WorldWideScience

Sample records for scepticism budget cuts

  1. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  2. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  3. The reason why the budget for the Yucca mountain project is cut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the event that the 2009 and 2010 budgets for the Yucca Mountain Spent Fuel Disposal Project is cut. The political, ethnical, technical, economical and resource recycling reasons for the budget cutting are analyzed. It is proposed that the strong objection of Senator Harry Reid and the political consideration are the main reasons for budget cutting. Many objections on the budget cutting are also introduced. (authors)

  4. Proposed budget cuts threaten to short-circuit Grid network

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    2001-01-01

    Changes to the budget for the European sixth Framework programme may jeapardize the Grid project. The EU Parliament have asked to cut the budget for infrastructure to 500 million euros from 900 and of this 150 million will probably be allocated to Ge the pan-European research network (1 page).

  5. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  6. 5 Tips on How to Cope with Budget Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Art educators, by nature, are very creative people. Their right brains just can't help themselves when it comes to generating new and innovative ideas for the art room. With budget cuts and hard times for schools becoming the norm, art educators must also become creative when it comes to finding money in their budget. This article presents five…

  7. Tennyson's Scepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Aidan

    generation of the modern that was taking place in his era. The study makes extensive critical use of Tennyson's manuscript drafts and includes a reconstruction, based on extant manuscript material, of the earliest known version of  Tennyson's paradigmatic early long poem, The Lover's Tale.......Tennyson is not known for his scepticism. This book argues that he should be. It proposes a revaluation of the way in which his work is read. Tennyson has always been understood as a poet who is committed primarily to endorsing spiritual values and, as such, has been taken as the exponent...... of Victorian reaction in religious and spiritual matters. But this study argues that much of his poetry is driven by a metaphysical scepticism that is associated, in part, with rational, scientific perspectives deriving from Enlightenment thought. The scepticism in Tennyson's poetry partakes in the complex...

  8. Pascal a problem sceptycyzmu (Pascal and the Problem of Scepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kleszcz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scepticism is a doctrine which holds the possibilities of knowledge to be limited. There are many types of scepticism (practical /theoretical, partial/total, moderate/ radical, etc. Scepticism as a philosophy began with Pyrrho of Elis (365–275 BC. The rediscovery of the sceptical texts during Renaissance affected the developmentof modern sceptical currents. In France philosophical statements of scepticism were offered by Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592. Blaise Pascal (1623–1662 great French mathematician, scientist, inventor an religious thinker was familiar with Montaigne sceptical ideas. Pascal refers to Montaigne as the most illustrious defender of scepticism. Blaise Pascal point of view is original. Whenever he insiststhat no proof is ever certain but simultaneously he adds that scepticism is untenable because we have reasons to believe.

  9. Hume's Scepticism Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parusniková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 581-602 ISSN 0031-8191 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : David Hume * scepticism * Pyrrhonism * early modern epistemology * practical philosophy Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Reacting to the power politics [how the UKAEA will react to budget cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1988-01-01

    An interview with John Collier in which he tells how the UKAEA will cope with budget cuts and closures. The two major influences will be: 1. the government's decision to drastically cut the funding for fast reactor R and D., and 2. the planned privatisation of the electricity supply industry. (U.K.)

  11. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  12. 78 FR 53159 - Standard for Welding, Cutting, and Brazing; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...] Standard for Welding, Cutting, and Brazing; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... collection requirements contained in the Standard for Welding, Cutting, and Brazing (29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart Q). The information collected is used by employers and workers whenever welding, cutting, and...

  13. Kicking against the pricks: vaccine sceptics have a different social orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Desmet, Pieter; Dorgali, Veronica; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    In any country, part of the population is sceptical about the utility of vaccination. To develop successful vaccination programmes, it is important to study and understand the defining characteristics of vaccine sceptics. Research till now mainly focused either on the underlying motives of vaccine refusal, or on socio-demographic differences between vaccine sceptics and non-sceptics. It remained till now unexplored whether both groups differ in terms of basic psychological dispositions. We held a population survey in a representative sample of the population in Flanders, Belgium (N = 1050), in which we investigated whether respondents' attitude to vaccination was associated with their basic disposition toward other community members or society in general, as measured by the Triandis and Gelfand social orientation scale. We found that sceptics and non-sceptics have a different social orientation, even when several variables are controlled for. More specifically, vaccine sceptics scored significantly lower on both horizontal individualism and horizontal collectivism, indicating a lower disposition to see others as equals. These findings need confirmation in the context of different countries. Such insights can be valuable to optimize the design of effective communication strategies on vaccination programmes.

  14. 75 FR 52037 - Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...] Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... requirements contained in the Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart Q). The information collected is used by employers and workers whenever welding, cutting and brazing are performed...

  15. Gorgias' scepticism regarding Greek social class distinctions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Zomba), 18, 2004. Gorgias' scepticism ... Aeschylus is to tragedy what Gorgias is to rhetoric or oratory (DK.82.A4). The issue at stake ... Gorgias' scepticism ... Aristotle can be relied upon for our understanding the nature of the period, and.

  16. A vindication of logical necessity against scepticism

    OpenAIRE

    Philie, Patrice

    2002-01-01

    Some philosophers dispute the claim that there is a notion of logical necessity involved in the concept of logical consequence. They are sceptical about logical necessity. They argue that a proper characterisation of logical consequence - of what follows from what - need not and should not appeal to the notion of necessity at all. Quine is the most prominent philosopher holding such a view. In this doctoral dissertation, I argue that scepticism about logical necessity is not successful. Quine...

  17. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  18. The Experiences of Low-Income Latino/a Students in the California Community College System at a Time of Education Budget Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Justin Akers

    2013-01-01

    Budget cuts have reduced courses and student services within California community colleges. This coincides with the growth of low-income Latino male (Latinos) and Latina female (Latinas) student enrollment. Budget cuts have been implemented throughout the system, including in the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS), which…

  19. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  20. Shattering a Cartesian Sceptical Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hetherington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scepticism about external world knowledge is frequently claimed to emerge from Descartes’s dreaming argument. That argument supposedly challenges one to have some further knowledge — the knowledge that one is not dreaming that p — if one is to have even one given piece of external world knowledge that p. The possession of that further knowledge can seem espe-cially important when the dreaming possibility is genuinely Cartesian (with one’s dreaming that p being incompatible with the truth of one’s accompany-ing belief that p. But this paper shows why that Cartesian use of that possi-bility is not at all challenging. It is because that putative sceptical challenge reduces to a triviality which is incompatible with the sceptic’s having de-scribed some further piece of knowledge which is needed, if one is to have the knowledge that p.

  1. Changes in North Carolina maternal health service use and outcomes among medicaid-enrolled pregnant women during state budget cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilenti, Dorothy; Kum, Hye-Chung; Wells, Rebecca; Whitmire, J Timothy; Goyal, Ravi K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2015-01-01

    The recent recession has weakened the US health and human service safety net. Questions about implications for mothers and children prompted this study, which tested for changes in maternal service use and outcomes among North Carolina women with deliveries covered through Medicaid before and after a year of significant state budget cuts. Data for Medicaid covered deliveries from April-June 2009 (pre) and from April-June 2010 (post) were derived from birth certificates, Medicaid claims and eligibility files, and WIC (Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children) records. These time periods represent the quarter immediately before as well as the final quarter of a state fiscal year 2010 (July 2009-June 2010) characterized by substantial state budget cuts, including an October 2009 reduction in reimbursement rates for maternity care coordination. We examined how often women received medical care, maternity care coordination, family planning services, and the average numbers of obstetrical encounters, as well as the prevalence of excessive pregnancy weight gain, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. By the end of a year of substantial state budget cuts, women covered through Medicaid had fewer obstetrical visits in all trimesters as well as postpartum (P budget cuts. Maternal and infant child health outcomes measured in this study did not change during that year. Future monitoring is warranted to ensure that maternal health service access remains adequate.

  2. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Scepticism and corporate social responsibility communications: the influence of fit and reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers tend to be sceptical about companies' corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications. We tested the influence of fit and reputation on consumer scepticism when confronted with a cause-related marketing (CRM) advertisement. In a 2 (fit vs. no fit) by 3 (bad reputation, unknown

  4. Estimating the impact of state budget cuts and redirection of prevention resources on the HIV epidemic in 59 California local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of a national economic downturn, the state of California, in 2009-2010, implemented budget cuts that eliminated state funding of HIV prevention and testing. To mitigate the effect of these cuts remaining federal funds were redirected. This analysis estimates the impact of these budget cuts and reallocation of resources on HIV transmission and associated HIV treatment costs. We estimated the effect of the budget cuts and reallocation for California county health departments (excluding Los Angeles and San Francisco) on the number of individuals living with or at-risk for HIV who received HIV prevention services. We used a Bernoulli model to estimate the number of new infections that would occur each year as a result of the changes, and assigned lifetime treatment costs to those new infections. We explored the effect of redirecting federal funds to more cost-effective programs, as well as the potential effect of allocating funds proportionately by transmission category. We estimated that cutting HIV prevention resulted in 55 new infections that were associated with $20 million in lifetime treatment costs. The redirection of federal funds to more cost-effective programs averted 15 HIV infections. If HIV prevention funding were allocated proportionately to transmission categories, we estimated that HIV infections could be reduced below the number that occurred annually before the state budget cuts. Reducing funding for HIV prevention may result in short-term savings at the expense of additional HIV infections and increased HIV treatment costs. Existing HIV prevention funds would likely have a greater impact on the epidemic if they were allocated to the more cost-effective programs and the populations most likely to acquire and transmit the infection.

  5. Of two minds: Sceptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitz, Marilyn; Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline; Radin, Dean

    2006-08-01

    The first author, a proponent of evidence for psychic ability, and the second, a sceptic, have been conducting a systematic programme of collaborative sceptic-proponent research in parapsychology. This has involved carrying out joint experiments in which each investigator individually attempted to mentally influence the electrodermal activity of participants at a distant location. The first two collaborations obtained evidence of 'experimenter effects', that is, experiments conducted by the proponent obtained significant results but those conducted by the sceptic did not. This paper describes a new collaborative study that attempted to replicate our previous findings and explore potential explanations for past results. The new study failed to replicate our previous findings. The paper investigates whether the results obtained in our initial studies may have been caused by a genuine psychic effect, and this third experiment failed to replicate this finding because some aspect of the study disrupted the production of that effect, or whether the results from our first two studies represented chance findings or undetected subtle artifacts, and the results obtained in the present study accurately reflect the absence of a remote detection of staring effect. The implications of this work are discussed, along with the benefits of conducting collaborative work for resolving disagreements in other controversial areas of psychology.

  6. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural ... especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural ... through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of ...

  7. Scientist versus sceptic. Report of a weblog discussion between a climatic change researcher and a climatic change sceptic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, B.J.; Labohm, H.H.J.

    2010-05-01

    In the run up to the international climate conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, climate sceptic Hans Labohm and climate researcher Bart Strengers of the Environmental Assessment Agency entered into a debate on the website of the Dutch Broadcasting Foundation NOS. The blog discussion offers a good view on the dilemmas surrounding knowledge about climate change. [nl

  8. Cross-national comparison of the presence of climate scepticism in the print media in six countries, 2007–10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, James; Ashe, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Previous academic research on climate scepticism has tended to focus more on the way it has been organized, its tactics and its impact on policy outputs than on its prevalence in the media. Most of the literature has centred on the USA, where scepticism first appeared in an organized and politically effective form. This letter contrasts the way climate scepticism in its different forms is manifested in the print media in the USA and five other countries (Brazil, China, France, India and the UK), in order to gain insight into how far the US experience of scepticism is replicated in other countries. It finds that news coverage of scepticism is mostly limited to the USA and the UK; that there is a strong correspondence between the political leaning of a newspaper and its willingness to quote or use uncontested sceptical voices in opinion pieces; and that the type of sceptics who question whether global temperatures are warming are almost exclusively found in the US and UK newspapers. Sceptics who challenge the need for robust action to combat climate change also have a much stronger presence in the media of the same two countries. (letter)

  9. Climate: some aspects of sceptical criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses some reasons to be sceptical about the media-supported idea of an actual climate change, and more particularly about the critical role assigned to carbon dioxide in global warming, about the ability to make the distinction between natural and man-induced climate variations, about the quality of models and simulations, about the knowledge on climate physics, about the interpretation of the recently observed warming (since 1997)

  10. 1 Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria ... breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health ... Key words: scepticism, low uptake, mosquito nets, malaria, social marketing, Tanzania.

  11. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  12. Pain Relief for Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Grand Blanc (Michigan) Community School District sets budget priorities by (1) surveying students, taxpayers, and teachers to learn their preferences for current programs and services; (2) determining the costs of state-mandated programs; (3) listing nonmandated programs and determining their costs; and (4) considering proposed new programs.…

  13. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.

  14. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  15. Climate stories: Why do climate scientists and sceptical voices participate in the climate debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Amelia; Howarth, Candice

    2017-10-01

    Public perceptions of the climate debate predominantly frame the key actors as climate scientists versus sceptical voices; however, it is unclear why climate scientists and sceptical voices choose to participate in this antagonistic and polarised public battle. A narrative interview approach is used to better understand the underlying rationales behind 22 climate scientists' and sceptical voices' engagement in the climate debate, potential commonalities, as well as each actor's ability to be critically self-reflexive. Several overlapping rationales are identified including a sense of duty to publicly engage, agreement that complete certainty about the complex assemblage of climate change is unattainable and that political factors are central to the climate debate. We argue that a focus on potential overlaps in perceptions and rationales as well as the ability to be critically self-reflexive may encourage constructive discussion among actors previously engaged in purposefully antagonistic exchange on climate change.

  16. Scepticism and doubt in science and science education: the complexity of global warming as a socio-scientific issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Tom G. K.; Day, Stephen P.

    2014-09-01

    This article looks critically at the complexity of the debate among climate scientists; the controversies in the science of global temperature measurement; and at the role played by consensus. It highlights the conflicting perspectives figuring in the mass media concerned with climate change, arguing that science teachers should be familiar with them, particularly given the sharply contested views likely to be brought into classroom discussion and the importance of developing intellectual scepticism and robust scientific literacy in students. We distinguish between rational scepticism and the pejorative meaning of the expression associated with attitudinal opposition to global warming—similar to the way in which Bauer (2006) contrasts micro- scepticism and macro- scepticism in reasoning generally. And we look closely and critically at the approaches which teachers might adopt in practice to teach about global warming at this difficult time.

  17. Brazil's Petrobras chops 1992 capital budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA has slashed its 1992 capital budget by more than half for lack of adequate cash flow. Petrobras Pres. Benedicto Moreira last week disclosed the cut, to $1.4 billion from $2.9 billion earmarked earlier, citing cash flow problems stemming from heavy subsidies for domestic products. Petrobras Association of Engineers (Aepet) disputes the latest amount, claiming without elaboration the state company actually is cutting the current budget to $1 billion. At either level, the severe budget cut bodes ill for Petrobras plans to boost domestic production by a net 300,000 b/d to 1 million b/d by 1995, an ambitious program that calls for outlays of $18 billion

  18. Overcoming consumer scepticism toward food labels: The role of multisensory experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Kersten, Leonne; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    More and more information labels appear on the front of food packages, increasing the complexity of consumer decision-making and enhancing consumer scepticism toward food labels. It is important to evaluate the efficacy of information communicated to consumers. The experimental study among 209 Dutch

  19. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  20. Accelerator plans stalled after US and UK cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Budget woes spell trouble for . Eric Hand & Geoff Brumfiel Budget hole: the would be built from superconducting cavities.FERMILABThe machine on which the world's particle physicists have staked the future of their discipline hangs in the balance owing to budget cuts.

  1. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-01-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree [nl

  2. Zero based programming: a viable security budgeting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Frederick G

    2003-01-01

    To get additional dollars or avoid budget cuts or personnel reductions, healthcare security directors should consider a budget approach that best justifies the needs of the department or organization.

  3. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  4. The impact of economic downturns and budget cuts on homelessness claim rates across 323 local authorities in England, 2004-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Loopstra, R; Reeves, A; Barr, B; Taylor-Robinson, D; McKee, M; Stuckler, D

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear why rates of homelessness claims in England have risen since 2010. We used variations in rates across local authorities to test the impact of economic downturns and budget cuts. Using cross-area fixed effects models of data from 323 UK local authorities between 2004 and 2012, we evaluated associations of changes in statutory homelessness rates with economic activity (Gross Value Added per capita), unemployment, and local and central government expenditure. Each 10% fall in econo...

