investigation, JS-K was found to stabilize AR and NCoR1 interactions and diminish AR and p300 interactions. The present results suggested that JS-K might have been able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, which represented a promising platform for the development of new compounds for PCa treatments.

  8. Dss1 Is a 26S Proteasome Ubiquitin Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Tatham, Michael H; Rösner, Heike I; Medina, Bethan; Larsen, Ida B; Brandstrup, Rikke; Hardwick, Kevin G; Hay, Ronald T; Kragelund, Birthe B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Proteins to be degraded are conjugated to ubiquitin chains that act as recognition signals for the 26S proteasome. The proteasome subunits Rpn10 and Rpn13 are known to bind ubiquitin, but genetic and biochemical data suggest the existence of at least one other substrate receptor. Here, we show that the phylogenetically conserved proteasome subunit Dss1 (Sem1) binds ubiquitin chains linked...

  9. Inhibition of FOXO3 tumor suppressor function by betaTrCP1 through ubiquitin-mediated degradation in a tumor mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Tsai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the primary proteolysis machine for controlling protein stability of the majority of regulatory proteins including those that are critical for cancer development. The forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3 plays a key role in regulating tumor suppression; however, the control of FOXO3 protein stability remains to be established. It is crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of FOXO3 tumor suppressor.Here we show that betaTrCP1 oncogenic ubiquitin E3-ligase interacts with FOXO3 and induces its ubiquitin-dependent degradation in an IkappaB kinase-beta phosphorylation dependent manner. Silencing betaTrCP1 augments FOXO3 protein level, resulting in promoting cellular apoptosis in cancer cells. In animal models, increasing FOXO3 protein level by silencing betaTrCP1 suppresses tumorigenesis, whereas decreasing FOXO3 by over-expressing betaTrCP1 promotes tumorigenesis and tumor growth in vivo.This is a unique demonstration that the betaTrCP1-mediated FOXO3 degradation plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. These findings significantly contribute to understanding of the control of FOXO3 stability in cancer cells and may provide opportunities for developing innovative anticancer therapeutic modalities.

  10. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Jentsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery in the late 1980s that the DNA-repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, it became clear that protein modification by ubiquitin conjugation has a much broader significance than had previously been assumed. Now, two decades later, ubiquitin and its cousin SUMO are

  11. Proper ubiquitination effect on the fertilisation outcome post-ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Shahraki, M; Tavalaee, M; Deemeh, M R; Jelodar, Gh A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-06-01

    Ubiquitin is an 8.5-kDa protein that tags outlived proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It also marks defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and has been proposed as a biomarker of sperm quality. This study evaluates the relationship between sperm ubiquitination, protamine deficiency, semen parameters and fertilisation rate in infertile individuals undergoing the intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) procedure. Semen samples from 73 ICSI candidates were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. A portion of each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination using the sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI) with flow cytometry, and protamine deficiency by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, the relationship between the fertilisation rate and sperm ubiquitination was calculated in ICSI candidates. The intensity of ubiquitination showed a significant negative correlation with sperm concentration (r = -0.255, P = 0.032) and a positive correlation with fertilisation rate (r = 0.384, P = 0.013) post-ICSI. No correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and the percentage of ubiquitination or ubiquitination intensity. The results of this study suggest that sperm ubiquitination prior to capacitation may be considered as a marker of defective spermatozoon. Spermatozoa that undergo proper ubiquitination may have a higher chance for fertilisation, because they are made redundant by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the epididymis compared to hypo-ubiquitinated spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Casein kinase II phosphorylation of cyclin F at serine 621 regulates the Lys48-ubiquitylation E3 ligase activity of the SCF((cyclin F)) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Rayner, Stephanie L; De Luca, Alana; Gwee, Serene S L; Morsch, Marco; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Shahheydari, Hamideh; Ragagnin, Audrey; Shi, Bingyang; Yang, Shu; Williams, Kelly L; Don, Emily K; Walker, Adam K; Zhang, Katharine Y; Yerbury, Justin J; Cole, Nicholas J; Atkin, Julie D; Blair, Ian P; Molloy, Mark P; Chung, Roger S

    2017-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive weakness, paralysis and muscle loss often resulting in patient death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. Recently, we identified disease-linked mutations in the CCNF gene, which encodes the cyclin F protein, in cohorts of patients with familial and sporadic ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (Williams KL et al 2016 Nat. Commun.7, 11253. (doi:10.1038/ncomms11253)). Cyclin F is a part of a Skp1-Cul-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex and is responsible for ubiquitylating proteins for degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of cyclin F and the effect of the serine to glycine substitution at site 621 (S621G) on E3 ligase activity. This specific mutation (S621G) was found in a multi-generational Australian family with ALS/FTD. We identified seven phosphorylation sites on cyclin F, of which five are newly reported including Ser621. These phosphorylation sites were mostly identified within the PEST (proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) sequence located at the C-terminus of cyclin F. Additionally, we determined that casein kinase II (CK2) can phosphorylate Ser621 and thereby regulate the E3 ligase activity of the SCF((cyclin F)) complex. Furthermore, the S621G mutation in cyclin F prevents phosphorylation by CK2 and confers elevated Lys48-ubiquitylation activity, a hallmark of ALS/FTD pathology. These findings highlight the importance of phosphorylation in regulating the activity of the SCF((cyclin F)) E3 ligase complex that can affect downstream processes and may lead to defective motor neuron development, neuron degeneration and ultimately ALS and FTD. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Relevance of simultaneous mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of PCNA homo-trimers in DNA damage tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kanao

