WorldWideScience

Sample records for scenic sidab mugavalt

  1. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  2. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key...

  3. Modeling the scenic beauty of the Highland Scenic Highway, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2010-01-01

    Finding sites with a pleasant view is important to maximize visitors' scenic satisfaction. A geographic information systems analysis of viewsheds is helpful for locating sites with maximum visibility. Viewshed analyses can also be combined with public perceptions of scenic beauty for selecting the most scenic sites. This research modeled the perceived beauty of...

  4. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    resumida brevemente, enfatizando el rol de los argumentos del investigador en descubrir el significado socialmente inconsciente en la interacción social. Finalmente, una mirada a los problemas epistemológicos contemporáneos. El enfoque de LORENZER para teorizar e investigar al sujeto como una entidad......The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist...... socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks...

  5. Talladega scenic drive corridor management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    The Talladega Scenic Drive is a 29-mile two-laned, paved road, primarily located along the ridges of Horseblock and Cheaha mountains through the Talladega National Forest in northeastern Alabama with panoramic views into Choccolocco and Cheaha Valley...

  6. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  7. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  8. China National Scenic Area and Its Planning Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Jianzhong; Deng; Wugong; Li; Caige

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years since the foundation of China’s scenic area system, a comparatively comprehensive structural system, legal system, and management system have been established in this field, which has protected precious landscape resources and made remarkable achievements. The planning of scenic areas has its own attributes and technical characteristics, which attaches great importance to establishing a functional structure that combines the three systems of sightseeing, tourism services, and social management of local residents. Moreover, with the development of scenic areas, the planning will lay more emphasis on the connection between different levels, give full play to the comprehensive function of scenic areas, pay attention to the research on village and town planning within the area, and learn from the experience of national parks in foreign countries.

  9. China National Scenic Area and Its Planning Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Jianzhong; Deng Wugong; Li Caige

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years since the foundation of China's scenic area system,a comparatively comprehensive structural system,legal system,and management system have been established in this field,which has protected precious landscape resources and made remarkable achievements.The planning of scenic areas has its own attributes and technical characteristics,which attaches great importance to establishing a functional structure that combines the three systems of sightseeing,tourism services,and social management of local residents.Moreover,with the development of scenic areas,the planning will lay more emphasis on the connection between different levels,give full play to the comprehensive function of scenic areas,pay attention to the research on village and town planning within the area,and learn from the experience of national parks in foreign countries.

  10. Multiresolution Network Temporal and Spatial Scheduling Model of Scenic Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of pillar industries of the world economy. Low-carbon tourism will be the mainstream direction of the scenic spots' development, and the ω path of low-carbon tourism development is to develop economy and protect environment simultaneously. However, as the tourists' quantity is increasing, the loads of scenic spots are out of control. And the instantaneous overload in some spots caused the image phenomenon of full capacity of the whole scenic spot. Therefore, realizing the real-time schedule becomes the primary purpose of scenic spot’s management. This paper divides the tourism distribution system into several logically related subsystems and constructs a temporal and spatial multiresolution network scheduling model according to the regularity of scenic spots’ overload phenomenon in time and space. It also defines dynamic distribution probability and equivalent dynamic demand to realize the real-time prediction. We define gravitational function between fields and takes it as the utility of schedule, after resolving the transportation model of each resolution, it achieves hierarchical balance between demand and capacity of the system. The last part of the paper analyzes the time complexity of constructing a multiresolution distribution system.

  11. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  12. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  13. Effect of afforestation on the scenic value of rural landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, L.; Tyrvaeinen, L.; Nousiainen, I.

    1996-01-01

    Afforestation of set-aside land will have significant impact on Finland's rural landscape. In this study, the visual impacts of gradual afforestation were evaluated by private non-industrial forest and agricultural landowners, potential recreationists, and professionals of land use management. The scenic beauty of 32 different rural landscapes were assessed from slides, which were produced from nine original pictures by image-capture technology, with the open landscape becoming gradually afforested in three stages. Scenic beauty was evaluated using a pairwise comparison technique and by rating landscapes using a scale from 1 to 10. In general, the scenic beauty decreased with the increasing intensity of afforestation. An exception to this was moderate afforestation, which can have a positive effect on scenic beauty. The more attractive the original landscape was, the greater the effect of afforestation was found to be. The differences in the evaluations of landowners were not as distinct as those of the other groups, and their attitude towards afforestation was more positive than those of the other two groups. In addition, professionals of land-use management had a clearer opinion about scenic beauty than the other groups. 25 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. Sense of place along a scenic byway in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilynne Mann; Jessica Leahy

    2008-01-01

    Sense of place defines the value and meaning of location. The Rangeley Lakes area of Maine, an unusual natural environment with cultural and historic significance, was nationally recognized in 2000 by the designation of the Rangeley Lakes National Scenic Byway. A survey during the summer of 2006 sought to identify sense of place in the midst of tourism-related growth...

  15. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  16. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  17. The role of wild and scenic rivers in the conservation of aquatic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Rothlisberger; Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Russell F. Thurow

    2017-01-01

    Formerly diverse and abundant freshwater species are highly imperiled, with higher extinction rates than many other taxonomic groups worldwide. In the 50 years since passage of the US Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, wild and scenic rivers (WSRs) have contributed significantly to the conservation of native aquatic biodiversity as well as to the conservation and restoration...

  18. The Performative Presence in the Scenics Arts and the Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Reis Biancalana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a reflection about the relevance of improvisation aspect in the performative arts as a fomenter element of scenic presence. Performances can be defined by the moment when one or more bodies shows themselves to other people eyes and the presence here means the performer ability to attract the viewer‟s attention to himself. The improvisational aspect comes out of these situations can be applied at many levels and many ways but mainly depends on the performer in his desire to do, namely, in giving psychophysically himself to his art.

  19. Digitisation of Scenic and Historic Interest Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Lawson, G.; Sim, J.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documents have become the major information source for heritage conservation practice. More heritage managers today use electronic maps and digital information systems to facilitate management and conservation of cultural heritage. However, the social aspects of digital heritage have not been sufficiently recognised. The aim of this paper is to examine China's `Digital Scenic Area' project, a national program started in 2004, to reveal the political and economic powers behind digital heritage practice. It was found that this project was only conducted within the most popular tourist destinations in China. Tourism information was the main object but information about landscape cultures were neglected in this project. This project also demonstrated that digital management was more like a political or economic symbol rather than a tool for heritage conservation. However, using digital technologies are still considered by the local government as a highly objective way of heritage management. Selected as a typical Scenic Area in China, Slender West Lake in Yangzhou was investigated to identify heritage stakeholder's attitudes toward digital management and the request from local management practice.

  20. Assessment of Soil Environmental Quality in Huangguoshu Waterfalls Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongbin; Feng, Kaiyu; Gu, Bo; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper concentrates on five major heavy metal pollutants as soil environmental quality evaluation factors, respectively Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), based on the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB15618 - 1995), we used single factor index evaluation model of soil environmental quality and comprehensive index evaluation model to analyze surface soil environmental quality in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area. Based on surface soil analysis, our results showed that the individual contamination index, Pb, Hg, As and Cr in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area met class I according to requirements of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards, which indicated that Pb, Hg, As and Cr were not main heavy metal pollutants in this area, but the individual contamination index of Cd in soil was seriously exceeded National Soil Environmental Quality Standards’ requirement. Soil environmental quality in Shitouzhai, Luoshitan, Langgong Hongyan Power Plant have exceeded the requirement of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards “0.7soils had been slightly polluted; the classification of soil environmental quality assessment in Longgong downstream area was above “Alert Level”, it indicated that soil in this area was not polluted. Above all, relevant measures for soil remediation are put forward.

  1. BLM Colorado Wild and Scenic Rivers Line Features (Suitable/Eligible)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –- This line feature class represents the segments identified as eligible or suitable for Wild and Scenic River designation. These segments are part...

  2. The Scenic performance mechanism in the Aristophanes' comedies: the prompter and the focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Kelly de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aimed to point two important mechanisms of scenic performance in the plays of the Greek comedy writer Aristophanes (V BC. Our start assumption is that it is possible to find in the text important marks for the scenic operationalization of those comedies. In the time when those comedies were composed, the author knew the material conditions of scenic performance and he used some interesting strategies, and we highlight two of them: (i he inserted reminder-speech inside the sing of chorus to work as a prompter for the coreutas' choreography; (ii he used the chorus' collective body to indicate to the spectator which scenic elements deserve the attention for being important for the progress of the plot. These two play composition strategies are similar, but not equal, to the contemporary concepts of prompter and focalization.

  3. THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSZULA MYGA-PIĄTEK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

  4. Assessment of Aesthetic Quality on Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Using the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsien Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural landscapes has become a primary issue for soil and water conservation engineering. The scenic preference beauty estimation method (SBE in psychophysics, which was proposed by Daniel and Boster in 1976, is utilized herein to evaluate the scenic aesthetics of stream control engineering in watersheds. It aims to discuss various landscape factors (water body, vegetation in the aesthetic preference and differences of various artificial structures in a watershed under people’s psychology. First, pictures and images related to soil and water conservation engineering are collected, and an in-situ investigation is performed to determine the pictures and images for discussion and design of the relevant questionnaire. The scenic aesthetics evaluation results are standardized with RMRATE, a computer program for analyzing rating judgments, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and then transformed into SBE values to compare the difference of various engineering structures in scenic aesthetics. The results reveal that flowing waterscape elements and the coverage of vegetation on the surrounding artificial structure volume in images present positive effects on the public overall scenic aesthetics. This study is expected to provide engineering designers with reference for considering a design integrating engineering structure with natural landscapes.

  5. Recreationists’ Perceptions of Scenic Beauty and Satisfaction at a Public Forest Managed for Endangered Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Paudyal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning and other active forest management treatments have been proven essential for maintaining suitable habitat conditions for many wildlife species, including the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW. This study examines the perception of forest management treatments of recreation users participating in various activities (hunting, hiking/backpacking, camping, off-highway vehicle riding, and canoeing/kayaking in terms of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. We used photographic images to capture various forest management treatments of different intensity levels and times after treatments, and assessed users’ perception of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. Results indicated variation among users participating in different recreation activities, but that good quality RCW habitats offered both higher scenic beauty and higher recreation satisfaction than poor quality habitats for most activity user groups. Finally, recreation satisfaction was statistically equal to perceived scenic beauty from both good and poor-quality RCW habitats for most of the activity user groups, thus suggesting the importance of scenic beauty of forest sites in determining recreation users’ attainment of visit satisfaction. Findings conclude that forest sites developed as good quality RCW habitats in the present state also offer quality experience to recreation users, thus supporting multi-objective forestry practices in public forests.

  6. 76 FR 14897 - Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild and Scenic River, Ottawa National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild... Dog National Wild and Scenic River to Congress. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information may be..., Ironwood, MI 49938, (906) 932-1330, ext. 342. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Yellow Dog Wild and Scenic...

  7. Eyesores in sight: Quantifying the impact of man-made elements on the scenic beauty of Dutch landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Groot, de M.; Boers, J.

    2012-01-01

    The numerous man-made elements being introduced into the countryside raises the question of how negative impacts on scenic beauty can be minimized. This study investigates the visual impact of wind turbines, business parks and agricultural buildings (barns) on scenic beauty, taking into account

  8. Design and Fabricate the Remote Monitor on the Scenic Spot Based on Integrated Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the embedded Linux system, established the integrated sensing system to monitor the scenic spot and transmit the collected data to the users. The platform based on the ARM11 development board as the hardware of the system. Used the sensors to collect the different data and pictures and then they were transmitted by the wired and wireless mode. Set up the small Web server by the Boa (small Web server and realized the integrated Web technology and CGI (Common Gateway Interface program. According to the difference information of the scenic spot, the mobile platform collected the needed data and transmitted it to the control platform by the ZigBee wireless module and displayed in the embedded platform. The administrator can realize monitoring all the spots of the scenic and control the terminal equipments in the whole day.

  9. How Can Big Data Support Smart Scenic Area Management? An Analysis of Travel Blogs on Huashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from travel blogs represent important travel behavior and destination resource information. Moreover, technological innovations and increasing use of social media are providing accessible ‘big data’ at a low cost. Despite this, there is still limited big data analysis for scenic tourism areas. This research on Huashan (Mount Hua, China data-mined user-contributed travel logs on the Mafengwo and Ctrip websites. Semantic analysis explored tourist movement patterns and preferences within the scenic area. GIS provided a visual distribution of blogger origins. The relationship between Huashan and adjoining tourism areas revealed a multi-destination pattern of tourist movements. Emotional analysis indicated tourist satisfaction levels, while content analysis explored more deeply into dissatisfying aspects of tourist experiences. The results should provide guidance for scenic areas in destination planning and design.

  10. QUANTIFICATION OF INSTREAM FLOW NEEDS OF A WILD AND SCENIC RIVER FOR WATER RIGHTS LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.

    1986-01-01

    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  11. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  12. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  13. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-12-22

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  14. HONDA'S IDEA ABOUT THE UTILIZATION OF NATURAL SCENERY ON "THE USE OF SCENIC LANDSCAPES"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Sanada, Junko

    Essentially, natural scenery area plan must include scenery conservation and utilization as well as natural conservation, actually however, it is said that natural scenery area plan leans much toward natural conservation. So this study aims to focus on Seiroku Honda who has a major thinking about "utilization of scenery" in the Japanese national park's formation stage and clarify Honda's idea about the utilization of natural scenery by analyzing his "the Use of Scenic Landscapes". As a result, following three points are clarified. 1) Honda has four ideas in the base of each plans. 2) scenic landscape as resources in Honda's own ideas. 3) there was some conflict between modification ways and landscape resources.

  15. 78 FR 5490 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Tuolumne Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... achieve NPS goals, while ensuring accessibility, public safety, resource protection, and protection and... throughout the river corridor. The scenic segment below O'Shaughnessy Dam and the Tioga Road corridor east of... interpretation and education at Tuolumne Meadows. Subalpine meadow and riparian areas would be protected from...

  16. Design and information requirements for travel and tourism needs on scenic byways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system design and information evaluation process that could be used to review proposed or designated scenic byways. The process was intended to ensure that the geometric and traffic design of these roads wer...

  17. Forest landscape assessment: the effects of pre-experience education on public perception of scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Kevin E. Saunders; David W. McGill; David A. Smaldone

    2008-01-01

    Aldo Leopold argued for a type of "ecological aesthetic," where perceptions of natural landscape beauty are tied to an understanding of the natural process of forests. The purpose of this study is to examine how education affects perceptions of scenic beauty. Thirty-two students were assigned to four groups, with each group participating in a different...

  18. 78 FR 5492 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-PWR-PWRO-11522; PX.P0131800B.00.1] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan, Yosemite National Park, Madera and Mariposa Counties, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. Phytodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky (Pavlograd district of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the vegetation and flora biodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky is presented. There are 500 species including 25 of rare and threatened species in different ecotopes of the flood-plain. Two species of plants, which are rare for Steppe zone of Ukraine, were found. These species are new for a flora of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast.

  20. A Study of Scenic Spot Living Facility Recommendation Based on Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wenbiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the collection of massive complex information, the collaborative filtering system can work as a highly efficient information screening tool. It can recommend reasonable information reserve with multi angles according to the living service facility information of the scenic spots. The collaborative filtering system can collect information and forecast rating results based on users’ preference. According to different recommendation goals, the collaborative filtering system can recommend results for user feedback and give feedback of the recommendation results in various forms.

  1. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan

    2016-03-09

    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  2. Landscape perception based on personal attributes in determining the scenic beauty of in-stand natural secondary forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to validate factors affecting the in-stand landscape quality and how important each factor was in determining scenic beauty of natural secondary forests. The study was limited to 23 stand-level cases of natural secondary forests in Shen Zhen city in southern China. Typical samples of photographs and public estimations were applied to evaluate scenic beauty inside the natural secondary forests. The major factors were then selected by multiple linear-regression analysis and a model between scenic beauty estimation (SBE values and in-stand landscape features was established. Rise in crown density, fall in plant litter, glow in color of trunk, fall in arbor richness, and rise in visible distance increased scenic beauty values of in-stand landscape. These five factors significantly explained the differences in scenic beauty, and together accounted for 45% of total variance in SBEs. Personal factors (e.g. gender, age and education did not significantly affect the ratings of landscape photos, although variations of landscape quality were affected by some personal factors. Results of this study will assist policymakers, silviculturists and planners in landscape design and management of natural secondary forests in Shenzhen city. People can improve the scenic beauty values by pruning branches and clearing plant litter, which subsequently improve the forest health and contribute to forest recreation.

  3. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  4. Scenic Vistas and the Changing Policy Landscape: Visualizing and Testing the Role of Visual Resources in Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Ribe; Edward T. Armstrong; Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan applies a shift in policy to national forests in the Pacific Northwest, with implications for other public landscapes. This shift offers potentially strong scenic implications for areas that have historically emphasized clearcutting with little visual impact mitigation. These areas will now emphasize biocentric concerns and harvests formed...

  5. 75 FR 5803 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan Yosemite National Park, Mariposa and Madera Counties, CA ACTION: Notice of second extension of public scoping period. SUMMARY...

  6. The status of whitebark pine along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Donald J. Goheen; Katy Marshall; Robert S. Danchok; John A. Petrick; Diane E. White

    2002-01-01

    Because of concern over widespread population declines, the distribution, stand conditions, and health of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Englem.) were evaluated along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest. Whitebark pine occurred on 76 percent of the survey transects. In general, whitebark pine was found in stands...

  7. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  8. A Model to Measure Tourist Preference toward Scenic Spots Based on Social Media Data: A Case of Dapeng in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on tourist preference toward different tourism destinations has been a hot topic for decades in the field of tourism development. Tourist preference is mostly measured with small group opinion-based methods through introducing indicator systems in previous studies. In the digital age, e-tourism makes it possible to collect huge volumes of social data produced by tourists from the internet, to establish a new way of measuring tourist preference toward a close group of tourism destinations. This paper introduces a new model using social media data to quantitatively measure the market trend of a group of scenic spots from the angle of tourists’ demand, using three attributes: tourist sentiment orientation, present tourist market shares, and potential tourist awareness. Through data mining, cleaning, and analyzing with the framework of Machine Learning, the relative tourist preference toward 34 scenic spots closely located in the Dapeng Peninsula is calculated. The results not only provide a reliable “A-rating” system to gauge the popularity of different scenic spots, but also contribute an innovative measuring model to support scenic spots planning and policy making in the regional context.

  9. USGS geologic Mapping and karst research in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Grant, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) was created in 1964 to protect 134 miles of the Current River and its major tributary, the Jacks Fork, that are located in south-central Missouri (fig. 1). The park includes numerous large karst springs including Big Spring, by flow volume this is the largest spring in the National Park system. The National Park Service (NPS) administers a narrow, nearly continuous corridor of land adjacent to the two rivers. Base flow for the rivers is chiefly supplied by groundwater that has traveled through the karst landscape from as far as 38 miles away from the spring (Imes and Frederick, 2002). The watershed is vulnerable to pollution, but the area remains largely rural with few industries. The springs and rivers provide habitat for numerous aquatic species as well as recreational resources for floaters, fishermen, and campers. The ONSR is a major cave park with hundreds of known caves and diverse in-cave resources.

  10. The effects of road building on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in Huangshan Scenic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anna; Tang, Dongmei; Jin, Xiulong; Lu, Lin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kun

    2018-01-22

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are vital soil microbes that connect many individual plants into a large functional organism via a vast mycelial network under the ground. In this study, the changes of soil AM fungal community in response to road-building disturbance caused by tourism development in Huangshan (Yellow Mountain) Scenic Area are assessed. Road building have brought negative effects on AM fungal community, inducing lower diversity parameters, including species number, spore density and diversity indices. However, the dominant genus and species of AM fungi which play key roles in the AM fungal community composition are quite similar before and after road building. Moreover, there are no significant differences in species richness of AM fungi associated with plants, suggesting the tolerance of AM fungal community to the disturbance of road building.

  11. Social valuation of scenic beauty in Catalonian beech forests; Valoracion social de las propiedades esteticas de los hayedos en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Garcia, C.; Burriel, M.; Alcazar, J.

    2011-07-01

    Methods tested in other countries are applied for scenic beauty valuation in several beech locations in Catalonia including significant differences in site, origin, age and stand structure. The study intends to measure stand scenic beauty as seen from inside the forest, as forest visitors see it (near-view). Assessments are obtained through panels of observers in slide sessions, which are transformed into scaled ratings and related through regression analysis to plot-based forest inventory data. The development of statistical models that describe social visual preferences allows the assessment of the contribution of different forestry-related physical variables to the aesthetic improvement of beech forests. It can also be useful as a guide to beech forest planning where recreational use is prevailing or very important. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  13. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu

    2010-01-01

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  15. Scenic drive landslide of January-March 1998, La Honda, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, Angela S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wilson, Ray C.; Wells, Ray E.

    1998-01-01

    The small rural town of La Honda, Calif., is an unincorporated region of San Mateo County situated in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the western part of the San Francisco peninsula. Much of the town is underlain by a previously recognized ancient landslide complex. The ancient slide complex covers about 1.0 to 1.25 km2, parts of which have been historically active. This report describes a recent landslide involving part of Scenic Drive, La Honda, that became active in January 1998. This report does not describe other currently active landslides in La Honda, such as the January 1998 slide on lower Recreation Drive, or the history of sliding in the area. This report concerns the principal morphological features we observed and mapped between 11 February and 21 March 1998 on an enlargement of a 1:7500-scale air photo acquired 6 March 1998 and prior to that on a town property-line map, and by laser survey carried out between 26 February and 8 March. The principal objective of this report is to make available the detailed photographic and topographic base maps and associated description of surface morphological features.

  16. Between Art and Social Science: Scenic Composition as a Methodological Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The scenic composition (SC is a methodological device enabling the synthesis and articulation of researchers' own complex experiences of events witnessed during data collection. Positioned between art and social science, it makes use of literary conventions to synthesise "experience near" accounts of data for interpretation. This article explains how the SC is composed by drawing on associative thinking and illustrates its use within a specific case study. The conceptual basis of the SC is discussed with reference to the work of LORENZER, WINNICOTT and BION. This is the first study in which four compositions, each by a different researcher, have been used to provide a multi-faceted view of a complex event, a live webcast. The compositions are presented along with researchers' reflections. Common themes and significant differences relating to life situations, histories and dispositions of the researchers emerge. The differences were expressed through choice of literary genres, which are common cultural resources. We ask what was achieved through the use of SCs compared with a thematic analysis of the webcast, and find that apart from synthesising and presentational functions, they give access to a multi-sensory range of researchers' experiences, including unconscious elements which were then available for reflexive interpretation by an interpretation panel. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140356

  17. Mapping vegetation communities using statistical data fusion in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, R.A.; Struckhoff, M.A.; He, H.S.; Larsen, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation community map was produced for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways consistent with the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System. Vegetation communities were differentiated using a large array of variables derived from remote sensing and topographic data, which were fused into independent mathematical functions using a discriminant analysis classification approach. Remote sensing data provided variables that discriminated vegetation communities based on differences in color, spectral reflectance, greenness, brightness, and texture. Topographic data facilitated differentiation of vegetation communities based on indirect gradients (e.g., landform position, slope, aspect), which relate to variations in resource and disturbance gradients. Variables derived from these data sources represent both actual and potential vegetation community patterns on the landscape. A hybrid combination of statistical and photointerpretation methods was used to obtain an overall accuracy of 63 percent for a map with 49 vegetation community and land-cover classes, and 78 percent for a 33-class map of the study area. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  18. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  19. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  20. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p beautiful than the lightly thinned and moderately thinned plots, whereas there was no significant difference between moderate thinning and light thinning. At 5 years after thinning, however, the moderately thinned plots received the highest preference scores among the four intensities, displaying an average improvement of 11.32 % compared with the unthinned plots. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model indicated that landscape value improved with increases in the average diameter at breast height (DBH) and with the improvement of environmental cleanliness in the stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value.

  1. Research on Eco-environment Carrying Capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area%南伊沟景区生态环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 杨小林; 王忠斌

    2015-01-01

    Eco-environment carrying capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area in Milin County,Linzhi area,Tibet was studied, the results showed that the recent ecological footprint of the scenic area was 674.70 hm2,effective ecological carrying capacity was 841.13 hm2,and ecological surplus was 166.43 hm2. In terms of current and short-term planning of the scenic area,tourism activities will not bring serious damages to the ecological environment,and ecological footprint of the study area can be further developed. But from the perspective of ecological carrying capacity,the scenic area needs a proper long-term planning,so the paper proposes the sustainable development strategies for the Nanyi Valley Scenic Area. It provides the theoretic basis for the reasonable planning,effective management and sustainable development of the scenic area.%对西藏林芝地区米林县南伊沟景区进行生态环境承载力研究,结果表明,近期南伊沟景区生态足迹量为674.70 hm2,有效生态承载力841.13 hm2,生态盈余166.43 hm2。就景区目前及近期规划来说,开展旅游活动不会对景区生态环境产生大的影响,景区生态足迹还可进一步发展。但从生态承载力方面考虑,景区应特别注意远期规划。提出了南伊沟景区可持续发展对策。

  2. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  3. Research on Scenic Spot’s Sustainable Development Based on a SD Model: A Case Study of the Jiuzhai Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is playing an increasingly crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. However, the eco-environment has been damaged while tourism industry develops rapidly. Thus, to solve the contradiction between tourism development and eco-environment protection is the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism. This paper builds a SD model, which is based on the analysis of the economic subsystem and environment subsystem, to promote sustainable development. In order to show the effectiveness of the model, Jiuzhai Valley is taken as the research object and a decisive basis is provided for the path adjustment of sustainable development in tourist scenic.