  5. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  6. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  7. Implementation of the climate convention: Arguments to convince sceptics. Umsetzung der Klimakonvention: Ueberzeugung der Skeptiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany) Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1993-08-01

    Although scientific bodies appointed by the United Nations compiled facts, estimations and unsecurities on the subject ''anthropogene climatic changes'' separately from each other, they are strongly attached the more by sceptics reaching from charlatans to serious individual fighters with blinders the closer gets the conversion of the skeleton convention for the protection of the climate drafted by 154 nations in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. All allegations of the sceptics have in common that they blow up partial aspects, do not observe relatively secure statements of other persons and indicate them as full of mistakes without any strict argumentation. The following expositions report about new facts from the field of anthropogene climatic changes and point out to activities having become very urgent. (orig./KW)

  8. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  9. [Users sceptical about generic drugs: an anthropological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradon-Eck, A; Blanc, M-A; Faure, M

    2007-06-01

    Since the enactment of the 2002 legislative measures favoring the prescription of generic drugs, various quantitative studies have shown that approval by prescribers and users has risen in France. Nevertheless, scepticism remains as well as distrust towards these drugs focusing on their effectiveness compared with brand-name drugs, on potential dangers, and on the interruption they cause in prescription and consumption habits. Using a comprehensive approach, this article analyzes the social and cultural logic behind the negative image of generic drugs. The materials issued from an ethnographic study on the prescription of drugs for high blood pressure. Sixty-eight interviews were undertaken between April 2002 and October 2004 with people (39 women and 29 men, between the age of 40 and 95, 52 over the age of 60) treated for over a year for high blood pressure in rural areas in the Southeast of France. Thirteen people provided unsolicited opinions about generic drugs. Analysis of the information collected shows that users have various representations of generic drugs, including the idea of counterfeited and foreign drugs. These representations interfere with the adjustment process and the development of consumer loyalty. They are part of a set of social representations about drugs which form and express the user's reality. In these representations, the drug is an ambivalent object, carrier of both biological effectiveness and toxicity; it is also the metonymical extension of the prescriber, bestowing upon the prescription a symbolic value. By placing the generic drug in its network of symbolic and social meaning, this study highlights the coherence of the scepticism towards generic drugs by consumers (and prescribers) with a system of common opinion in which drugs are everyday things, personalized and compatible with users, symbolic exchange carriers in the physician-patient relationship, and in which confidence in the drug is also that given to the health care

  10. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  11. Effects of budget constraints on conservation network design for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Roy P.; Schröter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Limited budgets and budget cuts hamper the development of effective biodiversity conservation networks. Optimizing the spatial configuration of conservation networks given such budget constraints remains challenging. Systematic conservation planning addresses this challenge. Systematic

  12. US science spared budget axe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite initial fears of significant funding cuts, America’s 2017 budget largely maintains support for research. But as Peter Gwynne reports, the relief may only be temporary and funding for science may be slashed next year instead

  13. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  14. Climate: some aspects of sceptical criticism; Climat: quelques elements de critique sceptique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    The author discusses some reasons to be sceptical about the media-supported idea of an actual climate change, and more particularly about the critical role assigned to carbon dioxide in global warming, about the ability to make the distinction between natural and man-induced climate variations, about the quality of models and simulations, about the knowledge on climate physics, about the interpretation of the recently observed warming (since 1997)

  15. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    The University of Montreal's choice of the rational model of decision-making in managing budget cutbacks is explored and compared with other approaches, including the bureaucratic, garbage can, political, and collegial models. (MSE)

  16. California Bus Aid Still in Budget Cross Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    California legislators swiftly passed a budget bill last week aimed at sheltering school busing dollars from a midyear budget cut many districts and advocates said particularly hurt rural school systems, along with urban districts with desegregation plans. While the measure, which Gov. Jerry Brown was expected to sign into law, would restore $248…

  17. There is no accounting for tastes! Product advantages and tasting reduce consumers' scepticism towards genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have shown that consumers are very sceptical towards genetically modified foods. They call them 'Frankenstein foods' and are not convinced when experts and the food industry claim that there is no difference between genetically modified foods and food products they normally buy....... However, a new study carried out by MAPP in collaboration with researchers in Norway, Sweden and Finland indicates that consumers' scepticism is reduced when they taste genetically modified foods and experience that the products are more tasty and more healthy than similar conventional products...... to fat content, fatty acids content, price and added calcium and zinc. Moreover, the product descriptions differed in relation to whether genetically modified rennet had been used or not. In all four countries consumers attached most importance to the type of rennet. Also price was considered important...

  18. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  19. Does state budget pressure matter for uncompensated care spending in hospitals? Findings from Texas and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jongwha; Patel, Isha; Suh, Won S; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Kim, Sunjung; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state budget cuts on uncompensated care at general acute care hospital organizations. This study capitalized on the variations in the states of Texas and California to form a natural experiment testing the joint impact of budget cut status on uncompensated care costs, as well as specific charity care costs and bad debt expenses from indigent patients. Budget cuts in the state of Texas occurred in the year 2004. Information was obtained from the Texas Department of Health and the California Department of Health Services regarding financial characteristics of hospitals and from the American Hospital Directory annual survey regarding organizational characteristics of hospitals. We created three dependent variables: R(UC) (the ratio of total uncompensated care costs to gross patient revenue), R(CC) (the ratio of charity care to total patient revenue) and R(BD) (the ratio of bad debt expenses to gross patient revenue). Using a two-period panel data set and individual hospital fixed effects, we captured hospital uncompensated care spending that could also have influenced budget cut status. Additionally, the impact of the state budget cut status on hospitals' uncompensated care spending, charity care spending and bad debt expenses was also estimated using the similar methodology. In this study, we included 416 (in Texas) and 352 (in California) public, not-for-profit (NFP) and for-profit (FP) hospitals that completed the annual survey during the study period 2002-2005. For the state of Texas, results from the fixed effect model confirmed that the year 2005 was directly related to increased R(UC) and R(CC) . The coefficients of 2005 were significantly and positively associated with R(UC) (0.43, p budget cut pressure on uncompensated care provided in Texas general acute care hospitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Health needs, budget cuts & military spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A healthy, well-fed, educated populace is synonymous with a prospering economy. Yet, when planning their budgets, governments tend to emphasize infrastructural/industrial projects and defence rather than investing in health, education and other social programmes to eliminate the widespread poverty and high mortality of its population, which would assure a more promising future in the long-term. As citizens, nurses are responsible for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public. And in keeping with ICN's 1989 resolution on nuclear war, INR presents some facts on social and defence spending to show how health needs are often being deprived by emphasis on others sectors, particularly defence. The aim is "to encourage nurses to critically appraise expenditure on health and welfare at a national and global level in relation to that spent on conventional and nuclear arms and to assist nurses to develop strategies of action to contribute to international peace."

  1. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  2. Healthcare payments under the budget deal: mostly good news for physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. In the early morning hours last Friday (2/9/18 Congress passed and President Trump signed a massive budget agreement (1. The spending package will cost about $320 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Payments for healthcare substantially increase under the deal. Most praised the agreement. "Congress made the right choice this morning for patients and communities by voting to halt damaging cuts to hospitals that care for low-income working families and others who face financial challenges," said Dr. Bruce Siegel, CEO of America's Essential Hospitals, which represents the nation's safety-net facilities. Marc Goldwein of the Center for a Responsible Federal Budget called the healthcare provisions the one "beacon of light" in what otherwise is an exorbitantly costly budget bill. Goldwein praised its mix of structural reforms with "reasonable policy” and liked that the bill pays for the increased healthcare spending. The bill extends Medicare physician fee cuts ….

  3. The nitrogen, carbon and greenhouse gas budget of a grazed, cut and fertilised temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie K.; Helfter, Carole; Anderson, Margaret; Coyle, Mhairi; Campbell, Claire; Famulari, Daniela; Di Marco, Chiara; van Dijk, Netty; Sim Tang, Y.; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Kiese, Ralf; Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Nemitz, Eiko; Levy, Peter E.; Rees, Robert M.; Sutton, Mark A.; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-04-01

    Intensively managed grazed grasslands in temperate climates are globally important environments for the exchange of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). We assessed the N and C budget of a mostly grazed and occasionally cut and fertilised grassland in SE Scotland by measuring or modelling all relevant imports and exports to the field as well as changes in soil C and N stocks over time. The N budget was dominated by import from inorganic and organic fertilisers (21.9 g N m-2 a-1) and losses from leaching (5.3 g N m-2 a-1), N2 emissions (2.9 g N m-2 a-1), and NOx and NH3 volatilisation (3.9 g N m-2 a-1), while N2O emission was only 0.6 g N m-2 a-1. The efficiency of N use by animal products (meat and wool) averaged 9.9 % of total N input over only-grazed years (2004-2010). On average over 9 years (2002-2010), the balance of N fluxes suggested that 6.0 ± 5.9 g N m-2 a-1 (mean ± confidence interval at p > 0.95) were stored in the soil. The largest component of the C budget was the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), at an average uptake rate of 218 ± 155 g C m-2 a-1 over the 9 years. This sink strength was offset by carbon export from the field mainly as grass offtake for silage (48.9 g C m-2 a-1) and leaching (16.4 g C m-2 a-1). The other export terms, CH4 emissions from the soil, manure applications and enteric fermentation, were negligible and only contributed to 0.02-4.2 % of the total C losses. Only a small fraction of C was incorporated into the body of the grazing animals. Inclusion of these C losses in the budget resulted in a C sink strength of 163 ± 140 g C m-2 a-1. By contrast, soil stock measurements taken in May 2004 and May 2011 indicated that the grassland sequestered N in the 0-60 cm soil layer at 4.51 ± 2.64 g N m-2 a-1 and lost C at a rate of 29.08 ± 38.19 g C m-2 a-1. Potential reasons for the discrepancy between these estimates are probably an underestimation of C losses, especially from

  4. The Rise of Auxiliary Sciences in Early Modern National Historiography: an ‘Interdisciplinary’ Answer to Historical Scepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In response to the rising popularity of empirical models of scholarship and an increasingly sharp sceptic criticism against historiography, early modern historiographers strived to place their reconstruction of the past on a more ‘scientific’ basis through a new approach to historical writing. Their

  5. BUDGET IN DANGER : OUR LETTER TO THE MINISTERS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In edition no. 104 of Echo we told you about the Finance Committee meeting which took place on Wednesday 16 June and the tense atmosphere that reigned during this meeting. Echoing the alarming news from most of our countries (budget cuts, restrictions, reforms), CERN’s global budget is indeed under pressure. This is extremely serious. How can we carry out our mission if our Member States do not give us the means? Basic research cannot progress with budget cuts. The Management tried to make this understood at the meeting, however, most delegations could not or would not see reason. Refusing to sit idly by, the Staff Association decided to act immediately. It sent a letter to all ministers in the twenty Member States concerned by CERN and its financing. A copy was also sent to all Finance Committee and Council delegates. We thus hope to help convince all our Member States that it is essential that they continue to invest in basic research, a breeding ground for new ideas and at the roo...

  6. France cuts its 'big science' spend to bolster lab research

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French research agencies have been told by minister Allegre to cut FF200 million from their budgets for large scientific facilities to provide additi onal funds for laboratory research. The space agency CNES will absorb half of the cuts but the CNRS, LHC and Ganil will also be affected (1 page).

  7. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  8. SCEPTIC, Pressure Drop, Flow Rate, Heat Transfer, Temperature in Reactor Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattchee, N.; Reynolds, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SCEPTIC is a program for calculating pressure drop, flow rates, heat transfer rates, and temperature in heat exchangers such as fuel elements of typical gas or liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The effects of turbulent and heat interchange between flow passages are considered. 2 - Method of solution: The computation procedure amounts to a nodal of lumped parameter type of calculation. The axial mesh size is automatically selected to assure that a prescribed accuracy of results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of subchannels is 25, maximum number of heated surfaces is 46

  9. How the City of Utrecht achieved major budget savings through innovative service reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmans, J.F.A.; Hiemstra, Jaring

    2016-01-01

    When a coalition government took office in the City of Utrecht in 2010, it was faced with central government-imposed austerity. The cabinet eventually agreed on a durable budget reduction of EUR 55 million from 2014 and onwards which this corresponded to a 10% cut of the discretionary budget every

  10. European labs brace for German cuts: international collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, D

    1996-01-01

    Germany, the largest contributor to international European research labs, announced plans to reduce its contributions an average of 8% in the nation's latest budget. CERN and other labs are worried that the cuts will endanger ongoing projects and that other countries may follow Germany's lead.

  11. The recognition of mental health disorders and its association with psychiatric scepticism, knowledge of psychiatry, and the Big Five personality factors: an investigation using the overclaiming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Persaud, Raj; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the general public's ability to recognise mental health disorders and this ability's association with psychiatric scepticism, knowledge of psychiatry, and the Big Five personality factors. A total of 477 members of the British general public completed an overclaiming scale, in which they were asked to rate the degree to which they believed 20 mental health disorders (of which five were foils designed to resemble real disorders) were real or fake. Participants also completed a novel scale measuring psychiatric scepticism, a single-item measure of knowledge of psychiatry, and a measure of the Big Five personality factors. Results showed that participants were significantly more likely to rate foils as fake disorders than real disorders. In addition, the difference between real and foil ratings was significantly predicted by knowledge of psychiatry, psychiatric scepticism, and the Big Five personality factors of agreeableness and openness to experience. These results are discussed in relation to the overclaiming technique as a novel method to study mental health literacy.

  12. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  13. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change.

  14. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  15. The 1983 Budget and New Federalism: Trick, Trickle or Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Sar A.

    1982-01-01

    The author argues that 1983 federal budget cuts cannot and will not be replaced in sufficient measure by private efforts. The private sector will not provide the education nor the training and employment programs that federal funding has supported. (Editor/CT)

  16. Scientist versus sceptic. Report of a weblog discussion between a climatic change researcher and a climatic change sceptic; Wetenschapper versus scepticus. Verslag van een weblogdiscussie tussen een klimaatonderzoeker en een klimaatscepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strengers, B.J.; Labohm, H.H.J.

    2010-05-15

    In the run up to the international climate conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, climate sceptic Hans Labohm and climate researcher Bart Strengers of the Environmental Assessment Agency entered into a debate on the website of the Dutch Broadcasting Foundation NOS. The blog discussion offers a good view on the dilemmas surrounding knowledge about climate change. [Dutch] In de aanloop naar de internationale klimaatconferentie in december 2009 in Kopenhagen gingen klimaatscepticus Hans Labohm en klimaatonderzoeker van het Planbureau voor de leefomgeving Bart Strengers met elkaar in debat op de website van de NOS. De blogdiscussie geeft een goed beeld van de dilemma's rond de kennis over klimaatverandering.

  17. Obama Pushes Pre-K, Competitive Grants in Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's latest budget proposal envisions a sweeping, multi-billion-dollar expansion of prekindergarten programs and doubles down on the administration's strategy of using competitive grants to drive big change in states and districts--all as school districts try to cope with the largest cuts to federal education spending in recent…

  18. On sceptics and enthusiasts: What are the expectations towards self-driving cars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Haustein, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Automation in transport is increasing rapidly. While it is assumed that automated driving will have a significant impact on travel demand, the nature of this impact is not clear yet. Based on an online survey (N = 3040), this study explores the expected consequences of automated driving...... in the Danish population. Participants were divided into three homogeneous segments based on attitudes towards automated and conventional car driving: Sceptics (38%); Indifferent stressed drivers (37%) and Enthusiasts (25%). The attitudinal segments differ in their socio-demographic profiles, current travel......). All in all, increased travel demand can be expected from an uptake of increasingly automated cars, which will be realised in the different segments with different speeds, depending on policies, business models, and proven functionality and safety....