    Full Text Available DNA damage tolerance (DDT pathways, including translesion synthesis (TLS and additional unknown mechanisms, enable recovery from replication arrest at DNA lesions. DDT pathways are regulated by post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA at its K164 residue. In particular, mono-ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase RAD18 is crucial for Polη-mediated TLS. Although the importance of modifications of PCNA to DDT pathways is well known, the relevance of its homo-trimer form, in which three K164 residues are present in a single ring, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are simultaneously mono-ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo. RAD18 catalyzed sequential mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer in a reconstituted system. Exogenous PCNA formed hetero-trimers with endogenous PCNA in WI38VA13 cell transformants. When K164R-mutated PCNA was expressed in these cells at levels that depleted endogenous PCNA homo-trimers, multiple modifications of PCNA complexes were reduced and the cells showed defects in DDT after UV irradiation. Notably, ectopic expression of mutant PCNA increased the UV sensitivities of Polη-proficient, Polη-deficient, and REV1-depleted cells, suggesting the disruption of a DDT pathway distinct from the Polη- and REV1-mediated pathways. These results suggest that simultaneous modifications of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are required for a certain DDT pathway in human cells.

  14. Relevance of simultaneous mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of PCNA homo-trimers in DNA damage tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Rie; Masuda, Yuji; Deguchi, Saori; Yumoto-Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hanaoka, Fumio; Masutani, Chikahide

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways, including translesion synthesis (TLS) and additional unknown mechanisms, enable recovery from replication arrest at DNA lesions. DDT pathways are regulated by post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at its K164 residue. In particular, mono-ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase RAD18 is crucial for Polη-mediated TLS. Although the importance of modifications of PCNA to DDT pathways is well known, the relevance of its homo-trimer form, in which three K164 residues are present in a single ring, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are simultaneously mono-ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo. RAD18 catalyzed sequential mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer in a reconstituted system. Exogenous PCNA formed hetero-trimers with endogenous PCNA in WI38VA13 cell transformants. When K164R-mutated PCNA was expressed in these cells at levels that depleted endogenous PCNA homo-trimers, multiple modifications of PCNA complexes were reduced and the cells showed defects in DDT after UV irradiation. Notably, ectopic expression of mutant PCNA increased the UV sensitivities of Polη-proficient, Polη-deficient, and REV1-depleted cells, suggesting the disruption of a DDT pathway distinct from the Polη- and REV1-mediated pathways. These results suggest that simultaneous modifications of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are required for a certain DDT pathway in human cells.

  15. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  16. The splicing factor U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Chung, In Kwon, E-mail: topoviro@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Identification of U2AF65 as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. •U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. •U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4. •U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres. -- Abstract: The human telomeric protein TRF1 is a component of the six-subunit protein complex shelterin, which provides telomere protection by organizing the telomere into a high-order structure. TRF1 functions as a negative regulator of telomere length by controlling the access of telomerase to telomeres. Thus, the cellular abundance of TRF1 at telomeres should be maintained and tightly regulated to ensure proper telomere function. Here, we identify U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65), an essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. U2AF65 interacts with TRF1 in vitro and in vivo and is capable of stabilizing TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We also found that U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TRF1. Depletion of endogenous U2AF65 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the stability of endogenous TRF1 whereas overexpression of U2AF65 significantly extended the half-life of TRF1. These findings demonstrate that U2AF65 plays a critical role in regulating the level of TRF1 through physical interaction and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Hence, U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres.

  17. Ubiquitin in signaling and protein quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Saoudi, Sofie Vincents

    Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational modification that holds a variety of cellular functions. This Ph.D. thesis is comprised of two studies, of which one focused on ubiquitylation related to inflammatory signaling, and the other on the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system ...

  18. Endosome-lysosomes, ubiquitin and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R J; Tipler, C; Arnold, J; Laszlo, L; Al-Khedhairy, A; Lowe, J; Landon, M

    1996-01-01

    Before the advent of ubiquitin immunochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, there was no known intracellular molecular commonality between neurodegenerative diseases. The application of antibodies which primarily detect ubiquitin protein conjugates has shown that all of the human and animal idiopathic and transmissible chronic neurodegenerative diseases, (including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and scrapie) are related by some form of intraneuronal inclusion which contains ubiquitin protein conjugates. In addition, disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, CJD and sheep scrapie, are characterised by deposits of amyloid, arising through incomplete breakdown of membrane proteins which may be associated with cytoskeletal reorganisation. Although our knowledge about these diseases is increasing, they remain largely untreatable. Recently, attention has focused on the mechanisms of production of different types of amyloid and the likely involvement within cells of the endosome-lysosome system, organelles which are immuno-positive for ubiquitin protein conjugates. These organelles may be 'bioreactor' sites for the unfolding and partial degradation of membrane proteins to generate the amyloid materials or their precursors which subsequently become expelled from the cell, or are released from dead cells, and accumulate as pathological entities. Such common features of the disease processes give new direction to therapeutic intervention.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/miR-92b/PTEN regulatory network contributes to tumorigenesis of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Hongxiang; Jiang, Mei; Yan, Yong; Li, Weiqing; Xu, Hanchong; Huang, Qilin; Lu, Yicheng; Chen, Juxiang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent, aggressive and fatal tumor in the central nervous system, while PTEN signaling is frequently deregulated in human GBM. We previously reported the up-regulation of the carboxyl terminal of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) in GBM, however, the causal link between its dysregulation and tumorigenesis has not been established. Using miRNA microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found activation of CHIP leads to increased transcription of miR-92b. Further studies in T98G and LN229 cells showed overexpression of miR-92b elicited reduction of PTEN and efficiently rescued glioma development in CHIP knock-down cells. The core pathway, PI3K/Akt pathway, was then upregulated, which promoted GBM cell proliferation. Meanwhile, genetic ablation of miR-92b could restore PTEN expression and inhibit glioma growth. These data demonstrate that the CHIP/miR-92b/PTEN axis serves as a new mechanism underlying GBM tumorigenesis, providing potential new therapeutic targets.