  4. The Institutional Sustainability in Protected Area Tourism-Case Studies of Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area, China and New Forest National Park, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Feifei; Fox, Dorothy; Zhang, J.; Cheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers sustainable tourism development in two protected areas, Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area in China and the New Forest National Park in the United Kingdom. An inductive approach is used to explore the "fourth component" of sustainable tourism development that is institutional sustainability. Primary data from in-depth interviews, together with a range of secondary data sources, are analyzed to understand the governance and management of each area. These reveal that whilst ...

  5. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  6. Landscape Aesthetics and the Scenic Drivers of Amenity Migration in the New West: Naturalness, Visual Scale, and Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Values associated with scenic beauty are common “pull factors” for amenity migrants, however the specific landscape features that attract amenity migration are poorly understood. In this study we focused on three visual quality metrics of the intermountain West (USA, with the objective of exploring the relationship between the location of exurban homes and aesthetic landscape preference, as exemplified through greenness, viewshed size, and terrain ruggedness. Using viewshed analysis, we compared the viewsheds of actual exurban houses to the viewsheds of randomly-distributed simulated (validation houses. We found that the actual exurban households can see significantly more vegetation and a more rugged (complex terrain than simulated houses. Actual exurban homes see a more rugged terrain, but do not necessarily see the highest peaks, suggesting that visual complexity throughout the viewshed may be more important. The viewsheds visible from the actual exurban houses were significantly larger than those visible from the simulated houses, indicating that visual scale is important to the general aesthetic experiences of exurbanites. The differences in visual quality metric values between actual exurban and simulated viewsheds call into question the use of county-level scales of analysis for the study of landscape preferences, which may miss key landscape aesthetic drivers of preference.

  7. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  8. Intimacy as scenic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Pérez-Pradal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En sintonía con algunas manifestaciones artísticas contemporáneas atravesadas por el retorno de lo real en el campo de la representación, el cuestionamiento de los límites entre arte y vida, y en particular la recuperación de historias de vida y mundos domésticos e íntimos de personas comunes como material de creación escénica (teatro documental, un grupo de curadores e investigadores de Buenos Aires (María Fernanda Pinta —investigadora y docente en la UBA—, Juan Urraco —investigador, creador y docente en UNICEN—, Federico Baeza —investigador y docente en la UNA―, y la que escribe el presente artículo nos propusimos reflexionar acerca de dichas dimensiones, teórica y prácticamente, a través del Ciclo de Intimidad Escénica presentado en Buenos Aires.

  9. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  10. Evaluation on the Emergency Capacity of the Mountain-type Scenic Spot based on Matter-units Analysis Model:A case study of Henan Yuantaishan Scenic spot%基于物元模型的山岳型景区应急能力评价研究*--以河南云台山景区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永领; 张红

    2014-01-01

    山地灾害的破坏性和山地地形地貌特征给山岳型景区突发事件应急救援带来了巨大挑战,因此亟须对山岳型景区的应急能力进行评价,全面提高山岳型景区突发事件的应急救援能力。以应急管理周期理论和山地突发事件特征为基础,构建了山岳型景区应急能力评价指标体系,包括9个一级指标和29个二级指标;建立了以物元分析法为基础的山岳型应急能力评价模型,并以山岳型景区云台山为例进行评价,结果表明:基于物元分析法的山岳型景区应急能力评价模型,不仅能够科学评定应急能力的等级,而且还能揭示应急能力的发展和转化趋势,评估结果可为景区应急能力建设的科学决策提供参考。%Mountain-type scenic spots have emergency rescue difficulty because of devastation of mountain disasters and typical mountain topography characteristics,therefore it needs to evaluate the emergency capacity for emergent events and comprehen-sively improve the emergency response capabilities for the emergency capacity to emergent events.The assessment index system of emergency capacity for the mountain-type emergencies is constructed from 9 level indicators and 29 secondary indicators based on 4-stage emergency management and Mountain-type scenic spot characteristics;the emergency capacity evaluation model was established based on the matter-element analysis method.And emergency capacity was evaluated for the Yuntaishan scenic spot as a case study.The result shows that the emergency capacity assessment model based on matter-element analysis method not only can carry on the scientific evaluation to the emergency ability level,but also can reveal the emergency ability development and transformation trend,which can offer references to scientific decision-making of emergency capacity for the mountain-type scenic spots.

  11. A expressão cênica como elemento facilitador da performance no coro juvenil Scenic expression as a facilitator in the youth choir performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo nasceu do desejo de pesquisar e divulgar este excelente veículo facilitador do canto coral - sobretudo para adolescentes - que é a expressão cênica. Tal recurso vem oferecer uma gama maior de possibilidades criativas e soluções originais para o desenvolvimento da linguagem coral, além de instigar os envolvidos ao exercício do autoconhecimento. Este trabalho é parte de pesquisa do Mestrado em Música desenvolvido na UNIRIO.The present paper results from the need to research and promote scenic expression as an ideal facilitator for singing, especially among adolescents. It may offer a wider range of creative possibilities and original solutions for the development of the choral language, besides encouraging the exercise of self-knowledge. This paper is part of a Masters Degree in Music research developed at UNIRIO (Brazil.

  12. Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the

  13. 基于互补资产的旅游景区发展战略研究%Development Strategy Research of Tourism Scenic based on Complementary Assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊义; 李小芳

    2016-01-01

    从互补资产角度来研究旅游景区的发展是一个新的视角。互补资产是旅游景区竞争优势的重要来源,影响着旅游景区的可持续发展。在界定了旅游景区互补资产的基础上,将旅游景区的互补资产分为互补人力资产、互补物质资产和互补组织资产。本文从景区产品创新、经济效益和提升景区竞争力等方面分析了互补资产对旅游景区发展的重要性,从互补人力资产、互补物质资产和互补组织资产等方面分析景区发展制约因素,在此基础上运用互补资产理论对旅游景区的发展提出了战略联盟、营销战略、人才发展战略,试图通过构建和充分利用互补资产促进创新和提升景区服务,促进景区的可持续发展。%It is a new perspective to study the development of tourist attractions. Complementary assets are a significant source of competitive advantage which affects the sustainable development of tourist scenic area. On the basis of clarifying the complementary assets of tourist attraction, the complementary assets are further divided into complementary human resource assets, complementary material assets and complementary organizational assets. On the one hand, this paper analyzes the importance of complementary assets to the development of tourist scenic area from the spheres of product innovation, economic benefit and competitiveness of tourist attraction. On the other hand, the constraints are discussed from the aspects of complementary human resource assets, complementary material assets and complementary organizational assets. Moreover, the suggestions and solutions that relate to strategic alliance, marketing strategy and talents development strategy are proposed according to the analysis in order to construct and fully utilize the complementary assets to promote the standard of innovation and service capacity in the tourist attraction and achieve sustainable development.

  14. The Cause of Tourism Seasonality and Development Countermeasures on the Grand Canyon Scenic%地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性成因及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爱良

    2011-01-01

    This paper clearly shows the tourism seasonaliy of the grand canyon scenic with an analysis of visitors and income monthly. Tourism seasonality influence the grand canyon scenic on the carrying capacity in tourism, the tourist facilities, cost-effective, quality of service and so on.And then we analyze the cause of the tourism seasonality of the grand canyon scenic in the location, climate, tourism resources, holiday arrangements, source markets, tourism product development.Finally, to slove the tourism seasonality of the grand canyon scenic,we should design the tourism product, use of price leverage, play an intermediary role in the hotel and travel agency and focuse on collaboration with the surrounding scenic areas and so on.%通过分析地下大峡谷景区月际游客量、月收入,得出地下大峡谷景区明显呈现旅游季节性,淡旺季明显等结论。旅游季节性在旅游承载力、旅游接待设施、经济效益、服务质量等方面对地下大峡谷景区造成影响,然后从区位、气候、旅游资源、节假日安排、客源市场、旅游产品开发等方面分析了地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性的成因,最后从旅游产品设计、加强宣传、利用价格杠杆、发挥酒店旅行社中介作用、注重与周边景区协作等方面提出了解决地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性的应对策略。

  15. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2. A reduced supersonic cruise

  16. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet ─ results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S.A. Isaksen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level, cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWm2. A reduced supersonic cruise altitude or speed (from Mach 2 to Mach 1.6 reduces both, climate impact and ozone destruction, by around 40%. An increase in the range of the supersonic aircraft leads to

  17. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2012-01-01

    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  18. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  19. 基于5A景区最大承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型研究%Study of Mathematical Model Between Tourism Supply and Demand Based on Relationship of the 5A Level Scenic Spots' Maximum Carrying Capacity and the Amount of the Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 刘耀龙; 段锦

    2017-01-01

    旅游承载量是反映旅游供给能力的重要指标,游客接待量是衡量旅游需求状况的常用指标.在分析我国5A级景区最大承载量空间分异特征的基础上,对2014年各省市5A级景区日最大承载量和年游客接待量进行相关性和回归分析,构建基于景区承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型.结果表明:(1)5A级景区最大承载量和游客接待量之间存在显著的正相关关系;(2)旅游供需关系模型可由复合函数定量表征;(3)模型能够预测旅游供需变化,对旅游业发展具有一定的指示意义.%Tourism carrying capacity is an important index to reflect the tourism supply capacity, and the amount of the tourists is a common index to measure tourism demand. On the basis of the analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics of 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity, the paper carries out correlation and regression analysis about the 5A level scenic' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Sample data is calculated or statistical results of 31 provinces in 2014. Tourism supply and demand model is constructed based on the relationship between the 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Results indicate: (1)There is a significant positive correlation between the 5A level scenic spot'maximum carrying capacity and the amount of tourists; (2)The model of tourism supply and demand relations can be quantitatively characterized by complex functions;(3)The model can predict the change of tourism supply and demand, which have referential meaning to the development of tourism.

  20. Ühe minuti loengute abil jõuavad väärt teadmised kiiresti ja mugavalt huvilisteni / Airi Ilisson-Cruz ; intervjueerinud Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli loengute sarjast, mille idee autor ja konsultant on Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli õppejõud Indrek Treufeldt, kaasa löövad Tallinna Ülikooli turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniosakond, produtsent Airi Ilisson-Cruz ja e-õppekeskus, operaatorid-monteerijad Kristjan Madalvee ja Tarmo Lehari. Intervjuu loengusarja produtsendi Airi Ilisson-Cruziga

  1. 公示语英译现状分析及应对策略探讨--以南通濠河风景区为例%Analysis and Discussion on the Current Situation of Eng-lish Translation for Public Signs and the Coping Strategy:Taking the Scenic Area of Moat Hao in Nantong as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      公示语的英译就如同一张名片,向外国友人介绍我们的城市。景区公示语的英译水平更代表着一个旅游景区的形象。本文结合实例,从南通濠河风景区公示语英译的现状出发,指出存在的问题,分析造成错误的原因,同时探讨提高公示语英译水平的相关策略。%English translation of public signs sends information of a city to foreigners just like a business card. The level of transla-tion of the public signs in a scenic spot will affect its image as well. The scenic area of Moat Hao in Nantong is taken as an ex-ample. According to the current situation and analysis of given examples, existing problems are pointed out together with the causes of them. And coping strategies for improving the level of translation are explored.

  2. 基于改进AHP的旅游环境承载力评价研究--以鼓浪屿景区为例%Assessment of Tourist Environment Carrying Capacity Based on Improved AHP:a Case Study of Gulangyu Island Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志涛; 曾繁英

    2017-01-01

    Tourist environment carrying capacity must be confirmed for protecting the ecological environment, realizing a sustainable de-velopment of sightseeing districts, managing tourist activities in scenic spots effectively, and regulating the development and utilization of tourism resources. The environment carrying capacity data of Gulangyu island on weekdays and holidays is analyzed with improved AHP by establishing an index system for assessing the environmental carrying capacity, combining the natural ecology, social psychology and e-conomic environment carrying capacity. The analysis finds out that the scenic spot should enhance the management of long-term over ca-pacity of tourists, the improvement of the atmosphere purifying capacity, pollutant disposal processing capacity, and the restrictive factors of the psychological bearing capacity of tourists. By doing so, the tourist environment carrying capacity could be promoted with tourist number controlled at an acceptable level, facilitating the sustainable development of Gulangyu island.%为了实现旅游地的生态环境保护及可持续发展目标,有效管理景区游客活动和调控旅游资源的开发利用,必须确定景区的旅游资源环境承载力。通过构建兼顾自然生态环境承载力、社会心理承载力和经济环境承载力三个维度的环境承载力评价指标体系,运用改进的层次分析模型,对景区旅游环境承载力进行量化测算和评价,分析鼓浪屿景区在工作日和节假日的旅游环境承载力数据结果,鼓浪屿景区的可持续发展既需要根据景区旅游环境承载力对当前的长期游客过载现象加强治理,也需要重视大气净化能力、污染物处理能力、游客心理承载力限制性要素的改善以提高景区自身的旅游环境承载力,把景区的旅游数量控制在可接受范围内,推动鼓浪屿景区的持续发展。

  3. 公共资源类旅游景区水环境承载力研究——以武汉市东湖风景区为例%Carrying capacity of water environment in public tourism resources: A case of East Lake scenic area in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璨; 邓宏兵; 李小帆; 李会琴

    2013-01-01

    The water environment in public tourism resources is affected by the socio-economic system and travel system.This paper builds a multi-target model of water environment carrying capacity by selecting an index system that consists of population,GDP,irrigated area,number of tourists,number of guesthouse day reception,total nitrogen (TP),chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).Shuiguohu Lake,Tanglinghu Lake and Guozhenghu Lake are selected as the sub-lakes of the east lake area to evaluate the water environmental carrying capacity,by adopting the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the weight of indexes on water environmental carrying capacity of the East Lake scenic area.This paper also uses a typical model to calculate water environmental carrying capacity of East Lake scenic area in 2011.The results show that the irrigation area and GDP have exceeded the carrying standards,while population and tourism indicators are within the carrying capacity.All the indicators of water quality have exceeded the carrying standards.The scores for water environmental carrying capacity of Shuiguohu,Tanglinghu and Guozhenghu lake are 4.03,3.86 and 3.95 respectively,which are greatly overloaded.%公共资源类旅游景区水环境受到社会经济系统和旅游系统两方面影响,本文通过选取人口、GDP、灌溉面积、游客量、宾馆日接待人数、TP、COD、BOD等指标,构建水环境承载力多目标模型.同时,选取水果湖、汤菱湖和郭郑湖3个子湖对东湖风景区水环境承载力进行评价,并运用层次分析法(AHP)确定各指标对东湖风景区水环境承载力的权重,采用典型水环境承载力概念模型计算了2011年武汉市东湖风景区水环境承载力.结果表明,东湖风景区水资源承载力表现为灌溉面积和GDP承载度超标,而人口和旅游指标承载度未达到饱和,水质承载力各指标的承载度超标.水果湖、汤菱湖和郭郑湖的水

  4. 边境旅游地游客环境态度与环境行为的实证分析--以丹东鸭绿江国家级风景区为例%Vistor’ s Environmental Attitude and Behavior in Border Tour Destination:a Case Study of Yalu River National Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 石岩涛; 张梅; 季长波; 王鹏; 杨清海

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visitors ’ social and economic background on their environmental attitude and environmental behavior in Yalu River National Scenic Spot .Likert 5 scale method were used , 406 valid questionnaires were collected and studied by multivariate analysis of variance .The results showed that visitor ’ s age , gender , schooling , occupation and income have effect on their environmental attitude . Visitors paid more attention to ecological relationship and environmental interpretation , as well as the public bene-fit, but their environmental duty is not so well .Statistical analysis showed the above socio -demographic factors significantly affect their environmental behavior .They focused on environmental sustention and sustainable protec-tion positively but not actively on participative behavior .They paid less attention to environmental disturbance .Fi-nally, some advice about ecological management is put forward .%为分析边境旅游地的不同社会经济背景因素游客对环境态度与环境行为的影响,文章采用李克特量表法设计问卷,调查后回收有效问卷406份,运用多元方差分析方法对问卷量表数据做综合分析。结果表明:游客年龄、性别、受教育程度、职业和收入在环境态度方面上有一定差异,游客关注人和自然生态关系和环境解说较多,关注公众福祉意愿较高,但整体环境责任一般;游客年龄、性别、教育程度、职业和收入在环境行为方面差异显著,游客环境维护行为与后续保护行为表现较好,环境参与行为一般,而环境干扰行为比较消极。最后,有针对性对鸭绿江风景区的生态管理提出相关建议。

  5. Logging a roadside stand to protect scenic values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Raymond V. Whiteley

    1972-01-01

    A case study on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, demonstrated that logging along roadsides need not despoil roadside stands. Nearly every tree was "viewed" before marking. Because of the "special-care" procedures followed, combined logging and slash-disposal cost was about twice that of a single-tree selection cut.

  6. The Scenic Route Is Not Always the Most Informative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Roland S. Persson's (2012a) argument is that there is a dominant research culture in the field of gifts and talents, which must of necessity distort research and practice in cultures which are different. He ties this to the dominance of the global economy and points to the need for more cross-cultural studies. In this commentary, the author points…

  7. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NRCS work. Strip-cropping, field borders, field windbreaks, and ponds are examples. Emphasis is given... resource values particularly in waste management systems; field borders, field windbreaks, wetland..., and farmsteads; siting or positioning of structures and buildings to be in harmony with the landscape...

  8. Scenic spot Europe: Chinese travellers on the Western periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Nyíri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme a longtemps été perçu comme une caractéristique de la modernité occidentale, les non-Occidentaux ne pouvant être que des «  tourees  » — une composante passive et résignée de la ressource touristique. À présent organisé, le tourisme de masse touche de larges populations qui ne l’avaient auparavant jamais connu. Ce phénomène recèle la potentialité d’une dynamique impliquant à la fois la subjectivité des individus appartenant aux sociétés dans lesquelles le tourisme se développe, et les pays qui commencent à exporter du loisir vers des populations ayant accès depuis peu à cette mobilité. Or ces populations ont une vision des loisirs et une interprétation des lieux différentes de celles des Occidentaux. La compréhension des pratiques touristiques de ces populations et l’observation, à travers leur regard, de paysages qui nous sont familiers peut nous obliger à revoir nos idées sur l’ « homme-moderne-en-général ». Le présent article explore les conditions d’émergence d’un tourisme chinois à grande échelle vers l’Europe et les représentations de la modernité, du voyage et de l’Europe qui l’accompagnent. Il s’agit de confronter ces représentations avec celles, communément acceptées, qu’a l’Europe d’elle-même. La première partie de l’article examine le lien entre les migrations internationales et la modernité dans les discours qui circulent en Chine dans le grand public, ainsi que les images de l’Europe qui ont été produites dans le contexte de la « nouvelle littérature migratoire ». Dans la seconde partie, est abordée l’émergence du tourisme et l’on s’y interroge sur la manière dont les représentations contradictoires qui en résultent peuvent changer à l’avenir l’image qu’ont les Chinois de l’Europe. Tourism has long been seen as an attribute of Western modernity, in which the non-Western subject can only be the ‘touree’ that copes with its consequences. Yet organized, commercialized mass tourism is spreading to vast populations that had not known it previously. This has potentially momentous consequences both for subjectivities in the societies in which tourism is emerging and for the countries that become exporters of leisure to newly mobile non-Western populations — whose ideas of leisure and interpretations of places may be different from those in the West. Understanding the tourist practices of these populations, and seeing familiar landscapes through their eyes, may force us to revise our ideas of ‘modern-man-in-general’. This article looks at the background of the emergence of large-scale Chinese tourism to Europe and at the views of modernity, travel, and Europe that will come with it to confront Europe’s accepted representations of itself. The first part of the article discusses the link between international migration and modernity in contemporary Chinese public discourse and the images of Europe that have been produced in the context of ‘new migrant literature’. The second part looks at the emergence of tourism and asks how the resulting contested representations may be changing the Chinese view of Europe.

  9. From 'folkism' to performance: a new scenic strategy for audience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of plays based on 'Folkism' are not accessible to the general audience due to the kind of staging techniques used for the performances of these plays. Instead of attaining total audience integration, the audience is alienated and estranged because of a natural gulf that exists in the proscenium theatre.

  10. FROM 'FOLKISM' TO PERFORMANCE: A NEW SCENIC STRATEGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process that exist between the actors and audience. Keywords: Folkism, Audience integration, Akpakaland, Nigerian folkloric performance. Introduction. There have been a lot of controversies about finding a comprehensive theatrical principle to define and integrate Nigerian audience into performances over the past few ...

  11. FROM 'FOLKISM' TO PERFORMANCE: A NEW SCENIC STRATEGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proposed the importance of projecting a Nigerian theatre realistically in order to reflect African life in ... presentation that is foreign and strange. Because of these, ... sender, the oracles asked Unata to bring, amongst other sacrificial items, an.

  12. Implications of the cognitive dimension of art in artistic scenic education. Some contributions for the teacher in scenic arts at the high school level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Merchan Price

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the contributions proposed by Arthur Efland (especially those of his book Art and Cognition, with the aim of broadening the statements of the academic programmes in performing arts as a curriculum area in the scholar plan, and also within the frame of teacher training. In this perspective, we consider the concept of cognition towards those experiences and subsequent learning in which the body plays a central role as mediator in the process of understanding of the world itself. We also discuss during the analysis the role of the emotions in thought processes. In this sense, we propose to use this new perspective of complementary interaction between the emotional and intellectual dimensions to discuss the concepts of creation, appreciation and understanding, typical of artistic fields and their teaching. We propose this complementary interaction as a fundamental process of the encounter of arts, in the dynamics of development in the school. In the conclusions, we open the possibility of a need to redefine the conceptual axes to train teachers in performing arts, articulating specific disciplinary knowledge of performing arts with the needs of the scholar project itself, particularly those linked to the social and individual development of the person in the frame of basic and intermediate school.

  13. 77 FR 1723 - Notice of Availability, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of Potomac Heritage... the availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of... planned Trail segments for non-motorized travel. Communities have invested in the Trail concept for a...

  14. Scenic Figure: A Step Towards the Phenomenological Grasp of the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinař Josef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This text is a posthumous work by Assoc. Prof. Josef Vinař (1934–2015, a lecturer at the Theatre Academy of Performing Arts in Prague. Before his death Josef Vinař asked his colleague Jan Vedral to take care of his unfinished theoretical work and make it available. Acting upon this wish and the wish of Vinař’s heirs, Jan Vedral put together a team from some of Vinař’s students (current doctoral students, who compiled Vinař’s theoretical ideas about theatre. The present study is a summary of some of Josef Vinař’s findings and especially his phenomenological ideas about the art of acting. The author prepared it for the Slovak Theatre journal.

  15. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes under different groundwater flow regimes.A better understanding of the 3-dimensional hydrogeologic framework for the large spring systems in the ONSR allows more precise mapping of the contributing areas for those springs, will guide future studies of groundwater flow paths, and inform development of groundwater resource management strategies for the park.

  16. Exposure to scenic lighting devices: risk to the health of entertainment professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsi, S.; Barlier-Salsi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC on minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from optical radiation provides for risk assessment in workplaces. This is particularly important in entertainment, where intentional exposure to spotlights may be required for periods of 8 hours per working day. The aim of the study was to provide the lighting engineers with information, relative to the risks associated with spotlights, to help them to estimate the risks a priori of a lighting plan. This study consisted of determining the risks associated with 63 different spotlights, then distributing them into 4 groups of risks defined by the standard EN 62471, in calculating their permissible minimal exposure distance, corresponding to the use of 1 and 5 spotlights for a daily exposure time of 8 hours. This study highlighted that spotlights may cause health problems for entertainment workers. The classification proposed by the standard EN 62471 is not sufficient to estimate the risks of a lighting plan. Furthermore, the permissible minimal exposure distance and the permissible maximal exposure time do not constitute relevant parameters to reduce the risks to acceptable values. (authors)

  17. Bruno 2016 / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Valik disainiauhinnale Bruno 2016 kandideerivatest esemetest (Gerda Retter "Jääkideta nahadisain", Raul Abner "Kummut Mix", Argo Ader ja Rain Aduson "Fitbi - spordi mugavalt!", Merili Sulg "Seinašabloon Kasemets", Rita Assor "Lugemispesa-mänguala Aas", Mare Kelpman "Terra pleedid", Henri Viljarand "Vineervalamu Gniss")

  18. Räpased trikid Norma rahaga / Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Norma suuromanik, Rootsi kompanii Autoliv, kasutab ettevõtet sisuliselt oma taskupangana, kust saab vajadusel mugavalt ja odavalt laenu võtta. Väikeaktsionärid kaaluvad aktsionäride üldkoosoleku kokkukutsumist ja erikontrolli teostamise nõudmist. Lisa: Kuidas töötab rootslaste rahapump. Graafik: Norma aktsia hind Tallinna börsil

  19. Hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic habitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska-with special emphasis on the Niobrara National Scenic River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathan J.