  19. Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Streamlined library programming how to improve services and cut costs

    CERN Document Server

    Porter-Reynolds, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    In their roles as community centers, public libraries offer many innovative and appealing programs; but under current budget cuts, library resources are stretched thin. With slashed budgets and limited staff hours, what can libraries do to best serve their publics? This how-to guide provides strategies for streamlining library programming in public libraries while simultaneously maintaining-or even improving-quality delivery. The wide variety of principles and techniques described can be applied on a selective basis to libraries of all sizes. Based upon the author's own extensive experience as

  1. On the use of Empirical Data to Downscale Non-scientific Scepticism About Results From Complex Physical Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, S.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    The scepticism of non-scientific local stakeholders about results from complex physical based models is a major problem concerning the development and implementation of local climate change adaptation measures. This scepticism originates from the high complexity of such models. Local stakeholders perceive complex models as black-box models, as it is impossible to gasp all underlying assumptions and mathematically formulated processes at a glance. The use of physical based models is, however, indispensible to study complex underlying processes and to predict future environmental changes. The increase of climate change adaptation efforts following the release of the latest IPCC report indicates that the communication of facts about what has already changed is an appropriate tool to trigger climate change adaptation. Therefore we suggest increasing the practice of empirical data analysis in addition to modelling efforts. The analysis of time series can generate results that are easier to comprehend for non-scientific stakeholders. Temporal trends and seasonal patterns of selected hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater levels and river discharge) can be identified and the dependence of trends and seasonal patters to land use, topography and soil type can be highlighted. A discussion about lag times between the hydrological parameters can increase the awareness of local stakeholders for delayed environment responses.

  2. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  3. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural community in northwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nnko, Soori; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Geissler, Wenzel

    2012-01-01

    in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional...... attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria...

  4. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment

  5. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902-1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S; Mooney, Graham

    2014-04-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902-1914) and universal suffrage (1921-1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending.

  6. Sport-for-Change: Some Thoughts from a Sceptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Coalter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport’s historic attraction for policy makers has been its claims that it can offer an economy of remedies to seemingly intractable social problems—“social inclusion”, “development”. Such usually vague and ill-defined claims reflect sport’s marginal policy status and its attempts to prove its more general relevance. The dominance of evangelical beliefs and interest groups, who tend to view research in terms of affirmation of their beliefs, is restricting conceptual and methodological development of policy and practice. There is a need to de-reify “sport” and to address the issue of sufficient conditions—the mechanisms, processes and experiences which might produce positive impacts for some participants. This requires researchers and practitioners to develop approaches based on robust and systematic programme theories. However, even if systematic and robust evidence is produced for the relative effectiveness of certain types of programme, we are left with the problem of displacement of scope—the process of wrongly generalising micro level (programme effects to the macro (social. Although programme rhetoric frequently claims to address social issues most programmes have an inevitably individualist perspective. Further, as participation in sport is closely related to socially structured inequalities, it might be that rather than sport contributing to “social inclusion”, various aspects of social inclusion may precede such participation. In this regard academics and researchers need to adopt a degree of scepticism and to reflect critically on what we and, most especially, others might already know. There is a need to theorise sport-for-change’s limitations as well as its “potential”.

  7. Being Bodies, Thinking Bodies. Judith Butler's Critiques to the Cartesian Scepticism and Contemporary Constructivism and Some Clarifications about her Understanding of Human Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel G. Gamero Cabrera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyse Judith Butler’s recent critics against the Cartesian scepticism and the posTmodern constructivism (indentified by Preciado and Haraway’s works, in order to explain Butler’s distance from constructivism and, at the same time, to assert the ethical and potentially universal dimension of her defence of the precarious lives.

  8. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  9. France, Germany, Greece and the United Kingdom an analysis and comparison of budget deficits and defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Schoettelndreyer, Friedrich.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis documents findings on the relationship of government budget deficits and defense spending for France, Germany, Greece, and the United Kingdom in detail and for NATO and OECD country collectives. The thesis topic is relevant, as many European countries are justifying their recent cuts in defense spending with high government budget deficits. The author looked at different data sources and metrics to graphically analyze the ...

  10. The impact of economic downturns and budget cuts on homelessness claim rates across 323 local authorities in England, 2004-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel; Reeves, Aaron; Barr, Ben; Taylor-Robinson, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear why rates of homelessness claims in England have risen since 2010. We used variations in rates across local authorities to test the impact of economic downturns and budget cuts. Using cross-area fixed effects models of data from 323 UK local authorities between 2004 and 2012, we evaluated associations of changes in statutory homelessness rates with economic activity (Gross Value Added per capita), unemployment, and local and central government expenditure. Each 10% fall in economic activity was associated with an increase of 0.45 homelessness claims per 1000 households (95% CI: 0.10-0.80). Increasing rates of homelessness were also strongly linked with government reductions in welfare spending. Disaggregating types of welfare expenditure, we found that strongest associations with reduced homelessness claims were spending on social care, housing services, discretionary housing payments and income support for older persons. Recession and austerity measures are associated with significant increases in rates of homelessness assistance. These findings likely understate the full burden of homelessness as they only capture those who seek aid. Future research is needed to investigate what is happening to vulnerable groups who may not obtain assistance, including those with mental health problems and rough sleepers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    The experiences of the University of Montreal in using a rational-analytic framework to allocate resources at a time of budget costs are discussed. The following characteristics for rational decision-making are identified and applied to the University of Montreal: whether goals were known, whether alternative methods of resource allocation were…

  12. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  13. Cuts will stop time for a year at Big Bang laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "The nuclear research laboratory that develped the world's most powerful particle accelerator has become the latest victim of Europe's financial crisis. All the accelerator experiments at Cern, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, are to be closed for a year in 2012, after Britain led demands by financially troubled member states for a 215 million pounds cut to its budget" (1 page)

  14. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  15. Long-term effect of fee-for-service-based reimbursement cuts on processes and outcomes of care for stroke: interrupted time-series study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    As healthcare spending continues to increase, reimbursement cuts have become 1 type of healthcare reform to contain costs. Little is known about the long-term impact of cuts in reimbursement, especially under a global budget cap with fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement, on processes and outcomes of care. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts have been implemented since July 2002 in Taiwan. We examined the long-term association of FFS-based reimbursement cuts with trends in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. We analyzed all 411,487 patients with stroke admitted to general acute care hospitals in Taiwan during the period 1997 to 2010 through Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of healthcare utilization and outcomes and used segmented autoregressive integrated moving average models for the analysis. After accounting for secular trends and other confounders, the implementation of the FFS-based reimbursement cuts was associated with trend changes in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scanning (0.31% per quarter; P=0.013), antiplatelet/anticoagulant use (-0.20% per quarter; Pprocesses and outcomes of care over time. However, the reimbursement cuts from the FFS-based global budget cap are associated with trend changes in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts may have long-term positive and negative associations with stroke care. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  17. Considerações sobre o ceticismo contemporâneo a partir da ontologia e gnosiologia marxista Considerations on contemporary scepticism from marxist ontology and gnosiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soares Della Fonte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A fim de contribuir para a análise da nova onda cética que permeia a pesquisa educacional, investigo como Lênin e Lukács refutaram, em termos ontológico e gnosiológico, os ceticismos de sua época. Lênin elucida, no início do século xx, a suposta neutralidade empiriocriticista. Já Lukács analisa, na segunda metade desse mesmo século, o neopositivismo como auge dessa perspectiva. Vivemos uma ambiência ideológica cripto-positivista similar à diagnosticada pelos autores. Enquanto a tradição positivista desterrou nominalmente a ontologia, as correntes atuais a afirmam no intuito de negar a possibilidade de dizer algo sobre o mundo; instauram uma nova forma de exílio da ontologia. Com isso, fortalece-se uma ontologia velada, colada a uma prática imediata, conveniente aos interesses manipulatórios do capital. Para não ratificar essa retração teórica, o campo educacional enfrenta o desafio de combater os atuais ceticismos.In a contribution to the analysis of the new sceptical wave that has been pervading educational research, I investigate how Lenin and Lukács refuted, in ontological and gnosiological terms, the scepticism at their time. In the beginning of the 20th century, Lenin elucidated the supposed Empiric-critic neutrality. Later on, during the 20th century, Lukács, in his turn, analyzed neo-positivism as the highest point of this perspective. Nowadays, we live in a similar crypto-positivist atmosphere. While positivist tradition has nominally banished ontology, the current trends maintain it, in an attempt to deny the possibility of saying anything about the world; thus, they establish a new way of exiling ontology. With this, an underlying kind of ontology is strengthened, as connected to an immediate practice, ready to fit the interests of the ones who keep capital under control. To avoid ratifying this theoretical retraction, the educational field faces the challenge of opposing today's scepticism.

  18. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  19. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  20. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  1. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  2. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Putin’s “May decrees” have received the status of a national goal. On the background of decreasing economic performance exacerbated by external shocks, the implementation of these decrees has become a heavy burden for regional budgets without an adequate financial support from the federal budget. As a result, almost every Russian region has suffered losses by the end of 2014. The fallacy of the ongoing course of budget policy has long been criticized by many leading scholars and experts; moreover, they proposed positive recommendations on the development of alternative policies. Unfortunately, the results of 2014 prove that the RF Government has not abandoned the policy of budget consolidation. On the contrary, gratuitous financial assistance to the regions is actively transformed into debt financing in the form of budget loans. However, the regional authorities can rely on this quasi-support, which is a temporary factor, only provided that the budget is deficit-free and at the expense of abandonment of spending on economic development and on the improvement of welfare of the population. The results of the analysis of the facts indicate that the budget-related problems of the regions, arising largely from the inefficient federal budget policy, have reached the critical level. One fourth of the subjects that had a predominant share of market debt turned out to be in a pre-default state. The breakdown of public finances has affected the most prosperous regions, which is contrary to the paradigm of sustainable regional development. The regions entered the crisis of 2014 with huge debt and budget deficit; the situation was not so grave during the financial and economic crisis of 2009. In terms of the upcoming 10% cut of federal budget expenditures [5], the subjects of the Russian Federation can hardly expect an increase in financial support. They will obviously have to adapt their budgets to the changing economic situation. But in

  3. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  4. States' experiences with loan repayment programs for health care professionals in a time of state budget cuts and NHSC expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Donald E; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Konrad, Thomas R; Goldberg, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of education loan repayment programs for health care professionals has been turbulent in recent years, with doubling of the funding for the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) and cuts in funding for some states' programs. We sought to understand how this turbulence is being felt within the state offices involved in recruiting clinicians to rural and urban underserved communities. We conducted key informant telephone interviews with staff of state offices of rural health, primary care organizations, and/or related organizations within 28 diverse states to answer questions about perceived changes and interplay among solely state-funded loan repayment programs, joint state-federal programs, and the NHSC federal program. Interviews were transcribed, formally analyzed, and key issues summarized. Informants reported that solely state-funded and joint state-federal loan repayment programs are greatly valued for their ability to target a state's particular needs and to complement the NHSC federal program. However, budgets for state programs have been threatened, reduced, or eliminated entirely in many cases. All informants positively perceived the NHSC's recent growth and changes, which they feel are helping fill important workforce needs for their states. Nevertheless, the much larger NHSC federal program now competes with some states' programs for clinicians and service sites; states' programs are pushed to adjust their operations to maintain a unique "niche". States' key recruiters lament reductions in funding for states' loan repayment programs, and welcome the NHSC's recent growth and changes. Better coordination is needed to minimize competition and maximize complementarity between state and federal programs. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  6. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  7. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  8. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  9. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  10. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  11. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  12. Scepticism and trust: two counterpoint essentials in science education for complex socio-scientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-09-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's (Cult Stud Sci Educ. doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I use an alternative view of the relationship between science, technology and society, supported by evidence from both science and society, to suggest science-informed citizens as a more realistic outcome image of school science than the authors' one of mini-scientists. The intellectual independence of students Bryce and Day assume, and intend for school science, is countered with an active intellectual dependence. It is only in relation to emerging and uncertain scientific contexts that students should be taught about scepticism, but they also need to learn when, and why to trust science as an antidote to the expressions of doubting it. Some suggestions for pedagogies that could lead to these new learnings are made. The very recent fifth report of the IPCC answers many of their concerns about climate change.

  13. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  14. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  15. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  16. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  17. Problems and Specific Features of Sub-Federal Budgets Execution in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Last year has been marked by worrying trends in the development of a budgetary crisis in Russian regions; the crisis became apparent in 2013, when regional authorities had to get into huge debts in order to provide finances for the social obligations in the framework of the presidential decrees of May 7, 2012. The budget process in 2015 was characterized by expanding negative trends in those regions that had previously been the engines of economic growth and budget donors, which contradicts the regional development strategy. The crisis response measures consist in a large-scale optimization of expenses. Despite an attempt undertaken by the Government to replace commercial borrowings with budget loans, there are still no prospects for solving the debt issue. On the contrary, expert forecasts predict a doubling of the debt stock in regions by the end of 2017. Cuts in the expenditures on human capital development should be considered as a new negative trend, naturally resulting in the deterioration of material well-being of Russians, which was expressed in the decline in their real incomes and raising poverty level. It seems that on the eve of the RF State Duma elections the social policy of the authorities ceases to be socially oriented. Under the circumstances of an aggravating budget crisis, the Government is not increasing unrepayable financial aid (it did increase it in 2009; instead, it is pursuing the opposite policy and estranges itself from providing support to regions. Moreover, the Cabinet of Ministers does not openly wish to carry out a just division of powers and obligations of governmental units, but turns it into a mechanism for financing federal budget deficit by shifting state obligations onto the regions. The paper presents the results of the analysis of sub-federal budgets execution in 2015. The main goal was to identify the features of budget process and trends in the dynamics of budget parameters. The main conclusion is that

  18. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  19. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  20. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'; De klimaatcontroverse vergt inhoudelijke discussie. 'Klimaatsceptici' tegenover 'broeikasgelovigen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-07-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree. [Dutch] Met het doel beleidsmakers te informeren wordt een overzicht te geven van de argumenten die worden gebruikt door klimaatsceptici en broeikasgelovigen, en over welke argumenten ze het (on)eens zijn.

  1. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  2. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  3. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  4. Passive behavior of the government. Budget problems are aggravating in the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-07-01

    20 to 11. The worsening of socio-economic problems is accompanied by a difficult international environment, adverse effects of external sanctions against Russia and falling oil prices. Already in 2014 the losses from the sanctions amounted to 40 billion U.S. dollars, from the decline in oil prices 100 billion U.S. dollars . However, the federal budget for 2015 was approved without taking into account these factors. It demonstrates the inability of the Russian Government to accurately assess the situation and forecast events even in the short term. Due to forced significant amendments to the federal budget in April 2015, its deficit was increased seven-fold, from 0.4 to 2.7 trillion rubles. Surely, this imbalance of the country’s budget will seriously complicate the implementation of local budgets. In the new version of the federal budget transfers to regions cut by 72 billion rubles, or by 10.5%. The anti-crisis plan of the Russian Federation Government aimed at cutting budget spending provides not grant financial support to the regions, but allocation of budgetary loans in the amount of 160 billion rubles, which will be returned to the Federal Treasury. These funds will be enough to repay only 15% of the accumulated commercial debt of regional budgets. Such a short-sighted budgetary policy of the central authorities deprives the regions of any hope of solving the problem of rising public debt. The crisis, greatly affecting the regions with metallurgical specialization, has highlighted the limits of countercyclical potential of fiscal policy. The lack of budget risk management involves deep drop in tax revenues, a major revenue source of regional budgets. Another negative consequence is that the Vologda Oblast, the Lipetsk Oblast, the Chelyabinsk Oblast and the Kemerovo Oblast have lost the status of donor regions. The article presents the results of the research in the problems of budgetary provision of the Vologda Oblast, the Lipetsk Oblast and the Chelyabinsk

  5. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  7. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  8. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  9. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  10. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  11. Reagan proposes cuts in synfuel aid, transfer to Synfuels Corp. from DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-02

    It is reported that U.S. president Ronald Reagan in his budget message for the financial year 1982, has proposed to cut the DOE's planned 1982 expenditure for the synfuels programme by $864 m. He also proposed that the government synfuels effort be transferred to the recently created Synthetic Fuels Corporation. The gasohol programme and biomass development have suffered by the termination of feasibility studies, co-operative agreements and loan guarantee, but the planned tax credits will continue in the case of gasohol, resulting in a subsidy in excess of $18/bbl.