  20. Genetic Inhibition of the Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf5 Attenuates Phenotypes Associated to F508del Cystic Fibrosis Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Tomati (Valeria); E. Sondo (Elvira); A. Armirotti (Andrea); E. Caci (Emanuela); E. Pesce (Emanuela); M. Marini (Monica); A. Gianotti (Ambra); Y. Ju Jeon (Young); M. Cilli (Michele); A. Pistorio (Angela); L. Mastracci (Luca); R. Ravazzolo (Roberto); B.J. Scholte (Bob); Z. Ronai (Ze'ev); L.J.V. Galietta (Luis J. V.); N. Pedemonte (Nicoletta)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del), the most frequent CF mutation, impairs CFTR trafficking and gating. F508del-CFTR mistrafficking may be corrected by acting directly on mutant CFTR itself or by modulating

  1. Genetic Inhibition Of The Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf5 Attenuates Phenotypes Associated To F508del Cystic Fibrosis Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomati, Valeria; Sondo, Elvira; Armirotti, Andrea; Caci, Emanuela; Pesce, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Gianotti, Ambra; Jeon, Young Ju; Cilli, Michele; Pistorio, Angela; Mastracci, Luca; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Scholte, Bob; Ronai, Ze'ev; Galietta, Luis J V; Pedemonte, Nicoletta

    2015-07-17

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del), the most frequent CF mutation, impairs CFTR trafficking and gating. F508del-CFTR mistrafficking may be corrected by acting directly on mutant CFTR itself or by modulating expression/activity of CFTR-interacting proteins, that may thus represent potential drug targets. To evaluate possible candidates for F508del-CFTR rescue, we screened a siRNA library targeting known CFTR interactors. Our analysis identified RNF5 as a protein whose inhibition promoted significant F508del-CFTR rescue and displayed an additive effect with the investigational drug VX-809. Significantly, RNF5 loss in F508del-CFTR transgenic animals ameliorated intestinal malabsorption and concomitantly led to an increase in CFTR activity in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, we found that RNF5 is differentially expressed in human bronchial epithelia from CF vs. control patients. Our results identify RNF5 as a target for therapeutic modalities to antagonize mutant CFTR proteins.

  2. Control of the B cell-intrinsic tolerance programs by ubiquitin ligases Cbl and Cbl-b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Jang, Ihn Kyung; Wang, Yan; Han, Yoon-Chi; Inazu, Tetsuya; Cadera, Emily J; Schlissel, Mark; Hardy, Richard R; Gu, Hua

    2007-05-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a critical role in B cell tolerance and activation. Here, we show that mice with B cell-specific ablation of both Cbl and Cbl-b (Cbl-/-Cblb-/-) manifested systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoimmune disease. The Cbl double deficiency resulted in a substantial increase in marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells. The mutant B cells were not hyperresponsive in terms of proliferation and antibody production upon BCR stimulation; however, B cell anergy to protein antigen appeared to be impaired. Concomitantly, BCR-proximal signaling, including tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk tyrosine kinase, Phospholipase C-gamma2 (PLC-gamma2), and Rho-family GTP-GDP exchange factor Vav, and Ca2+ mobilization were enhanced, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of adaptor protein BLNK was substantially attenuated in the mutant B cells. These results suggested that the loss of coordination between these pathways was responsible for the impaired B cell tolerance induction. Thus, Cbl proteins control B cell-intrinsic checkpoint of immune tolerance, possibly through coordinating multiple BCR-proximal signaling pathways during anergy induction.

  3. The EHEC type III effector NleL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modulates pedestal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and may result in potentially fatal hemolytic uremia syndrome in humans. EHEC colonize the intestinal mucosa and promote formation of “pedestals” in the tissue beneath the adherent bacteria. Secreted proteins are key playe...

  4. Muscle-specific RING finger 1 is a bona fide ubiquitin ligase that degrades cardiac troponin I

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar, Vishram; McDonough, Holly; Arya, Ranjana; Li, Hui-Hua; Rockman, Howard A.; Patterson, Cam

    2004-01-01

    Muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1) is a sarcomere-associated protein that is restricted to cardiac and skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, MuRF1 is up-regulated by conditions that provoke atrophy, but its function in the heart is not known. The presence of a RING finger in MuRF1 raises the possibility that it is a component of the ubiquitin–proteasome system of protein deg-radation. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for interaction partners of MuRF1 in the heart tha...

  5. BRCC36, a Novel Subunit of a BRCA1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex: Candidates for BRCA3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    signalosome. Science 292(5520):1382-5. Meijers-Heijboer H, van den Ouweland A, Klijn J, Wasielewski M, de Snoo A, Oldenburg R, Hollestelle A, Houben M...Thompson D, Renwick A, Elliott A, Kelly P, Barfoot R, Chagtai T, Jayatilake H, Ahmed M, Spanova K and others. 2006. Truncating mutations in the Fanconi ... anemia J gene BRIP1 are low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles. Nat Genet. Seitz S, Rohde K, Bender E, Nothnagel A, Kolble K, Schlag PM

  6. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-01-01

    respectively, but no productive interaction was observed with the UBC15 E2 tested. The activity of AtPUB54 [Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) plant U-box 54 protein] was dependent on Trp(266) in the E2-binding cleft, and the E2 selectivity was changed by substitution of this position. The function...... of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis.......g. co-existence or interactions with additional domains. The biochemical functions of AtPUB49 suggest that the protein can be involved in folding or degradation of protein substrates. Similar functions can also be retained within a protein complex with separate chaperone and U-box proteins....