    2010-01-01

    The Niobrara River is an ecologically and economically important resource in Nebraska. The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources' recent designation of the hydraulically connected surface- and groundwater resources of the Niobrara River Basin as ?fully appropriated? has emphasized the importance of understanding linkages between the physical and ecological dynamics of the Niobrara River so it can be sustainably managed. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic attributes of the Niobrara River in northern Nebraska. This report presents the results of an analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River and its valley for the approximately 330-mile reach from Dunlap Diversion Dam to its confluence with the Missouri River. Two spatial scales were used to examine and quantify the hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River: a basin scale and a reach scale. At the basin scale, digital spatial data and hydrologic data were analyzed to (1) test for differences between 36 previously determined longitudinal hydrogeomorphic segments; (2) quantitatively describe the hydrogeomorphic characteristics of the river and its valley; and (3) evaluate differences in hydraulic microhabitat over a range of flow regimes among three fluvial geomorphic provinces. The statistical analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments resulted in reclassification rates of 3 to 28 percent of the segments for the four descriptive geomorphic elements. The reassignment of classes by discriminant analysis resulted in a reduction from 36 to 25 total hydrogeomorphic segments because several adjoining segments shared the same ultimate class assignments. Virtually all of the segment mergers were in the Canyons and Restricted Bottoms (CRB) fluvial geomorphic province. The most frequent classes among hydrogeomorphic segments, and the dominant classes per unit length of river, are: a width-restricted valley confinement condition, sinuous-planview pattern, irregular channel width, and an alternate bar configuration. The Niobrara River in the study area flows through a diversity of fluvial geomorphic settings in its traverse across northern Nebraska. In the Meandering Bottoms (MB) fluvial geomorphic province, river discharge magnitudes are low, and the valley exerts little control on the channel-planview pattern. Within the CRB province, the river flows over a diversity of geologic formations, and the valley and river narrow and expand in approximate synchronicity. In the Braided Bottoms (BB) fluvial geomorphic province, the river primarily flows over Cretaceous Pierre Shale, the valley and channel are persistently wide, and the channel slope is generally uniform. The existence of vegetated islands and consequent multithread channel environments, indicated by a higher braided index, mostly coincided with reaches having gentler slopes and less unit stream power. Longitudinal hydrology curves indicate that the flow of the Niobrara River likely is dominated by groundwater as far downstream as Norden. Unit stream power values in the study area vary between 0 and almost 2 pounds per foot per second. Within the MB province, unit stream power steadily increases as the Niobrara gains discharge from groundwater inflow, and the channel slope steepens. The combination of steep slopes, a constrained channel width, and persistent flow within the CRB province results in unit stream power values that are between three and five times greater than those in less confined segments with comparable or greater discharges. With the exception of hydrogeomorphic segment 3, which is affected by Spencer Dam, unit stream power values in the BB province are generally uniform. Channel sinuosity values in the study area varied generally between 1 and 2.5, but with locally higher values measured in the MB province and at the entrenched bedrock me

  20. 77 FR 58979 - Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek..., Washington Office, is transmitting the final boundary of the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine..., Cadillac, MI 49601, (231) 775- 5023, ext. 8756. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Au Sable, Bear Creek...

  1. Public perceptions of west-side forests: improving visual impact assessments and designing thinnings and harvests for scenic integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Ribe

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of public forests’ acceptability can be infl uenced by aesthetic qualities, at both broad and project levels, aff ecting managers’ social license to act. Legal and methodological issues related to measuring and managing forest aesthetics in NEPA and NFMA decision-making are discussed. It is argued that conventional visual impact assessments—using...

  2. Linking Outdoor Recreation and Economic Development: A Feasibility Assessment of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Sims; Donald G. Hodges; Del Scruggs

    2004-01-01

    Rural economies in many parts of the United States have undergone significant changes over the past two decades. Faltering economies historically based on traditional economic sectors like agriculture and manufacturing are transitioning to retail and service sectors to support growth. One example of such an industry is resource-based recreation and tourism. Tourists...

  3. Research on the Spatial Differentiation and Driving Factors of Tourism Enterprises’ Efficiency: Chinese Scenic Spots, Travel Agencies, and Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sustainable industry in the economy that optimizes the industrial structure. Thus, as a core part of this market, tourism enterprises perform a key role in the effective operation of this industry. This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA and Malmquist index (MI models to calculate the efficiency of Chinese tourism enterprises between 2005 and 2014. Results showed that: (1 The efficiency and the total factor productivity change index (TFPC of tourism enterprises remained low, and both have decreased. (2 The efficiency of regional tourism enterprises across China cloud be characterized as high in the east region, low in the central region, and high in both northeast and western regions. (3 The efficiency levels of the cities of Beijing and Shanghai were ahead of the country over the period of this study, while Chongqing, Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia all possess a number of obvious advantages in the western region. (4 Centers of overall tourism enterprise efficiency mainly moved in a southeast-to-northwest direction over the period of this research. (5 The spatial autocorrelation of tourism enterprise efficiencies is also assessed in this study, and the results show that the comprehensive efficiency (CE of tourism enterprises in southeastern coastal regions of China tended to a certain spatial agglomeration effect, while the correlation between the central region and northern China was not significant. (6 The Geodetector model is applied to analyze the key factors driving the spatial differentiation of tourism enterprise efficiencies, and the results show that the degree of opening to the outside world, potential human capital, and traffic conditions were the most important factors driving spatial differentiation in the efficiency of tourism enterprises.

  4. Tradition and Melodism in Género Chico: The Musical Scenic Production of José Serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Blasco Magraner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the characteristics of the lyrical work of the maestro José Serrano Simeon, probably the most important zarzuelas composer of the twentieth century, and the opinions that the critics of the time carried out on its flagship production. The melodic richness of his works, which had its origin in the Spanish popular music, the rhythmic variety of the same and simple and effective implementation are just some of the most representative of his magnum opus features.

  5. Настольная игра помогает изучать русский язык и Россию / Андрей Бабин

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Бабин, Андрей

    2013-01-01

    Õppemängu CONTACT© Russian eesmärk on Moskva linnas ning vene kultuuris mugavalt orienteeruma ja vene keeles suhtlema õppimine. Tallinna Ülikooli poolt on koostatud analoogne mäng välistudengitele vene keele õppimiseks inglise keele baasil. Mängu koostasid Slaavi Keelte ja Kultuuride Instituudi lektor Inna Adamson ja Katariina Kolledži direktor Dimitri Mironov, kes jagab mängu kohta selgitusi

  6. 36 CFR 297.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 297.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.3 Definitions. Act means the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (82 Stat... assistance affecting the free-flowing characteristics or the scenic or natural values of a Wild and Scenic...

  7. The relationships between anglers' risk perception, sensation-seeking, and fishing site choice along the northeast and Yilan Coast Scenic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    The northeastern coast is one of the best fishing areas in Taiwan, but the terrain, weather, and tides can create a dangerous and even deadly environment. This study examines the relationships between anglers' risk perceptions, sensation seeking, and fishing site choices. Results from a survey conducted at Long-Don in 2005 were analyzed for four dimensions of...

  8. PAISAGEM CULTURAL: AVALIAÇÃO DAS PAISAGENS CÊNICAS DE GUARAQUEÇABA (Cultural landscape: evaluation of scenic landscapes Guaraqueçaba)

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, Roberson Miranda; PASSOS, Messias Modesto dos; YAMAKI, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    A Paisagem Cultural do município de Guaraqueçaba que está localizado no Estado do Paraná, na planície costeira, representada no recorte com latitude entre 23º e 26º S e longitude 48º e 54º W, área de difícil acesso. Área de proteção ambiental, sendo Guaraqueçaba situada em uma privilegiada porção preservada de Floresta Tropical Úmida, aproximadamente 500 mil ha, que juntamente com a região Sul do Estado de São Paulo representa a maior área contínua de remanescentes dessa floresta. Deste modo ...

  9. 旅游心理容量的测定——以武陵源黄石寨景区为例%Calculation of Tourism Social Carrying Capacity on Mountain Scenic Area--A Case Study of Huangshizhai Scenic Area in Wulingyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周年兴

    2003-01-01

    旅游容量是旅游规划和管理中的重要工具之一.该文引入边际满意度的概念,提出了旅游心理容量的满意度模型,并且以武陵源黄石寨景区为实证研究,进行了旅游心理容量的测定.

  10. 78 FR 53777 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Visual Resource Management and Areas of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... species, a unique sand dune community and habitat, the desert kangaroo rat, and for scenic quality. The... criteria: McCarty Canyon; for scenic quality and wildlife habitat; Seminoe and Pathfinder Reservoirs; for sensitive plant species, scenic quality, and wildlife habitat; Flattop Mountain; for sensitive plant species...

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 15: Landscape change and aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Fuels management produces changes in the landscape that can impact scenic beauty. If people do not consider a forest to be scenic, they may think that the low scenic quality is a result of poor management or ecological health. This fact sheet looks at the relevency of the effects of natural and human-caused landscape changes, when planning fuels management.

  12. 77 FR 66609 - Twenty-Fifth Update of the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    .... Middle Island Light Station..... Middle Island...... Alpena Township.... MI 49707 Homeland Security... 48740 Homeland Security.. Other 17 Scenic Road. Thunder Bay Island Light Station Michigan Islands Alpena...

  13. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  14. 36 CFR 1.6 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., environmental or scenic values, natural or cultural resources, scientific research, implementation of management responsibilities, proper allocation and use of facilities, or the avoidance of conflict among visitor use...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Under the Regional Haze Rule Y Appendix Y to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... improve visibility in certain scenic areas of national importance. The scenic areas protected by section... Organizations, for adoption within each SIP or TIP. 2. The preamble to the 1999 regional haze rule discussed at...

  16. Perception of personal safety in urban recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder; L.M. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    Photograph of 17 urban recreation sites in Chicago and Atlanta were evaluated by college students (n = 68) in Illinois, Georgia, and Michigan, for either perceived security, scenic quality, or both. For most raters, high visibility and developed park features significantly enhanced perceived security. Scenic quality, on the other hand, was enhanced for the majority of...

  17. 75 FR 14625 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... laws in order to protect scientific and ecological values, scenic and recreational values, and the... withdrawal extension is to continue protecting scientific and ecological research values at the Ashland Research Natural Area and its scenic and recreation values, along with the investment of Federal funds at...

  18. Don't be thru-hiking; start Uhikingsm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk D. Sinclair

    2001-01-01

    Our National Scenic Trails help to protect wilderness and rural culture, while at the same time providing benefits to outdoor recreationists. Thru-hiking is an outdoor recreational pursuit that involves hiking "through" the entire length of a National Scenic Trail. A support network exists for hopeful sojourners desiring to thru-hike that captivates their...

  19. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Tennessee Natural Areas Registry under Tennessee Code Annotated (TCA) section 11-14-112, Natural Areas designated by the Tennessee General Assembly under TCA 11-14-108, areas adjoining Tennessee Scenic Rivers designated under TCA 11-13-101, and Scenic Trails designated under TCA 11-11-101. ...

  20. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  1. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic, and other values... from exercising his power of condemnation at any time with respect to property other than “improved...

  2. ESIABA IROBI'S HANGMEN ALSO DIE IN THE HUB *Benedict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    visual properties of light, costume, scenic background and sometimes with ... dominance and exploitation that contribute to the operation of reconstructing ..... proclaim that Nigeria's problem is not money but what to do with money further push.

  3. 77 FR 71827 - Notice of Extension of Concession Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Bears, Inc...... John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway. ROMO004-03 Silver Peaks Rocky Mountain... National Scenic Riverways. JEFF001-05 Compass Group, NA... Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. [[Page...

  4. 36 CFR 1004.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1001.5 and 1001.7 of this... consistent with the protection of natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations and management...

  5. 5 CFR 532.213 - Industries included in regular appropriated fund wage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... food service and laundry establishments and industries having peculiar employment conditions that... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.213 Industries... transportation except taxi and limousine service (NAICS 4853). 487 (except 4872) Scenic and sightseeing...

  6. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Lakeshore (SLBE or Lakeshore) was established in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation... home destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking...-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route Trailway, Sleeping Bear Dunes...

  7. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  8. Visibility and Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze forms when sunlight encounters particle pollution. It reduces visibility in cities and scenic areas. This web area provides regulatory information and progress towards improving visibility through EPA’s regional haze program.

  9. DNA-based species identification for faecal samples: An application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... An application on the mammalian survey in Mountain Huangshan Scenic Spot. ... Noninvasive methods using genetic markers have been suggested as ways to ... molecular identification are the useful supplements for traditional field survey.

  10. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  11. 77 FR 32667 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Alcatraz Ferry Embarkation Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... transportation, visitor experience, aesthetics, economics, cultural resources, natural resources, and air quality... the natural, cultural, scenic and recreational resources of Alcatraz, the larger GGNRA, and the... impacts, including natural, cultural, socioeconomic and other topics; and suggest possible mitigation...

  12. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... cultural resources, park lands, prime farmlands, wetlands, wild and scenic rivers, or ecologically critical...

  13. Land-cover change in Goa– An Integrated RS – GIS Approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotha M.; Kunte, P.D.

    Goa, with its’ scenic beauty of sandy beaches, large population with relatively low human development index, forms a part of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. The advent of tourism, enhanced mining activities, and population increase coupled...

  14. 78 FR 20134 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for a Public Meeting; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... recreational facilities found within the scenic Browns Canyon corridor along the Arkansas River: New Mexico..., newspapers, and the BLM Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en.html , at least 30 days before the scheduled...

  15. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...

  16. Western Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and State Parks. Vector polygons in this data...

  17. 49 CFR 236.1003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... auxiliary or industry tracks, a segment or route of railroad tracks: (1) Of a Class I railroad, as.... Tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operations as defined in part 238 of this chapter are not...

  18. 75 FR 76780 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... private partnership in Woodland in the State of California, have petitioned FRA for a permanent waiver of... scenic, long- distance routes through rural countryside (outside high-risk, dense urban areas), which are...

  19. [Nitrogen and phosphate pollution characteristics and eutrophication evaluation for typical urban landscape waters in Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Liu, Ke-Feng; Qian, Jing; Yang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Pian-Pian

    2014-05-01

    To understand the water environment regimes of the city-circling water system in Hefei City, six typical landscape waters were chosen to investigate pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphate and evaluate water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from September 2012 to July 2013. Study results showed that (1) the six waters mentioned above have been seriously polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, with the monthly mean values of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication; (2) the nitrogen contents in the waters of Nanfeihe River, Heichiba and Yuhuatang scenic spots exhibited a markedly monthly variation, and both TP and PO(3-)(4)-P in Nanfeihe River showed a fluctuated characteristic with high concentrations while presenting a significant upward trend in Yuhuatang scenic spot; (3) the average values of TN/TP ratios for Yuhuatang and Heichiba scenic spots were 104.7 and 158.3, respectively, and the ratios for Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xiaoyaojin Park, and city segment of Nanfeihe River were 16.8, 18.7, 6.4 and 16.8, respectively, indicating that the scenic waters of Yuhuatang and Heichiba were phosphate-limited whereas Xiaoyaojin Park was nitrogen-limited; (4) all the six scenic waters were, in general, subsumed under just two broad categories, namely Hechiba scenic spot and Nanfeihe River, which were seriously polluted, and clustered together, and the others fall into the second class; and (5) water eutrophication appraisal result indicated that the six waters were all in the state of eutrophication, and could be arranged in the order of eutrophication level, Yinhe Park > Heichiba scenic spot > city segment of Nanfeihe River > Xiaoyaojin Park > Yuhuatang scenic spot > Baohe Park.

  20. Performance of a constructed wetland-pond system for treatment and reuse of wastewater from campus buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lin, Hsien-Te

    2006-11-01

    A constructed wetland-pond system consisting of two free-water-surface-flow (FWS) wetland cells, a scenic pond, and a slag filter in series was used for reclamation of septic tank effluent from a campus building. The results show that FWS wetlands effectively removed major pollutants under a hydraulic loading rate between 2.1 and 4.2 cm/d, with average efficiencies ranging from 74 to 78% for total suspended solids, 73 to 88% for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, 42 to 49% for total nitrogen, 34 to 70% for total phosphorous, 64 to 79% for total coliforms, and 90 to 99.9% for Escherichia coli. After passing through the scenic pond and slag filter, the reclaimed water was used for landscape irrigation. There were a variety of ornamental plants and aquatic animals established in the second FWS cell and scenic pond with good water quality, thus enhancing landscape and ecology amenity in campuses.

  1. Análise cênica e diversidade visual de paisagens: contribuições para a gestão das trilhas turísticas no Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gomes Pereira Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scenic analysis and landscape visual diversity: contributions to tourist tracks management in the Parque Nacional Chapada dos Veadeiros. The analysis of landscape scenic quality based on geotechnology reduces the subjectivity problem in visual impact assessments for tourism tracks planning. Employing the viewshed technique we conduced an analysis of landscape quality and diversity for active tracks on Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros (Goiás, Brazil, aiming to identifying alternatives for tourism management. The track called “Trilha dos Saltos” shows the greater performance in terms of viewshed size and its scenic quality. The intersection of viewsheds for the two main tracks covers 20.13 km², representing sites that request specific researches to supply subsidies towards the implementation a landscape management policy. The applied technique minimizes the effects of negative environmental impacts, allows an analysis of the best options for visitation purposes and identifies priority areas for environmental management towards the sustainable tourism.

  2. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of a synoptic water-quality and algal investigation during July 1995 at 36 stream sites in a 1,350 square-mile area of the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. The study area includes a headwaters hydroelectric project area, a Wild and Scenic reach in the main stem immediately downstream, and the watersheds of several major tributaries. Additional data from previous investigations are reviewed, and impacts on water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach from resource management, including forestry and reservoir operations, are inferred where sufficient data exist.

  3. The Dramaturgy of the Body in the Indian Theatre as a Visible Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carlos Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the concept of dṛśya kāvya (visible poetry from the Indian scenic tradition, as a proposal to a dramaturgy of the body. Starting from the impact that the Asian scenic tradition caused in the European theater in the 20th century, we will examine some concepts and acting techniques from the Indian classical dance-theater (specially Orissi and Kathakali, which are based in the translation of the word into physical gesture. We also question the relevance of this discussion to a theater seeking to distance itself from a logocentric model, in an intercultural perspective.

  4. 75 FR 4842 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Yuma Field Office Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Conservation Service; the Yuma County Department of Public Works; the city of Yuma; the U.S. Army Yuma Proving..., recreational, geological, educational, scientific, and scenic values that balance multiple uses of the BLM... cultural resources for which the area is designated; (2) Recreation facilities are limited to projects that...

  5. Communicating about smoke from wildland fire: challenges and ways to address them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine S. Olsen; Danielle K. Mazzotta; Eric Toman; A. Paige. Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire and associated management efforts are dominant topics in natural resource fields. Smoke from fires can be a nuisance and pose serious health risks and aggravate pre-existing health conditions. When it results in reduced visibility near roadways, smoke can also pose hazardous driving conditions and reduce the scenic value of vistas. Communicating about...

  6. Fatal Attraction: Nazi Landscapes, Modernity and Holocaust Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laarse, R.; Kolen, J.; Renes, J.; Hermans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes are in western culture considered as 'art', valuated by scenic qualities represeneted in landscape painting and reproduced in landscape architecture. Working under the fetish of authenticity by singling out aesthetic styles and iconic periods, connoisseurship is still a basic assumption

  7. Organization, activities, and issues with particular emphasis on coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses Colorado's coal industry; the Colorado Mining Association; lobbying and legislative actions; industry networking, information, and communications; coal issues and activities; and Colorado issues and activities. Some of the latter include: land reclamation of mined lands; oil and gas drilling and coal mine conflicts; wild and scenic river designations; general permitting of coal mining discharges; and coal mine land reclamation awards

  8. Esthetics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; James H. Gramann; Theresa A. Herrick

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of summer visual attributes and an overview of ongoing scenic quality research within selected shortleaf pine-hardwood stands in the Ouachita and Ozark National forests are presented.Within-stand visual attributes were reported prior to even-aged stand-level (Phase II) treatment for twelve 40-acre stands in the north, east, and south regions and for plot-...

  9. Public views and attitudes concerning fire and fuels reduction strategies in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Anschuetz; Carol Raish

    2010-01-01

    The Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), located in the heart of the Jemez Mountains in northcentral New Mexico, is a special place for many residents of the region. The large volcanic caldera, formerly the privately owned Baca Ranch, is an 89,000-acre property known for its scenic meadows and abundant wildlife, including herds of elk. The U.S. purchased the...

  10. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy

    2001-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  11. Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan B. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area (HRR RNA) was established in June 1995 to protect the best remaining example of a grassy “bald” (treeless area) on the western margin of the Cascade Range and its associated botanical, wildlife, and scenic values. This bald is surrounded by old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla...

  12. Estimating fuel consumption during prescribed fires in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia L. McDaniel; James M. Guldin; Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    While prescribed fire is essential to maintaining numerous plant communities, fine particles produced in smoke can impair human health and reduce visibility in scenic areas. The Arkansas Smoke Management Program was established to mitigate the impacts of smoke from prescribed fires. This program uses fuel loading and consumption estimates from standard fire-behavior...

  13. Searching for the value of a view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill; Charles F. Schwan

    1989-01-01

    Assessing the trade-offs between market and nonmarket products of wildlands poses a major problem fornatural resource planners and managers. Scenic quality is a resource that is not quantifiable in monetary terms. To determine if market values of real estate offering views could define relative dollar values for physical dimensions and objects in views, they were...

  14. 43 CFR 423.61 - Notifying the public of special use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility, Reclamation employees, or the public; or (iii) The natural or cultural environment. (2) If the... affected area; or (4) Other appropriate methods, such as the use of electronic media, brochures, and...) The action will not adversely affect the area's natural, esthetic, scenic, or cultural values; (3) The...

  15. Hearts of Darkness and Hot Zones: The Ideologeme of Imperial Contagion in Recent Accounts of Viral Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeff D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines three recent popularized accounts of emerging lethal viral strains within the context of a late 19th-century rationale for imperialism: the ideologeme of scenic contamination, which justifies imperialism as a defensive measure. Notes how the three texts present ideologically charged images of the Third World and its relationship to the…

  16. 23 CFR 752.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT.... (c) The development of the roadside to include landscape development, safety rest areas, and the preservation of valuable adjacent scenic lands is a necessary component of highway development. Planning and...

  17. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngman, P.

    1982-11-01

    The scenic effect of the proposed Sizewell B power station is considered. Offsite planting of trees, landscaping of the areas around the new access road and of the site itself are discussed. The landscape designs are in a separate volume. (U.K.)

  18. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interest in the study of succulent plants such as aloes, both for pleasure and scientific pursuit, has been going on for a long time. The efforts of succulent enthusiasts such as Harold Basil Christian, who in the 1950's established a scenic. Aloe Garden near Harare, Zimbabwe, greatly contributed to making aloes one of ...

  19. 77 FR 61631 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan, Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... scenic resources and threats within debris flow hazard zones. Decision Process: Not sooner than 30 days... natural processes of the Stehekin River; and (3) partner with the Stehekin Community to provide services... priorities in the floodplain, and therefore far fewer private parcels would be high priority for purchase or...

  20. Cultural Factors in Tourism Interpretation of Leshan Giant Buddha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…

  1. 18 CFR 380.15 - Siting and maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listed on the National Register of Natural Landmarks; officially designated parks; wetlands; and scenic... foreground from areas of public view. (11) Temporary roads should be designed for proper drainage and built... exterior of aboveground facilities should be harmonious with the surroundings and other buildings in the...

  2. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... water power projects under Part I of the Federal Power Act, of “as built” or revised drawings or... facility (other than compression) solely within an existing building within a natural gas facility (other...) Wilderness areas; (iii) Wild and scenic rivers; (iv) Wetlands; (v) Units of the National Park System...

  3. 36 CFR 4.30 - Bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road or parking area to bicycle use pursuant to the criteria and procedures of §§ 1.5 and 1.7 of this... consistent with the protection of a park area's natural, scenic and aesthetic values, safety considerations...

  4. State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Paul B. Ellefson; Travis J. Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2017-01-01

    Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of...

  5. 36 CFR 297.5 - Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination. 297.5 Section 297.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.5 Determination. (a) The Secretary of Agriculture will consent to...

  6. Kigen et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(3):156 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Surgery, Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, P.O. Box 3, ... It is endowed with a beautiful topography that mainly consists of the scenic Nandi Hills. ..... One plant, Solanum aculeastrum was used as talisman, to offer children ..... interviewed had learnt the art from a close relative by word of mouth, mostly ...

  7. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts - Vol 4, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts - Vol 4, No 1-2 (2013) ... Dance for children: a functional education for national growth · EMAIL FREE FULL ... From 'folkism' to performance: a new scenic strategy for audience integration ...

  8. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  9. 26 CFR 1.170A-14 - Qualified conservation contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for boating or fishing, or a nature or hiking trail for the use of the public. (ii) Access. The... Federal, state, or local governmental conservation policy and will yield a significant public benefit, or (B) For the scenic enjoyment of the general public and will yield a significant public benefit. An...

  10. 77 FR 62476 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.'' (16 U.S... destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking, cross-country... report entitled ``Cost-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route...