  12. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  13. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  14. Note to Budget Cutters: The Arts Are Good Business--Multiple Studies Point to Arts Education as an Important Economic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    They say desperate times call for desperate measures. But in this time of economic uncertainty, the desperate cutting of budgets for arts funding and, by extension, all types of arts education, including music, is not prudent. That is the consensus of several national and local studies, which converge on a single point--that the arts actually can…

  15. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  16. Support for Business R&D in Budget 2012: Two Steps Forward and One Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The federal budget contains some sensible changes to the SR&ED investment tax credit, but the decision to reduce support for large firms to provide additional support for small firms is a step in the wrong direction. The Jenkins Panel* expressed concern about excessive subsidization of small and medium-sized firms and recommended cutting back on the enhanced SR&ED credit in order to finance more targeted support for these firms. Following that advice would have improved the social return on support for R&D; in contrast, the budget measures marginally reduce the benefits to society from subsidizing R&D. The budget also announced $400 million in additional funding for risk capital. Returns in the venture capital industry are very low and the additional funding is unlikely to be successfully deployed until returns improve. There is abundant evidence that the tax credit for investment in Labour-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations is crowding out private investment and contributing to low rates of return; eliminating the credit is therefore an essential first step in restoring the financial health of the venture capital industry.

  17. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udeh Francis Nnoli; Sopekan Sam Adeyemi; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ...

  18. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  19. A Primer on the Government of Alberta’s Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Provincial budgets may normally make for dry reading, but in Alberta’s case, there is plenty of suspense lurking inside the pages — and that’s not necessarily a good thing. Your average family may know certain things about balancing a budget: keeping spending roughly in line with income; not relying on volatile, unpredictable income streams to cover expenses; and not leaving the kids with an inheritance of significant debt. But look at how Alberta has been managing its budget in the last decade, and it is obvious that the provincial government is breaking a lot of the financial management rules that most Albertans are disciplined enough to live by at home. A clear way to get a sense of how the Alberta government has managed its finances is by analyzing how much provincial program spending relies on depleting provincial savings, either in the form of savings funds or non-renewable resource deposits, such as oil and gas. By 2011, Alberta’s “Budget Gap” had grown to almost the same level it was in 1993, when the province was forced to adopt wrenching budget cuts in order to close what had become a yawning gap between revenue and costs amounting to $4,000 in spending for every man, woman and child in the province. This paper suggests there are three key questions that should be posed to our government and to any political party seeking to represent our interests as our government: 1. How tolerant are they of annual deficits? Do they advocate a strategy of relatively lower levels of government spending and/or higher tax rates, so as to avoid deficits no matter the state of the economy? Or will they tolerate deficits during economic slowdowns to enable higher levels of spending and/or lower tax rates? 2. To what extent are they willing to trust the payment of health-care costs and the costs of education and social assistance to oil and gas royalties as opposed to taxation? 3. How, exactly, does one define investments in social

  20. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  1. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  2. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  3. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  4. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the 'moral hazard' argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies-the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed 'self-enhancing' values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed.

  5. A PFC3D-based numerical simulation of cutting load for lunar rock simulant and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    For sake of striking a balance between the need of drilling efficiency and the constrains of power budget on the moon, the penetrations per revolution of drill bit are generally limited in the range around 0.1 mm, and besides the geometric angle of the cutting blade need to be well designed. This paper introduces a simulation approach based on PFC3D (particle flow code 3 dimensions) for analyzing the cutting load feature on lunar rock simulant, which is derived from different geometric-angle blades with a small cutting depth. The mean values of the cutting force of five blades in the survey region (four on the boundary points and one on the center point) are selected as the macroscopic responses of model. The method of experimental design which includes Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) method is adopted in the matching procedure of microparameters in PFC model. Using the optimization method of enumeration, the optimum set of microparameters is acquired. Then, the experimental validation is implemented by using other twenty-five blades with different geometric angles, and the results from both simulations and laboratory tests give fair agreements. Additionally, the rock breaking process cut by different blades are quantified from simulation analysis. This research provides the theoretical support for the refinement of the rock cutting load prediction and the geometric design of cutting blade on the drill bit.

  6. Plasma cutting or laser cutting. Plasma setsudan ka laser setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, A. (Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    Comparisons and discussions were made on the plasma cutting and laser cutting in sheet steel cutting, referring partly to gas cutting. Historically, the cutting has been developed from gas, plasma, and laser in that order, and currently these three methods are used mixedly. Generally, the plasma cutting is superior in cutting speed, but inferior in cut face quality, and it requires measures of dust collection. Due to high accuracy and quality in cut face, the laser cutting has been practically used for quite some time in the thin sheet industry, but medium to thick sheet cutting had a problem of unavailability of high output laser suitable for these ranges. However, the recent technologies have overcome the problem as a result of development at the authors {prime} company of a 2 kW class laser cutter capable of cutting 19 mm thick sheet. The cutter has been proven being particularly excellent in controllability. Choice of whether plasma or laser would depend upon which priority is to be taken, cost or accuracy. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. THE POSITION BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL UNITS IN GENERAL CONSOLIDATED BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool of territorial administrative units of financial and budgetary policy in which the state intervenes in the economy at the local level, having a major impact on general government.Through the decentralization processes that are increasingly debated and applied, the paper aims to highlight the importance of the territorial administrative unit budgets in the consolidated budget in Romania.Thus, the work comprises both theoretical notions concerning the presentation of the consolidated state budget and the budget of the territorial administrative units. The relevance of the work lies in the importance of general government in the regulation of macroeconomic balances by sizing or macroeconomic imbalances, with modern methods that analyze the possibilities and effects of new types of deficits or surpluses in the public sector.

  8. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  9. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  10. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  11. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  12. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  13. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  14. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  15. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  16. The 'People's Budget' and Budget Effectiveness:The Case of Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All over the world, participatory budgeting is being advocated. This is based on the belief that stakeholders' participation in the budgeting process improves transparency, accountability and service delivery. Using evidence from 105 Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in Kabalore and Kamwenge district local governments ...

  17. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  18. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  19. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  20. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  1. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  2. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  3. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  4. Cutting method and cutting device for spent fuel rod of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Ose, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    A control rod transferred under water in a vertically suspended state is postured horizontally at such a water depth that radiations can be shielded, and then it is cut to a dropping speed limiting portion and a cross-like main body. The separated cross-like main body portion is further cut in the longitudinal direction and separated into a pair of cut pieces each having an L-shaped cross section. A disk like metal saw is used as a cutting tool. Alternatively, a plasma jet cutter or a melting-type water jet cutter is used as a cutting tool. Then, since the spent control rod to be cut is postured horizontally under water, the water depth for the cutting position can be reduced. As a result, the cutting state using the cutting tool can be observed by naked eyes from the position above the water surface thereby enabling to perform the cutting operation reliably. (N.H.)

  5. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  6. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  7. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  9. Scepticism and hope in a complex predicament: People with addictions deliberate about neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Weier, Megan; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2016-06-01

    According to the 'brain disease model of addiction', addiction is a chronic condition the symptoms of which reflect persistent changes in neural functioning produced by long-term drug use. Scholars have argued both for and against the validity and usefulness of this way of conceptualising addiction, which has been variously described as emancipatory and detrimental to addicted persons. In this paper we explore how people with addictions make sense of the brain disease concept and the extent to which they find it useful. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with persons in treatment for drug and alcohol addiction recruited through a variety of channels. Transcripts were analysed by combining a health identity approach with thematic analysis. We describe participants' understandings of how they became addicted and what role, if any, neurobiological conceptions play in their explanations. Our findings highlight the hopeful and sceptical viewpoints of addicted individuals on the value of addiction neuroscience ideas and neurotechnologies. These viewpoints shed some light on the diverse and divergent ways that people with addictions make sense of neurobiological ideas and technologies. It also describes when, and how, neurobiological explanations and the 'brain disease' model can be helpful to addicted persons. Some of the limitations of the brain disease model become apparent in the complex ways in which neurobiological explanations and labels are incorporated into lay understandings. In order to be more useful to addicted persons, neurobiological explanations should be provided as part of a more complex explanation of addiction and the brain than the BDMA offers, and should not be given a 'disease' label. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  11. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  12. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  13. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  14. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  15. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  16. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  17. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  18. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  19. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  1. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...

  2. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  3. Laser cutting or water-jet cutting. Laser setsudan ka water-jet setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. (Shibuya Kogyo Co. Ltd., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The recent spread of carbon oxide laser cutter is so startlingly fast, but at the same time, water jet cutting using ultra high pressure water stream is drawing attention as it has identical characteristics, and opens the way to cutting materials that have been hitherto difficult to cut. The authors, who are fabricators of cutters of both types, gave the comparisons and explanations on several examples referring to materials that can be cut, cutting accuracy, speed, shape and thermal effects to cut face, and running cost in detail. However, simple comparison is difficult. For instance, cutting 6 mm thick SUS sheet costs a running cost of 65 yen per meter in laser cutting, and 535 yen per meter in water jet cutting, but this situation is often reversed when other material or sheet thickness is selected. The actual situation in the sheet metal processing industry at the present time is that it uses by far more laser processing machines, and uses water jet cutters to supplement for cutting materials more difficult to cut. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  5. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  6. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  7. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  8. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  9. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  10. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  11. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  12. Sediment budgets of mountain catchments: Scale dependence and the influence of land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Helga; Dotterweich, Markus; Wunderlich, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Long-term sediment budgets of forested mountain catchments are scarcely investigated today. This is because they are traditionally expected to show few erosion features and low sediment delivery. This opinion originates from process-based hydrological studies proving the runoff preventing properties of trees and forest soils. In addition mountain areas have been colonized later and only sporadically compared to the fruitful loess-covered lowlands. On the other hand steep hillslopes, narrow valleys and the availability of regolith cause a high erosion potential. And there is evidence that historical floods and yearly occurring storms initiate intensive but local and sporadic erosion events. Sediment budgets from zero-order catchments of the Palatinate Forest in the south-western sandstone escarpment in Rhineland-Palatinate show spatially varying intensities of land use impact and relief conditions. The budgets are based on field data and a soilscape model of an upper periglacial cover bed with a homogenous thickness. OSL- and 14C-dates of colluvial deposits allow relating erosion events to land-use changes derived from historical maps and written archives. The presented case studies from the Palatinate Forest are of special interest as the high proximity to the loess-covered and intensively cultivated Rhine Graben effected settlement and land-use intensity in the mountain catchments. Clear cuts for settlements were joined by deforestation for agriculture and stretched mainly along the Haardtrand and high order valleys. Off these areas the strength of interference in the forest ecosystem depended on transport possibilities and distance to the Rhine Graben. In the vicinity strong devastation and clear cutting occurred. With increasing distance the felling intensity decreased and some parts seem to be nearly undisturbed until the 18th century. The needs for wood were controlled by the economical development as well as political decisions on local to European scale. The

  13. Technology development for cutting a reactor pressure vessel using a mechanical cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Miyao, Hidehiko; Ooki, Arahiko; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Koiwai, Masami

    2001-01-01

    On decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the thermal cutting technique such as an oxygen-acetylene gas cutting and a plasma arc cutting are generally used for cutting massive and thick steel structures in consideration with cutting speed and control performance. These techniques generate dust, smoke, aerosol and a large quantity of secondary waste. Mechanical cutting technique has an advantage of small amount of secondary waste, and the metal chips from the kerf recovered easily compared with these thermal cutting technique. The remote mechanical cutting system for highly activated RPV has been developed with the manner which achieves the safety and cost effectiveness. The development has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  14. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  15. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  16. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  17. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  18. A little off the top. While overall healthcare hiring is up, some health systems are being forced to cut jobs, workers and find other savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-06-02

    Despite the oft-repeated theory that the healthcare industry is "recession-proof," some systems have found themselves resorting to layoffs and budget cuts during the current economic downturn. Lee Memorial Health System CFO John Wiest, left, said that the system is dealing with reduced operating income and net volume, and it has trimmed 415 jobs through attrition.

  19. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  20. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  1. Minimizing waste (off-cuts using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemileke A. Ogunranti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP Model constrained by numerous feasible patterns. A LP solver was integrated with the pattern generation algorithm program to develop a one - dimensional cutting stock model application named GB Cutting Stock Program. Findings and Originality/value: Applying the model to a real life optimization problem significantly reduces material waste (off-cuts and minimizes the total stock used. The result yielded about 30.7% cost savings for company-I when the total stock materials used is compared with the former cutting plan. Also, to evaluate the efficiency of the application, Case I problem was solved using two top commercial 1D-cutting stock software.  The results show that the GB program performs better when related results were compared. Research limitations/implications: This study round up the linear programming solution for the number of pattern to cut. Practical implications: From Managerial perspective, implementing optimized cutting plans increases productivity by eliminating calculating errors and drastically reducing operator mistakes. Also, financial benefits that can annually amount to millions in cost savings can be achieved through significant material waste reduction. Originality/value: This paper developed a linear programming one dimensional cutting stock model based on a pattern generation algorithm to minimize waste in the wood working industry. To implement the model, the algorithm was coded using VisualBasic.net and linear programming solver called lpsolvedll (dynamic

  2. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  3. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  4. A channel sediment budget for the 'Kleine Noordwaard' in the Biesbosch area, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Deijl, Eveline C.; van der Perk, Marcel; Zonneveld, Wouter; Verschelling, Eelco; Middelkoop, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Many deltas in the world are subject to drowning and loss of land due to accelerated soil subsidence, sea level rise, and sediment starvation. Effective delta restoration requires a thorough understanding of the rates and mechanisms of delta aggradation and their controls. This study aims to quantify the rates and patterns of aggradation in the Kleine Noordwaard, a former polder area in the Biesbosch area in the south-west of the Netherlands, in which water and sediment have been reintroduced since 2009. A sediment budget was established using existing bathymetric data collected using a multibeam echosounder and LiDAR digital elevation models collected since the opening of the polder, supplemented with field observations of the location and height of cut banks carried out between July and December 2014. Consecutive measurements of channel bathymetry showed a positive sediment budget in the channels between March 2009 and March 2013. During this period 59533 m3 of sediment was retained in the channels in the Kleine Noordwaard, which corresponds to an average sedimentation rate of 16.8 mm/year in the channels and 3.4 mm/year over the entire area. Sedimentation and aggradation primarily took place in the channels in the central part of the former polder area, whereas the channels near the entrance and outlet of the area underwent considerable erosion. It is therefore likely that a part of the sediment deposited in the central part of the system was supplied internally by upstream erosion of the channels. The results from the field observations suggest that cut-bank retreat also significantly contributes to internal sediment redistribution.

  5. Evaluate the performance of a stochastic-flow network with cost attribute in terms of minimal cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a performance index to measure the quality level of a stochastic-flow network in which each node has a designated capacity, which will have different lower levels due to various partial and complete failures. The performance index is the probability that the maximum flow of the network equals the demand d without exceeding the budget b. A simple algorithm in terms of minimal cuts is first proposed to generate all upper boundary points for (d, b), and then the probability that the maximum flow is less than or equal to d can be calculated in terms of such points. The upper boundary point for (d, b) is a maximal vector representing the capacity of each arc such that the maximum flow of the network under the budget b is d. The performance index can be calculated by repeating the proposed algorithm to obtain all upper boundary point for (d-1, b). A benchmark example is shown to illustrate the solution procedure

  6. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  7. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  8. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  9. Rapid Budget Analysis of the Agricultural Sector for the General Budget Support Annual Review 2010/11

    OpenAIRE

    Francken, Nathalie; Zorya, S

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the budget analysis chapter is to provide an overall assessment of how well the approved budget allocations in 2010-11 align with the strategic objectives and with sector strategic priorities of the Second National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (known by its Kiswahili acronym, MKUKUTA II). It also assesses the consistency of the actual spending and approved budget in 2009-10. In evaluating the alignment of the budget and MKUKUTA's strategic objectives and ...

  10. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  11. Budget Elements of Economic Security: Specifics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of economic security in conjunction with budget components such as “budget interests” and “budget necessities” are analyzed. Key positions of the categories “budget interests” and “budget necessities” in the theory of economic security in the budgetary area are substantiated given their priority role in setting up its implementation strategy. The category “budget interests” is defined as the system of budget necessities of the interest holders, implemented through budget activities of entities and aimed at seeking benefits through the budget, in order to guarantee functioning and development of the society, the state, legal entities and physical persons. “Budget necessities” are defined as the need in budget funds to achieve and sustain, at a certain level, life activities of individuals, social groups, society, state and legal entities. Classification of budget interests by various criteria is made in the context of their impact on the economic security of the state. It is demonstrated that the four-tier classification of the budget interests by interest holder is essential to guaranteeing economic security in the budgetary area: budget interests of the state: the interests held by central and local power offices; budget interests of legal entities: the interests of profit and non-profit (public, budgetary, party and other organizations; budget interests of individuals: basic necessities of individuals, met by budget transfers, which stand out of the array of public necessities by their individual character.