  7. The Ubiquitin Ligase PUB22 Targets a Subunit of the Exocyst Complex Required for PAMP-Triggered Responses in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stegmann, M.; Anderson, R. G.; Ichimura, K.; Pečenková, Tamara; Reuter, P.; Žárský, V.; McDowell, J. M.; Shirasu, K.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (2012), s. 4703-4716 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/2081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : RECOGNITION RECEPTOR FLS2 * RICH REPEAT RECEPTOR * INNATE IMMUNITY Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.251, year: 2012

  8. Copper-triggered aggregation of ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Arnesano

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders share common features comprising aggregation of misfolded proteins, failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased levels of metal ions in the brain. Protein aggregates within affected cells often contain ubiquitin, however no report has focused on the aggregation propensity of this protein. Recently it was shown that copper, differently from zinc, nickel, aluminum, or cadmium, compromises ubiquitin stability and binds to the N-terminus with 0.1 micromolar affinity. This paper addresses the role of copper upon ubiquitin aggregation. In water, incubation with Cu(II leads to formation of spherical particles that can progress from dimers to larger conglomerates. These spherical oligomers are SDS-resistant and are destroyed upon Cu(II chelation or reduction to Cu(I. In water/trifluoroethanol (80:20, v/v, a mimic of the local decrease in dielectric constant experienced in proximity to a membrane surface, ubiquitin incubation with Cu(II causes time-dependent changes in circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectra, indicative of increasing beta-sheet content. Analysis by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy reveals, in the given order, formation of spherical particles consistent with the size of early oligomers detected by gel electrophoresis, clustering of these particles in straight and curved chains, formation of ring structures, growth of trigonal branches from the rings, coalescence of the trigonal branched structures in a network. Notably, none of these ubiquitin aggregates was positive to tests for amyloid and Cu(II chelation or reduction produced aggregate disassembly. The early formed Cu(II-stabilized spherical oligomers, when reconstituted in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC liposomes and in POPC planar bilayers, form annular and pore-like structures, respectively, which are common to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Alzheimer

  9. The immunosuppressive activity and solution structures of ubiquitin fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Lukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Pasikowski, Paweł; Cebrat, Marek; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Lisowski, Marek; Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał; Zhukov, Igor; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2009-06-01

    Recently, ubiquitin was suggested as a promising anti-inflammatory protein therapeutic. We found that a peptide fragment corresponding to the ubiquitin(50-59) sequence (LEDGRTLSDY) possessed the immunosuppressive activity comparable with that of ubiquitin. CD and NMR spectroscopies were used to determine the conformational preferences of LEDGRTLSDY in solution. The peptide mixture, obtained by pepsin digestion of ubiquitin, was even more potent than the intact protein. Although the peptide exhibited a well-defined conformation in methanol, its structure was distinct from the corresponding 50-59 fragment in the native ubiquitin molecule. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 423-431, 2009.

  10. Functional constraints on adaptive evolution of protein ubiquitination sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Li, Yang; Liu, Zhongyang; Liang, Fengji; Guo, Feifei; Yang, Shuai; Wang, Dan; He, Yangzhige; Xiong, Jianghui; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2017-01-05

    It is still unclear whether there exist functional constraints on the evolution of protein ubiquitination sites, because most previous studies regarded all protein ubiquitination sites as a whole or only focused on limited structural properties. We tried to clarify the relation between functional constraints and ubiquitination sites evolution. We investigated the evolutionary conservation of human ubiquitination sites in a broad evolutionary scale from G. gorilla to S. pombe, and we found that in organisms originated after the divergence of vertebrate, ubiquitination sites are more conserved than their flanking regions, while the opposite tendency is observed before this divergence time. By grouping the ubiquitination proteins into different functional categories, we confirm that many functional constraints like certain molecular functions, protein tissue expression specificity and protein connectivity in protein-protein interaction network enhance the evolutionary conservation of ubiquitination sites. Furthermore, by analyzing the gains of ubiquitination sites at different divergence time and their functional characters, we validate that the emergences of ubiquitination sites at different evolutionary time were also affected by the uncovered functional constraints. The above results suggest that functional constraints on the adaptive evolution of ubiquitination sites increase the opportunity for ubiquitination to synthetically regulate various cellular and developmental processes during evolution.

  11. Ubiquitin in Influenza Virus Entry and Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Alina; Yamauchi, Yohei

    2016-10-24

    Viruses are obligatory cellular parasites. Their mission is to enter a host cell, to transfer the viral genome, and to replicate progeny whilst diverting cellular immunity. The role of ubiquitin is to regulate fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, protein degradation, and immune signaling. Many viruses including influenza A virus (IAV) usurp ubiquitination and ubiquitin-like modifications to establish infection. In this focused review, we discuss how ubiquitin and unanchored ubiquitin regulate IAV host cell entry, and how histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a cytoplasmic deacetylase with ubiquitin-binding activity, mediates IAV capsid uncoating. We also discuss the roles of ubiquitin in innate immunity and its implications in the IAV life cycle.