  11. Cortical Dynamics of Contextually Cued Attentive Visual Learning and Search: Spatial and Object Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient…

  12. 76 FR 18241 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Energy Gateway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., 5353 Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82003, Attention: Tamara Gertsch. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... height with average spans between towers of 1,000 to 1,500 feet (4 to 5 structures per mile). Permanent... historical sites; Paleontological resources; Changes in visual quality and settings; National Scenic and...

  13. Dynamics of the Cult of Sheik Hussein of Bale, Ethiopia: Its Course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has immense potential for tourism that fascinates even the pilgrims, involving tour of scenic landscapes, famous shrines and singing in honor of the saint and Allah. However, due to the proliferation of extremist teachings of the Salafists and Wahabbists, attacks on pilgrims and marginalization of adherents have been ...

  14. 36 CFR 261.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation and all equipment in possession of a person camping. Food and beverage are not considered camping... River Gorge National Scenic Area, Land Between the Lakes, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Midewin... bridges between various socioeconomic groups; and further the administration, development, and management...

  15. Water Resources Improvement Study, Buttermilk Bay Channel, Bourne, Massachusetts; Small Navigation Project, Detailed Project Report, and Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    samples are surface grabs and were found to be non- radioactive . Table 6 SEDIMENT SAHPLES - Hi’YSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Saiaple Depth Description G,,-2a...soiuices of polution ; ind d. That the discharge wall not occur in a component of the NotionlWl n cncRvrSse ri opnn faSaewl and scenic river system. nlWl n

  16. 75 FR 49514 - Notice of Availability for the Little Snake Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... protect sensitive plants, remnant plant communities, cultural and geologic values, and scenic quality. The... relevance and importance criteria, but not designated as ACECs in the Proposed RMP because they were deemed not warranted for special management attention include: Lookout Mountain, Limestone Ridge, Cross...

  17. Evaluation of the use of scientific information in developing the 1997 Forest plan for the Tongass National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Everest; Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Stewart D. Allen

    1997-01-01

    The Tongass National Forest is the largest remaining relatively unaltered coastal temperate rain forest in the world. The Forest consists of 16.9 million acres of land distributed across more that 22,000 islands and a narrow strip of mainland in southeast Alaska. The Forest contains abundant timber, wildlife, fisheries, mineral, and scenic resources. The authors...

  18. Tourists' preferences for ecotourism planning and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourists' preferences were: revising the price; improved product quality; creation of scenic viewpoints; improved service quality; improved infrastructure and information on the park as well. The study found that the park managers need to reconsider tourist's preferences while planning and developing ecotourism in Rwanda.

  19. Karst landforms as geomorphosites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Panizza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of attributing quantitative values to the landforms as geomorphological heritage, including their evaluation in the frames of environmental impact assessment analysis. The scientific quality of a geomorphosite can be derived from its scientific, cultural, socio-economic and scenic significance and pondered according to its position and importance in the specific area.

  20. 18 CFR 806.14 - Contents of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number of species). (D) Natural environment uses (scenic vistas, natural and manmade travel corridors... reasonable alternatives, the extent of their economic and technical investigation, and an assessment of their potential environmental impact. In the case of a proposed diversion, the project sponsor should include...

  1. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  2. Near-shore wind power - protected seascapes, environmentalists' attitudes, and the technocratic planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    In contested wind farm developments, the dominant issue concerns scenic impact and the landscape at the proposed site. The number of large wind power schemes that have failed is growing. The case analysed here is a near-shore wind farm in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea, in 2001 the largest wind

  3. Monitoring biological control agents and leafy spurge populations along the Smith River in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Birdsall; G. Markin; T. Kalaris; J. Runyon

    2013-01-01

    The Smith River originates in west central Montana and flows north approximately 100 miles before joining the Missouri River. The central 60 miles of the river flows through a relatively inaccessible, forested, scenic limestone canyon famous for its trout fishing. Because of its popularity, the area was designated Montana's first and only controlled river, with...

  4. 78 FR 65354 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Lobos CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... agencies; and other stakeholders. The issues include: Loss of habitat and direct disturbance to plant and... that would impact the scenic and visual quality of the area; impacts to cultural resources, lands that contain places of traditional cultural or religious importance, and historic sites; impacts to National...

  5. 76 FR 59158 - Notice of Availability of Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Effigy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ..., ethnographic resources, and museum collections), to natural resources (soils, wild and scenic rivers... Research Center as a physical structure in the monument. While the NPS continues to believe there is tremendous value in promoting and coordinating additional non-invasive research aimed at the mounds and their...

  6. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas... phenomena, historic sites, areas of natural scenic beauty or naturally suited for outdoor recreation and...

  7. The 1992 Vermont recreation survey and environmental index: Vermonters' perceptions of recreational and environmental issues in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin R. Wiberg; Frederick E. Schmidt; Robert E. Manning; Susan Bulmer

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, Vermonters rated the state's recreational resources a "B-" with a corresponding grade of "B" for the quality of the state's environment. Scenic resources continued to be rated most highly as were state trails and commercial recreation establishments. Concern for water resource quality, solid and toxic waste disposal, acid rain,...

  8. 36 CFR 242.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Code. Barter means the exchange of fish or wildlife or their parts taken for subsistence uses; for... boundaries of any unit of the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, National Wild and Scenic Rivers Systems, National Forest Monument, National Recreation Area, National Conservation Area, new...

  9. 50 CFR 100.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Alaska Administrative Code. Barter means the exchange of fish or wildlife or their parts taken for... boundaries of any unit of the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, National Wild and Scenic Rivers Systems, National Forest Monument, National Recreation Area, National Conservation Area, new...

  10. 78 FR 67187 - Notice of Availability of the Draft General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... focus on protecting natural resources and systems. Under this alternative, most of the Big Spring... Availability of the Draft General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement for the... Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/WS/EIS) for the Ozark National Scenic...

  11. 75 FR 54378 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan; Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... systems to prevent degradation of water quality and scenic resources. Given drastic changes in flood... frequency of flooding at some sites, while decreasing erosion rates at others. Integrated management actions... infrastructure and protection of resources. Management of large wood and proliferation of bank protection...

  12. 77 FR 12835 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... EIS, BR, WA, PROGRAMMATIC--Yakima River Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, To Meet the..., Buck Island Reef National Monument General Management Plan, Implementation, St. Croix, Virgin Islands... Management Plan, Implementation, Ice Age National Scenic Trail, Dane County, WI, Comment Period Ends: 04/30...

  13. Linking ecology and aesthetics in sustainable agricultural landscapes: Lessons from the Palouse region of Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...

  14. 77 FR 53198 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www... Water Gap National Recreation Area, Middle Delaware National Scenic and Recreational River, Susquehanna..., Construction of Improvements, from La Jolla Village Drive in San Diego to Harbor Drive in [[Page 53199...

  15. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  16. 36 CFR 292.15 - General provisions-procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assigned to land use categories as shown on the Land Use Category Map, dated December 15, 1973, as amended... of scenic, natural, historic, pastoral, wildlife, and other values. (b) Land use categories. Land use...) Agriculture. All properties outside designated communities not placed in a residential or commercial land use...

  17. 75 FR 55345 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Socorro Field Office Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... where public and private lands abut one another); and (6) Regional heritage/tourism opportunities on the... rangeland resources, lands with wilderness characteristics, and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail (Trail). As a result of the protests, minor editorial modifications and technical clarifications were...

  18. Black Males in the Green Mountains: Colorblindness and Cultural Competence in Vermont Public Schools. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Denise Helen

    2013-01-01

    Mention the state of Vermont and images of maple syrup, scenic mountains, and progressive politics come to mind. But in addition to skiing, farming, and fall foliage, there is also a startling history of racial and religious intolerance and bigotry. Burlington is known as the birthplace of John Dewey, whose enlightened views about education…

  19. 75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Comunicaciones y Transporte;* Sheet Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association... would encompass operations commonly described as tourist, scenic, or excursion service to the extent... within a specific yard or route that affect the movement of a locomotive or train. ``Physical...

  20. Spatial Configuration and Online Attention: A Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixue Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial behavior of tourists is an important part of the research on congestion management and sustainable planning of tourism destinations. Combined with user-generated content (UGC and site-based survey data, this study conducted an overlaying analysis between street network configurations that resulted from space syntax and tourist preferences. Based on space syntax, tourist movement is influenced by the distribution of scenic spots and the structure of tourist trails in scenic mountain areas. The results reveal that the distribution of scenic spots has a significant impact on tourist flow and visitors’ choices of entrance to the mountain; the volume of online sign-ins is highly correlated with landscape attention, axial control values and the local integration value of the trails; and tourists’ attention focuses on the entrance area and the few tourist-sight markers. This study advances the understanding of the spatial patterns of within-destination tourist behavior; this knowledge will be helpful in alleviating congestion in mountain scenic areas and providing effective guidance for tourists to plan an ideal tour route.

  1. 25 CFR Appendix D to Subpart C - Cost To Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... villages, into farming areas, to schools, tourist attractions, or various small enterprises. Also included... all non-road projects such as paths, trails, walkways, or other designated types of routes for public... transportation facilities such as public parking facilities adjacent to IRR routes and scenic byways, rest areas...

  2. Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of Colorado lodgepole pine stands: A comparison using historic survey records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Jeffrey Underhill; Robert M. Hubbard

    2010-01-01

    The extent and severity of overstory lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) mortality from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management concerns associated with forest regeneration, wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in western North America. Owing to the unprecedented...

  3. 36 CFR 14.78 - Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristics and purpose. There must also be included a statement as to the voltage for which the line is... water quality, scenic and esthetic features, historical and archeological features, and wildlife, fish... of Agriculture, as well as such other environmental criteria and guidelines as the National Park...

  4. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    for scenic routes, dedicated cycle lanes, and road type. Data consisted of 778 bicycle trips traced by GPS and carried out by 139 persons living in the Greater Copenhagen Area, in Denmark. Results suggest that both the breadth first search on link elimination and the doubly stochastic generation function...

  5. Dramaturgas actuales y teatro escrito a pie de escena en España: El meu avi no va a Cuba, de Victoria Szpunberg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Manso, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Since the arrival of democracy, changes on the theatre system have affected the way we understand theatrical authorship in Spain. In the case of women playwrights, it is possible to observe that the generations who were born after 1960 have a deeper scenic education and professionalisation than

  6. An Attempt at Assessing Preferences for Natural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, James S.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of ways in which man makes a psychological assessment of his environment. Concerned with variables in the environment itself, fifteen photographs of natural landscape scenes were rated on each of twenty-one semantic differential scales by college students. Two major dimensions emerged: natural scenic beauty and a natural force…

  7. Effects of Vicarious Experiences of Nature, Environmental Attitudes, and Outdoor Recreation Benefits on Support for Increased Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…

  8. Landscape Routes as an Infrastructural Core of Cultural Landscapes; Their Distinctive Role for The Character of Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Roadside tree avenues are a distinctive element of the landscape of Warmia and Mazury, which is a testament to the history of the region from the Prussian time. Their emergence was imposed top-down and was dictated both by practical and aesthetic reasons. Today they are a problematic heritage in the view of current tendencies of infrastructural development of the country that favour highways and the opportunity to cover the distance between start and destination point as fast as possible. Nevertheless, the literature and conducted scientific studies indicate a change in perception of the in-car experience which underlines a pleasure of travel itself. The research also suggests the growing need for planning route on the basis of the attractiveness of its elements. The work also distinguishes the conditions that must occur for the scenic route be established and put under protection. Moreover, it presents different views of assessing the value of such a road and the cultural landscape in which it is inscribed. It also describes the impact of the individual elements of scenic route on well-being of a participant of road traffic and his perception of the space. This paper attempts to survey the existing trends and actions in development and protection of scenic roads in selected and to present the tree-lined roads of northern Poland on the background of the examples. This has been done on the basis of personal experience and observation, as well as the literature. There have been juxtaposed routes’ common elements and the elements distinctive to individual countries and regions. The results of the survey indicate that the scenic route, as a picture of the economic, historical, social and political situation of the place is an infrastructural core of cultural landscape. It constitutes the uniqueness of the region not only from the biological, but also cultural point of view. Then, apart from the obvious economic importance of scenic routes for the development of non

  9. Espectáculo y construcción espacial en los autos de Pedro Calderón de la Barca: «La cena del rey Baltasar»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la construcción espectacular y espacial de un auto temprano de Calderón de la Barca, «La cena del rey Baltasar». Para ello, examina cómo funcionaban en este auto los elementos escénicos (carros, tramoya y atrezzo, así como la música, el vestuario y los espacios escénico y dramático. This article analyzes the spectacular and spacial construction of an early auto sacramental by Calderón de la Barca, «La cena del rey Baltasar». In order to do so, we examine the meaning of the different scenic elements (carros, theatrical machinery, and atrezzo, as well as the music, clothing, and scenic and dramatic spaces.

  10. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  12. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  13. Lo spett-attore: il teatro partecipato di Roger Bernat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pedullà

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The company FFF (The Friendly Face of Fascism guided by the director Roger Bernat is situated in the context of contemporary participative theatre. Beginning its activity in Barcelona in 2008, the company represents the emblem of Catalan interactive theatre and allows to reconsider, through meaning and forms, the shades connected to interactive paradigm. The disappearance of professional actors in the FFF's shows introduces a new figure, the spect-actor: he has to create the show in a particular typology of theatre which is named as of efervescencia, with social and political, as well as scenic, peculiarities. This essay, without exhaustive pretension, attempts to rough out the role and the position of the spect-actor in scenic context. This element allows to lend another face to participative paradigm.

  14. Environmental Assessment Aerial Application of Pesticide for Mosquito Control at Tyndall Air Force Base and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    near the proposed treatment area. d. The pesticides used will not negatively affect parklands, farmlands, wetlands , wild and scenic rivers, or...alternative, application over human populated areas and residences would be minimal. Wild or culti vate-d bee colonies would not be affected and...proposed treatment area; 2) MechanicaJJ y manipulate marshland/ wetland breeding areas through drainage or open marsh management activities. The

  15. Richard III in Russian Theatre at the Twilight of the "Thaw"

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolyansky, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Richard III was very rarely staged in Russian theatre in tsarist and Stalin’s times, because the story of inhuman tyranny provoked associations with Russian political reality. In the period of the so-called “Thaw” (1954ß1964) the play became very popular in the USSR and several scenic productions of it were real events in Russian (and Soviet) theatrical life. In the essay three most original and successful performances (in Kujbyshev, Gorkij and Erevan) are discussed and compare...

  16. The Cannibalism of Usina do Trabalho do Ator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Dias Massa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This text conjugates the rapprochement between the theatricality of Eastern manifestations and the practice of Usina do Trabalho do Ator (UTA Research Group. We establish links between the theory of reception proposed by Richard Schechner based on rasic theatre and the theatricality of several UTA spectacles. We also examine the way in which the group used cannibalistic procedures in four stagings as well as the role of the audience in their scenic compositions.

  17. RAPID EXTRACTION OF LANDSLIDE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AFTER JIUZHAIGOU Ms7.0 EARTHQUAKE BASED ON UAV IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Q. S. Jiao; Y. Luo; W. H. Shen; Q. Li; X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented an...

  18. TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT ON COX’S BAZAR, BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Isan ZAHRA

    2013-01-01

    Cox’s Bazar is one of Bangladesh’s leading coastal areas, mainly because of its scenic beauty. Tourism in this area led to the development of facilities such as hotels, restaurants, airport, gift shops etc. and supports local communities in form of employment opportunity. Recently, this area is showing signs of negative environmental impacts such as excessive crowds, poor waste management, security issues, and unplanned construction of hotels to support excessive local tourist demand. This im...

  19. Sound creation and artistic language hybridization through the use of the collaborative creation system: Soundcool

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel-Gómez, Noemy; Murillo-Ribes, Adolf; Sastre-Martínez, Jorge; Riaño Galán, María Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: We submit the development of a collaborative sound creation proposal made reality using the Soundcool system from its initial design phase to the scenic performance at the International Festival of Contemporary Music ENSEMS, Valencia (Spain). The "interstellar machine", a transdisciplinary piece whose linking thread is a story, is characterized by hybridization of languages and artistic fusion.It's a piece made possible by the joint work between students of Primary and Secondary Edu...

  20. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Privatization of Military Family Housing at Cavalier Air Force Station, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    4.0% 6.0% Educational , health, and social services 22.3% 22.9% 18.5% 24.2% Arts , entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 4.1...provide or support elementary or secondary education , child care centers, day care centers, child development centers, tot lots, community centers...preservation area, and natural or scenic area. There is a wide variety of land use categories resulting from human activity. Descriptive terms often used

  1. Management of the natural ecosystems of the Cape Peninsula: current status and the future prospects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available of these include scenic drives, visits to special sites of interest (such as Cape Point, by road, or the top of Table Mountain, by cablecar), picnicking and hiking. These activities are catered Management of ecosystems 673 for through... the provision of hiking trails and picnic sites, and are regulated through the prohibition of barbecue fires at certain times of the year. Small indigenous forest patches occur in areas such as Orange Kloof and Newlands...

  2. По зимнему бездорожью на полном приводе / Велиматти Хонканен, Яри Питкаярви и Ярмо Сукава

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Хонканен, Велиматти

    2003-01-01

    Audi A4 1,8 T Quattro, BMW 325Xi, Honda HR-V 1,6i, Jaguar X-Type 3,0 V6, Mercedes-Benz E 320 4matic, Renault Scenic RX4 2,0, Škoda Octavia Combi 2,0WD, Subaru Impreza 2,0 GX, Suzuki Liana 1,6 4WD, Volvo S60 AWD

  3. Seitsmekohalised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    TM võrdleb mahtuniversaale: Chevrolet Orlando LTZ M/T 2,0 D; Ford Grand C-Max Titanium 2,0 TDCi; Mazda5 1,6 TD Dynamic 6MT 5d; Nissan Qashqai+2 2WD 6MT 2,0 dCi DPF Acenta; Peugeot 5008 Hdi FAP; Renault Grand Scenic 1,9 dCi FAP; Toyota Verso 2,0 D-4D DPF; Volkswagen Touran Comfortline 1,6 TDI

  4. Potensi Wisata Alam di Pematang Tanggang Desa Negeri Kecamatan Kelumbayan Kabupaten Tanggamus

    OpenAIRE

    Bobby Affandy; Agus Setiawan; Duryat Duryat

    2016-01-01

    Pematang tanggang has a lot of potential tourism resources. Hawever there is no sufficient information about the aspects supporting the area to be developed as a tourist destination. The aims of the study were to examine the potential and natural touristic attraction in pematang tanggang, and to calculate the beauty value of those potential. Direct observation and interview were employed as the data collection methods, accidental sampling was used as the respondent determined. Scenic beau...

  5. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  6. CHHATTISGARH TOURISM: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Kaushtubh Jain*, Prem Shankar Dwivedi

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is a growing service industry which contributes a substantial amount in many parts of the world. In India, Chhattisgarh is one of the important destinations for the national and international tourists with its unique and enchanting land abounding in scenic beauty, rich in flora and fauna. To make the tourism a great success one has to take advantage of the modern technology to full extent. Many countries are promoting tourism and it has become a source of major income for countries li...

  7. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Valley (Kroeber & Heizer 1970). In 1972, the Bureau of Indian Affairs listed only 11 individuals claiming Patwin ancestry in the entire territory...facility from the dredge disposal area to the upland open space scenic resource area would render this facility visible from viewpoints with . high...take. The COE probably would not issue a permit unless the USFWS rendered a "non-jeopardy" Biological Opinion, which would incorporate mitigations for

  8. Il paesaggio tra conservazione e sviluppo: il caso del Chianti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pacetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chianti’s landscape - which is the result of a complex mix of cultural, historical, environmental, socio-economic, scenic values that have designed a unique context - plays a strategic role in processes of growth and local development. In particular, new forms of multifunctional agriculture (integrated with touristic and commercial activities and sustainable tourism, that rest on the environmental and cultural resources, can act both for the creation and protection of the cultural landscape.

  9. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  10. Assessing aesthetic impacts in siting a nuclear power plant: the case of Greene County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In the aesthetic impact analysis of the Greene County Nuclear Power Plant, vivid symbols of modern technology - a domed reactor containment structure and a monolithic natural-draft cooling tower - played the dominant roles in the conflict with a remnant landscape of America's romantic past. The analysis revealed, and the NRC affirmed, that the proposed plant would entail an unacceptable aesthetic impact, beyond mitigation, on certain important local, regional, and national historic, scenic, and cultural resources

  11. National Economic Development Procedures Manual. Recreation. Volume 3. A Case Study Application of the Contingent Valuation Method for Estimating Urban Recreation Use and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    rivers or lakes? YES NO YES NO Went fishing? YES NO YES NO Went skateboarding ? YES NO YES NO Visited outdoor scenic places? YES NO YES NO Used undeveloped...VN SN N SU VU Playground equipment VN SN N SU VU Concessions VN SN N SU VU Bicycle trails VN SN N SU VU Skateboard paths VN SN N SU VU Exercise/fitness

  12. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  13. A system design for distributed energy generation in low temperature district heating (LTDH) networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sean; Gillott, Mark C.; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Walker, Gavin S.; Tunzi, Michele; Tetlow, David; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto; Sumner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Project SCENIC (Smart Controlled Energy Networks Integrated in Communities) involves connecting properties at the University of Nottingham’s Creative Energy Homes test site in a community scale, integrated heat and power network. Controls will be developed to allow for the most effective heat load allocation and power distribution scenarios. Furthermore, the system will develop the prosumer concept, where consumers are both buyers and sellers of energy in both heat and power systems. \\ud \\ud ...

  14. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlet Betancout León; Oscar Salinas Flores; Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-01-01

    The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR), th...

  15. Fenomén Les Misérables - Bídníci: Nejdéle uváděný muzikál na světě

    OpenAIRE

    Pacasová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    7 Abstract: In my bachelor thesis I focus on several points of view within the musical phenomenon Les Miserables. I describe it's history in France, England and Czechoslovakia. I analyze final musical dramatization from novel's original. I compare original french version of the musical to the english version. I ask question why is this musical so successful. From director and scenic points of view I compare productions of GOJA Music Hall Theatre and Brno City Theatre. In short I Also focus on...

  16. Assessment methods for the landscaping of a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Yoshiji; Yamamoto, Kimio; Higuchi, Tadahiko

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make clear the quantitative relations between the scenic influence produced by the construction of a power plant, and the indexes for landscape evaluation. For that purpose, we made a psychological experiment using montage photographie, and analyzed the experiment results from phychometrics. This report treats of three subjects in that quantitative relations, i.e. ''Scenic harmony between a power plant and a hill for a background'', ''Unity and orderliness influenced by arrangement and configuration of power plant equipments'' and ''Color harmony between a power plant and surrounding environment''. The results of the study are summarized as follows. 1) The landscape evaluation of ''Scenic harmony'', derived from the evaluation function, is related to the index of ''Scale proportion (i.e. the height proportion of a power plant to a hill for a background)''. 2) By the semantic differential method we extracted the three factor axes in the landscape evaluation of ''Unity and orderliness''. 3) As the results of the phychological experiment for a color arrangement, a group of blue and beige is desirable to a color of a power plant. (author)

  17. Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, aquatic habitat, and water temperature in the Lower Crooked River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Hockman-Wert, David P.; Bateman, Douglas S.; Leer, David W.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Crooked River is a remarkable groundwater-fed stream flowing through vertical basalt canyons in the Deschutes River Valley ecoregion in central Oregon (Pater and others, 1998). The 9-mile section of the river between the Crooked River National Grasslands boundary near Ogden Wayside and river mile (RM) 8 is protected under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (16 U.S.C. 1271-1287) for its outstandingly remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, hydrologic, wildlife, and botanical values (ORVs), and significant fishery and cultural values. Groundwater springs flow directly out of the canyon walls into the Lower Crooked River and create a unique hydrologic setting for native coldwater fish, such as inland Columbia Basin redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri). To protect and enhance the ORVs that are the basis for the wild and scenic designation, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has identified the need to evaluate, among other conditions, fish presence and habitat use of the Lower Crooked River. The results of this and other studies will provide a scientific basis for communication and cooperation between the BLM, Oregon Water Resources Department, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and all water users within the basin. These biological studies initiated by the BLM in the region reflect a growing national awareness of the impacts of agricultural and municipal water use on the integrity of freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Improvements to Integrated Tradespace Analysis of Communications Architectures (ITACA) Network Loading Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathaniel; Welch, Bryan W.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's SCENIC project aims to simplify and reduce the cost of space mission planning by replicating the analysis capabilities of commercially licensed software which are integrated with relevant analysis parameters specific to SCaN assets and SCaN supported user missions. SCENIC differs from current tools that perform similar analyses in that it 1) does not require any licensing fees, 2) will provide an all-in-one package for various analysis capabilities that normally requires add-ons or multiple tools to complete. As part of SCENIC's capabilities, the ITACA network loading analysis tool will be responsible for assessing the loading on a given network architecture and generating a network service schedule. ITACA will allow users to evaluate the quality of service of a given network architecture and determine whether or not the architecture will satisfy the mission's requirements. ITACA is currently under development, and the following improvements were made during the fall of 2017: optimization of runtime, augmentation of network asset pre-service configuration time, augmentation of Brent's method of root finding, augmentation of network asset FOV restrictions, augmentation of mission lifetimes, and the integration of a SCaN link budget calculation tool. The improvements resulted in (a) 25% reduction in runtime, (b) more accurate contact window predictions when compared to STK(Registered Trademark) contact window predictions, and (c) increased fidelity through the use of specific SCaN asset parameters.