  12. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  13. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  14. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  15. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  16. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  17. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  18. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2013 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 13, 2012 Top Stories Budget Proposal Slows Cost Growth, Pentagon Leaders Say The Defense Department's proposed fiscal 2013 budget request Department officials told a Senate panel. Story Officials Seek Construction Funds, More BRAC in Budget

  1. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  2. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  3. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  4. Operation of the AM-50 cutting head under different cutting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Kusz, F; Fels, M

    1988-02-01

    Presents results of investigations into operation of the AM-50 heading machine. About 50% of headings, i.e. about 800 km/a, are driven by about 400 heading machines. It has been found that energy consumption depends on compression strength of rock and is 6 times higher for sandstone than for clayey shale. Power consumed by cutting heads depends mainly on the web used (30-150 mm depending on rock strength). Wear of cutting tools is 1-30 pieces per meter of heading advance at a working cross-section area of 15 m/sup 2/. The AM-50 machine uses cutting speeds of 1.1-3.5 m/s. Higher speeds negatively affect the resistance to cutting. Nonuniform tool wear on the cutting head circumference is an indication of improper head design that requires remedying.

  5. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  6. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  7. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  8. On the Cutting Performance of Segmented Diamond Blades when Dry-Cutting Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Egea, A J; Martynenko, V; Martínez Krahmer, D; López de Lacalle, L N; Benítez, A; Genovese, G

    2018-02-09

    The objective of the present study is to analyze and compare the cutting performance of segmented diamond blades when dry-cutting concrete. A cutting criteria is proposed to characterize the wear of the blades by measuring the variation of the external diameter and the weight loss of the blade. The results exhibit the cutting blade SB-A, which has twice the density of diamonds and large contact area, exhibits less wear even though the material removal rate is higher compared with the other two cutting blades. Additionally, the surface topography of the different blades is evaluated to examine the impact of wear depending on the surface profile and the distribution of the diamonds in the blade's matrix. Large number of diamonds pull-out are found in blades type SB-C, which additionally shows the worst wear resistant capability. As a conclusion, the cutting efficiency of the blade is found to be related to the density of embedded diamonds and the type of the surface profile of the cutting blade after reaching the stop criteria.

  9. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  10. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  11. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  12. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  13. Defense.gov Special Report: 2015 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search FY 2015 Fiscal Budget News Stories Dempsey Calls for Budget Increase increase its budget, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said. Story James: Air Force Grapples with Congress to Fund Readiness The Air Force fiscal 2015 budget request is shrinking because of Congressional

  14. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  15. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  16. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  17. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  18. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  19. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  20. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  1. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  2. The Budget-Related Antecedents of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz Karakoc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.

  3. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  4. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  5. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  6. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  7. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  8. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  9. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.

  10. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  11. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  12. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  14. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis and efficient use of the pharmaceutical budget: the key role of clinical pharmacologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Round, Jeff; Hulme, Claire; McCabe, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about cost-effectiveness analysis and the roles of clinical pharmacologists generally in providing efficient health care. The paper highlights the potential consequences of 'off-label prescribing' and 'indication creep' behaviour given slower growth (or potential cuts) in the NHS budget. This paper highlights the key roles of clinical pharmacologists in delivering an efficient health care system when resources are allocated using cost-effectiveness analyses. It describes what cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is and how incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are used to identify efficient options. After outlining the theoretical framework within which using CEA can promote the efficient allocation of the health care budget, it considers the place of disinvestment within achieving efficient resource allocation. Clinical pharmacologists are argued to be critical to providing improved population health under CEA-based resource allocation processes because of their roles in implementation and disinvestment. Given that the challenges facing the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) are likely to increase, this paper sets out the stark choices facing clinical pharmacologists.

  16. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  18. Budgetering och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen

    OpenAIRE

    Finnström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att ge en bild av vad budgetering är och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen. Forskningsproblemet är att ta reda på vilken kritiken är mot budgetering, hur man kan förbättra budgetarbetet och få fram vilka de alternativa metoderna är till budgetering. I lärdomsprovets teoretiska del behandlas vad en budget är, syften med en budget, huvud- och delbudgetar, budgeteringsprocessen, kritik och alternativa metoder till budgeteringen. I den empiriska delen ha...

  19. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  20. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  1. Model for Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.

    1977-01-01

    A model is presented for calculating Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts, making use explicitly of the Mandelstam diagram. External spins are treated in a natural way. Calculation for the general case is outlined and it is shown that in practical application the cut can be calculated in a standard way. Cuts associated with the exchanges of π, rho, B, and A 2 are considered, and characteristics of the RP cuts, as well as the structure functions, are extracted and discussed. It is found that the model differs considerably from the absorption model. Two suppression schemes are operative which control the magnitudes of cut contributions to amplitudes with ''naturality'' opposite to the Reggeon. The πP cut is found to be a unique case because of the smallness of the pion mass. In general, the RP cuts are self-conspiratorial. At very high energies, all cuts, except πP cut, exhibit quasifactorization

  2. Cutting method for structural component into block like shape, and device used for cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Ito, Akira; Tateiwa, Masaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Two grooves each of a predetermined depth are formed along a surface of a structural component, and a portion between the two grooves is cut in the direction of the depth from the surface of the structural component by using a cutting wire of a wire saw device. Then, the cutting wire is moved in the extending direction of the grooves while optionally changing the position in the direction of the depth to conduct cutting for the back face. Further, the cutting wire is moved in the direction of the depth of the groove toward the surface, to cut a portion between the two grooves. The wire saw device comprises a wire saw main body movable along the surface of the structural component, a pair of wire guide portions extending in the direction of the depth, guide pooleys capable of guiding the cutting wire guides revolvably and rotatably disposed at the top end, and an endless annular cutting wire extending between the wire guide portions. Thus, it is possible to continuously cut out blocks set to optional size and thickness. In addition, remote cutting is possible with no requirement for an operator to access to the vicinity of radioactivated portions. (N.H.)

  3. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)

  4. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  5. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  6. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  7. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  8. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  9. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  10. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  11. Remotely controlled cutting techniques in the field of nuclear decommissioning. Overview of effectively applied thermal cutting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienia, H.; Klotz, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes 3 thermal cutting technologies that are effectively used in nuclear decommissioning projects: the autonomous flame cutting, the plasma arc cutting and the contact arc metal cutting. The autonomous flame cutting technology is based on a high pressure oxygen jet oxidizing the material in a small kerf. Not all metal types are appropriate for this technology. The plasma arc cutting, in contrast to the previous technology, uses an electronically induced plasma arc to melt a kerf in the material. Inside the plasma arc temperatures up to 30.000 K exist, so in theory, this temperature is sufficient to cut all materials. Contact arc metal cutting is a new thermal cutting technology for under-water cutting works. Here, a carbon blade cuts the components. An electric arc between the cutting blade and component melts a kerf into the material easing the cutting. This technology allows the cutting of complex structures with hollows. The applications in nuclear facility dismantling of these 3 cutting technologies and their limits are reported and their requirements (staff, investment) listed in a table. (A.C.)

  12. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  13. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  14. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget) și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR; Adrian Mihai INCEU

    2004-01-01

    A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system make...

  15. Participative Budgeting, Budget Evaluation, and Organizational Trust in Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between a participative budgeting system, the attitudes toward the budget, and levels of organizational trust held by administrators in post-secondary institutions. A 50-item questionnaire was distributed to college and university administrators across Canada. A series of regression…

  16. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  17. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  18. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  19. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  20. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  1. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  2. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  3. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for each...

  4. Cutting system for burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Toyama, Norihide; Koshino, Yasuo; Fujii, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Burnable poison rods attached to spent fuels are contained in a containing box and transported to a receiving pool. The burnable poison rod-containing box is provisionally situated by the operation to a handling device to a provisional setting rack in a cutting pool and attached to a cutting guide of a cutting device upon cutting. The burnable poison rod is cut only in a cutting pool water and tritium generated upon cutting is dissolved into the cutting pool water. Diffusion of tritium is thus restricted. Further, the cutting pool is isolated by a partition device from the receiving pool during cutting of the burnable poison rod. Accordingly, water in which tritium is dissolved is inhibited from moving to the receiving pool and prevail of tritium contamination can be avoided. (T.M.)

  5. Reactor safety and radiation protection. Draft of the BMU deparmental budget 16 of the 1998 German federal budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The expenditures earmarked for reactor safety and radiation protection in the 1998 budget of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety (BMU) total DM 101 million. The expenditures of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) are to amount to a total of DM 579 million. These are the figures included in departmental budget 16 of the 1998 federal budget, which was discussed by the Federal Parliament in September 1997. The atw compilation singles out a number of significant items of the departmental budget. (orig.) [de

  6. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vinnytska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the essential characteristics of local budgets and justify their classification aspects. Methodology. In the course of writing used general scientific and special methods of knowledge: dialectical and systemic-functional – to summarize the theoretical concepts of income of local budgets; analysis and synthesis – to detail the subject of research and study its components; logic synthesis – to justify approaches and proposals for the formulation of local budgets. Results. Proved that today there is no single view on the interpretation of economic categories “revenues of local budgets.” A refined concept of “local budget revenues” from the standpoint of material content, form, organizational structure and nature of local budgets. Local budget revenues determined as part of the financial resources of society, which is accumulated by local authorities to enforce their tasks and functions to implement current and future challenges of social infrastructure in the regions. Proved that the revenues of local budgets are derived from their own, and assigned to the established order of state taxes, fees and other mandatory payments. The main feature of their own revenues is the direct subordination of local government. The main feature is the fixed income long-term nature of their attachment to the appropriate budget. Value/originality. Proved that the presence in the economic literature of different classification criteria of local budget on various grounds provides multi classification that reflects all the features of the formation, use and functional differences revenues of local budgets. This approach provides the basis for improving the functioning of the theoretical foundations of the budget process in Ukraine at the level of local authorities.

  7. Analysis & commentary. Health care reform is likely to widen federal budget deficits, not reduce them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas; Ramlet, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The federal government faces a daunting fiscal outlook, which makes the budgetary impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act even more important. The official Congressional Budget Office (CBO) analysis indicates modest deficit reduction over the next ten years and beyond. We examine the underpinnings of the CBO's projection and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade.

  8. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  9. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  10. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  11. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  12. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  13. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official, or...

  14. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  15. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  16. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1219.53 Section 1219.53..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.53 Budget and expenses. (a) The Board is authorized to incur such expenses, including...

  17. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  18. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  19. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  20. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  1. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  2. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  3. Paleo erosion rates and climate shifts recorded by Quaternary cut-and-fill sequences in the Pisco valley, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaddour, Toufik; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vogel, Hendrik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin P.; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial cut-and-fill sequences have frequently been reported from various sites on Earth. Nevertheless, the information about the past erosional regime and hydrological conditions have not yet been adequately deciphered from these archives. The Quaternary terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, located at ca. 13°S, offer a manifestation of an orbitally-driven cyclicity in terrace construction where phases of sediment accumulation have been related to the Minchin (48-36 ka) and Tauca (26-15 ka) lake level highstands on the Altiplano. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget for the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in this valley to quantify the orbitally forced changes in precipitation and erosion. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast where denudation rates reached values as high as 600±80 mm/ka for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets register nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We relate these contrasts to different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that matches with the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation results in fast erosion and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires sufficient material on catchment hillslopes to be stripped off by erosion. This was most likely the case immediately before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span with poorly erosive climate conditions, allowing for sufficient regolith to build up on the hillslopes. Finally, this study suggests a strong control of orbitally and ice sheet forced latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ on the erosional gradients and sediment production on the western

  4. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  5. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  6. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: 2016 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: FY 2016 Budget Proposal Army Reserve Chief Calls for Budget Flexibility The chief of the Army Reserve understands that the U.S. deficit is a threat to effectively. Story Obama Says He Won't Accept Budget That Shortchanges Readiness President Barack Obama

  8. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  9. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  10. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  11. 7 CFR 1280.212 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1280.212 Section 1280.212... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.212 Budget and expenses. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a budget for the fiscal year covering its...

  12. A study of estimating cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Hsu, Ying-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies two models for estimating cutting depth of multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. One estimates cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using regression equations of nanoscale contact pressure factor (NCP factor) while the other uses equation of specific down force energy (SDFE). This paper proposes taking a diamond-coated probe of AFM as the cutting tool to carry out multi-pass nanoscale cutting experiments on the surface of sapphire substrate. In the process of experimentation, different down forces are set, and the probe shape of AFM is known, then using each down force to multi-pass cutting the sapphire substrate. From the measured experimental data of a central cutting depth of the machining groove by AFM, this paper calculates the specific down force energy of each down force. The experiment results reveal that the specific down force energy of each case of multi-pass nanoscale cutting for different down forces under a probe of AFM is close to a constant value. This paper also compares the nanoscale cutting results from estimating cutting depths for each pass of multi-pass among the experimental results and the calculating results obtained by the two theories models. It is found that the model of specific down force energy can calculate cutting depths for each nanoscale cutting pass by one equation. It is easier to use than the multi-regression equations of the nanoscale contact pressure factor. Besides, the estimations of cutting depth results obtained by the model of specific down force energy are closer to that of the experiment results. It shows that the proposed specific down force energy model in this paper is an acceptable model.

  13. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Germolus, A J; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to educate consumers about value-added beef cuts and evaluate their palatability responses of a value cut and three traditional cuts. Three hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in the beef value cut education seminar series presented by trained beef industry educators. Seminar participants evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of four samples, bottom round, top sirloin, ribeye, and a value cut (Delmonico or Denver), on a 9-point scale. The ribeye and the value cut were found to be similar in all four attributes and differed from the top sirloin and bottom round. Correlations and regression analysis found that flavor was the largest influencing factor for overall like for the ribeye, value cut, and top sirloin. The value cut is comparable to the ribeye and can be a less expensive replacement. © 2013.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  15. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  16. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  17. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of need and service plan and...

  18. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  19. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  20. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  1. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  2. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  3. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  4. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  5. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  6. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  7. RESEARCH ACTION: IMPLEMENTATION ZERO BASED BUDGET (ZBB IN THE PROVIDER SERVICE LEASING EQUIPAMENTS OF CARGO HANDLING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Gimenez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the implementation of zero-based budgeting in a rental service provider of cargo handling equipment using the action research methodology. The goal was to examine the possibility of concomitant use of this instrument in service providers in need of accurate information that enables targeting at the best result in a setting avid for quick decisions and actions. Action research was used as research method. It was concluded that it is suitable for this branch, confirming its position as a useful model for restructuring and cutting costs, improving operational and financial results, and as a factor improving organizational environment (behavioral aspects, indirectly creating value to stakeholders.

  8. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  9. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, K; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V; Baeker, M

    2009-01-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  10. Optimisation Of Cutting Parameters Of Composite Material Laser Cutting Process By Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, S.; Niresh, J.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Rahul, S. P. Deepak

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a laser cutting process model that can predict the relationship between the process input parameters and resultant surface roughness, kerf width characteristics. The research conduct is based on the Design of Experiment (DOE) analysis. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used in this work. It is one of the most practical and most effective techniques to develop a process model. Even though RSM has been used for the optimization of the laser process, this research investigates laser cutting of materials like Composite wood (veneer)to be best circumstances of laser cutting using RSM process. The input parameters evaluated are focal length, power supply and cutting speed, the output responses being kerf width, surface roughness, temperature. To efficiently optimize and customize the kerf width and surface roughness characteristics, a machine laser cutting process model using Taguchi L9 orthogonal methodology was proposed.

  11. Selection of Near Optimal Laser Cutting Parameters in CO2 Laser Cutting by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš MADIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of laser cutting conditions that are insensitive to parameter variations and noise is of great importance. This paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method for optimization of surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The laser cutting experiment was planned and conducted according to the Taguchi’s experimental design using the L27 orthogonal array. Four laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, and focus position were considered in the experiment. Using the analysis of means and analysis of variance, the significant laser cutting parameters were identified, and subsequently the optimal combination of laser cutting parameter levels was determined. The results showed that the cutting speed is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness whereas the influence of the assist gas pressure can be neglected. It was observed, however, that interaction effects have predominant influence over the main effects on the surface roughness.