  12. ΔF508 CFTR surface stability is regulated by DAB2 and CHIP-mediated ubiquitination in post-endocytic compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwu Fu

    Full Text Available The ΔF508 mutant form of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508 CFTR that is normally degraded by the ER-associated degradative pathway can be rescued to the cell surface through low-temperature (27°C culture or small molecular corrector treatment. However, it is unstable on the cell surface, and rapidly internalized and targeted to the lysosomal compartment for degradation. To understand the mechanism of this rapid turnover, we examined the role of two adaptor complexes (AP-2 and Dab2 and three E3 ubiquitin ligases (c-Cbl, CHIP, and Nedd4-2 on low-temperature rescued ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis and degradation in human airway epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that siRNA depletion of either AP-2 or Dab2 inhibits ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis by 69% and 83%, respectively. AP-2 or Dab2 depletion also increases the rescued protein half-life of ΔF508 CFTR by ~18% and ~91%, respectively. In contrast, the depletion of each of the E3 ligases had no effect on ΔF508 CFTR endocytosis, whereas CHIP depletion significantly increased the surface half-life of ΔF508 CFTR. To determine where and when the ubiquitination occurs during ΔF508 CFTR turnover, we monitored the ubiquitination of rescued ΔF508 CFTR during the time course of CFTR endocytosis. Our results indicate that ubiquitination of the surface pool of ΔF508 CFTR begins to increase 15 min after internalization, suggesting that CFTR is ubiquitinated in a post-endocytic compartment. This post-endocytic ubiquination of ΔF508 CFTR could be blocked by either inhibiting endocytosis, by siRNA knockdown of CHIP, or by treating cells with the CFTR corrector, VX-809. Our results indicate that the post-endocytic ubiquitination of CFTR by CHIP is a critical step in the peripheral quality control of cell surface ΔF508 CFTR.

  13. Differential dependence on DNA ligase of type II restriction enzymes: a practical way toward ligase-free DNA automaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Jing; Zhao, Jian; He, Lin; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2007-02-16

    DNA computing study is a new paradigm in computer science and biological computing fields. As one of DNA computing approaches, DNA automaton is composed of the hardware, input DNA molecule and state transition molecules. By now restriction enzymes are key hardware for DNA computing automaton. It has been found that DNA computing efficiency may be independent on DNA ligases when type IIS restriction enzymes like FokI are used as hardware. In this study, we compared FokI with four other distinct enzymes HgaI, BsmFI, BbsI, and BseMII, and found their differential independence on T4 DNA ligase when performing automaton reactions. Since DNA automaton is a potential powerful tool to tackle gene relationship in genomic network scale, the feasible ligase-free DNA automaton may set an initial base to develop functional DNA automata for various DNA technology development and implications in genetics study in the near future.

  14. SUMOylation of GTF2IRD1 regulates protein partner interactions and ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Widagdo

    Full Text Available GTF2IRD1 is one of the genes implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a disease caused by haploinsufficiency of certain dosage-sensitive genes within a hemizygous microdeletion of chromosome 7. GTF2IRD1 is a prime candidate for some of the major features of the disease, presumably caused by abnormally reduced abundance of this putative transcriptional repressor protein. GTF2IRD1 has been shown to interact with the E3 SUMO ligase PIASxβ, but the significance of this relationship is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GTF2IRD1 can be SUMOylated by the SUMO E2 ligase UBC9 and the level of SUMOylation is enhanced by PIASxβ. A major SUMOylation site was mapped to lysine 495 within a conserved SUMO consensus motif. SUMOylation of GTF2IRD1 alters the affinity of the protein for binding partners that contain SUMO-interacting motifs, including a novel family member of the HDAC repressor complex, ZMYM5, and PIASxβ itself. In addition, we show that GTF2IRD1 is targeted for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Cross regulation by SUMOylation modulates this process, thus potentially regulating the level of GTF2IRD1 protein in the cell. These findings, concerning post-translational control over the activity and stability of GTF2IRD1, together with previous work showing how GTF2IRD1 directly regulates its own transcription levels suggest an evolutionary requirement for fine control over GTF2IRD1 activity in the cell.

  15. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidick, Christina [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany); El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E. [Biomedical Research, Human Brain Proteomics II, Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS, Dortmund 44139 (Germany); Stenmark, Harald [Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo 0310 (Norway); Platta, Harald W., E-mail: harald.platta@rub.de [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany)

    2014-12-23

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept.

  16. The molecular basis of ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 deamidation by the bacterial effector protein Cif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Allister; Hughes, Richard K; Taieb, Frédéric; Oswald, Eric; Banfield, Mark J

    2012-07-03

    The cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are a family of translocated effector proteins, found in diverse pathogenic bacteria, that interfere with the host cell cycle by catalyzing the deamidation of a specific glutamine residue (Gln40) in NEDD8 and the related protein ubiquitin. This modification prevents recycling of neddylated cullin-RING ligases, leading to stabilization of various cullin-RING ligase targets, and also prevents polyubiquitin chain formation. Here, we report the crystal structures of two Cif/NEDD8 complexes, revealing a conserved molecular interface that defines enzyme/substrate recognition. Mutation of residues forming the interface suggests that shape complementarity, rather than specific individual interactions, is a critical feature for complex formation. We show that Cifs from diverse bacteria bind NEDD8 in vitro and conclude that they will all interact with their substrates in the same way. The "occluding loop" in Cif gates access to Gln40 by forcing a conformational change in the C terminus of NEDD8. We used native PAGE to follow the activity of Cif from the human pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and selected variants, and the position of Gln40 in the active site has allowed us to propose a catalytic mechanism for these enzymes.