  19. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369

  20. Research of the distribution of tourists’ attributes based on internet data: A case study of Kunming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyang; Yang, Kun; Wang, Jiasheng

    2017-09-01

    With the development of the era of big data, the ever-growing user trajectory provides the basis for studying multi-scale tourist activity law. This paper selected 17 famous tourist attractions in Kunming. Sina Microblog, Ctrip Travel, Lvmama Travel Network and other platforms were used to extract 139727 records between Oct. 2015 and Sep. 2016. The methods of data mining and clustering analysis were used to explore the activity characteristics of tourists with different attributes in scenic spot and the activity differences of different age tourists in different scenic spots affected by season, not only considered gender, geographical, check-in time and other factors, but also the introduced age attributes. At the same time, the scenic area is divided into “Adolescent active pattern”, “Young and middle-aged women active pattern”, “Middle-aged and old men active pattern” and “General active pattern” according to different tourists’ activities law of different gender and age in spatial perspective. Research shows that female tourists are mainly distributed in the Green Lake Park, Nanping Street, Dounan Flower Market and other attractions, elderly male tourists are mainly distributed in Expo Park, Jindian area. Foreign tourists accounted for 86.32% of the total tourists, reflecting the rapid development of tourism in Kunming. The spatial distribution of tourist attractions has an impact on the distribution of tourists’ attributes. The number of tourists of Shilin, Jiuxiang, Guandu Ancient Town are accounted for 36.38% of the total tourists, which shows that the spatial distribution of tourist attributes is consistent with the development of key tourist areas in Kunming.

  1. The Tourism Environment Capacity Analysis on Ancient Villages of Changjiang Delta—Taking Wuzhen West Gate as the Example%长江三角洲古镇旅游环境容量分析——以浙江乌镇西栅景区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏圣雪; 严欢; 张雅玮; 王依丽

    2013-01-01

    结合静态与动态的模型研究方法,从旅游环境容量角度入手,以实地调查资料为依据,从资源空间容量、经济承载容量、心理容量3个方面全面评估乌镇景区环境容量,计算出资源空间容量值为7 200人/d,经济承载容量值为6 914人/d,心理容量值尚未饱和,提出西栅景区游客合理容量为6 914 人/d.在此基础上,针对景区存在的容量过载现象提出整合现有资源,增强景点间有机联系,调整景区内住宿结构分配,开发新的旅游产品,加强相关部门调控手段的建议.%The scenic spots tourism environment capacity of Wuzhen was evaluated from three aspects (resource space capacity,economic carrying capacity,psychology capacity),using dynamic and static model,starting with investigation.Working out the figure of resource space capacity is 7 200 person/day,the economic carrying capacity is 6 914 person/day,the psychology capacity is not close to saturation.In conclusion,the tourism environment capacity is 6 914 person/day.On the basis of these,several suggestions aiming at capacity overloading phenomenon in scenic area were put forward,such as integrating available resources,strengthening the organic connection among different scenic spots,adjusting the accommodation structure,developing new tourism products,enhancing governments' controlling means

  2. Basic study on the estimating the value of sand beach using amenities replace

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, B-S; Kim, K-H.

    2013-01-01

    The sand beach along the east coast of Korea offers beautiful scenery with high-quality sand for leisure, and is also famous for white-sand and pine-trees both of which are important scenic resources. Furthermore, the sand beach helps to maintain natural environment of the coastal area and has the function of a disaster prevention system against high waves. There are two major value evaluation methods, Travel Cost Method and Contingent Valuation Method, to assess the value of sand beach. Cont...

  3. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett bay Drainage Basins - Water and related Land Resources Study Volume IV. Attachment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    knowledge , as a result of our field studies, none of these sites will be impacted by any of the alternative plans. There are numerous sites in the watershed...NENYIAC REPORT A report by the New England-New York Inter--Agency Committee (NENYIAC) was completed in Mar:h 1955. It contained an inventory of resources...could be ived b.- hikers,. horceback riders, and -:oss -_ountry skiers . The height nf land in this location could offer scenic views of the west of

  4. F-22 Plus-Up Environmental Assessment Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    personnel and no new construction would be expected to result in no measurable effect upon the regional economy. The Anchorage housing market with...of JBER. The base adopted a General Plan in April 2005 that presents a comprehensive planning strategy to support military missions assigned to the...Recreation Area Wild and Scenic River 4p .- oil D5 cllitt0-·2=0 ::::::130---IOMiles • • • o s m w JO -10 i.:i.::ii.-IIIIE=~-- Naulica ll\\1i les F

  5. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic

  6. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. IV. A site selection methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemarin, C.S.; Yaffee, S.L.

    1976-09-01

    A methodology has been developed for selecting suitable sites for development as nuclear energy centers. First, the forty-eight contiguous states were screened on the basis of four variables: (1) seismic stability; (2) distance from projected population centers; (3) adequate water supply; and (4) noninterference with scenic and reserved lands. After location of a surrogate area in north central Tennessee, further screening was performed using 22 variables to find a suitable 75-sq-mile surrogate site within this 1500-sq-mile area. A computer method for screening the surrogate area is presented, and the use of the data for the 22 variables is illustrated

  7. A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pillai, H.U.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Biju, A.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, V.R.; Revichandran, C.; Menon, N.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    (station 3), North Bay (station 4), Haddo jetty (station 5) and Viper Island (station 6). The MPA which is situated on the western side of the south Andaman is a very popular tourist spot, mainly because of its rich coral reef resources and scenic beauty... by the Centre for Marine Living Resource & Ecology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. This is a NIO contribution. References Achuthankutty, C. T, Madhupratap, M., Nair, V. R., Nair, S. R. S. & Rao, T. S. S. (1980), Zooplankton biomass...

  8. Usina do Trabalho do Ator: the recognition of an identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Tejera Lisbôa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main points of the career of the theatre group UTA – Usina do Trabalho do Ator, by making a brief overview of its scenic achievements thus far. We also seek to recognize the more important characteristics of UTA, built and set up along this career, such as the plasticity and musicality of its achievements, dramaturgy itself, a result of the group’s experiments and improvisations, as well as a permanent and careful actor’s research, supported mainly by theatrical anthropology practices.

  9. Introspection as intra-professionalism in social and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Dybbroe, Betina

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses two cases from health and social care, adopting a psychosocietal approach. The analysis highlights how professionalism evolves and develops through an introspection of the relational and scenic processes between professionals, as well as between the professional and the client...... framing and complex exchanges of loss and confirmation, and of denial and displacement take place between a group of social workers and their supervisor. In the second case, it becomes apparent how the research interview opens up an opportunity for processing the emotions and socially critical experiences...

  10. Analysis of spatial distribution and marketing area of boutique hotels in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Xueqin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basing on data collected from Google Earth and Baidu Map,we inputed the coordinates of the address of boutique hotels,five-star hotels in Shanghai,scenic spots above 3A in the urban area of Shanghai and historical relics protection units in Shanghai et al into the Arc GIS,which locates these units in accurate position.We measured some distance data by the tool of spatial analysis.The distribution map and marketing area analysis of boutique hotel were made.

  11. Introspection as intra-professionalism in social and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Dybbroe, Betina

    2017-01-01

    framing and complex exchanges of loss and confirmation, and of denial and displacement take place between a group of social workers and their supervisor. In the second case, it becomes apparent how the research interview opens up an opportunity for processing the emotions and socially critical experiences......This article analyses two cases from health and social care, adopting a psychosocietal approach. The analysis highlights how professionalism evolves and develops through an introspection of the relational and scenic processes between professionals, as well as between the professional and the client...

  12. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    but can result in increased dune erosion along Scenic Road as occurred in 1993, 1997, and 2005 (James, 2005). Field data and observations for...factors are equal to 1. The equations for these run-up formulas are parameterized on significant wave height at the toe of the structure as measured in...3 exp C r SS RQ C D HgH γ ⎛ ⎞ = −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2pξ > where the significant wave height at the toe of the structure, SH and pT are used. Again the

  13. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...... as well as sketch the route itself within an interactive, online questionnaire built on Google Maps. Grouped into sub-classes the bikers’ responses were related to urban indicators such as scenic beauty, terrain, relation to other bicyclists, motorists and pedestrians etc. By relating characteristics...

  14. Planning for Heritage Preservation in Western Turkey: A GIS Approach to Archaeotourism and Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis, Caitlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Marmara Lake basin, western Turkey, the burial mounds of Bin Tepe are constantly threatened by looting, development, and agricultural expansion. This study outlines a Geographic Information Systems (GIS methodology used to plan for a solution to preservation through archaeotourism development and agricultural policy compromise in the region. The components of this study include determining how to best take advantage of the scenic view of the mounds for tourism, projecting the potential future visual impact of growing olive trees, and developing a plan to mitigate this impact with unplanted zones. Fieldwork in 2011 both confirmed and furthered GIS analyses.

  15. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  16. Evaluation of land-use and transport network effects on cyclists' route choices in the Copenhagen Region in value-of-distance space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    the cycling environment, (iii) estimating the model in value-of-distance rather than preference space, and (iv) not focusing only on preferences for traditional variables (e.g., distance, turns, hilliness, intersections, motorized road characteristics), but also on perceptions and preferences for bicycle...... and bridges, and cycling alongside residential and scenic areas; (ii) cyclists dislike cycling on unpaved and hilly surfaces and alongside larger roads; (iii) cyclists have clear perceptions about different types of bicycle facilities, with a preference for bicycle lanes and segregated paths; (iv) cyclists...

  17. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying ...

  18. Hot water in the Long Valley Caldera—The benefits and hazards of this large natural resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Bergfeld, Deborah; Howle, James F.

    2018-03-26

    The volcanic processes that have shaped the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California have also created an abundant supply of natural hot water. This natural resource provides benefits to many users, including power generation at the Casa Diablo Geothermal Plant, warm water for a state fish hatchery, and beautiful scenic areas such as Hot Creek gorge for visitors. However, some features can be dangerous because of sudden and unpredictable changes in the location and flow rate of boiling water. The U.S. Geological Survey monitors several aspects of the hydrothermal system in the Long Valley Caldera including temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry.

  19. The work of the couple Brailowsky in the mirror of Serbian critiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosusova Nadežda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leonid (1867-1937 and Rimma (1877-1959 Brailowsky brought to Belgrade National theatre (together with other Russian emigrated stage and costume designers the spirit of the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva, making décor and costumes for 18 performances during the period of 1921-1924. Les romanesques by Edmond Rostand, Le malade imaginaire by Molière, Shakespeare's Richard III, Merchant of Venice and King Lear and two Serbian dramas, Offenbach's Hoffmann's Tales, Faust by Gounod, Smetana's Bartered Bride, Bizet's Carmen Onegin and Queen of Spades by Tchaikovsky, Massenet's Manon, The Tsar's Bride by Rimsky-Korsakov, The Wedding of Miloš by Petar Konjović, the Serbian opera composer, two ballets, Sheherazade and Nutcracker. The artists, husband and wife, were praised for their modernization of the Belgrade scene, for their vivid realization of sets and costumes, for their novelties, especially in Serbian historical dramas by Branislav Nušić and Milutin Bojić, and Shakespeare as well. In operas and ballets they were also respected in some extent, but the pictorial, sometimes independent value of their scenic work, although inspired by music, arouse opposing questions among the musical critics, who could not accept their too bright colors which once conquered Paris in the scenic interpretation of Leon Bakst or Nikolai Roerich. To avoid resistance of Belgrade critics the couple decided to leave Yugoslav capital for Italy where they continued successfully their artistic career.

  20. Chichibu park bridge, a Japan's longest PC cable suspension bridge that attaches importance to scenery. Keikan wo jushishita Nippon saidai no PC shachokyo 'Chichibu koenkyo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This paper introduces the feature of Chichibu Park Bridge, a Japan's longest PC cable suspension bridge that attaches importance to scenery. The maximum effective span of Chichibu Park Bridge which is a two-span continuous PC cable suspension bridge measures 195 m, that means the center span length is equivalent to about 400 m if converted to a three-span structure. With respect to the design that values the scenic effect, the main tower has relief engravings of stone carving tone using Chichibu Night Festival as a motif disposed around it; lighting up is applied to the main tower to highlight it so that it can be viewed from far away places; and a balcony is built on the center of the bridge. Chichibu Park Bridge has the bridge axial direction stagger with the river flow direction at 45[degree] to reduce water resistance. The tensile force generated at the corbel section according to the main tower reactive force is dealt with reinforced concrete rather than with prestressed concrete. The main tower adopts a two-chamber girder structure as its cross section shape from the view points of rigidity assurance and scenic effect. For construction control, micro computers are used to correct growing change in bend of the main girder due to temperature change and cable tension change. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Isotope hydrogeochemical characteristics of water bodies in Munigou, Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongye; Yin Guan; Yang Junyi; Fan Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Munigou is a part of Huanglong -Jiuzhaigou national scenic in northern Sichuan province. By using isotope geochemistry technique of natural water to analyze the data of δ D, δ 18 O, tritium contents, deuterium excess parameters (d-excess) and element chemical analyses, we discusses the recharge, runoff, discharge and hydraulic relationship between the precipitation, terrain surface water, groundwater and main spring in the Munigou area. Pearl spring and Jadeite spring are major spring resources in this spot. Pearl spring is a hot spring that recharged by the precipitation that sourced from an elevation of more than 3700 m. The part of precipitation infiltrate underground and return the earth's surface after it exchanged quantity of heat with deep hot fluid. So the Pearl spring can be exploited as hot spring; The Jadeite spring is typical acidic karst water cold spring. The velocity of flow of the water in the Jadeite spring's aquifer is slower than the Pearl spring's and the water has long detained time. The spring water has a good quality and important economical value for natural mineral water; Most of runoff in Munigou recharged by precipitation and shallow groundwater. This recharge have seasonal variation and important for scenic spot. These discussed problems in article have far-reaching meaning on evaluation the exploited potential of the Pearl spring and Jadeite spring and is important to protecting and developing the precious natural resource in Munigou area. And provides reference for the similar researches too. (authors)

  2. Motorized Recreation Sounds Influence Nature Scene Evaluations: The Role of Attitude Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Jacob; Taff, B D; Weinzimmer, David; Newman, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Soundscape assessment takes many forms, including letting the consequences of the soundscape be an indicator of soundscape quality or value. As a result, much social science research has been conducted to better quantify problem soundscapes and the subsequent effects on humans exposed to them. Visual evaluations of natural environments are one area where research has consistently shown detrimental effects of noisy or anthropogenic soundscapes (e.g., those containing noise from motorized recreation), but the potential moderating role of individual attitudes toward elements within the soundscape has not been sufficiently explored. This study demonstrates that both pro-motorized recreation and pro-motorized recreation management attitudes can alter the effect of motorized recreation noise on scenic evaluations in opposing directions. Pro-recreation attitudes lessen the effect of the soundscape, while pro-management attitudes heighten the negative effect of anthropogenic sounds on scenic evaluation. The implications for other areas of soundscape research, especially with regard to soundscape quality assessment through experienced outcomes, are discussed, including possible strategies for prioritizing known or relevant moderating variables.

  3. Motorized Recreation Sounds Influence Nature Scene Evaluations: The Role of Attitude Moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Benfield

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soundscape assessment takes many forms, including letting the consequences of the soundscape be an indicator of soundscape quality or value. As a result, much social science research has been conducted to better quantify problem soundscapes and the subsequent effects on humans exposed to them. Visual evaluations of natural environments are one area where research has consistently shown detrimental effects of noisy or anthropogenic soundscapes (e.g., those containing noise from motorized recreation, but the potential moderating role of individual attitudes toward elements within the soundscape has not been sufficiently explored. This study demonstrates that both pro-motorized recreation and pro-motorized recreation management attitudes can alter the effect of motorized recreation noise on scenic evaluations in opposing directions. Pro-recreation attitudes lessen the effect of the soundscape, while pro-management attitudes heighten the negative effect of anthropogenic sounds on scenic evaluation. The implications for other areas of soundscape research, especially with regard to soundscape quality assessment through experienced outcomes, are discussed, including possible strategies for prioritizing known or relevant moderating variables.

  4. Modern urban design and townscape; Kindai no toshi sekkei to `keikan no hakken`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-01

    Through characteristics and examples of urban model, the present paper explains how the urban plan and design are conceived. It also does the recent trend of scenic arrangement in Japan. The progressionists base the urban model on the rationalism. They condition the urban space to be hygienic, functional, regulatory, geometric and orderly, which means the negation of cultural scenery with stores and houses on streets. Such a model is applied to the urban development in Japan. The culturists aim at an urban model characterized by the small-scale, intensive, organic and asymmetric urban space. Its scenery is cultural, local and organic. Its examples are given by British garden cities. Aiming at an urban model descended from the culturism, the townscape school plans the urban arrangement based on the individual experience and not the enlightening position. They commit a fault by disregarding the problem for the urban entirety and losing its philosophy. In Japan, the scenery is being built up through the preservation of historic townscape, scenic arrangement of stores and houses on streets, and planning of the park. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Towards a Sustainable Sun, Sea, and Sand Tourism: The Value of Ocean View and Proximity to the Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mendoza-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism is expanding worldwide, mostly owing to the attraction to relevant ecosystem services such as the scenic beauty and recreational activities. The aim of this study was to analyze the value of these, using hedonic analysis by assessing how prices of hotel rooms are related to the scenic view, location, non-ecosystem amenities, and size of the hotels in three touristic areas of Veracruz, México. We found that, besides the size of the hotel and the number of non-ecosystem amenities, room prices increased by 8% and 57%, depending on the ocean view and accessibility to the beach, respectively. These results help to understand why hotels are built very close to the coastline, despite the high risk of extreme and frequent meteorological events. The unorganized and intense development of the tourist industry may act in contrast to the necessity for conservation of the natural ecosystems, rendering this activity highly unsustainable. The question is how to deal with the dilemma of tourism growth and conservation. We suggest some alternatives that might help with the conservation of natural ecosystems, while maintaining the combined provision of simultaneous coastal ecosystem services such as an aesthetically pleasing view and recreation, as well as additional services such as storm protection.

  6. Motorized Recreation Sounds Influence Nature Scene Evaluations: The Role of Attitude Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Jacob; Taff, B. D.; Weinzimmer, David; Newman, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Soundscape assessment takes many forms, including letting the consequences of the soundscape be an indicator of soundscape quality or value. As a result, much social science research has been conducted to better quantify problem soundscapes and the subsequent effects on humans exposed to them. Visual evaluations of natural environments are one area where research has consistently shown detrimental effects of noisy or anthropogenic soundscapes (e.g., those containing noise from motorized recreation), but the potential moderating role of individual attitudes toward elements within the soundscape has not been sufficiently explored. This study demonstrates that both pro-motorized recreation and pro-motorized recreation management attitudes can alter the effect of motorized recreation noise on scenic evaluations in opposing directions. Pro-recreation attitudes lessen the effect of the soundscape, while pro-management attitudes heighten the negative effect of anthropogenic sounds on scenic evaluation. The implications for other areas of soundscape research, especially with regard to soundscape quality assessment through experienced outcomes, are discussed, including possible strategies for prioritizing known or relevant moderating variables. PMID:29706911

  7. The kingdom of Armenia as the last bastion of Hellenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Koubatian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to H. Nerzetian’s tragedy in verse "Artavasdes and Cleopatra". The action takes place in the second half of the first century BC, when Armenia, together with Rome and Pathia, was one of the most powerfull empires in the ancient world. The timeline highlighted in the play covers about twenty years. However both the scenic action and the scenic time are only indicated by odd images. The only invention by the author is the encounter between Cleopatra and Artavasdes and remains on the sidelines of the play. Appearing in the foreground are the everlasting philosophical clashes: Duty and Self-love, Integrity and Perfidy, Man and Power, the Fatherland and the World. An extremely important idea it is that man is incapable of discerning either another man or the essential events that take place in the world around him. The characters solve problems that are relevant not only for them but also for the reader. The author often introduces elements of irony and absurdity, that are inherent to the many dialogs in “Artavasdes and Cleopatra”. Clashing intonations in the form of differing times display additional effects.

  8. Demonstrating High-Accuracy Orbital Access Using Open-Source Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Welch, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Orbit propagation is fundamental to almost every space-based analysis. Currently, many system analysts use commercial software to predict the future positions of orbiting satellites. This is one of many capabilities that can replicated, with great accuracy, without using expensive, proprietary software. NASAs SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Center for Engineering, Networks, Integration, and Communications (SCENIC) project plans to provide its analysis capabilities using a combination of internal and open-source software, allowing for a much greater measure of customization and flexibility, while reducing recurring software license costs. MATLAB and the open-source Orbit Determination Toolbox created by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) were utilized to develop tools with the capability to propagate orbits, perform line-of-sight (LOS) availability analyses, and visualize the results. The developed programs are modular and can be applied for mission planning and viability analysis in a variety of Solar System applications. The tools can perform 2 and N-body orbit propagation, find inter-satellite and satellite to ground station LOS access (accounting for intermediate oblate spheroid body blocking, geometric restrictions of the antenna field-of-view (FOV), and relativistic corrections), and create animations of planetary movement, satellite orbits, and LOS accesses. The code is the basis for SCENICs broad analysis capabilities including dynamic link analysis, dilution-of-precision navigation analysis, and orbital availability calculations.

  9. Efficient Metaheuristics for the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianos Gavalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph whose nodes and edges are associated with a profit, a visiting (or traversing time and an admittance time window, the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (MTOPTW seeks for a specific number of walks spanning a subset of nodes and edges of the graph so as to maximize the overall collected profit. The visit of the included nodes and edges should take place within their respective time window and the overall duration of each walk should be below a certain threshold. In this paper we introduce the MTOPTW, which can be used for modeling a realistic variant of the Tourist Trip Design Problem where the objective is the derivation of near-optimal multiple-day itineraries for tourists visiting a destination which features several points of interest (POIs and scenic routes. Since the MTOPTW is a NP-hard problem, we propose the first metaheuristic approaches to tackle it. The effectiveness of our algorithms is validated through a number of experiments on POI and scenic route sets compiled from the city of Athens (Greece.

  10. Night and days in Cassiciacum: The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine’s De ordine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Fuhrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In his early dialogue ‘On order’ (De ordine Augustine dramatises a discussion of theodicy in which the Manichaean solution is clearly rejected, even though the debate ends in aporia. It is argued in this paper that the dialogue’s dramatic setting at the villa in Cassiciacum is strongly reminiscent of Manichaean imagery and the stock motifs of the Manichaean mythological system. It is proposed in the dialogue itself, that the scenic elements (Augustine’s ill health, night and darkness, the dawning day, dirt and ugliness, fighting cocks have the character of signs which illustrate the significance of the not-beautiful and the negative in the divine order. The dialogue setting thus presents an ontological scale that leads from the levels of reduced being up to the highest being, linking night or darkness to light or day, dirt to purity, sickness to health, defeat to victory, the ugly to the beautiful. The dialogue setting becomes a semiotic system in which even the ontologically deficient forms of phenomenon always also refer to something at the highest level, namely the omnipotent divine creator. The scenic design of De ordine can thus be read as an extension of the Manichaean system of codes, and hence as a message also addressed to a Manichaean readership.

  11. Night and days in Cassiciacum: The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine’s De ordine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Fuhrer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In his early dialogue ‘On order’ (De ordine Augustine dramatises a discussion of theodicy in which the Manichaean solution is clearly rejected, even though the debate ends in aporia. It is argued in this paper that the dialogue’s dramatic setting at the villa in Cassiciacum is strongly reminiscent of Manichaean imagery and the stock motifs of the Manichaean mythological system. It is proposed in the dialogue itself, that the scenic elements (Augustine’s ill health, night and darkness, the dawning day, dirt and ugliness, fighting cocks have the character of signs which illustrate the significance of the not-beautiful and the negative in the divine order. The dialogue setting thus presents an ontological scale that leads from the levels of reduced being up to the highest being, linking night or darkness to light or day, dirt to purity, sickness to health, defeat to victory, the ugly to the beautiful. The dialogue setting becomes a semiotic system in which even the ontologically deficient forms of phenomenon always also refer to something at the highest level, namely the omnipotent divine creator. The scenic design of De ordine can thus be read as an extension of the Manichaean system of codes, and hence as a message also addressed to a Manichaean readership.