  12. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  13. Rooting of stem cuttings of ixora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline De Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.

  14. Development of lathe tool dynamometer and finding cutting forces using negative and positive rake angle cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, M.A.; Irfan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Most output parameters in machining, such as cutting forces, temperatures, strains and the work-hardening of the chip material, are directly related to the chip formation process. The characteristics of machining processes can be well understood if the forces and strains during chip formation are known. In this research a lathe tool dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces involved in machining of Steel 1045 and Aluminum 2219 T62. High Speed Steel (HSS), cutting tools with positive and negative rake angles were used. It was observed that more cutting forces are experienced by the cutting tool with positive rake angle as compared to the forces experienced by the cutting tool with negative rake angle. For steel 1045 the cutting forces using positive rake angle cutting tool were much higher. This suggested that for harder materials using a negative rake angle is more suitable for cutting. (author)

  15. Investigation of Physical Phenomena and Cutting Efficiency for Laser Cutting on Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than other secondary batteries. Among the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process, electrode cutting is one of the most important processes since poor cut quality leads to performance degradation, separator protrusion, and local electric stress concentration. This may, eventually, lead to malfunction of lithium-ion batteries or explosion. The current mechanical cutting technology uses a contact process and this may lead to process instability. Furthermore, there are additional costs if the tools and cell design are changed. To solve these issues, laser cutting has been used. Conventional dependent parameters have limitations in investigating and explaining many physical phenomena during the laser cutting of electrodes. Therefore, this study proposes specific widths such as melting, top, and kerf width. Moreover, the relationship between laser parameters and multiphysical phenomena with the proposed widths are investigated. Five types of classification with regard to physical phenomena are presented and explained with SEM images. Cutting efficiency is estimated with the proposed widths. The proposed specific cutting widths, five types of geometrical classification, and cutting efficiency can be used as standardized parameters to evaluate the cutting quality.

  16. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  17. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  18. Redwoods, restoration, and implications for carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) of California have several unique characteristics that influence interactions between vegetation and geomorphic processes. Case studies, using a combination of in-channel wood surveys and an air photo inventory of landslides, illustrate current conditions in a redwood-dominated watershed undergoing restoration work, and the influence of wood loading and landslides on the carbon budget. Redwood trees have extremely large biomass (trunk wood volumes of 700 to 1000 m3) and are very decay-resistant; consequently, they have a large and persistent influence on in-channel wood loading. Large wood surveys indicate high wood loading in streams in uncut forests (0.3-0.5 m3/m2 of channel), but also show that high wood loading can persist in logged basin with unlogged riparian buffers because of the slow decay of fallen redwoods. Through a watershed restoration program, Redwood National Park increases in-channel wood loading in low-order streams, but the effectiveness of this technique has not yet been tested by a large flood. Another unique characteristic of redwood is its ability to resprout from basal burls after cutting, so that root strength may not decline as sharply following logging as in other types of forests. An air photo inventory of landslides following a large storm in 1997 indicated: 1) that in the Redwood Creek watershed the volume of material displaced by landslides in harvested areas was not related to the time elapsed since logging, suggesting that the loss of root strength was not a decisive factor in landslide initiation, 2) landslide production on decommissioned logging roads was half that of untreated roads, and 3) landslides removed an estimated 28 Mg of organic carbon/km2 from hillslopes. The carbon budget of a redwood-dominated catchment is dominated by the vegetative component, but is also influenced by the extent of mass movement, erosion control work, and in-channel storage of wood.

  19. Method of cutting radioactivated metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Yoshinori; Sakota, Kotaro; Hamamoto, Noboru; Harada, Keizo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the cutting performance to a level as comparable with that in air, as well as prevent the scattering of the radioactive materials upon cutting to the level as that in water cutting. Method: After igniting a gas cutting torch automatically, water spray by the local water sprayer is started by the actuation of a submerged pump, while a gas cutting manipulator is operated to cut the nuclear reactor pressure vessel. In this way, cutting exhaust gases resulted from the gas cutting torch are water-washed by the spray from the local water sprayer and falls within the nuclear rector pressure vessel in the form of water streams or droplets along the inner wall surface of the pressure vessel. Further, water is fed again to the local water sprayer by the submerged pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  1. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural community in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Soori E; Whyte, Susan R; Geissler, Wenzel P; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural populations of Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania Mainland the disease contributes to 39.4% of the total OPD attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in terms of structural practical constraints--cost, accessibility, everyday priorities--or in terms of cognition--insufficient knowledge of benefits e.g. ignorance of public health messages. This paper has shown that, the majority of people who could afford the prices of ITNs and who knew where to obtain the insecticides did not necessarily buy them. This suggests that, although people tend to report cost-related factors as a barrier against the use of ITNs, there are other critical concerns at work. Without underestimating the practical factors, our study have recommended to consider critical examinations of those other concerns that hinder optimal utilization of ITN for malaria control, and the basis for those concerns.

  2. Experimental improvement of the technology of cutting of high-pressure hoses with metal braid on hand cutting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, Mykola; Bogdevicius, Marijonas; Prentkovskis, Olegas

    2016-01-01

    In the article the review of the problem of improvement of technology of high pressure hoses cutting on the hand cutting machines is analyzed. Different methods of cutting of high pressure hoses into the billets are overviewed and the quality of edge cuts of hoses is analyzed. The comparison of treatment on automatic cutting machines and on hand cutting machines is carried out. Different experimental techniques of improvement of the quality of edges cutting of high pressure hoses are prese...

  3. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  4. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  5. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  6. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  7. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  8. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  9. Cost reduction by using budgeting via the Kaizen method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Budugan; Iuliana Georgescu

    2009-01-01

    In the current conditions, continuous improvement is one of the main issues faced by the manag-ers of organizations. The Japanese use the term kaizen to designate continuous improvement. Budgeting via the kaizen method explicitly integrates improvement throughout the period budgeted in the budget data. Budget explanation via the kaizen method refers, on the one hand, to budgeting for the purposes of continuously improving the number of work hours per product unit, and, on the other hand, to t...

  10. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  11. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  13. Practical side of cutting. Part 3. ; CO2 laser cutting. Setsudan gijutsu no jissai. 3. ; Laser setsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T.; Shinonaga, H. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-05

    The nature peculiar to laser beam makes it difficult to understand the phenomena in laser cutting. Quoting an example of cutting steel materials, practical minimum basic subjects, factors governing the cutting phenomena with points to be considered, and the current state of the technology are outlined. Various kinds of expert systems and automatic programming devices have been placed on the market to make NC input easier in laser cutting. Shape accuracy, cutting quality, cutting speed, applicable plate thickness, etc. are among the subjects required for laser cutting. The factors are the method of scanning, characteristics of laser beam, work, machining conditions, etc. The factors obstructing stable processing are the change in the ambient temperature, humidity, dust, oil mist, vibration, etc. The basic factors which control the laser cutting are the power density and its distribution at the working point. Pulse cutting is employed when continuous laser heat input is not appropriate. Summarized report is made on the focal point and assist gas. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Statistical – Econometric Analysis of the Correlations between the Social Security Budget and the Main Macroeconomic Aggregates in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia ŢIŢAN

    2011-02-01

    , with increases of inflation and unemployment. Among the variables used in the study we mention: total incomes, total expenditure, budgetary deficit, unemployment rate, monthly average net earnings, average number of pensioners and social allowance recipients, monthly average pension of pensioners and social allowance recipients, economically active population, monthly average inflation rate. By analysing the correlation between all the studied variables we observe that there is a strong correlation between monthly average pension and monthly average net earnings. Increases in the level of earnings will determine the increase of budget deficit. At first view the macroeconomic policy adopted by the actual government in Romania (the cut with 25 % of salaries in the budgetary system, VAT increase will have as a result the decrease of budget deficit. Since the monthly average net earnings is correlated with unemployment and inflation rate, the reduction of the general level of earnings will determine the increase of unemployment and inflation. Therefore this policy should be applied with caution, taking in parallel measures to compensate its adverse effects. The impact of some of the macroeconomic policies on budget deficit is studied using two regression functions. After an econometric analysis we shall conclude about the influence of the dependent variables of these functions on the Romanian budgetary deficit.

  15. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request to...

  17. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  18. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  19. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  20. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  1. 40 CFR 45.140 - Budget and project period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget and project period. 45.140 Section 45.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.140 Budget and project period. The budget and project periods for...

  2. A Well-Designed Budget Yields Long-Term Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinola, Mary; Knirk, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    Defines zero-based budgeting, compares it to traditional budgeting, and discusses five steps of a zero-base budget model: determining organization's goals and refining them into objectives; listing activities to achieve objectives in decision packages; evaluating decision packages; ranking packages by order of importance; and funding decision…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the...

  4. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following exceptions: The Energy Use Budget shall be stated in units of Btu/ft2/yr and the simulation tool... case by case calculation of the Energy Use Budget, the designer may construct Energy Use Budget tables... corresponding Energy Use Budgets calculated on a case by case basis according to this section. Energy Use Budget...

  5. Political Broker and Budget Mafia in Indonesian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Budget mafia practices and brokerage phenomenon in ministries/agencies and the parliament in the country's financial dredge is very alarming. Not counted how much money is successfully robbed. The modus is varying, so it is not easy to dismantle. Because expert move, the law enforcers had trouble catching them. This article tried to describe the mode of action and often they do. The method is done by tracing the various reports in newspapers. From tracking and in-depth analysis, it could be concluded that in order to minimize the action of brokers and budget mafia practices there are some necessary steps. First, fixing the finances system of political parties, reducing the dominance of parliament in budget management and election of public officials, and encourage law enforcement. Second, transparency debates the state budget in the parliament to be a key budget reforms. Third, the involvement of the community is also important to increase the transparency of the state budget discussions.

  6. ON THE ESSENCE AND EFFICIENCY OF PROGRAMME BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PETROIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The program budgeting applies to cases where expenditure is classified in the budget by objectives (outcomes and outputs rather than solely by economic categories (i.e., inputs such as salaries and organizational category. Performance budgeting (or performance-informed budgeting refers to a wider set of initiatives intended to strengthen the links between the funds provided and the results achieved through ensuring performance information is used in resource allocation decision making. Program and performance budgeting reforms should, therefore, provide information in a way that informs choices about spending alternatives and should improve transparency and accountability of government. There is no “best practice” approach, more “best fit” and the unique context of each country needs to be considered. It could be noted that some key public finance specialists recommend getting the “basics” right first as a priority. At the end of given research, there is introduced an experience of programme budgeting in Hungary, which has already have good results of its use.

  7. The Dynamic Definition of the Advertising Campaign Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrianyn Serhii O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring means for optimizing the budgeting of advertising activity, the optimal distribution of the advertising budget among several products, advertised by a company, and several advertising channels used during the distribution of an advertisement. The current status of the optimizationized budgeting models in the world and in Ukraine was analyzed. The topicality of scientific developments in this direction has been substantiated. The model is based on the non-linear logistics function of the response value of sales for the costs of placement of an advertising message, including market saturation effects and the accumulation of promotional effect. A complex advertising budgeting model has been proposed, which includes the dynamic definition of a budget constraint based on the expected sales return from a byed advertising campaign whose budget is being optimized. The proposed model allows to schedule advertising activities in conditions of uncertainty and rapid change of environment.

  8. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  9. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  10. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  11. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system makes it easier to monitor revenues and expenditures, which is important in this era of shrinking resources. Zero-based budgeting is a system that requires all departments to defend their programs and justify their continuation each year. Instead of simply penciling in the amounts of the additional funds that are needed in each account, the department head must prepare a series of “decision packages” that describe – and justify – each of the department’s programs in detail. For each program, the department must show: the various levels of service that could be provided with different levels of funding – including zero funding; alternative courses of action; and the consequences of funding the service at different levels, or not funding it at all. The most positive feature of zero-based budgeting is that it requires a thorough evaluation of all programs on a continuing basis and encourages proper funding for priority programs at the expense of less useful programs. The major drawback to zero-based budgeting is that it is extremely time-consuming, costly and requires a level of staff expertise that is not often available in small cities.

  12. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  13. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  14. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  15. 24 CFR 990.300 - Preparation of operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of operating budget... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.300 Preparation of operating budget. (a) The RMC and the PHA must submit operating budgets and calculations of operating subsidy to HUD for approval in accordance...

  16. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  17. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving

  19. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  20. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  1. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  2. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  5. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... Budgeting, funding, and accounting. (a) Council grant activities are governed by 15 CFR part 14 (Uniform...

  6. 20 CFR 1001.122 - Reporting and budget requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and budget requirements. 1001.122... Services to Veterans and Eligible Persons § 1001.122 Reporting and budget requirements. (a) State agencies... agency shall make reports and prepare budgets pursuant to instructions issued by the ASVET and in such...

  7. The Structure and Presentation of Provincial Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2015-05-01

    often too slow to be effective during a recession. It is a particularly so in Alberta, where unemployment rates are low and skilled labour is already at a shortage. And the idea that it is somehow fair to saddle future generations with paying for infrastructure they did not vote to build is problematic and permits current generations the ability to be more reckless than they might otherwise. But more to the point, most of the benefits of infrastructure is enjoyed by the generations who are living when it is built; less than 20 per cent of its utility accrues to unborn generations. Furthermore, the tax-smoothing argument implies that taxes should be increased (or other current spending cut to finance an infrastructure program so that the present value of fiscal surpluses cover the debt incurred in financing construction — the key to satisfying the condition of debt solvency. Some infrastructure does “pay for itself” — when user fees or tolls are applied — and in those cases debt financing can be justified. But this almost never happens. Despite claims to the contrary, the cost of a school or a hospital can never be recouped in the higher productivity and wealth it might bring to the jurisdiction, since income taxes (particularly in Alberta are so low. Therefore, when a province announces that it plans to build things, it should also indicate how it will raise the necessary funding to pay for it, rather than borrowing. This is not a message that provincial politicians will want to hear; indeed, their entire budgeting model — based on accrual accounting and capital budgeting — is predicated on the assumption that infrastructure is an asset rather than an expense, despite the fact that maintenance costs make every infrastructure project an ongoing obligation. This model — in part the result of balanced-budget rules — is the primary reason why the public finds provincial budgets to be notoriously incomprehensible. The self-imposed balanced-budget rules

  8. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  10. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  11. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  13. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  14. Pengaruh Participation Budgeting, Information Asimetry dan Job Relevant Information terhadap Budget Slack pada Institusi Pendidikan (Studi pada Institusi Pendidikan Universitas Kristen Maranatha)

    OpenAIRE

    K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and  information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make  budgeting. This method that...

  15. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  16. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  17. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5°C. Intact (control) fruits were stored in the same conditions. The antioxidant activity was

  18. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Effect of cutting medium temperatures on rooting process and root primordium differentiation of hardwood cuttings of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia cutting medium temperatures of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, W.X.; Jine, Q.; Zhong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to examine the effect of heat treatment on the rooting and root development of hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia, cuttings of 1-year-old stems were taken from 3-year-old mother trees and treated with IBA solution (1000 mg/L) for 6 h, with water was as a control. Treated cuttings were rooted in heated or unheated nursery beds. Samples were collected on day ten after planting, and then for every five days. The bases of the cuttings were embedded in paraffin and sectioned before being examined under a microscope to determine whether there had been any morphological changes. We found no root primordia in the tissues of the hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia before cutting. In the heated bed, adventitious roots originated from callus tissue and the junction between the pith rays and cortical parenchyma cells, and in the unheated bed, adventitious roots originated only from callus tissue. The rooting process involved callus formation, adventitious root formation and elongation; rooting occurred 5-7 days earlier in the heated cuttings than in the unheated ones, and rooting rates were significantly higher in the former 30 days and 50 days after cutting; the minimum effective accumulated temperatures for these three stages were 109.25 degree C, 211.68 degree C and 301.38 degree C, respectively. Our results revealed that heating the soil can promote adventitious root formation, speed up the rooting rate, and cut the propagation period of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia. (author)

  1. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  2. New Modelling Strategies For Metal Cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure

  3. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  4. Keynote: Beyond Budgeting in a Lean and Agile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogsnes, Bjarte

    We suggest that we need a fundamentally different philosophy and a concept for how organisations are led and managed. We believe that it is time to challenge the traditional management myths. The main goal of Beyond Budgeting is not get rid of budgets. The budget must go, but it is more the budgeting mindset we need to get rid of, because it represents the old thinking that needs to be changed. Based on the works of The Beyond Budgeting Round Table, we review a set of 12 principles for a new style of contemporary leadership and management.