  17. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. inhibits ubiquitin-proteasome activity and preserves skeletal muscle mass in a murine model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kirk-Ballard

    Full Text Available Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011 improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-A(y murine model of type 2 diabetes were used to evaluate the effect of PMI5011 on steady-state levels of ubiquitylation, proteasome activity and expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases that are upregulated with impaired insulin signaling. Our results show that PMI5011 inhibits proteasome activity and steady-state ubiquitylation levels in vitro and in vivo. The effect of PMI5011 is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling and correlates with decreased expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Under in vitro conditions of hormonal or fatty acid-induced insulin resistance, PMI5011 improves insulin signaling and reduces Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein levels. In the KK-A(y murine model of type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle ubiquitylation and proteasome activity is inhibited and Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression is decreased by PMI5011. PMI5011-mediated changes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system in vivo correlate with increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and increased myofiber size. The changes in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, ubiquitin-proteasome activity and myofiber size modulated by PMI5011 in the presence of insulin resistance indicate the botanical extract PMI5011 may have therapeutic potential in the preservation of muscle mass in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    After oxidative stress proteins which are oxidatively modified are degraded by the 20S proteasome. However, several studies documented an enhanced ubiquitination of yet unknown proteins. Since ubiqutination is a prerequisite for degradation by the 26S proteasome in an ATP-dependent manner...... this raises the question whether these proteins are also oxidized and, if not, what proteins need to be ubiquitinated and degraded after oxidative conditions. By determination of oxidized- and ubiquitinated proteins we demonstrate here that most oxidized proteins are not preferentially ubiquitinated. However......, we were able to confirm an increase of ubiquitinated proteins 16h upon oxidative stress. Therefore, we isolated ubiquitinated proteins from hydrogen peroxide treated cells, as well as from control and lactacystin, an irreversible proteasome inhibitor, treated cells, and identified some...

  19. Ubiquitin is part of the retrovirus budding machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Akash; Chau, Vincent; Wills, John W.

    2000-11-01

    Retroviruses contain relatively large amounts of ubiquitin, but the significance of this finding has been unknown. Here, we show that drugs that are known to reduce the level of free ubiquitin in the cell dramatically reduced the release of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus. This effect was suppressed by overexpressing ubiquitin and also by directly fusing ubiquitin to the C terminus of Gag, the viral protein that directs budding and particle release. The block to budding was found to be at the plasma membrane, and electron microscopy revealed that the reduced level of ubiquitin results in a failure of mature virus particles to separate from each other and from the plasma membrane during budding. These data indicate that ubiquitin is actually part of the budding machinery.

  20. Ubiquitin-dependent recruitment of the Bloom syndrome helicase upon replication stress is required to suppress homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Shweta; Madhavan, Vinoth; Hussain, Mansoor; Miller, Edward S; Arora, Prateek; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Modi, Priyanka; Townsend, Kelly; Stewart, Grant S; Sengupta, Sagar

    2013-06-12

    Limiting the levels of homologous recombination (HR) that occur at sites of DNA damage is a major role of BLM helicase. However, very little is known about the mechanisms dictating its relocalization to these sites. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin/SUMO-dependent DNA damage response (UbS-DDR), controlled by the E3 ligases RNF8/RNF168, triggers BLM recruitment to sites of replication fork stalling via ubiquitylation in the N-terminal region of BLM and subsequent BLM binding to the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of RAP80. Furthermore, we show that this mechanism of BLM relocalization is essential for BLM's ability to suppress excessive/uncontrolled HR at stalled replication forks. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a requirement for RNF8-dependent ubiquitylation of BLM and PML for maintaining the integrity of PML-associated nuclear bodies and as a consequence the localization of BLM to these structures. Lastly, we identified a novel role for RAP80 in preventing proteasomal degradation of BLM in unstressed cells. Taken together, these data highlight an important biochemical link between the UbS-DDR and BLM-dependent pathways involved in maintaining genome stability.

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Increase p27Kip1 by Affecting Its Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation through Skp2 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borriello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs represent an intriguing class of pharmacologically active compounds. Currently, some HDACIs are FDA approved for cancer therapy and many others are in clinical trials, showing important clinical activities at well tolerated doses. HDACIs also interfere with the aging process and are involved in the control of inflammation and oxidative stress. In vitro, HDACIs induce different cellular responses including growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we evaluated the effects of HDACIs on p27Kip1, a key cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI. We observed that HDACI-dependent antiproliferative activity is associated with p27Kip1 accumulation due to a reduced protein degradation. p27Kip1 removal requires a preliminary ubiquitination step due to the Skp2-SCF E3 ligase complex. We demonstrated that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 stability through downregulation of Skp2 protein levels. Skp2 decline is only partially due to a reduced Skp2 gene expression. Conversely, the protein decrease is more profound and enduring compared to the changes of Skp2 transcript. This argues for HDACIs effects on Skp2 protein posttranslational modifications and/or on its removal. In summary, we demonstrate that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 by hampering its nuclear ubiquitination/degradation. The findings might be of relevance in the phenotypic effects of these compounds, including their anticancer and aging-modulating activities.