  12. Geologic map of the Beacon Rock quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2017-06-06

    The Beacon Rock 7.5′ quadrangle is located approximately 50 km east of Portland, Oregon, on the north side of the Columbia River Gorge, a scenic canyon carved through the axis of the Cascade Range by the Columbia River. Although approximately 75,000 people live within the gorge, much of the region remains little developed and is encompassed by the 292,500-acre Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, managed by a consortium of government agencies “to pro­tect and provide for the enhancement of the scenic, cultural, recreational and natural resources of the Gorge and to protect and support the economy of the Columbia River Gorge area.” As the only low-elevation corridor through the Cascade Range, the gorge is a critical regional transportation and utilities corridor (Wang and Chaker, 2004). Major state and national highways and rail lines run along both shores of the Columbia River, which also provides important water access to ports in the agricultural interior of the Pacific Northwest. Transmission lines carry power from hydroelectric facilities in the gorge and farther east to the growing urban areas of western Oregon and Washington, and natural-gas pipelines transect the corridor (Wang and Chaker, 2004). These lifelines are highly vulnerable to disruption by earthquakes, landslides, and floods. A major purpose of the work described here is to identify and map geologic hazards, such as faults and landslide-prone areas, to provide more accurate assessments of the risks associated with these features.The steep canyon walls of the map area reveal exten­sive outcrops of Miocene flood-basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group capped by fluvial deposits of the ances­tral Columbia River, Pliocene lavas erupted from the axis of the Cascade arc to the east, and volcanic rocks erupted from numerous local vents. The Columbia River Basalt Group unconformably rests on a sequence of late Oligocene and early Miocene rocks of the ancestral Cascade volcanic arc

  13. 基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型构建及与传统模式的比较分析%The construction of tourism space carrying capacity calculation model based on production line and the competitive with traditional models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢慧丽

    2011-01-01

    Recently, in several articles, scholar Huang Yangshan analyzed the method of calculating the carry capacity of scenic area, and pointed out the limitation of traditional method based on the turnover. Then he deduced an improved model. But in his studies there is no comparison analysis to the difference of the optimal capacity value of the models in different conditions, and his improved model still has some limitation. Therefore, this paper first presents a new tourism scenic capacity calculation model based on production line, then analyses the balance of the attraction time and the attraction capacity of the scenic depot, which is the important fact influencing the volume of the carry capacity. And then, we compared our new model with the traditional ones in different condition. The results show that the new model based on tourism production line is suitable for wider scope, and is more reasonable.%近期,黄羊山在多篇文章中对风景区旅游空间容量的方法进行了探讨,且指出了传统周转率法的局限性,并说明了模型错误的原因.但其分析偏于定性,且没有指出不同条件下,这些模型求得的容量值的情况.本文首先提出了一种新的基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型,接着分析了景点时间和景点容量均衡与否对景区容量计算的影响,并对新的景区容量计算模型与传统景区容量计算模型进行了量化比较研究.结果表明基于旅游生产线的景区容量计算模型适用范围更广、更具有一般性.

  14. Visual Resource Analysis for Solar Energy Zones in the San Luis Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Zvolanek, Emily [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Brown, Jeffery [Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Environmental Science Division for the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The study analyzed the regional effects of potential visual impacts of solar energy development on three BLM-designated solar energy zones (SEZs) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) in Colorado, and, based on the analysis, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation to compensate residents and other stakeholders for the potential visual impacts to the SEZs. The analysis was conducted as part of the solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) task conducted by BLM Colorado with assistance from Argonne. Two separate analyses were performed. The first analysis, referred to as the VSA Analysis, analyzed the potential visual impacts of solar energy development in the SEZs on nearby visually sensitive areas (VSAs), and, based on the impact analyses, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation. VSAs are locations for which some type of visual sensitivity has been identified, either because the location is an area of high scenic value or because it is a location from which people view the surrounding landscape and attach some level of importance or sensitivity to what is seen from the location. The VSA analysis included both BLM-administered lands in Colorado and in the Taos FO in New Mexico. The second analysis, referred to as the SEZ Analysis, used BLM visual resource inventory (VRI) and other data on visual resources in the former Saguache and La Jara Field Offices (FOs), now contained within the San Luis Valley FO (SLFO), to determine whether the changes in scenic values that would result from the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities in the SEZs would affect the quality and quantity of valued scenic resources in the SLV region as a whole. If the regional effects were judged to be significant, regional

  15. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  16. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative

  17. «The Passion for Order». Virtual Convergences in the Allegorical Linealismo of «Two Angels and a Holy Archbishop» and in the Theological Symbolism of the Calderonian auto sacramental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available «The passion for order» that characterizes the Caledonian works can be seen in the optics capacity of the dramatist to produce auto sacramentales that maintain a direct correlation with the preceding pictorial works. In this line of analysis, this study presents the convergence between the allegorical linealismo visibly present in the Roman mural paintings of the region of Castile and León in Two Angels and a Holy Archbishop of anonymous artist found in the Hermitage of the Vera Cruz de Maderuelo, Segovia, of the twelfth century Spain, and the implied significance of the symbolism represented in the scenic sketches of the auto sacramental The Immunity of Consecrated Ground by Pedro Calderón de la Barca written in the early modern Spain.

  18. “But is this Life – When in Chains?”: "Concerto of Vysotsky at the Research Institute" in the Context of Soviet Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K. Krylova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article touched the public problems associated with the conflict of the creative personality with society and authorities, on the basis of analysis of the performance of "Concerto of Vysotsky at the Research Institute". The conflict is not new as well as not new a means of combating the protests and the free seeking personality, that goes against the tide of public opinion. At the same time, we are talking about the lost ideals, about losing faith, about disappointment and many other things called life. Russian Drama Theatre in Yakutia by this staging witnessed not only about saving on stage a living connection of times and, consequently, in the minds of the people, but also shows the constantly changing social and scenic processes.

  19. Additional application areas of the 3D process information display; Weiterfuehrende Einsatzgebiete des 3-D-Prozessinformationsdisplays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, K. [Institut fuer Automatisierung und Informatik GmbH, Zentrum fuer industrielle Forschung und Entwicklung, Wernigerode (Germany); Hensel, H. [Hochschule Harz, Fachbereich Automatisierung und Informatik, Wernigerode (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The current technological progress in the process industry results in a significant increase of the complexity of control systems. The amount of supervised information grows constantly for each operator because of a higher level of automation and an optimized information acquisition of the control systems. This development results in a cognitive overload of the operator which causes incorrect behaviour and responses in alert situations. In technical literature, several approaches are discussed to counteract this problem. This paper presents the newly developed 3-D Process Information Display (3D-PID) and describes which additional application areas as a primary representation method to the supervision of complex process conditions are imaginable. The 3D-PID is based on a cognitive scenic representation of the process values within a 3-D process room. Particularly the problem of the overview and detail presentation known from the literature is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Design and Implementation of a Fully Autonomous UAV's Navigator Based on Omni-directional Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Kasaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are the subject of an increasing interest in many applications . UAVs are seeing more widespread use in military, scenic, and civilian sectors in recent years. Autonomy is one of the major advantages of these vehicles. It is then necessary to develop particular sensor in order to provide efficient navigation functions. The helicopter has been stabilized with visual information through the control loop. Omni directional vision can be a useful sensor for this propose. It can be used as the only sensor or as complementary sensor. In this paper , we propose a novel method for path planning on an UAV based on electrical potential .We are using an omni directional vision system for navigating and path planning.

  1. Vertical distribution of total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in sediments of Drug Spring Lake, Wudalianchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Yang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    The content of total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in sediments of Drug Spring Lake was detected and their vertical distribution characteristic was analysed. Results showed that there were significant changes to the content of total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in different depth of the columnar sediments. Their highest content both appeared in the interval of 10cm to 25cm corresponding to the period of 1980s to 1990s, when the tourism of Wudalianchi scenic area began to develop. It reflected the impact of human activities on the Drug Spring Lake. That means the regulation was still not enough, although a series of pollution control measures adopted by the government in recent years had initial success.

  2. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  3. Development concept plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The following management objectives for New River Gorge National River relate to the Kaymoor site to: Preserve coal mining, railroad, and other historic resources that best illustrate park significance; Develop a system of land- and water-based recreation opportunities that allow visitors to experience the park's resources to the extent that natural, cultural, and scenic values are not imparied; and Work with the community to the extent possible to help it maximize economic benefits related to park development without impairing key resources. The Development Concept Plant outlining a plan of development for Kaymoor is a part of a larger emphasis by the National Park Service to identify and develop significant coal-related historic and cultural resources in southern West Virginia in cooperation with the West Virginia State Historic Preservation Office

  4. The interface between film and social roles in docudrama: A case study of directing methodology of Želimir Žilnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović Miljan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical observations as well as descriptions of applied concepts in this paper, represent one segment of a broader research by the author in the field of filmology and the creative stage process. The author is applying a comparative analysis of dramatic rules through the psychotherapeutic method of psychodrama in the case of film methodology of the director Želimir Žilnik. The aim of the paper is to consider a correlation of the psychodramatic role theory with the characteristics of specific documentary subgenre - docudrama, by identifying key elements of the stage expression realism and implied methodological tools in the creative process of the scenic and dramatic treatment of social topics. Our starting point is that the psychodramatic initiation of a spontaneous expression on stage, by recognizing the characteristics of social roles of an authentic personality - a character in real life, can create a functional methodological discourse for the interpretation of the treated content in film or theatre.

  5. Contrasting cultural landscapes and spaces in Peter Weir’s film Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975, based on Joan Lindsay’s 1967 novel with the same title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jytte Holmqvist

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following essay explores the relationship between contrasting cultures and cultural spaces within a rural Australian, Victorian, context, with reference to the narrated cultural landscape in Joan Lindsay’s novel Picnic at Hanging Rock (1967 and in the film based on the novel, by Peter Weir (1975. In the analysis of the five first scenes of the film, the focus will be on the notion of scenic- and human- beauty that is at once arresting and foreboding, and the various contrasting and parallel spaces that characterise the structure of book and film. The article will draw from a number of additional secondary sources, including various cultural readings which offer alternative methodological approaches to the works analysed, and recorded 1970s interviews with the author and the filmmaker.

  6. [Research of aeration with bio-film technology to treat urban landscape water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Wei; Nie, Zhi-Dan; Nian, Yue-Gang; Huang, Min-Sheng; Huang, Jian-Jun; Yan, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Research of the aeration with bio-film technology was carried out to treat scenic water of a sanatorium in Beijing. The aim of the research was improving the water habitat by increasing the transparency and reducing the concentration of N and P. The equipments were set in a 5,000 m2 water area, which combined the plug flow jet aerator with the elastic biological filler. The research indicated that the transparency increased from 25 cm to 120 cm by the technology. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and TP were 86.6% , 90% and 73.3%, but there was only 22.4% for TN. The concentration of DO increased from 4.3 mg/L to 7 mg/L. In a word, the aeration with bio-film technology was an effective measure to improve the water habitat by increasing the transparency.

  7. Coralline formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Ferreira, Jaime; Rodriguez Ramirez, Alberto; Bejarano Chavarro, Sonia; Navas Camacho, Raul; Reyes Nivia, Catalina

    2002-01-01

    Inside the characterization of the marine and coastal atmospheres of Colombia, the coral reefs conform one of the most outstanding and valuable ecosystems in the planet, thanks to their enormous biodiversity (only compared by that of the tropical forests), their high productivity, their appreciated fishing resources and their spectacular scenic beauty. They are developed with more vigor in clear and illuminated waters of the coastal area of tropical seas, in particular in the surroundings of islands located far from the continental discharges, to depths smaller than 50 m. in this areas they constitute structures rigid and of complex relief that they rise from the bottom toward the surface, which can end up modifying the landscape and the submarines relief notably for long periods of time (hundred to thousands of years). This characteristic allows them to offer an enormous variety and quantity of stable habitat for the establishment and proliferation of the marine life. The paper also speaks on their distribution and extension

  8. ASSOCIATION RULE ANALYSIS FOR TOUR ROUTE RECOMMENDATION AND APPLICATION TO WCTSNOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing E-tourism systems provide intelligent tour recommendation for tourists. In this sense, recommender system can make personalized suggestions and provide satisfied information associated with their tour cycle. Data mining is a proper tool that extracting potential information from large database for making strategic decisions. In the study, association rule analysis based on FP-growth algorithm is applied to find the association relationship among scenic spots in different cities as tour route recommendation. In order to figure out valuable rules, Kulczynski interestingness measure is adopted and imbalance ratio is computed. The proposed scheme was evaluated on Wangluzhe cultural tourism service network operation platform (WCTSNOP, where it could verify that it is able to quick recommend tour route and to rapidly enhance the recommendation quality.

  9. Wastewater treatment in tsunami affected areas of Thailand by constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, H.; Laugesen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    the systems which have been built at three locations: (a) Baan Pru Teau: A newly-built township for tsunami victims which was constructed with the contribution of the Thai Red Cross. Conventional septic tanks were installed for the treatment of blackwater from each household and its effluent and grey water...... system and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The constructed wetland system (capacity 400 m3/day) consists of vertical flow, horizontal subsurface flow, free water surface flow and pond units. Because the treatment plant is surrounded by resorts, restaurants and shops, the constructed wetland...... systems are designed with terrains as scenic landscaping. (c) Patong: A 5,000 m2 constructed wetland system has been established to treat polluted water from drainage canals which collect overflow from septic tanks and grey water from residential areas. It is envisaged that these three systems will serve...

  10. Zusammenfassung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    The “Tony Fest” was a fabulous meeting! Lac Taureau provided a beautiful setting resplendent with summer sunshine and fresh air; scenic vistas and a warm lake; delicious food and abundant refreshments to stimulate astrophysical advancement. With copious collegiality and a fine balance between the pursuit of scientific rigor and physical recreation, the meeting was both an adventure and an education: a fest worthy of its namesake! All of which makes the task of summarizing the meeting next to impossible! Instead, I can only attempt a “drawing together” — a Zusammenfassung, as Herr Professor Doktor Doktor Moffat might say — of the things that make this meeting especially memorable for me. I know that each of the participants will carry their own personal highlights with them for a long time to come.

  11. Digital museums of the imagined architecture: an integrated approach to the definition of cultural heritage’s knowledge paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo R.D. Accardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to highlight a multidisciplinary approach to define new ways of knowledge of architectures and urban contexts that were drawn but never built. In particular, the focus is on a set of 18th century representations, created in the field of scenic illusion. The work was firstly carried out in order to define the structure of a Digital Museum Ontology, a complex semantic resource able to store documents of various typologies. Then, it was elaborated a digital museum project, which starting from existing images will introduce to an interactive way of experiencing the heritage in question. This experimentation has the intent of finding a best practice for the creation of virtual exhibitions. 

  12. Association Rule Analysis for Tour Route Recommendation and Application to Wctsnop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, J.; Liu, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing E-tourism systems provide intelligent tour recommendation for tourists. In this sense, recommender system can make personalized suggestions and provide satisfied information associated with their tour cycle. Data mining is a proper tool that extracting potential information from large database for making strategic decisions. In the study, association rule analysis based on FP-growth algorithm is applied to find the association relationship among scenic spots in different cities as tour route recommendation. In order to figure out valuable rules, Kulczynski interestingness measure is adopted and imbalance ratio is computed. The proposed scheme was evaluated on Wangluzhe cultural tourism service network operation platform (WCTSNOP), where it could verify that it is able to quick recommend tour route and to rapidly enhance the recommendation quality.

  13. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  14. Combined toxicity of mercury and plastic wastes to crustacean and gastropod inhabiting the waters in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Thomas, B V

    2015-11-01

    The present study determined total mercury (T-Hg) in crustacean Portunus pelagicus (blue crab) and mollusc Tapes sulcarius (Furrowed Venus: Cockle) following suspected rise in beach plastic wastes and their effect on marine organisms. Live samples were collected from beaches representing six Kuwait Governorate areas and exposed to toxicity (96hr) and bio accumulation tests for 180 d with inclusion of plastic wastes and environmental conditions simulated in laboratory. Results revealed high T-Hg concentrations in T sulcarius (1.44ng l(-1)) compared to P. pelagicus (1.03ng l(-1)) during winter than summer, with bio accumulation factor (BAF) > 1 labelled these species as hyper-accumulators. Significantly, combination of T-Hg concentrations from plastic wastes and in seawater validated the possibilities of detrimental effects of other marine lives besides deteriorating the aesthetic values of scenic beaches and likelihood of invasive species in such coastal areas.

  15. Who should carry the cost of ecosystem service provision? A pan-European citizens’ view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Mavsar, Robert; Bartczak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    accepted concept in theory, the legitimacy of which nevertheless has not yet been challenged in practice. In our study, we conducted an extensive survey in five European countries – Finland, Denmark, Poland, Italy and Spain – with the aim to explore citizens’ opinions of who should carry the costs...... of ecosystem services provision. The ecosystem services in question were biodiversity, recreation, carbon sequestration, water quality, and scenic beauty. Our results show that the majority of respondents in all studied countries generally think that the costs of enhanced provision of ecosystem services shall......The underlying notion of payments for environmental services is that beneficiaries of environmental services (directly or indirectly) financially support their provision by covering at least part of the costs landowners incur to generate them. This so-called “beneficiary-pay principle” is a widely...

  16. Research on Customer Satisfaction in Marine Cultural and Sustainable Tourism—A Case Study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, marine cultural tourism, an emerging tourism mode, has become more and more popular among tourists, and demonstrates broad market prospects. However, Chinese marine cultural tourism is still in the development and growth stage, and the level of customer satisfaction is uneven. The improvement of the customer satisfaction level is conducive to meeting customers’ demands in marine cultural tourism and enhancing the competitiveness of Chinese marine cultural tourism. Based on theoretical research and the practical situation of marine cultural tourism, this paper implements empirical investigation and research into customer satisfaction in marine cultural tourism in Shanghai, China. According to the research results, it proposes improving the level of customer satisfaction in Chinese marine cultural tourism from the perspectives of ocean culture tourism promotion, customer satisfaction evaluation, service level management and environment construction of scenic spots, tourism branding and the marine cultural accomplishments of tourists, so as to promote the sustainable development of marine cultural tourism.

  17. [Research of preferences and security management of tourists in Poyang Lake based on schistosomiasis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu-hua

    2015-04-01

    To discuss the prevention of schistosomiasis in tourism of lake region. The seasonal distribution of tourism activities and spatial distribution of scenic spots, as well as the coupling between space and temporal of Oncomelania snail distribution and the transmission time of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region were analyzed. The travel preference of schistosomiasis susceptible population was surveyed by questionnaires and interviews. There were couplings of space and temporal between tourism activities in Poyang Lake region and transmission time of schistosomiasis as well as space distribution of snails, respectively. The most popular tourism items were Shuishangrenjia (overwater household) and fishing folk culture with property of participation and experience. The suggestion is to establish health records of tourists, carry out health education of schistosomiasis, and enhance the management of tourism and activities of tourists.

  18. Preliminary study on the characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the Shiziping geothermal field groundwater in Emei Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujing; Jia Shuyuan

    2000-01-01

    Emei Mountain is a well-known scenic tourism spot in China. In order to promote the development of tourist trade, the authors have explored the hydrothermal water in Emei Mountain. At the beginning of 1998, the hydrothermal water was successfully drilled from the Shiziping geothermal field. In the process of prospecting the hydrothermal water, the authors adopted the geochemical method such as carbon and oxygen isotopes. The result indicates that the groundwater of different genetic types has different constitution characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes. This provides the important basis for finding out the forming conditions of underground hydrothermal water. So, it is prospective to study the growth characteristics of hydrothermal water with the carbon and oxygen isotopes of HCO 3 in groundwater

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. Proposed development of water supplies from the aquifer led to concerns that large-scale withdrawals of water would cause decreased flow in rivers and springs, which in turn could result in the loss of water supplies, recreational opportunities, and aquatic habitat. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board, in collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Oklahoma, studied the aquifer to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board the scientific information needed to determine the volume of water that could be withdrawn while protecting springs and streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopertion with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, did a study to describe the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow of the aquifer.

  20. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  1. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  2. Development strategy research of low-carbon tourist city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaohong

    2017-04-01

    Construction of low-carbon tourist city has become a strategic choice for the development of city construction in our country, becoming the direction and goal of future city development in China. In this paper, the development strategy of low-carbon tourist city is put forward from the aspects of building low-carbon tourism culture, strengthening and perfecting the relevant rules and regulations, establishing and perfecting the decision-making management mechanism of low-carbon tourist city construction, establishing accurate, timely, efficient and comprehensive ecological environment monitoring and supervision network, building economical resource utilization system, strengthening science and technology supporting of low-carbon city construction, establishing low-carbon tourism scenic spot, low-carbon community or low-carbon demonstration area, etc.

  3. Interim communities between singularities: encounters of delicacy, artistic creation and difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araújo Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an outcome of the dissertation “Poetics and marginality: the Project Cidadãos Cantantes experience” that focused on the chorus collective experience, in the project focusing the formation of groupality, the ways of being together or coexisting, and presents an analysis of these procedures. This Project was created on 1992 in the interface of antimanicomial movement. It consists in two workshops: a scenic chorus workshop and a workshop of dance and body expression. Through the project, the authors elaborated a narrative that leads the analyses of the mentioned experience. It is understood that promoting encounters between any kind of people, with or without psychic suffering - and not grouped based on a definition or diagnosis, the project can bring people in a desiring and cooperatively manner-. Therefore, the relationships developed during the project’s workshops strengthen the production of guided encounters in power, in the creation and respect for differences.

  4. TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT ON COX'S BAZAR, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isan ZAHRA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cox’s Bazar is one of Bangladesh’s leading coastal areas, mainly because of its scenic beauty. Tourism in this area led to the development of facilities such as hotels, restaurants, airport, gift shops etc. and supports local communities in form of employment opportunity. Recently, this area is showing signs of negative environmental impacts such as excessive crowds, poor waste management, security issues, and unplanned construction of hotels to support excessive local tourist demand. This implies that Cox’s Bazar has socio-economic and environmental impacts mainly caused from domestic tourism; certain areas that require immediate attention are discussed in this paper based on the concept of sustainability.

  5. An Empirical Study on Environmental System Perception of Tourism Island Residents: A Case Study in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the development of island tourism has attracted more and more attention from domestic and international tourism researches. Tourism island has become the important scenic spot in coastal cities in China. Through the empirical research of local residents' awareness of environmental system, we can better hold people's perception of the touristic environment. Method can also be drawn to promote public participation more actively in the tourism development of the islands. This paper mainly shows the residents' attitude towards tourism through their feelings of the changes of economy, local social culture and the island environment brought by tourism. The results show that residents' positive perception of tourism is more intense than negative perception, and the perception of economy is stronger than that of culture and environment. On the overall perception, there exists no significant difference while in the tiny level there are still some differences remained.

  6. Water quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River, Oregon, 1995-2007, and their response to Diamond Lake restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Jones, Mikeal E.

    2014-01-01

    The Wild and Scenic North Umpqua River is one of the highest-quality waters in the State of Oregon, supporting runs of wild salmon, steelhead, and trout. For many years, blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae in Diamond and Lemolo Lakes have threatened water quality, fisheries, and public health. The blooms consist primarily of Anabaena, a nitrogen (N)-fixing planktonic alga that appears to have contributed to N enrichment, which could account for changes in communities and biomass of periphyton, or attached benthic algae, in the river. Periphyton can become a nuisance in summer by affecting riffle habitat and causing high pH that fails to meet State of Oregon water-quality standards. These symptoms of nutrient enrichment in the North Umpqua River were first documented in 1995, and the symptoms have continued since then. Restoring natural ecosystem processes that store nutrients rather than fueling algae might help improve pH and water-clarity conditions.

  7. ZONEAMENTO AMBIENTAL DO SETOR SUL DO PARQUE NACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cardoso de Matos VALE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of an environmental zoning is an important tool to subsidize a handling plan and the management of protected areas. In this paper a methodology was established to proceeds environmental zoning having the environmental legislation as criteria to process a digital database GIS-supported (GIS – Geographical Information System. The study area was the south part of the Chapada Diamantina National Park. The database used to produces the environmental zoning map consist of vegetation, soil use, topographic features, hydric resources, scenic beautiful, and tourist, historical and archeological potential areas. The technical support assured by the GIS process were revealed essential to develop this methodology. They provided consistent and expressed overall results, beside the similar point with the landscape reality that was identified in the area of this paper.

  8. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  9. A SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN CASPIAN HYRCANIAN MIXED FORESTS ECOREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI BALI

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a form of sustainable nature-based tourism, promotes conservation of ecological and scenic values. In this study, a Spatial Decision Support System, SDSS, was developed based upon Multi Criteria Evaluation, MCE, for ecotourism development in the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, northern Iran. For this, important criteria and constraints for ecotourism development were shortlisted using the Delphi Method. The criteria were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The obtained results indicated that "distance from water resources", "land use", "slope", "soil", "climate", "distance from roads", "land cover density", "erosion", and "distance from residential areas" were the most important criteria, respectively. The findings suggest that GIS-based SDSS is suitable to engage the various criteria affecting the development of ecotourism destinations. This empirical research develops a new method that can significantly facilitate planning forecotourism development with respect to ecological capability of ecotourism destinations.

  10. Alienation and Digital Labour—A Depth-Hermeneutic Inquiry into Online Commodification and the Unconscious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the core of this paper is a psychosocial inquiry into the Marxist concept of alienation and its applications to the field of digital labour. Following a brief review of different theoretical works on alienation, it looks into its recent conceptualisations and applications to the study of online social networking sites. Finally, the authors offer suggestions on how to extend and render more complex these recent approaches through in-depth analyses of Facebook posts that exemplify how alienation is experienced, articulated, and expressed online. For this perspective, the article draws on Rahel Jaeggi’s (2005 reassessment of alienation, as well as the depth-hermeneutic method of “scenic understanding” developed by Alfred Lorenzer (e.g. 1970; 1986.