  5. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  6. THE BUDGET PROGRAM: ECONOMIC CONTENT AND PRACTICE OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Shevchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse the practice of the economic content of budget programs’ implementation in Ukraine. The definition of the budget program is given. It is noted that, in the Ukrainian legislative area, there is a wide range of programs, namely: programs of economic and social development of Ukraine; Government activity programs; state target programs; local programs for the socio-economic and cultural development. The author reviews in more detail the differences between the budget program and the state target program since it is these types of programs that are most confusing. It is emphasized that there is a certain interconnection between budget and state target programs and a strategic document. Thus, in order to achieve the corresponding goal and fulfil the tasks set out in the paper and aim at solving urgent problems of development, it is necessary to develop concrete ways in the context of branches of the economy. Methodology. The study of the indicators of planned and fully financed state budget programs, planned and spent expenditures for the financing of budget programs for 2011– 2015, as well as the polynomial trend of planned expenditures for the financialization of budget programs for 2011– 2017, is conducted. The interrelation between elements of budget programs and their characteristic features is studied. Indicators of the implementation of budget programs applied in international practice are considered and analysed, namely: Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, USA. Results. The author systematized the views of scientists on the performance indicators of budget programs. The analysis of the professional literature on this issue allowed generalizing the main classification features, which, according to the author, should be fixed at the legislative level. Practical implication. The author proposed an additional classification mark “Depending on the degree of risk of non-fulfilment of the program

  7. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping

    2017-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation

  8. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping [School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation.

  9. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5 °C. Intact fruits were stored in the same conditions as a control. The antioxidant activity was

  10. Respiration rate and ethylene production of fresh cut lettuce as affected by cutting grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For designing optimal polymeric films for modified atmosphere packaging of whole heads as well as for minimally fresh processed (fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce ‘Coolguard’, the effect of several cutting grades on respiration rate (RR and ethylene production at 5ºC was studied. According to common industrial practices cutting grades less than 0.5 cm, between 0.5 and 1 cm, and 2 cm length were selected. Results from four experiments were compared to those obtained for whole heads in which a homogenous range of 6 to 8 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 in RR was found. Compared to whole heads, in fresh-cut lettuce the RR was 2-fold higher. The lowest cutting grade showed the highest respiration rate, and no significant differences in RR among lettuce pieces of intermediate and the highest grades were found. No ethylene production was detected in whole heads, while in minimally processed lettuce pieces only traces were found. For avoiding risks of anaerobic respiration and excessive CO2 levels within packages containing fresh-cut lettuce pieces lower than 0.5 cm length, films with relatively high O2 permeability like standard polypropylene or low-density polyethylene must be selected.;

  11. Test tube systems with cutting/recombination operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria); Csuhaj-Varju, E. [Computer and Automation Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Wachtler, F. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    We introduce test tube systems based on operations that are closely related to the splicing operations, i.e. we consider the operations of cutting a string at a specific site into two pieces with marking them at the cut ends and of recombining two strings with specifically marked endings. Whereas in the splicing of two strings these strings are cut at specific sites and the cut pieces are recombined immediately in a crosswise way, in CR(cutting/recombination)-schemes cutting can happen independently from recombining the cut pieces. Test tube systems based on these operations of cutting and recombination turn out to have maximal generative power even if only very restricted types of input filters for the test tubes are used for the redistribution of the contents of the test tubes after a period of cuttings and recombinations in the test tubes. 10 refs.

  12. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  13. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  14. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  15. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets.

  16. An Analysis of improvisational budgeting from calendar year 1990 to 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Improvisational budgeting represents an interruption to the normal budgeting process, resulting in costly delays to the defense Planning Programming and Budgeting Process (PPBS). A normal congressional budget process was characterized by Congress' ability to follow established procedures, complete their budget in a timely manner and fulfill their expected roles for applying incremental adjustments to the budget. The latent pro-spending...

  17. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  18. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  19. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel Cut family cDNA that encodes human copper transporter protein CutC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jixi; Ji Chaoneng; Chen Jinzhong; Yang Zhenxing; Wang Yijing; Fei, Xiangwei; Zheng Mei; Gu Xing; Wen Ge; Xie Yi; Mao Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential heavy metal trace element that plays important roles in cell physiology. The Cut family was associated with the copper homeostasis and involved in several important metabolisms, such as uptake, storage, delivery, and efflux of copper. In this study, a novel Cut family cDNA was isolated from the human fetal brain library, which encodes a 273 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of about 29.3 kDa and a calculated pI of 8.17. It was named hCutC (human copper transporter protein CutC). The ORF of hCutC gene was cloned into pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli M15. The secreted hCutC protein was purified to a homogenicity of 95% by using the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. RT-PCR analysis showed that the hCutC gene expressed extensively in human tissues. Subcellular location analysis of hCutC-EGFP fusion protein revealed that hCutC was distributed to cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, and both cytoplasm and nucleus of AD293 cells. The results suggest that hCutC may be one shuttle protein and play important roles in intracellular copper trafficking

  1. Climate Change in the US Government Budget. Funding for Technology and Other Programmes, and Implications for EU-US Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    With increasing Congressional support for funding climate change technology programmes, as reflected in passage of the Hagel/Pryor amendment to the energy policy bill in June 2005, issues about the climate change budget are becoming more salient. In this Policy Brief, Congressional and Presidential actions on several recent budgets are examined for the four principal areas of the climate change budget: technology, science, international and tax credits. The emphasis is on energy technology in particular, because of its salience in current policy discussions and its relative size in financial terms. Highlights of the findings include the following: Congress imposed substantial (63.3%) increases over the administration's climate change technology proposals for 2004 and then small increases for FY2005. For 2006, the administration has proposed reductions compared with the Congressionally-enacted levels in the technology component - reductions in both nominal and inflation-adjusted terms (-4.1% and -5.6%, respectively). The administration has also proposed cuts for fiscal 2006 in the science and international programmes (-2.9 and -19.0% in real terms). These and other differences in Presidential and Congressional approaches to funding climate change programs provide further evidence that the Presidential- Congressional divide on climate policy is continuing to widen. There is an emerging bi-partisan Congressional coalition in favour of increased spending on a wide range of climate change programmes. This shift will affect EU-US relations on climate change issues for the remainder of the current administration until 2008, and beyond as well

  2. Effects of globalization on state budgeting system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobukh S.О.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When writing the scientific article the scientific approaches of scientists concerning the essence of budgeting have been described. The paper deals with the principles of budgeting on the basis of which three main methodological components are singled out. It also analyzes the budgeting goals. The author investigates the impact of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine, its positive and negative effects. Despite significant achievements it is necessary to explore the effects of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine. Budgeting is the management technology that provides the formation of budgets for the selected objects and their use to ensure optimal structure and correlation of profits and expenses, income and expenditure, assets and liabilities of the organization or its components to achieve the set goals taking into account the influence of the environment. It should be emphasized that budgeting in no way replaces the control system, but only creates a new approach to management from the standpoint of the balance of incomes and expenditures, profits and expenses, assets and liabilities of the organization as a whole or its components. The state budgeting of the country as the part of the financial system is the channel through which economic globalization, namely financial globalization, affects economic development of the state. Favorable global effect occurs, in particular, in terms of the impact on financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to + the nature of the relationship between these two processes.

  3. Centralization versus Delegation in an Experimental Capital Budgeting Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus C. Arnold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment, we model two stylized facts about capital budgeting practice, budgetary slack creation and delegation of decision-making authority. In our setting, under centralization, headquarters announces a budget, the division manager gives a cost report, and headquarters decides on the project. Under delegation, headquarters allocates a budget to the manager, and the manager is authorized to make the investment decision. We argue that the ability of headquarters to commit to a budget moderates the effect of delegation, and we find evidence in favor of our argument as there is an interaction effect of delegation and commitment to budgets. The effects of delegation are particularly strong when budgets are non-binding as delegation serves as a substitute for commitment in this case. This leads to smaller expenditures and to a higher headquarters’ payoff under delegation than under centralization. In contrast, when headquarters can commit to the budget, the descriptive data are consistent with our conjectures about the effects of honesty preferences, but the effects are too small to be significant.

  4. The Budget Policy in the Context of Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik Vladimir A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and role of budget policy in the system of socio-economic development of country, defining the institutional approach in the process of its formation and implementation, based on changes in the public environment. The socio-economic development of society at this stage requires the use of budgetary policy as an effective instrument for the State regulation of economic and social relations. It is important to determine the priorities of the budget policy, including the medium-term perspective, based on the basic principles of the socio-economic development of country, improvement of the State regulation in the sphere of generation of budget income, the planning and usage of budget expenditures, the inter-budget relations, which will increase the efficiency of functioning of the economic and budget system as a whole.

  5. ROUTING FINANCIAL FLOWS AT THE EXECUTION OF THE MUNICIPALITY BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Fedotova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of each administrative-territorial unit is an important factor in the economic development of the Russian Federation. In its turn, the effective execution of the budget at each level of the budget system is invariably topical, influencing the development of a system of both centralized and decentralized finance. The paramount characteristic of the organization of the budget execution of the municipality is an ability to ensure the timely and full execution of their commitments. There is a direct correlation of the budget process on both the revenue and expenditure sides. Cash gap in the local budget execution is actually quite common and, usually, inevitable, because revenues are coming unevenly during the financial year, budgetary expenditures are seasonal, and this threatens the execution of planned budgets; there is a need to raise funds. The article deals with the execution of the cash balance plan, cash flow at the single account of budget, debt and source of financing deficits. The analysis of financial flows in the execution of municipalities’ budget shows problems of execution of budget revenues and allows assessing the scale of emerging cash gaps. An outcome of the review consists in the recognition of an objective need to develop approaches to assessing the effectiveness of budget execution at all its stages and to implement the monitoring of the effectiveness of budget execution and timely effective measures for ensuring its high-quality.

  6. The Budget. Introduction to Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Dexter K.

    A school budget is a carefully drawn plan to allow for the efficient educational operation of the school. Everyone connected with the management of an independent school has something to learn about a budget, the most obvious person being the new headmaster. Similarly, all department heads, the librarian, the athletic director, the members of the…

  7. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  8. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  9. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2003-2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crippen, Dan

    2002-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  10. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  11. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  12. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  13. Radioactive wear measurements of cutting tools made of metal in cutting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of making quick checkings of the inhomogeneities of turning materials with radioactive wear measurements has been tested. After activation analysis of the long-lived radioisotopes of cutting tools made of hard metal a method for loss-free collection of the turnings has been developed. The detection limit of the abrasion is about 10 -8 g, the measuring times are 5-10 minutes. Special radiation protection measures are not necessary. An analysis of the abrasion showed that at the beginning of cutting the amount of cobalt is 6 times higher than in the normal composition of the used cutting tools. (author)

  14. Comments on the NRC Safety Research Program budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This report includes comments on the budget levels and program plans for the supplemental request for FY 1980 to support research related to the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI) as well as for the FY 1981 Budget. For both budgets, the funding levels considered by the ACRS are the original requests by RES and the Budget Review Group (BRG) markup as of July 10, 1979. In its current review of the NRC research program, the ACRS has given special attention to both the short- and long-term implications of the TMI accident and their significance to research for both the short- and long-term research programs

  15. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  16. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  17. Development of cutting device for irradiated fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. P.; Jun, Y. B.; Hong, K. P.; Min, D. K.; Lee, H. K.; Su, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kwon, H. M.; Joo, Y. S.; Yoo, K. S.; Joo, J. S.; Kim, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Post Irradiation Examination(PIE) on irradiated fuel rods is essential for the evaluation of integrity and irradiation performance of fuel rods of commercial reactor fuel. For PIE, fuel rods should be cut very precisely. The cutting positions selected from NDT data are very important for further destructive examination and analysis. A fuel rod cutting device was developed witch can cut fuel rods longitudinal very precisely and can also cut the fuels into the same length rod cuts repeatedly. It is also easy to remove the fuel cutting powder after cutting works and it can extend the life time of cutting device and lower the contamination level of hot cell

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  19. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  20. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  1. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  2. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  3. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  4. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  5. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  6. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Shawn X., E-mail: xingshan@math.ucsb.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Freedman, Michael H., E-mail: michaelf@microsoft.com [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Microsoft Research, Station Q, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sattath, Or, E-mail: sattath@gmail.com [Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stong, Richard, E-mail: stong@ccrwest.org; Minton, Greg, E-mail: gtminto@ccrwest.org [Center for Communications Research, La Jolla, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  7. A Primer on Recent Canadian Defence Budgeting Trends and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a dangerous world, the federal government has made recapitalizing and updating Canada’s armed forces a priority. Unfortunately, fiscal pressures obliged the government to deviate from its Canada First Defence Strategy, cutting staff and delaying military hardware acquisitions. However, the introduction this year of the Defence Procurement Strategy should allow Ottawa to use improved approaches to buy equipment that would otherwise have been purchased already under the DND’s opaque capital expenditure system. At present, DND capital funds are mostly subject to accrual accounting. Capital costs are charged against the defence budget as annual amortization expenses over equipment lifecycles. While this enables multiple capital projects to go ahead simultaneously, not all of the money covering capital costs is treated this way. Traditional A-Base Vote 5 expenses are still charged to the budget the year the expenditure is made — and the DND consistently underspends the Vote 5 funds available by as much as 28 percent. Since 2007/8, an estimated $6.42 billion wasn’t used as intended. While some of this can be carried forward, there are limits. Leftover funds exceeding them are returned to the Treasury and are thereby lost. It’s up to the DND to make up losses out of future funding. Just as bad, the accrual method doesn’t fully account for inflation, so when schedules slip, project purchasing power diminishes by hundreds of millions of dollars. Ambitious initiatives like the Joint Support Ship and (likely the Canadian Surface Combatant end up taking hits to reflect harsh budgetary realities; the capabilities of Canada’s soldiers suffer. This policy brief draws on research and confidential interviews to highlight the pressing need for reform in Canadian defence procurement.

  8. The institutional logics of local government budget in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Ade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study asks how and why a local government settings budget. It aims to deliver an understanding on how a government entity perceives that budget is important element to manage public expenditures. It uses the S local government in Indonesia as a case study. This study applies Institutional Logics Theory as a theoretical framework in order to analyze data. Data is collected by interviewing seven key persons who directly involves in budgeting process. This research shows that the budgeting process includes determining the purposes of annual budget, setting up planned programs and actvities, determining the amount of revenue that will be collected, allocating resources to expenditures and setting up standar pricing. Some important points in the budgeting process are identified. Those are considering political aspect to determine local tax rate, focusing on competition with other local governments, fulfilling the political promise of local government leader to the constituents, involving community to determine planned program and activities, and allocating resources based on community basic needs. This study concludes that those points develop the institutional logics of politic and managerial in budget setting process.

  9. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  10. The New Russian Budget System; A Critical Assessment and Future Reform Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Diamond

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the main elements of the new budget system established in the Russian Federation through its revised budget system law, or the Budget Code, of 2000. It critically examines the budget preparation, budget approval, and budget execution processes, as well as the financial management and planning procedures that underlie the Budget Code. Based on this analysis, recent developments are discussed and a future reform agenda is indicated.

  11. Sodium-cutting: a new top-down approach to cut open nanostructures on nonplanar surfaces on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Deng, Da

    2014-11-11

    We report a new, low-cost and simple top-down approach, "sodium-cutting", to cut and open nanostructures deposited on a nonplanar surface on a large scale. The feasibility of sodium-cutting was demonstrated with the successfully cutting open of ∼100% carbon nanospheres into nanobowls on a large scale from Sn@C nanospheres for the first time.

  12. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Laser Cut Surface Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an approach for multi-criteria analysis of laser cut surface characteristics using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approach was presented. Laser cutting experiment was conducted based on Taguchi’s L27 experimental design by varying laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position at three levels. Multi-criteria analysis was performed by using the weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS method while considering burr height, drag line separation, depth of separation line, surface roughness and perpendicularity of the cut as assessment criteria. Based on conducted experimental investigation the MCDM model with 27 alternatives (laser cuts and five criteria was developed. The relative importance of criteria was determined by using pair-wise comparison matrix and geometric mean method of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method.

  13. 40 CFR 96.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit...

  14. 40 CFR 97.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit will contain all elements...