  2. The Transcription Factor COL12 Is a Substrate of the COP1/SPA E3 Ligase and Regulates Flowering Time and Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Herrera, Natalia; Trimborn, Laura; Menje, Melanie; Henschel, Monique; Robers, Lennart; Kaufholdt, David; Hänsch, Robert; Adrian, Jessika; Ponnu, Jathish; Hoecker, Ute

    2018-02-01

    The ambient light environment controls many aspects of plant development throughout a plant's life cycle. Such complex control is achieved because a key repressor of light signaling, the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase causes the degradation of multiple regulators of endogenous developmental pathways. This includes the CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor that is responsible for photoperiodic control of flowering time. There are 16 CO-like proteins whose functions are only partly understood. Here, we show that 14 CO-like (COL) proteins bind CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 (SPA)1 in vitro. We subsequently focused on COL12 and show that COL12 binds COP1 and SPA proteins in vivo. The COL12 protein is degraded in darkness in a COP1-dependent fashion, indicating that COL12 is a substrate of the COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase. Overexpression of COL12 causes late flowering specifically in long day conditions by decreasing the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T This phenotype is genetically dependent on CO. Consistent with this finding, COL12 physically interacts with CO in vivo, suggesting that COL12 represses flowering by inhibiting CO protein function. We show that COL12 overexpression did not alter CO protein stability. It is therefore likely that COL12 represses the activity of CO rather than CO levels. Overexpression of COL12 also affects plant architecture by increasing the number of rosette branches and reducing inflorescence height. These phenotypes are CO independent. Hence, we suggest that COL12 affects plant development through CO-dependent and CO-independent mechanisms. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Overexpression of RING domain E3 ligase ZmXerico1 confers drought tolerance through regulation of ABA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugiere, Norbert; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, John; Scolaro, Eric J; Lu, Cheng; Kahsay, Robel Y; Kise, Rie; Trecker, Libby; Williams, Robert W; Hakimi, Salim; Niu, Xiping; Lafitte, Renee; Habben, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-12

    Drought stress is one of the main environmental problems encountered by crop growers. Reduction in arable land area and reduced water availability make it paramount to identify and develop strategies to allow crops to be more resilient in water limiting environments. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the plants' response to drought stress through its control of stomatal aperture and water transpiration; and transgenic modulation of ABA levels therefore represents an attractive avenue to improve the drought tolerance of crops. Several steps in the ABA signaling pathway are controlled by ubiquitination involving RING domain containing proteins. We characterized the maize RING protein family and identified two novel RING-H2 genes called ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2. Expression of ZmXerico genes is induced by drought stress and we show that overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in Arabidopsis and maize confers ABA hypersensitivity and improved water use efficiency which can lead to enhanced maize yield performance in a controlled drought stress environment. Overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in maize results in increased ABA levels and decreased levels of ABA degradation products diphaseic acid and phaseic acid. We show that ZmXerico1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where ABA 8'-hydroxylases have been shown to be localized, and that it functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate that ZmXerico1 plays a role in the control of ABA homeostasis through regulation of ABA 8'-hydroxylase protein stability, representing a novel control point in the regulation of the ABA pathway. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  5. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  6. Ubr3, a Novel Modulator of Hh Signaling Affects the Degradation of Costal-2 and Kif7 through Poly-ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongchao; Fan, Junkai; Blanco-Sánchez, Bernardo; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Lin, Guang; Yamamoto, Shinya; Jaiswal, Manish; Chen, Kuchuan; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Wei; Lewis, Michael T; Groves, Andrew K; Westerfield, Monte; Jia, Jianhang; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-05-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates multiple aspects of metazoan development and tissue homeostasis, and is constitutively active in numerous cancers. We identified Ubr3, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel, positive regulator of Hh signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates. Hh signaling regulates the Ubr3-mediated poly-ubiquitination and degradation of Cos2, a central component of Hh signaling. In developing Drosophila eye discs, loss of ubr3 leads to a delayed differentiation of photoreceptors and a reduction in Hh signaling. In zebrafish, loss of Ubr3 causes a decrease in Shh signaling in the developing eyes, somites, and sensory neurons. However, not all tissues that require Hh signaling are affected in zebrafish. Mouse UBR3 poly-ubiquitinates Kif7, the mammalian homologue of Cos2. Finally, loss of UBR3 up-regulates Kif7 protein levels and decreases Hh signaling in cultured cells. In summary, our work identifies Ubr3 as a novel, evolutionarily conserved modulator of Hh signaling that boosts Hh in some tissues.

  7. VprBP targets Merlin to the Roc1-Cul4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex for degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Chen, J

    2008-07-03

    Inactivation of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene function has been observed not only in familial schwannomas and other central nervous system tumors, but also in malignant tumors unrelated to the NF2 syndrome, indicating a broader role of NF2 in human tumorigenesis. The NF2-encoded protein Merlin is closely related to the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family of membrane/cytoskeleton linker proteins, and has been demonstrated to suppress tumor growth by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Rac1 activation. Interestingly, serum deprivation has been shown to regulate Merlin at the protein level, however, exactly how such condition affects Merlin remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Merlin is regulated in a Roc1-Cullin4A-DDB1-dependent manner. Following serum stimulation, Merlin is recruited to the E3 ligase complex through a direct interaction with the WD40-containing adaptor protein VprBP. Loading of Merlin to the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex resulted in its polyubiquitination, and consequently its proteasome-mediated degradation. Consistently, VprBP depletion abolished the in vivo interaction of Merlin and Roc1-Cullin4A-DDB1, which resulted in Merlin stabilization and inhibited ERK and Rac activation. Together, our data revealed a novel regulatory mechanism for the tumor suppressor function of Merlin.

  8. Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 Complex: Inhibition of a RING E3 Ligase through Masking of Its E2-Binding Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J.; Waddell, M. Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A.; Schulman, Brenda A. (BWH); (LBNL); (SJCH); (DFCI)

    2012-11-01

    The approximately 300 human cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1's RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCF{sup FBW7} complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN's selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation, whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition.