  11. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  12. GAME PHERSU: PRO ET CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yanko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having examined the frescoes from Tarquinia: the Tomb of Augurs, the Tomb of the Pulcinella, and the Tomb of the Olympiads dated back to the sixth century BCE that depict scenes with a personage Phersu, the author deals with Etruscan inscriptions, data of the Antique tradition about origin of scenic and gladiatorial games, as well as a number of interpretations of these scenes to prove that the Etruscan ritual ‘game Phersu’ is a prototype of the Roman gladiatorial games and ‘venatio’. Being a part of Etruscan funeral rite, the ritual game was a substitutive sacrifice that symbolised a fight of a human being against the demon of death Calu – an abductor of souls from the world of the living. The fight was supposed to be guided by an invisible and disguised power, being personified in the image of Phersu. 

  13. Patrimonial volatility and new conceptualizations of urban soil value in intermediate cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Dillon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional systems of logic which have an impact on the value established for the urban soil have undergone change lately, due to the many dynamics taking place in intermediate cities. These cities' population growth and territorial expansion, as well as the changes in the way the real estate sector is conceived, the developers' proposals and the demand's perceptive components all make up an imperfect, heterogeneous market. Added to the traditional soil value theory are those theories related to the hedonistic aspects that grant symbolic value according to a complex psychosocial and economic structure. When fixing prices, consumers' payment disposition and the assessment of certain characteristics of the property, as well as the socio-economic status and the beauties of the geographical-scenic surroundings in which it is located are all combined.

  14. Misleading hallucinations in unrecognized narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, A; Janszky, J; Holló, A; Migléczi, G; Halász, P

    2003-10-01

    To describe psychosis-like hallucinatory states in unrecognized narcolepsy. Two patients with hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations are presented. Both patients had realistic and complex - multi-modal and scenic-daytime sexual hallucinations leading, in the first case, to a legal procedure because of false accusation, and in the second, to serious workplace conflicts. Both patients were convinced of the reality of their hallucinatory experiences but later both were able to recognize their hallucinatory character. Clinical data, a multiple sleep latency test, polysomnography, and HLA typing revealed that both patients suffered from narcolepsy. We suggest that in unrecognized narcolepsy with daytime hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations the diagnostic procedure may mistakenly incline towards delusional psychoses. Daytime realistic hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations may also have forensic consequences and mislead legal evaluation. Useful clinical features in differentiating narcolepsy from psychoses are: the presence of other narcoleptic symptoms, features of hallucinations, and response to adequate medication.

  15. Notes on the Presence of the Greek Tragedy in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Romero Rey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancient world and, in particular that of Greek tragedy, is present in Colombia under various masks. This article takes on a journey through the presence of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides in different artistic manifestations. From poetry and narrative, to cinema and the visual arts, ancient tragedy has served as a metaphor to reflect on the situation of extreme violence in this South American country and the ways in which a possible utopia of reconciliation can be built. At the same time, it focuses on the different scenic models, from their praxis on the stage where the “illustrative” versions stand out, to the transformations in the representation conventions or the use of fables as triggers in much more ambitious creative immersions. The following paper in English was the starting point for Encounters with Classical Antiquity in Latin America. A Humanities / Humanity Workshop at Yale University in October 2017, presented by its author.

  16. Assessment of the contamination with domestic wastewater in supply wells over sandbank area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rocha Cordeiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination of septic tanks in the supply wells of a population settled over a sandbank area, the Lagomar neighborhood, in the city of Macaé (RJ. The neighborhood is located in the macro areas of the northern border, adjacent and buffer zone of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, with great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, and shelter for numerous coastal lagoons and endemic species. The studied area has low-income population, and no systems of wastewater treatment and public water supply, thus increasing the risk of diseases related to poor environmental sanitation. The presence of fecal coliforms in all samples, including a sample of treated water, indicates health risks to the local population, as well as risks of ecosystem change in the National Park and its surroundings.

  17. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  18. A conversational introduction to algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Gauss famously referred to mathematics as the "queen of the sciences" and to number theory as the "queen of mathematics". This book is an introduction to algebraic number theory, meaning the study of arithmetic in finite extensions of the rational number field \\mathbb{Q}. Originating in the work of Gauss, the foundations of modern algebraic number theory are due to Dirichlet, Dedekind, Kronecker, Kummer, and others. This book lays out basic results, including the three "fundamental theorems": unique factorization of ideals, finiteness of the class number, and Dirichlet's unit theorem. While these theorems are by now quite classical, both the text and the exercises allude frequently to more recent developments. In addition to traversing the main highways, the book reveals some remarkable vistas by exploring scenic side roads. Several topics appear that are not present in the usual introductory texts. One example is the inclusion of an extensive discussion of the theory of elasticity, which provides a precise w...

  19. Study on ecological conservation planning of Xianyue Park in Xiamen City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naizhong; Xi, Rong; Ren, Tingyan; Zhao, Peng; Chuai, Zeyao

    2017-08-01

    The paper discusses the current situation and existing problems of ecological restoration and tourist infrastructure development of Xiamen Xianyue Park located in Xiamen Island, China. Issues of ecosystem restoration and landscape improvement, restoring habitats, and ecosystem management system are analyzed. Options of further optimization of the tourist-targeted infrastructure are proposed, which take into account the ecological system and landscape pattern optimization, promotion of ecotourism, and implementation of the ecological management system. The particular solution envisages the park zoning with three primary zones (ecological protection, ecological buffer, and general activity zones) and five secondary ones (scenic landscape, ecotourism, religious activity, buildings and structures, and entertainment zones). By integrating the ecological principles into other land use objectives, taking full advantage of the park ecological and cultural heritage, and improving its ecological management, it is expected to provide the ecological restoration of the park under study and optimize its contribution to the regional economic and social development.

  20. Evidence that non-dreamers do dream: a REM sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Chaumereuil, Charlotte; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether non-dreamers do not produce dreams or do not recall them, subjects were identified with no dream recall with dreamlike behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is typically characterised by dream-enacting behaviours congruent with sleep mentation. All consecutive patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease who underwent a video-polysomnography were interviewed regarding the presence or absence of dream recall, retrospectively or upon spontaneous arousals. The patients with no dream recall for at least 10 years, and never-ever recallers were compared with dream recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder regarding their clinical, cognitive and sleep features. Of the 289 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, eight (2.8%) patients had no dream recall, including four (1.4%) patients who had never ever recalled dreams, and four patients who had no dream recall for 10-56 years. All non-recallers exhibited, daily or almost nightly, several complex, scenic and dreamlike behaviours and speeches, which were also observed during rapid eye movement sleep on video-polysomnography (arguing, fighting and speaking). They did not recall a dream following sudden awakenings from rapid eye movement sleep. These eight non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder did not differ in terms of cognition, clinical, treatment or sleep measures from the 17 dreamers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder matched for age, sex and disease. The scenic dreamlike behaviours reported and observed during rapid eye movement sleep in the rare non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (even in the never-ever recallers) provide strong evidence that non-recallers produce dreams, but do not recall them. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder provides a new model to

  1. Visual air quality simulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenar, John V.; Malm, William C.; Johnson, Christopher E.

    Visual air quality is primarily a human perceptual phenomenon beginning with the transfer of image-forming information through an illuminated, scattering and absorbing atmosphere. Visibility, especially the visual appearance of industrial emissions or the degradation of a scenic view, is the principal atmospheric characteristic through which humans perceive air pollution, and is more sensitive to changing pollution levels than any other air pollution effect. Every attempt to quantify economic costs and benefits of air pollution has indicated that good visibility is a highly valued and desired environmental condition. Measurement programs can at best approximate the state of the ambient atmosphere at a few points in a scenic vista viewed by an observer. To fully understand the visual effect of various changes in the concentration and distribution of optically important atmospheric pollutants requires the use of aerosol and radiative transfer models. Communication of the output of these models to scientists, decision makers and the public is best done by applying modern image-processing systems to generate synthetic images representing the modeled air quality conditions. This combination of modeling techniques has been under development for the past 15 yr. Initially, visual air quality simulations were limited by a lack of computational power to simplified models depicting Gaussian plumes or uniform haze conditions. Recent explosive growth in low cost, high powered computer technology has allowed the development of sophisticated aerosol and radiative transfer models that incorporate realistic terrain, multiple scattering, non-uniform illumination, varying spatial distribution, concentration and optical properties of atmospheric constituents, and relative humidity effects on aerosol scattering properties. This paper discusses these improved models and image-processing techniques in detail. Results addressing uniform and non-uniform layered haze conditions in both

  2. 攀枝花市旅游人口承载容量研究%Research of Tourist Population Carrying Capacity in Panzhihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔博; 邓伟; 刘邵权; 陶和平; 刘颖

    2011-01-01

    选择四川省攀枝花市典型旅游城市5县19个景点作为研究对象,通过分析空间、社会、经济作为三大主要旅游人口容量的影响因子,并改进了社会容量方法,定量分析了攀枝花市旅游人口承载容量。研究表明,空间承载容量成为制约攀枝花市景区发展并限制接待游客容量的主要因素,主要包括旅游线路不发达,景区内可达面积小。本研究有助于丰富和完善旅游人口承载容量的理论和研究体系,可为当地的生态环境保护和旅游开发建设提供科学依据。%Five counties,including 19 scenic spots,which have features of typical tourism city,in Panzhihua city,Sichuan province,were chosen for the study of the tourism carrying capacity.To quantitatively analyze the tourism carrying capacity of the five counties,the three main factors,which were spatial carrying capacity,social carrying capacity,and economic carrying capacity,were studied and the model of the social carrying capacity was improved.The spatial carrying capacity became the main barrier to limit the reception visitor carrying capacity and restrict the development of Panzhihua scenic area,the main reasons included inconvenient tourism route and traffic transportation,the small developed reachable area.It can accelerate the establishment of economic effect and environmental effect of local tourism industry.

  3. Geologic map of the Montauk quadrangle, Dent, Texas, and Shannon Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.

    2015-04-30

    The Montauk 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 2,000 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic igneous basement rocks. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Numerous karst features, such as caves, springs, and sinkholes, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevations ranging from approximately 830 ft where the Current River exits the middle-eastern edge of the quadrangle to about 1,320 ft in sec. 16, T. 31 N., R. 7 W., in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic features within the quadrangle are the deeply incised valleys of the Current River and its major tributaries located in the center of the map area. The Montauk quadrangle is named for Montauk Springs, a cluster of several springs that resurge in sec. 22, T. 32 N., R. 7 W. These springs supply clean, cold water for the Montauk Fish Hatchery, and the addition of their flow to that of Pigeon Creek produces the headwaters of the Current River, the centerpiece of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways park. Most of the land in the quadrangle is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A smaller portion of the land within the quadrangle is publicly owned by either Montauk State Park or the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (National Park Service). Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2007 and 2009.

  4. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  5. DEVELANDO EL UMBRAL ESTÉTICO DE LA OBRA MUJER DE CARNE Y LECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmis Merencio Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Why think about the theatrical cuban scene from artistic performs like Mujer de carne y leche (Leire Fernández, espaniard in diplomatics function in Cuba since,? The first answer appears since the space of multidisciplinary scenic creation which proposes the argument in his treatment of a phenomenon complex: the gender violence. The analysis comprises or apprehends the multisystem desestructuring of several scenic languages that corporiza the play, like every one of these languages contribute an essential thematic core and many echo that happen inside the real scene created. Some detail of the show: we are talking about spaces very close to the public whit sporadic projection, the construction of one mix sound band by a Dj and the inclusion of musical interpreters; in like manner, of intervention of actors who doesn’t pretender enunciate like a dramatic subject (fellow, but since their individuality. I´ts  discursive potential can track in the structuring of multiples stories who answer to the creation of ideological scene to look for in the spectator a desmitification of a phalocentric thought  and the themes designate like female and male or the banalitation of the consume societies. This perform its looking to get away from literal sense of the text and the historic treatment and the stereotype of dispossess, abandon and fateful women. The gestuality of that woman, her intentionality and irreverence, deduce an andless reading

  6. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  7. 北京市旅游人口与旅游承载容量适配度分析及策略研究%The adaptation degree analysis and strategy research of the tourist population and tourism carrying capacity in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国力; 付硕天; 仲声

    2015-01-01

    北京市是我国的旅游业发展的核心地带之一,旅游产业发展规模大、程度高、速度快,但伴随着高速发展的旅游产业,旅游景区负荷过大,旅游人口与旅游承载容量不协调的问题已经日益凸显,以旅游承载容量为研究方法,以旅游人口为研究视角,对北京市的旅游产业的发展和负荷状况进行评价,并从管理运营制度,宣传,旅游产品形式三个方面提出优化改造和完善的对策,作为北京市解决旅游景区负荷和旅游人口过度密集等问题的一些政策参考,以期实现北京市旅游产业在可持续开发的前提下创造最大利润。%Beijing is one of the core tourism areas in our country whose tourism industry has large scale development,high degree and high speed.But with the rapid development of tourism industry,the load of tourism scenic area is too large and the incompatible problem of population and tourism carrying capacity has been growing. This paper takes tourism carrying capacity as research methods,tourist population as research perspectives,and evaluates the development and load conditions of Beijing's tourism industry,thus puts forward some countermeasures for optimizing reconstruction and perfection from the management operation system,publicity and tourism product. As policy references which aim to solve such problems as overcrowding and the load of tourism scenic spots,we hope Beijing tourism industry can create the largest profit on the premise of sustainable development.

  8. Research of the Tourism Destination Carrying Capacity---A Case Study of the Ancient City of Kaifeng Song Du Cultural Industry Park%旅游目的地容量测量研究--以开封宋都古城文化产业园区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧娟

    2016-01-01

    随着旅游市场的快速发展和游客出游的不断增加,过多游客的涌入、景区超载拥堵现象不断出现。旅游容量作为旅游目的地规划开发的科学依据和景区管理的工具,其研究成为一个重要课题。依据木桶原理及限制性因子原理,选取空间容量、设施容量、生态容量和社会心理容量等作为旅游地容量指标,构建综合容量测量模型。以开封宋都古城文化产业园区为例,选取基本空间标准,分析得出产业园区日旅游容量为190484人次,年旅游容量69526660人次,并对产业园区旅游发展提出建议。%With the rapid development of the tourism market and the increasing of tourists ,the influx of too many tourists 、the scenic spots overload and congestions phenomenons appear constantly .Tourism carrying capacity is a scientific basis of tourism destination planning development and a tool of the scenic area management ,soit has become an important subject .Based on buckets effect and the principle of limiting factors , this paper selects space capacity , facilities capacity,ecological capacity and social psychological capacity as the basic indexes of tourism carrying capacity , and constructs comprehensive capacity measurement model.Then,this paper takes the ancient city of Kaifeng Song Du cultural industry park as an example,and selects basic space standards,analyzes and concludes that the tourism carrying capacity of industry park is 190484 person/time every-day,69526660 person/time every year,finally puts forward the proposal on its tourism development .

  9. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  10. Documenting the Impact of Socioeconomic Dynamics on Heritage Sites. The Case of Vista Alegre District in Santiago de Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, L. B.; Castillo, M. M.; Van Balen, K.

    2017-08-01

    Recent policies adopted in Cuba are producing a significant turn into the country's socioeconomic dynamics. Past shifting circumstances have demonstrated the positive and negative implications on heritage sites. In this regard, this paper presents a first stage of a research project aimed at monitoring the impact of socioeconomic dynamics on local heritage sites. The research partial results focus on the documentation of the evolution of a case study: Vista Alegre District in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Scholars have noted that the District's urban design and historic building stock represent its most significant heritage values. Such qualities are under permanent threat due to transformations and deterioration. In order to analyse current site condition, and to understand transformations as a result of socioeconomic dynamics, a Geographic Information System (GIS) was implemented as a monitoring and documenting tool. The GIS allowed integrating data related to the evolution of the urban layout, and the heritage buildings. Data was sourced from heritage management and urban planning offices, as well as from previous studies on the site. In addition, the analysis of remote sensing imagery, and a field survey helped to update the existing records, and to include new information with the purpose of assessing the integrity of heritage values. At this stage, maps that describe the site evolution, the significant changes over time, and the alterations to character defining elements served to identify sectors of different scenic qualities. Results are essential to contribute to draft management strategies as part of decision making.

  11. Biking to work in Miami. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, O.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of the project was to produce and distribute a guide to commuting by bicycle in the Miami metropolitan area. The area is uniquely suited to bicycling because of its pleasant year-round climate and relatively flat topography. Persuading even a small percentage of automobile commuters to try biking to work could result in substantial energy savings in Miami as in most other major metropolitan areas. Seven of the largest employment centers in the area were selected as major commuter destinations suitable for bicycle commuters. Safe and scenic ways of commuting to these areas by bicycle were mapped and described in a series of short narratives. Additional material on safe riding techniques and the choice of equipment was developed. The resulting 40 page booklet, Biking to Work in Miami, was printed and distributed by the author to local cycling groups, bicycle interests, and others. Copies were also sent to interested parties outside the Miami area. The initial reception has been very encouraging and a number of favorable reply cards have been received with useful comments and suggestions. A revised version aimed at stimulating bikers to avail of the soon-to-be-opened rapid transit system is being considered. A writer for the Miami Herald is interested in using parts of the Guide for a series in the newspaper.

  12. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Mitaka City; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Mitaka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were made for the purpose of probing effects of utilizing body sensory game machines for the functional recovery training and exercise of the elderly and handicapped, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the verification by existing game machines, a game center was made available free of charge, providing free experience for the elderly, with the image traced of the elderly for the game machines based on the record of the machines used, questionnaires and interviews. In addition, four body-sensory game machines that were supposed to be effective for the exercise of the joints were installed in a day care center for six months, with a verification test performed on the adaptability of the elderly to the speed and the like of the game machines. In the development of a game machine intended for the exercise of the lower extremities, researchers tackled the development of a game machine in which an entertainment/amusement nature was added to the exercise of the lower extremities. An experimental model was developed based on a principle providing a virtual reality as if the user were walking in a tourist area of scenic beauty by moving a scenery linked with a foot pedal type exercising pattern. (NEDO)

  13. The body in the processes of musical sensitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Albano de Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights part of the bibliographic collecting of Alexandre Ruger’s Master Degree dissertation entitled “The corporal percussion as a proposal of musical sensitizing for actors and theater students”, developed in the IA-UNESP (Arts Institute – State of São Paulo University. The research was supervised by Sonia Albano de Lima. The bibliographic collection was sub-divided into three items: the body and the musical teaching, the understanding of the body-mind binomial and the musical teaching in the Scenic Arts as a means of developing the expressivity and the corporal awareness. In the present text the two first items will be exposed. In the first one, the work of the educators Emile Jacques-Dalcroze (1865-1950, Carl Orff (1895-1982, Edgar Willems (1890-1978, Murray Schafer (1933-, among others, served as a theoretical subsidy, as well as the work of corporal percussion developed by the Grupo Barbatuques. In the inter-relationship between the body and the mind the theoretical foundation was taken from the texts by Paul Sivadon, from the area of Social Psychology; Jean Claude Coste, from the Psychomotility area; Patrícia Pederiva, from the musical research area; James J. Gibson, from the Psychology area; Gerda Alexander, from the Eutonia area, among others.

  14. History of radiological characterisation in Studsvik - History of radiological characterisation in decommissioning projects in Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AB SVAFO is a nuclear waste technology and decommissioning company based in Sweden in the scenic surroundings of Studsvik on the Baltic coast. SVAFO is owned by the Swedish nuclear power industry. The company was created in 1992 by Sydsvenska Vaermekraft AB, Vattenfall AB, Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB and Oskarshamns Kraftgrupp AB as a consequence of the Act on the Financing of the Management of Certain Radioactive Waste etc, from 1988. AB SVAFO's main business is to take care of formerly state-owned spent nuclear waste at the site, including small amounts of nuclear fuel. Buildings are also included, mainly nuclear waste storage buildings and a research reactor. Some buildings have already been decommissioned and all the fuel is treated. In the past 30 years, various decommissioning projects have been carried out, encompassing areas such as an underground research reactor, a Van de Graaff accelerator, 15,000 m 2 of nuclear laboratories, two 150 m 3 underground concrete sludge silos and several waste-storage buildings. Up till now only one or two persons did a simple characterisation before the project started to get the level of contamination. With the start of the decommissioning of the former uranium mine in Ranstad and the R2-reactor, more efforts have been put for the characterisation. The change in methods will be described. (author)

  15. How to optimize tourism destination supply: A case in Shanghai from perspective of supplier and demand side perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Huaju; Fang, Chengjiang

    2018-02-01

    It is vital to assess the regional tourist supply capability by suppliers and demand groups. The supply side’s evaluation of the regional supply capacity determines the direction of the supply investment in future, the demand side’s evaluation indicates their satisfaction degree of the destination supply and also effects their revisit the tourism destination. Therefore, the assessment of the supply and demand sides is an important reference for the reform of destination supply side, which helps us find the shortage of the destination supply factors and optimize tourism destination supply promptly. This paper through investigating tourism supply and demand groups in Shanghai, used the survey data and constructed tourism supply optimization model, analyzed the current situation of tourism supply factors in Shanghai. Results showed that the environment of Shanghai should be improved first, including improving urban air and water quality, up-grading public sanitation and increasing urban green coverage. Other supply factors improved priority were information and marketing, we should improve the information consultation of scenic spots, increase the intensity of tourism promotion and provide more free travel publicity brochures.

  16. Using Digital Earth to create online scientific reality tourist guides to tourist attractions in Taiwan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yea-Chung

    2010-11-01

    In recent years national parks worldwide have introduced online virtual tourism, through which potential visitors can search for tourist information. Most virtual tourism websites are a simulation of an existing location, usually composed of panoramic images, a sequence of hyperlinked still or video images, and/or virtual models of the actual location. As opposed to actual tourism, a virtual tour is typically accessed on a personal computer or an interactive kiosk. Using modern Digital Earth techniques such as high resolution satellite images, precise GPS coordinates and powerful 3D WebGIS, however, it's possible to create more realistic scenic models to present natural terrain and man-made constructions in greater detail. This article explains how to create an online scientific reality tourist guide for the Jinguashi Gold Ecological Park at Jinguashi in northern Taiwan, China. This project uses high-resolution Formosat 2 satellite images and digital aerial images in conjunction with DTM to create a highly realistic simulation of terrain, with the addition of 3DMAX to add man-made constructions and vegetation. Using this 3D Geodatabase model in conjunction with INET 3D WebGIS software, we have found Digital Earth concept can greatly improve and expand the presentation of traditional online virtual tours on the websites.

  17. The Peronist festival: pathways and appropriations between photography, ephemeral architecture and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marchionni Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing some of the scenarios, photos, and posters used by the Peronist administration and explain their incidence in wine festivals and their imaginary construction after World War II. This proposal examines the relation between photography and ephemeral architecture mediated by political power, as a part of the strategies developed by the Peronist propaganda apparatus to feed the imaginary surrounding the ‘New Argentina.’ At this particular historical moment, the graphic and photographic records taken into account are a gateway to analyze the ephemeral phenomena that cannot be resumed otherwise. The methodological strategy used is qualitative and exploratory, and its design has a flexible nature. Although these testimonies, reflected in the sources described, do not give us back the possibility of being in direct contact to these experiences, they do allow us to access the set of desires, tensions, frustrations, expectations, debates, the achievements and failures, through which the scenic architecture projects were formulated and developed.   Keywords: Photographic Archives; Ephemeral Architecture; Harvest Festival; Power Relationships; Peronism.   Original title: La fiesta peronista: recorridos y apropiaciones entre fotografía, arquitectura efímera y poder político.

  18. Exhibition Exploitation: the artful use of art and advertising in urban spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Campolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space can be a powerful display that offers great chances to media marketing and communication in general. Nowadays, every kind of architecture or structure in the city is part of an expanded scenic backdrop suitable to perform spectacular acts expressing either ephemeral or permanent values. Mutating faster than its architecture, the urban scenario becomes the archetype of social and cultural changes. The contemporary city is the favored place for any kind of communication or intensive propagation of ideas and “suggestions”. Its spaces are contended by art and advertising which, through interventions and a constant crossover process, find a confluence in their specific intents. While the artistic act often exploits urban space for social or promotional purposes, trying to give more visibility to the city’s abandoned or deteriorating places, instead advertising exploits the city’s most visible spots for commercial purposes. But all over the years art and advertising have changed, too. Both have reinforced their connection with each other and both have borrowed tools from each other; in fact, today their parameters and strategies are mixed. The observer or the city user, who is often unaware of this ambiguous communication, frequently assimilates the message but confuses its real meaning.