  15. ACHP | News | Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget First Preserve America Communities Also Announced ) Jan. 15, 2004, Washington, DC—Mrs. Laura Bush announced today that the President's budget for FY 2005

  16. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  17. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without...

  18. Material testing of copper by extrusion-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...

  19. Monitoring the Efficiency of Budget Management of Trade Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Larysa V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the actuality of carrying out the monitoring of budget management efficiency at trade enterprises in Ukraine. It has been found that the efficiency of each trade enterprise management system, in particular the efficiency of budget management system, is determined by several factors, among which there considered the enterprise business profile, the competitive situation in the market and the standard of living of the population. The efficiency of budget management and, as a result, the efficiency of trade enterprises’ activity is reflected in the results of the effectiveness of the main indicators of the financial budgets of enterprises. Therefore, using the method of fuzzy sets, there carried out an integral evaluation of the efficiency of budget management based on the efficiency of financial budgets: the budget revenues and expenditures, cash flow budget and budgeted balance sheet. The study is carried out for Ukraine as a whole, and its most developed regions.

  20. Baikov-Lee representations of cut Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Mark; Moriello, Francesco; Schabinger, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a general framework for the evaluation of d-dimensional cut Feynman integrals based on the Baikov-Lee representation of purely-virtual Feynman integrals. We implement the generalized Cutkosky cutting rule using Cauchy’s residue theorem and identify a set of constraints which determine the integration domain. The method applies equally well to Feynman integrals with a unitarity cut in a single kinematic channel and to maximally-cut Feynman integrals. Our cut Baikov-Lee representation reproduces the expected relation between cuts and discontinuities in a given kinematic channel and furthermore makes the dependence on the kinematic variables manifest from the beginning. By combining the Baikov-Lee representation of maximally-cut Feynman integrals and the properties of periods of algebraic curves, we are able to obtain complete solution sets for the homogeneous differential equations satisfied by Feynman integrals which go beyond multiple polylogarithms. We apply our formalism to the direct evaluation of a number of interesting cut Feynman integrals.

  1. Comparison of cutting efficiency with different diamond burs and water flow rates in cutting lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Sharon C; Patel, Tejas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared different diamond burs and different water flow rates on the cutting efficiency of sectioning through lithium disilicate glass ceramic. The authors used a standardized cutting regimen with 4 brands of diamond burs to section through lithium disilicate glass ceramic blocks. Twelve diamonds of each brand cut through the blocks in randomized order. In the first part of the study, the authors recorded sectioning rates in millimeters per minute for each diamond bur as a measure of cutting efficiency. In the second part of the study, the authors compared sectioning rates using only 1 brand of diamond bur, with 3 different water flow rates. The authors averaged and compared cutting rates of each brand of diamond bur and the cutting rates for each flow rate using an analysis of variance and determined the differences with a Tukey honest significant difference test. One diamond bur cut significantly slower than the other 3, and one diamond bur cut significantly faster than 2 of the others. The diamond bur cutting efficiency through lithium disilicate glass ceramic with a 20 mL/min water flow rate was significantly higher than 15 mL/min. There are differences in cutting efficiency between diamond burs when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Use a minimum of 20 mL/min of water coolant flow when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic with dental diamond burs to maximize cutting efficiency. Recommendations for specific diamond burs with a coarse grit and water flow rate of 20 mL/min can be made when removing or adjusting restorations made from lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  3. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 3 CFR 101.2 - Office of Management and Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget. 101.2 Section 101.2... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.2 Office of Management and Budget. Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of Management and Budget appear at 5 CFR Ch. III. ...

  5. Theoretical aspects of fibre laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Beyer, E, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.d [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    Fibre lasers offer distinct advantages over established laser systems with respect to power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. Consequently, the potential of these new laser beam sources will be increasingly exploited for laser cutting applications that are conventionally carried out with CO{sub 2} lasers. However, theoretical estimates of the effective absorptivity at the cut front suggest that the shorter wavelength of the fibre laser in combination with its high focusability seems to be primarily advantageous for thin sheet metal cutting whereas the CO{sub 2} laser is probably still capable of cutting thicker materials more efficiently. This surprising result is a consequence of the absorptivity behaviour of metals that shows essential quantitative differences for the corresponding wavelengths of both laser sources as a function of the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the material to be cut. In evaluation of the revealed dependences, solution strategies for an improvement of the efficiency of fibre laser cutting of thicker metal sheets are suggested.

  6. Establishing a sediment budget in the newly created "Kleine Noordwaard" wetland area in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christien van der Deijl, Eveline; van der Perk, Marcel; Middelkoop, Hans

    2018-03-01

    Many deltas are threatened by accelerated soil subsidence, sea-level rise, increasing river discharge, and sediment starvation. Effective delta restoration and effective river management require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of sediment deposition, erosion, and their controls. Sediment dynamics has been studied at floodplains and marshes, but little is known about the sediment dynamics and budget of newly created wetlands. Here we take advantage of a recently opened tidal freshwater system to study both the mechanisms and controls of sediment deposition and erosion in newly created wetlands. We quantified both the magnitude and spatial patterns of sedimentation and erosion in a former polder area in which water and sediment have been reintroduced since 2008. Based on terrestrial and bathymetric elevation data, supplemented with field observations of the location and height of cut banks and the thickness of the newly deposited layer of sediment, we determined the sediment budget of the study area for the period 2008-2015. Deposition primarily took place in channels in the central part of the former polder area, whereas channels near the inlet and outlet of the area experienced considerable erosion. In the intertidal area, sand deposition especially takes place at low-lying locations close to the channels. Mud deposition typically occurs further away from the channels, but sediment is in general uniformly distributed over the intertidal area, due to the presence of topographic irregularities and micro-topographic flow paths. Marsh erosion does not significantly contribute to the total sediment budget, because wind wave formation is limited by the length of the fetch. Consecutive measurements of channel bathymetry show a decrease in erosion and deposition rates over time, but the overall results of this study indicate that the area functions as a sediment trap. The total contemporary sediment budget of the study area amounts to 35.7×103 m3 year-1, which

  7. A Numerical Approach and Comparison of Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology in Orthogonal Cutting of Light Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Roberto; Domingo, Rosario; Sebastian, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of UNS A92024 aluminium alloy cutting processes. In particular, 2D and 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations were carried out in order to estimate cutting forces and chip morphology during turning operations. The material is modelled with two different set of parameters for the Johnson--Cook's (J-C) constitutive equation and a failure Cockroft and Latham's model exploited considers damage. The comparison between the predicted chip morphology and principal cutting forces at varying of J-C parameters and cutting regimes with those experimentally found are presented and discussed. The paper shows the importance of damage criterion in the cutting forces, during the simulation, especially in 3D.

  8. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  9. Cutting prepregs, cutting and processing polymer plastics in the manufacture of airсraft panels

    OpenAIRE

    MELUKHOV NIKITA; GRISHCHENKO TATIANA; LYUBUSHKIN VADIM

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an alternative to the solution of the problem of reduction of manual operations in manufacture. It may be achieved if cutting out prepregs and processing polymeric materials (PMP) be changed for sharp ultrasonic cutting when manufacturing components from polymeric composite materials (PCM). Described are the lines of investigations on new techniques of cutting out prepreg and processings polymeric material of the Nomex type with the use of the energy of ultrasonic waves. ...

  10. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  12. High speed laser cutting machine. Kosoku reza kakoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinno, N. (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    The carbon dioxide gas laser cutting machine is being used widely for from cutting soft steel and stainless steel, etc. to intermetallic welding and in the field of cutting in particular, concerning sheet cutting, it has been changing the existing monopoly of the turret punch press, and as for medium and thick plate cutting, that of the gas plasma fusing device. This article is the general description of high speed laser cutting machine. Concerning the laser cutting (sheet cutting in particular), as the essential items for securing severe cutting accuracy and, at the same time, improving the cutting speed, the following matters are picked up for respective explanation; improvement of stationary machine accuracy, improvement of dynamic machine accuracy, improvement of quality of laser beam as well as optimization of cutting conditions, and shortening of piercing time. Also explanation is given to the respective items, namely speeding-up of medium and thick plate cutting, and reduction of load onto the operator by improved operation. Finally, feeding and removing of a sheet only, and feeding and removing with a pallet are mentioned as the efforts for automation and energy saving. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. President Obama believes the country must invest in the true engine of America's economic growth--a rising and thriving middle class.…

  14. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  15. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  16. The Dynamic Definition of the Advertising Campaign Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrianyn Serhii O.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at exploring means for optimizing the budgeting of advertising activity, the optimal distribution of the advertising budget among several products, advertised by a company, and several advertising channels used during the distribution of an advertisement. The current status of the optimizationized budgeting models in the world and in Ukraine was analyzed. The topicality of scientific developments in this direction has been substantiated. The model is based on the non-line...

  17. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  18. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  19. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2016" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. The ideas offered by President Obama in this 2016 Budget are designed to bring middle-class economics into the 21st Century. They are intended to help working families…

  20. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 60.4140 Section 60.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4140 State trading budgets. The State trading...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1209.50 Section 1209.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... subpart. Each such budget shall include: (i) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan...

  2. 7 CFR 1218.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1218.50 Section 1218.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... budget shall include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2...

  3. The Miracle of Money! Managing LRC Budgets, Funds and Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, M. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Describes the management of a learning resource center (LRC) budget. Topics discussed include controlling a budget, keeping records, managing grants, managing petty cash, responding to unexpected expenses, managing capital outlay dollars, managing insurance, balancing budgets, budget stretching strategies, and fund raising. (JLB)

  4. [Cuts, austerity and health. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2014-06-01

    Since 2009, the economic recession has led to cuts in spending on social welfare policy and in health care. The most important risks to health depend on negative changes in social determinants. Notable among these determinants are unemployment and the large proportion of people at risk of poverty, which affects 30% of children younger than 14 years. Social inequalities have increased significantly, much more than health inequalities, probably because the value of retirement pensions has been maintained until now. Most of the population is fairly satisfied with the public health system, although it is under considerable pressure. Mortality statistics have not been affected so far, but there has been an increase in mood disorders and mental health problems. Health services utilization has decreased and the number of publicly prescribed drugs has fallen dramatically. This restriction accounts for much of the decrease in public spending on health, since the hospital care budget has not decreased, despite the fall in primary care and public health spending. The crisis could encourage community health and the inclusion of health in all policies. It is the responsibility of professionals and public health institutions monitoring the trend in health problems and their determinants to avoid irreversible situations as far as possible. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Pilot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Fredrick, P.; Ramaswami, V.S.; Muys, P. [Radius Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO{sub 2} and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO{sub 2} laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  6. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO 2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO 2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  7. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how a key component of fiscal governance, the ability of governments to pass a budget on time, affects government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample of 36 US states from 1988 to 1997, and using an original data set on budget enactment dates, we estimate that a 30. day budget delay h...... a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time....

  8. The Effect of Muscle Fiber Direction on the Cut Surface Angle of Frozen Fish Muscular Tissue Cut by Bending Force

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 清; 羽倉, 義雄; 鈴木, 寛一; 久保田, 清

    1996-01-01

    We have proposed a new cutting method named "Cryo-cutting" for frozen foodstuffs by applying a bending force instead of conventional cutting methods with band saw. This paper investigated the effect of muscle fiber angle (θf) to cut surface angle (θs) of frozen tuna muscular tissue at -70, -100 and -130°C for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of the cryo-cutting method to frozen fishes. The results were as follows : (1) There were two typical cutting patterns ("across the muscle fib...

  9. Multi-unit auctions with budget-constrained bidders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gagan Pratap

    In my dissertation, I investigate the effects of budget-constraints in multi-unit auctions. This is done in three parts. First, I analyze a case where all bidders have a common budget constraint. Precisely, I analyze an auction where two units of an object are sold at two simultaneous, sealed bid, first-price auctions, to bidders who have demand for both units. Bidders differ with respect to their valuations for the units. All bidders have an identical budget constraint which binds their ability to spend in the auction. I show that if valuation distribution is atom-less, then their does not exist any symmetric equilibrium in this auction game. In the second and third parts of my thesis, I analyze the sale of licenses for the right to drill for oil and natural gas in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the United States. These sales are conducted using simultaneous sealed-bid first-price auctions for multiple licenses, each representing a specific area (called a tract). Using aspects of observed bidding-behavior, I first make a prima facie case that bidders are budget-constrained in these auctions. In order to formalize this argument, I develop a simple extension of the standard model (where bidders differ in their valuations for the objects) by incorporating (random) budgets for the bidders. The auction-game then has a two-dimensional set of types for each player. I study the theoretical properties of this auction, assuming for simplicity that two units are being sold. I show that this game has an equilibrium in pure strategies that is symmetric with respect to the players and with respect to the units. The strategies are essentially pure in the sense that each bidder-type has a unique split (up to a permutation) of his budget between the two auctions. I then characterize the equilibrium in terms of the bid-distribution and iso-bid curves in the value-budget space. I derive various qualitative features of this equilibrium, among which are: (1) under mild

  10. Statement of June E. O'Neill, Director Congressional Budget Office on Capital Budgeting Before the President's Commission to Study Capital Budgeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neill, June

    1998-01-01

    .... The up-front, full-cost basis of accounting for capital acquisition at the governmentwide level is conceptually sound, consistent with common practice and economic efficiency, and necessary for budget discipline...

  11. Sediment budgets as an organizing framework in fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Reid; Thomas Dunne

    2016-01-01

    Sediment budgets describe the input, transport, storage, and export of sediment in a geomorphic system. Such budgets can be used to address questions regarding how changes in catchment conditions affect channels, how long the effects will last, and what the sequence of responses will be. This chapter defines and describes budget components, outlines strategies...

  12. 45 CFR 233.32 - Payment and budget months (AFDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment and budget months (AFDC). 233.32 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.32 Payment and budget months (AFDC). A State... period used to determine that payment (budget month) and whether it adopts (a) a one-month or two-month...

  13. Defense budget control in the event of emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunaka, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to give recommendations to the government of Japan for better provision of budget in contingent situations. To accomplish the objective, this thesis explains how a government should control the provision of adequate and timely budgets in the military. Literature shows that routine budget process has a control function and four basic steps. A shorter process to fund emergencies is found in the U.Ss practica...

  14. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent

  15. Optimal Referral Reward Considering Customer’s Budget Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP. RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM. We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards.

  16. Negotiating Creativity on a Small Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Møller

    2018-01-01

    for fiction series, the ambivalent cooperation behind this production exemplifies the low-budget efforts of a traditional public service institution to produce the fiction series that their younger target audience desires. The article uses a narrative-discursive approach to creativity and develops the term...... quite different assumptions about how production conditions can promote creativity, and suggests that a low-budget production can still be labelled as “successful”....

  17. Are the same tapes really the same? Ultrasound study of laser-cut and mechanically cut TVT-O post-operative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusavy, Zdenek; Masata, Jaromir; Svabik, Kamil; Hubka, Petr; Zvara, Karel; Martan, Alois

    2017-11-25

    TVT-O production has been modified to laser cutting from mechanical cutting. We compared the behavior of laser and mechanically cut tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) using ultrasound at various time points after surgery. This is a retrospective analysis of clinical and ultrasound data from two previously reported randomized controlled trials with TVT-O. Behavior of mechanically cut TVT-O implanted in January 2007 to November 2009 and laser-cut TVT-O implanted in May 2010 to May 2012 was assessed by ultrasound at day 1, the 2nd week, the 3rd month, and the 1st and 2nd years post-operatively. Bladder neck and tape margins positions were described by coordinates in the orthogonal system calculated from polar coordinates. Tape mobility was measured as a change in the upper and lower tape margin position from rest to maximal Valsalva. Comparison of 2-year subjective and objective surgery outcomes was also performed. In total, 68 mechanically cut and 50 laser-cut TVT-Os were implanted. Follow-up data were available from 49 and 45 women respectively. No differences in any baseline characteristics or bladder neck mobility were observed. Significantly lower tape mobility was observed on day 1 and week 2 after mechanically cut TVT-O, although subsequent mobility was comparable to laser-cut TVT-O. The subjective and objective surgery outcomes were comparable. Although without clinical significance, early postoperative behavior of the mechanically cut and laser-cut TVT-O tapes differs. The less stiff, mechanically-cut TVT-O loosens within 2 weeks of implantation, whereas the stiffer, laser-cut TVT-O keeps its tension.

  18. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  19. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  20. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.