  9. E3 ligase EDD1/UBR5 is utilized by the HPV E6 oncogene to destabilize tumor suppressor TIP60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, V K; Zhang, Y; Rajagopalan, D; Abdullah, L N; Yeo-Teh, N S L; Tomaić, V; Banks, L; Myers, M P; Chow, E K; Jha, S

    2016-04-21

    Tat-interacting protein of 60 kDa (TIP60) is an essential lysine acetyltransferase implicated in transcription, DNA damage response and apoptosis. TIP60 protein expression is reduced in cancers. In cervical cancers, human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncogene targets cellular p53, Bak and some of the PDZ domain-containing proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation through E6AP ligase. Recently, E6 oncogene from high-risk and low-risk categories was also shown to target TIP60. However, the molecular mechanisms and whether destabilization of TIP60 contributes to HPV E6-mediated transformation remain unanswered. Our proteomic analyses revealed EDD1 (E3 identified by differential display), an E3 ligase generally overexpressed in cancers as a novel interacting partner of TIP60. By investigating protein turnover and ubiquitination assays, we show that EDD1 negatively regulates TIP60's stability through the proteasome pathway. Strikingly, HPV E6 uses this function of EDD1 to destabilize TIP60. Colony-formation assays and soft agar assays show that gain of function of TIP60 or depletion of EDD1 in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells significantly inhibits cell growth in vitro. This phenotype is strongly supported by the in-vivo studies where re-activation of TIP60 in cervical cancer cells dramatically reduces tumor formation. In summary, we have discovered a novel ligase through which E6 destabilizes TIP60. Currently, in the absence of an effective therapeutic vaccine for malignant cervical cancers, cervical cancer still remains to be a major disease burden. Hence, our studies implying a distinct tumor suppressor role for TIP60 in cervical cancers show that reactivation of TIP60 could be of therapeutic value.

  10. Interaction of APC/C-E3 Ligase with Swi6/HP1 and Clr4/Suv39 in Heterochromatin Assembly in Fission Yeast*S⃞♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rudra Narayan; Nakwal, Nandni; Bisht, Kamlesh Kumar; Saini, Ashok; Haldar, Swati; Singh, Jagmohan

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast is initiated by binding of Swi6/HP1 to the Lys-9-dimethylated H3 followed by spreading via cooperative recruitment of Swi6/HP1. Recruitment of Cohesin by Swi6/HP1 further stabilizes the heterochromatin structure and integrity. Subsequently, polyubiquitylation of Cut2 by anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome (APC/C)-ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3 ligase) followed by degradation of Cut2 releases Cut1, which cleaves the Rad21 subunit of Cohesin, facilitating sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Here, we demonstrate a surprising role of APC/C in assembly of heterochromatin and silencing at mating type, centromere, and ribosomal DNA loci. Coincidentally with the loss of silencing, recruitment of Swi6, H3-Lys-9-Me2, and Clr4 at dg-dh repeats at cen1 and the K region of mat locus is abrogated in mutants cut4, cut9, and nuc2. Surprisingly, both Cut4 and Cut9 are also highly enriched at these regions in wild type and depleted in swi6Δ mutant. Cut4 and Cut9 interact directly with Swi6/HP1 and Clr4, whereas the mutant Cut4 does not, suggesting that a direct physical interaction of APC subunits Cut4 and Cut9 with Swi6 and Clr4 is instrumental in heterochromatin assembly. The silencing defect in APC mutants is causally related to ubiquitylation activity of APC-E3 ligase. Like swi6 mutant, APC mutants are also defective in Cohesin recruitment and exhibit defects like lagging chromosomes, chromosome loss, and aberrant recombination in the mat region. In addition, APC mutants exhibit a bidirectional expression of dh repeats, suggesting a role in the RNA interference pathway. Thus, APC and heterochromatin proteins Swi6 and Clr4 play a mutually cooperative role in heterochromatin assembly, thereby ensuring chromosomal integrity, inheritance, and segregation during mitosis and meiosis. PMID:19117951

  11. The Role of RUB (related to ubiquitin) Family of Proteins in the Hormone Response. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callis, Judy [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology

    2013-03-22

    novel Rub targets in plants and identified DDB1a, a subunit of an different ubiquitin ligase as a potential Rub-modified protein. Altogether, these studies have advanced our knowledge of the Rub pathway in all organisms.

  12. Biochemical properties of a high fidelity DNA ligase from Thermus species AK16D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J; Cao, W; Barany, F

    1999-01-01

    NAD+-dependent DNA ligases from thermophilic bacteria Thermus species are highly homologous with amino acid sequence identities ranging from 85 to 98%. Thermus species AK16D ligase, the most divergent of the seven Thermus isolates collected worldwide, was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. This Thermus ligase is similar to Thermus thermophilus HB8 ligase with respect to pH, salt, NAD+, divalent cation profiles and steady-state kinetics.However, the former is more discriminative toward T/G mismatches at the 3'-side of the ligation junction, as judged by the ratios of initial ligation rates of matched and mismatched substrates. The two wild-type Thermus ligases and a Tth ligase mutant (K294R) demonstrate 1-2 orders of magnitude higher fidelity than viral T4 DNA ligase. Both Thermus ligases are active with either the metal cofactor Mg2+, Mn2+or Ca2+but not with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+or Zn2+. While the nick closure step with Ca2+becomes rate-limiting which results in the accumulation of DNA-adenylate intermediate, Ni2+only supports intermediate formation to a limited extent. Both Thermus ligases exhibit enhanced mismatch ligation when Mn2+is substituted for Mg2+, but the Tsp. AK16D ligase remains more specific toward perfectly matched substrate. PMID:9889274

  13. Unraveling the biochemistry and provenance of pupylation: a prokaryotic analog of ubiquitination