  19. Neotropical coastal lagoons: an appraisal of their biodiversity, functioning, threats and conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Esteves

    Full Text Available Neotropical coastal lagoons (NCL are human-dominated ecosystems. Their distribution along densely populated coastal areas of developing countries makes these systems among the most threatened in the world. Here, we summarize some aspects of the causes and consequences of NCL biodiversity, their functioning, their importance to the surrounding populations, their fragility, and their responses to local and global anthropogenic impacts and the challenges that Neotropical countries face in conserving these systems. Although still scarce and geographically concentrated, a growing body of studies has shown that NCLs are physiographically diversified systems, which harbor a considerable and particular proportion of the Neotropical inland aquatic biodiversity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are ecotones that are intricately connected to surrounding environments, they develop mechanisms for structural and functional regulation, which confer to these systems higher productivity and carrying capacities than surrounding ecosystems. Such traits attract residential developments and subsidize local traditional populations with important economic and aesthetic ecosystem revenues such as fisheries and scenic beauty. However, the disorganized human occupation around NCLs are causing profound impacts such as eutrophication, salinization, exotic species introduction, as well as other effects, which are ultimately imposing major habitat degradations and biodiversity extirpations in NCLs. We argue that interdisciplinary conservation strategies, which integrate scientific expertise, government officials, private companies and the general public, are the most likely to overcome the geographic and economic obstacles to NCL conservation.

  20. Adjustment of the architecture to the bioclimatic conditions of the environment on case study of the monsoon modernism of architect Geoffrey Bawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović-Hristić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffrey Bawa (1919-2003, not well known in our ambience, was Sri Lanka's most influential architect and South Asia's leading guru of unique style, named tropical architecture. The distinction of his work is outstanding aesthetic sensitivity to site and context, especially to peculiar climatic conditions and demands. For his architectural opus he received in 2001 prestigious Aga Khan Award for Architecture, Special Chairman's Award. Although he started to engage in architecture late, in age of 38, soon he became a noted by his inventiveness in forming new canons and prototypes of modern architecture, based on traditional knowledge and perfectly fitted in local surrounding. Bawa created sustainable architecture even before the term started to be used and his masterpieces broke down the barrier between inside and outside space, designing of the interior and landscaping, reducing the building to a series of scenic spaces separated by courtyards and gardens. He is well known by his designs for private villas and hotels, but his portfolio contains public building, as schools and universities, new Sri Lanka's Parliament, sacral, office and industrial structures. Through the presentation of several projects, the paper analyzes his development path and basic characteristics of so called 'monsoon modernism' and special relationship to the bioclimatic conditions of the environment.

  1. Valuation approaches to ecosystem goods and services for the National Botanical Garden, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahzeeda Jasia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main attractions of national parks include their scenic beauty, security, wildlife and trees. For preserving and maintaining national parks, an appropriate pricing policy can be used. The current study focuses on using the travel cost method (TCM and contingent valuation method (CVM as a non-market valuation technique to value the National Botanical Garden in Bangladesh, a developing country where little or no previous works of this kind has been conducted before. The main objective of the paper was to suggest an appropriate entrance fee for the park by assessing the willingness to pay (WTP from the TCM and CVM; by determining a revenue maximizing entrance fee from the CVM; and by considering socio-demographics, the characteristics of visits and the motivation of the visitors to preserve the National Botanical Garden. The study sampled 100 visitors. These visitors participated in a survey which consisted of closed questions followed by a semi structured in-depth interview. For data processing, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Based on the travel cost demand function using the TCM, the study found that the amount respondents were willing to pay for entrance was 0.955 US dollars and yearly consumer surplus was 593634.5 USD. From the CVM, it was estimated that the WTP was 0.225 USD for the entrance and revenue maximizing entrance fee was 0.376 USD. Finally, the entrance fee suggested for National Botanical Garden was around 0.225 USD.

  2. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  3. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, L.C.; Wong, L. L.; Amnorzahira, A.; Sa'ari, M.; Abdul Rashid, M. S.; Salmiaton Ali

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  4. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  5. The use of portfolio in learning English for Professional Purposes. An experience applied with students of Forestry at the University of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselys González López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinar del Río, the Cuba ́s westernmost province well-known as the land of a gorgeous and charming nature and named as the Cuba’s Garden, declared by UNESCO, which possesses the largest forestry heritage of the country, scenic beauties which has traditionally inspired many painters from generation to generation. So, it ́s considered the cradle of the wider landscape painting movement of the country, a reality traced by its environment, by the tree as a symbol of life, time and culture, which hasn ́t been taken into account when managing the learning process to forestry students centered in the communicative specialized task. This article reveals the consideration of landscape paintings as English lessons content as a way and a need to make vivid the fact that wor ds do not symbolize what it is important leading to deep understanding, and to educate in the conservation of the environmental legacy to future generations from an artistic perspective.

  6. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guofu; Tang, Yuli; Fan, Likun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Yijun; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=10 12 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=10 9 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  7. Publicidade política e estratégias de representação: a visibilidade pública como «armadilha»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOR, Hélder Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the changes in the media and political sphere have redefined, substantially, the processes of political communication; specifically with regard to the forms of revelation or presentation to the public. Nowadays, political communication is manufactured to influence the media system and ensure the visibility and public recognition in order that theatrical logic of the political arena works. From Thomas Hobbes, through Elias Canetti, the concept of actor was transferred from theatrical language into political language to refer to those who represent words and pretend actions in political campaigns. Through this way of thinking, politics and theater become two concepts that come together. The political action is brought on the scene as if it were a scenic art, and the media offer a privileged public recognition and consent to the characters of the theatrum politicum. Therefore, the political action is mediated by a theatrical rhetoric that has a privileged arena within the media system. However, the “lights” used by the media coverage bring with them new risks and may even have perverse effects. Indeed, this is where the manufacture of political advertising turns against the system that it serves. This is when public visibility becomes a trap.

  8. Rapid Extraction of Landslide and Spatial Distribution Analysis after Jiuzhaigou Ms7.0 Earthquake Based on Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Q. S.; Luo, Y.; Shen, W. H.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented analysis method, landslides image objects were obtained by multi-scale segmentation, and the feature rule set of each level was automatically built by SEaTH (Separability and Thresholds) algorithm to realize the rapid landslide extraction. Compared with visual interpretation, object-oriented automatic landslides extraction method achieved an accuracy of 94.3 %. The spatial distribution of the earthquake landslide had a significant positive correlation with slope and relief and had a negative correlation with the roughness, but no obvious correlation with the aspect. The relationship between the landslide and the aspect was not found and the probable reason may be that the distance between the study area and the seismogenic fault was too far away. This work provided technical support for the earthquake field emergency, earthquake landslide prediction and disaster loss assessment.

  9. RAPID EXTRACTION OF LANDSLIDE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AFTER JIUZHAIGOU Ms7.0 EARTHQUAKE BASED ON UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. S. Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiuzhaigou earthquake led to the collapse of the mountains and formed lots of landslides in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot and surrounding roads which caused road blockage and serious ecological damage. Due to the urgency of the rescue, the authors carried unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and entered the disaster area as early as August 9 to obtain the aerial images near the epicenter. On the basis of summarizing the earthquake landslides characteristics in aerial images, by using the object-oriented analysis method, landslides image objects were obtained by multi-scale segmentation, and the feature rule set of each level was automatically built by SEaTH (Separability and Thresholds algorithm to realize the rapid landslide extraction. Compared with visual interpretation, object-oriented automatic landslides extraction method achieved an accuracy of 94.3 %. The spatial distribution of the earthquake landslide had a significant positive correlation with slope and relief and had a negative correlation with the roughness, but no obvious correlation with the aspect. The relationship between the landslide and the aspect was not found and the probable reason may be that the distance between the study area and the seismogenic fault was too far away. This work provided technical support for the earthquake field emergency, earthquake landslide prediction and disaster loss assessment.

  10. Spatial Integration Analysis of Provincial Historical and Cultural Heritage Resources Based on Geographic Information System (gis) — a Case Study of Spatial Integration Analysis of Historical and Cultural Heritage Resources in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Q.; Chen, J.; Huo, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, T.

    2017-08-01

    In China historical and cultural heritage resources include historically and culturally famous cities, towns, villages, blocks, immovable cultural relics and the scenic spots with cultural connotation. The spatial distribution laws of these resources are always directly connected to the regional physical geography, historical development and historical traffic geography and have high research values. Meanwhile, the exhibition and use of these resources are greatly influenced by traffic and tourism and other plans at the provincial level, and it is of great realistic significance to offer proposals on traffic and so on that are beneficial to the exhibition of heritage resources based on the research of province distribution laws. This paper takes the spatial analysis of Geographic Information System (GIS) as the basic technological means and all historical and cultural resources in China's Zhejiang Province as research objects, and finds out in the space the accumulation areas and accumulation belts of Zhejiang Province's historic cities and cultural resources through overlay analysis and density analysis, etc. It then discusses the reasons of the formation of these accumulation areas and accumulation belts by combining with the analysis of physical geography and historical geography and so on, and in the end, linking the tourism planning and traffic planning at the provincial level, it provides suggestions on the exhibition and use of accumulation areas and accumulation belts of historic cities and cultural resources.

  11. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  12. Fudo: An East Asian Notion of Climate and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available My paper discusses an East Asian notion of climate and its significance for sustainability. A particular reference is the environmental philosophy of Tetsuro Watsuji (1889–1960, a Japanese philosopher who reflected upon the meaning of climate, or “fudo” in the Sino-Japanese linguistic tradition. Watsuji sees fudo not merely as a collection of natural features—climatic, scenic, and topographical—of a given land, but also as the metaphor of subjectivity, or “who I am”. Furthermore, this self-discovery through fudo is never private but collective. By referring to a phenomenological notion of “ek-sistere”, or “to be out among other ‘I’s”, Watsuji demonstrates the pervasiveness of a climatic phenomenon and the ensuing inter-personal joining of different individuals to shape a collective sustainable measure in response to the phenomenon. My paper lastly concretizes the significance of fudo and its inter-personal ethical basis for sustainability by dwelling upon cross-ventilation in Japanese vernacular residential architecture. Cross-ventilation emerges only through what Watsuji calls “selfless openness” between different rooms predicated upon the joining of different ‘I’s soaked in hotness and humidity. Watsuji’s fudo thus offers a lesson that without considering the collective humane characteristic of a natural climatic phenomenon, any sustainable act is flawed and inefficient.

  13. Traçando diferentes linhas para o balé: perspectivas políticas do movimento do coreógrafo William Forsythe (1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousejanny Silva Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza a feitura e sentidos do balé na contemporaneidade a partir do diálogo entre os estudos da dança e da performance. Como norte desta pesquisa, recorro ao pesquisador André Lepecki para traçar algumas linhas políticas do movimento na dança cênica, focando na expressão do balé e seu desenvolvimento potencial com o coreógrafo norte americano William Forsythe, a frente do Frankfurt Ballet na década de 1990. Forsythe problematizou pontos conceituais e composicionais do balé que desencadearam uma série de questões sobre o modo de entendê-lo na contemporaneidade. ABSTRACT This article discusses the making and contemporary ballet's senses from the dialogue between dance and performance studies. As North of this research, turn to the researcher André Lepecki to plot some political lines of movement in scenic dance, focusing on expression of the ballet and its development potential with the American choreographer William Forsythe, the Frankfurt Ballet in late 1990. Forsythe discussed conceptual and compositional points of the Ballet that triggered a series of questions on how to understand him in contemporary times. KEYWORDS: Ballet; dance studies; William Forsythe.

  14. Two Wooers and their Sonnets: On Poetic Forms in Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Haltrin-Khalturina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the semiotics of the sonnet form used by Shakespeare in his tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Particular attention is paid to two sonnets, of Paris and of Romeo, in which different manners of courting are played out. The poetic “gift” from Romeo to Juliet, their shared sonnets, one complete and one interrupted (Act 1, Sc. 5, ls. 92–109, is a notorious and much discussed piece of Shakespeare’s dramatic poetry. However, the other wooing sonnet representing desires of Paris and mouthed by Lady Capulet (Act 1, Sc. 3, ls. 80–95, seems to lack that kind of attention. Our essay juxtaposes the two sonnets in question, which are built around extended metaphors (conceits. Romeo’s sonneteering is endowed with dramatic power that quickens the debate and inspires accord between the title’s heroes. The semantic charge of this shared sonnet resonates in the heroes’ scenic gestures, prompting the play’s outcome. By contrast, the rather inert sonnet of Paris is like a dead letter of bookish instruction, which neither inspires amorous response, nor moves Juliet. The article also places Romeo’s and Paris’s pieces against Shakespeare’s sonnets 128 and 126 of the 1609 edition.

  15. Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.E.; Geiser, L.; Bachman, R.; Blubaugh, T.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Topographic and meteorological conditions make the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) an 'exhaust pipe' for air pollutants generated by the Portland-Vancouver metropolis and Columbia Basin. We sampled fog, bulk precipitation, throughfall, airborne particulates, lichen thalli, and nitrophytic lichen distribution. Throughfall N and S deposition were high, 11.5-25.4 and 3.4-6.7 kg ha -1 over 4.5 months at all 9 and 4/9 sites, respectively. Deposition and lichen thallus N were highest at eastern- and western-most sites, implicating both agricultural and urban sources. Fog and precipitation pH were frequently as low as 3.7-5.0. Peak NO x , NH 3 , and SO 2 concentrations in the eastern CRG were low, suggesting enhanced N and S inputs were largely from particulate deposition. Lichens indicating nitrogen-enriched environments were abundant and lichen N and S concentrations were 2x higher in the CRG than surrounding national forests. The atmospheric deposition levels detected likely threaten Gorge ecosystems and cultural resources. - Nitrogen, sulfur and acidic deposition threaten natural and cultural resources in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

  16. Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Evans, James W. [TWRA; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL

    2007-10-01

    This document outlines a plan for management of the wildlife resources on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation. Management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; restoration of wildlife species; preservation, management, and enhancement of wildlife habitats; coordination of wildlife studies and characterization of areas; and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into several categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for attaining them. These objectives are management of (1) wildlife habitats to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety; (4) the Three Bend Scenic and Wildlife Management Refuge Area; (5) nuisance wildlife, including nonnative species, to achieve adequate population control for the maintenance of health and safety on the Reservation; (6) sensitive species (i.e., state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, of special concern, or in need of management) through preservation and protection of both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (7) wildlife disease. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through agreements between TWRA and DOE and between DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC.

  17. Hydroelectric project EA's [environmental assessments]: The Magpie development in northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, K.

    1992-01-01

    Great Lakes Power recently constructed a hydroelectric plant on the Magpie River near Wawa, Ontario. The project involved three main elements: construction of a 33 m high dam, a 15.5 MW power station, and a spillway at Steephill Falls; construction of a 3.5 m high overflow weir just above the crest of scenic Magpie Falls, creating a head pond to supply a 15 MW power plant; and construction of a weir and 15 MW power plant at Mission Falls. Although this was a private development and therefore not automatically subject to Ontario's Environmental Assessment Act, Great Lakes Power decided to conform with the act's requirements and undertook a comprehensive environmental assessment (EA). Environmental issues were focused on changes in hydrology and water quality, impacts on fisheries and natural resources, slope stability and erosion, socioeconomic impacts, impacts on heritage resources, and impacts on tourism and recreation. The project was approved subject to conditions which included implementation of mitigation and monitoring requirements outlined in the EA document. Environmental specialists worked closely with the engineers at the detailed design stage of the project, resulting in modifications to the preliminary design to minimize environmental impacts

  18. Woodland diagnosis of ecological reserve "Cerro de Amalucan" in the City of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees in urban parks play a key role in the sustainability of cities. The tree is urban landscape of a city, provides environmental, aesthetic, scenic, recreational, cultural and economic benefits. The obwas to study the current state of woodland in the Cerro de Amalucan Ecological Reserve in the city of Puebla, Mexico, a forest dasometric diagnosis was applied by sampling in the area. Settling 17 sampling sites area of 1000 m2, completely randomized design with dasometric data. The results were averaged 183.5 trees per hectare, the most dominant Eucalyptus sp with 61.5% of actual stocks species. Following the species Cupressus lindleyi with 22.2%. Subsequently, the species Juniperus deppeana, with 6.8%, and the species Ipomoea murocoides, which had 2.9% of the total population, like the species polystachya Eysenhardtia, continuing the species flaccid Juniperus, with 1.6%, followed Cupressus sempervirens with 0.96%, Casuarina equisetifolia, with 0.64%, finally Pinus patula with 0.64%. Are cataloged as exotic tree species the next in line: Eucalyptus sp, and Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupressus lindleyi, Cupressus semprevirens and Pinus patula and were characterized as native species: Juniperus deppeana Eysenhardtia polystachya, Juniperus flacida. The areas are to manage 20 hectares with reforestation for restoration, on 75 hectares’ protection is carried out in areas prone to invasion and species conservation and recreation area with 40 hectares for hiking, ecological tours, bike paths and recreation.

  19. The Role of Satisfaction and Emotional Response in the Choice Mechanisms of Suburban Natural-Areas Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mosquera, Natalia; Sanchez, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The unique observations and experiences of users of suburban natural areas lead them to perceive their surroundings in a manner associated with their personal values. It follows that every individual has a unique cognitive decision-making structure. This paper examines users' affective and cognitive evaluation of a particular suburban natural area by applying the means-end chain method to reveal the cognitive mechanism by which users link the attributes and benefits of an environmental public good with their own personal values. Analysis of a survey conducted of visitors to a Spanish suburban natural area (park) reveals the main attributes to be the opportunity to practice sports and proximity of the park and the main potential benefits to be the improvement of physical and psychological well-being. The desired personal values include fun, quality of life and self-fulfillment at the individual level and improved social relationships at the collective level. The paper also tests for cross-group, cognitive-structure differences in visitor groups, segmented by level of satisfaction and reported range of emotions, and finds that perceived physical and psychological health improvements and individual and social awareness increase with higher levels of satisfaction and emotional response. Therefore, the recommendations for natural area management suggested by these findings include enhancing the scenic beauty and peacefulness of suburban natural areas in order to improve the affective state of visitors because this could contribute to reducing social costs (including health care) within the area of influence of the natural area.

  20. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  1. Liu Fang Yuan at The Huntington——An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (USA)Laurie Sowd

    2009-01-01

    Liu Fang Yuan is a classical Chinese Garden, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance, a most remarkable project in Huntington. This project was conceived by James Folsom. It is an international business venture, complex construction project, unique China-US collaboration, and center of cultural memory. Inspired by the centuries-old Chinese tradition of private gardens, Liu Fang Yuan combines the scenic beauty of nature with the expressiveness of literature to give deeper meaning to the landscape. True to the authentic nature of a Chinese garden, the design respects the site. It extends to adapting some of the traditional elements of Chinese garden design to meet local needs for seismic safety and wheelchair accessibility. Liu Fang Yuan is the only truly seasonal garden at the Huntington, emphasizing and symbolizing the progression of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The visitor experiences more than the visual realm. The garden's name, Liu Fang Yuan, has bolh literal and symbolic meanings refer to the scent of flowers and trees, also echoes the name of famed Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang. Liu Fang Yuan is truly a microcosm of The Huntington, bringing together botany, art and literature in a garden that will serve as a place of cultural memory and center for education about one of the great humanities traditions of the world.

  2. Construction of Tourism Brands of West Island Based on Environment Carrying Capacity%环境承载力考量下的西岛旅游品牌构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海东

    2012-01-01

    The construction of tourism culture brands of West Island is discussed under the background of constructing tourism marketing pattern in Hainan. It is pointed out that the construction of marine tourism brand based on the environment resources and slow tour culture brand based on the unique sea culture conforms to the change trend from sightseeing which emphasizes spiritual pursuit. The brands sustainable development of the scenic soots. tour which gives physical pleasure to experiencing tour are conducive to the formation of competitiveness and%在海南构建旅游大营销格局背景下,探讨西岛景点旅游文化品牌的构建,指出构建基于其优质环境资源的海洋游品牌和基于其独特海洋文化的慢游文化品牌,可以顺应由重视身体享乐的观光游向以精神追求为主的体验游转变趋势。该品牌有利于形成景点的核心竞争力和可持续发展。

  3. Viticulture and landscape, values for the society in Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Laura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The landscape is a perception of the agroecosystem valued as aesthetic, cultural, recreational and touristic, for conservation, among others. It is considered an environmental service and cultural heritage according to the International UN Conference 1972 (Paris, France. The agroecosystem of Mendoza's Northern Oasis creates a landscape with the presence of vineyards framed by the Andes, which is a scenic resource characterized as an environmental cultural service. The disordered process of urban growth in North of Mendoza, threatens the provision of the mentioned service. In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative assessment aim to characterize the perceptions of urban residents on the vineyards landscape. Two methodologies were applied: expert opinion through focus groups and survey data collection. By working with focus groups, positive impacts of this kind of landscape were recognized. In the 638 surveys made in the urban area of Mendoza, a six landscape images valuation was requested (with a score of 1 to 10, where 10 is the maximum. The highest average scores were for the view of Aconcagua, secondly the agricultural landscape with vineyards and mountains and thirdly another view of vineyards in the North Oasis.

  4. The National Trust and the Heritage of Sydney Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Logan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns to preserve the legacy of the past in Australian cities have been particularly focused on the protection of natural landscapes and public open space. From campaigns to protect Perth’s Kings Park and the Green Bans of the Builders Labourers Federation in New South Wales to contemporary controversies such as the Perth waterfront redevelopment, Melbourne’s East West Link, and new development at Middle Harbour in Sydney’s Mosman, heritage activists have viewed the protection and restoration of ‘natural’ vistas, open spaces and ‘scenic landscapes’ as a vital part of the effort to preserve the historic identity of urban places. The protection of such landscapes has been a vital aspect of establishing a positive conception of the environment as a source of both urban and national identity. Drawing predominantly on the records of the National Trust of Australia (NSW, this paper examines the formation and early history of the Australian National Trust, in particular its efforts to preserve and restore the landscapes of Sydney Harbour. It then uses that history as a basis for examining the debate surrounding the landscape reconstruction project that forms part of Sydney’s highly contested Barangaroo development.

  5. [Perception of residents in world heritage site to the effects of ecological migration: a case study of three migrant resettlement spots in Wulingyuan, Hunan Province of South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ou, Yan; Ge, Quan-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Based on the investigation in three typical migrant resettlement spots in Wulingyuan Scenic Area, a demonstration analysis was conducted on the residents' perception to the effects of ecological migration on world heritage site. The residents in the 3 spots had great differences in the positive perception to the economic effects of ecological migration, but less differences in the perception to the negative indices. The residents had high identity with the positive socio-cultural effects, but weak perception to the negative effects. The residents in the 3 resettlement spots had obvious differences in the perception to the effects on resources and environment, but mostly agreed that the negative psychological effects were not so obvious. The negative comments were given to the main migration policies. Age, educational level, monthly income, and proportion of tourism input were the main factors affecting the residents' perception, and the way of resettlement as well as the proportion of tourism input also had important effects on the residents' perception. Migration policy was the dominant factor affecting the integral perception of the residents to ecological migration.

  6. Research on spatial structure of regional tourism resources——Taking Nanjing city as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Binglin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of tourism resources can help to understand the spatial distribution characteristics of tourism resources,and then guide the tourism planning and improve the competitive advantage of tourism area.Based on the relevant data released by Jiangsu Provincial Tourism Bureau,taking advantage of the ArcGIS platform,the development and utilization of tourism resources and the problems in the spatial structure of tourism resources were analyzed by using the superiority index,Nearest Neighbor Index and Traffic Connectivity Index.The results show that:1 the spatial distribution of tourism resources in Nanjing is clustered;the distribution of the main urban area is relatively dense,and the resource level is higher;2 the spatial distribution of the traffic network between the tourist resources is in the middle and lower levels,and the traffic loops are poor and the accessibility is not high.The accessibility degree shows ‘center high,four weeks low’ and ‘east and west high,north and south low’.3The resource of Nanjing tourism can be optimized by optimization of the transport network;by determining the core of tourism,clarifying the level of scenic spots;increasing the efforts of tourism development and developing tourism products in depth;integration of the tourism resources,construction of the clusters and zones of tourism resources;and other aspects.

  7. 22nd International Conference of the International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA)

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Con­ ference of the International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA), 15-19 July, 1991, Kyoto, Japan, sponsored by the Science Council of Japan and the Japanese Association of Simulation and Gaming (JASAG). The con­ ference theme was Global Modeling for Solving Global Problems. The first 2 days of the conference were held in the magnificent Kyoto International Conference Hall; the 3rd day was spent admiring the floats of the famous Gion Festival in the exquisite city of Kyoto and the Daibutsu (or Great Buddha) of the Todaiji Temple in Nara and visiting one of the Sharp factories. During the last 2 days of the conference we were made most welcome in the Faculty of International Relations of Ritsumeikan University. The day after the conference, a number of delegates went to Hiroshima (the Peace Memorial Hall, Museum and Park) and also to one of Japan's "Scenic Trio," the island of Miyajima with its breathtaking views and the Itsukushi...

  8. Landslides and dam damage resulting from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (8 August 2017), Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yun-sheng; Luo, Yong-hong; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Tong

    2018-03-01

    At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise. The landslides involved hanging wall and back-slope effects, and the slope angle, slope aspect, seismic faults and valley trend were obviously related to the occurrence of the landslides. Specifically, most of the landslides were shallow landslides, rockfalls and rock avalanches and were small in scale. The failure modes of landslides mainly include wedge rock mass failure, residual deposit failure, relaxed rock mass failure and weathered rock mass failure. The initial low stability of the dam coupled with the topographic effect, back-slope effect and excess pore water pressure led to damage to the Nuorilang Waterfall dam.

  9. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  10. 'Wind in motion'. The rough guide to wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    This project, which will run from January 2005 to October 2005, aims to develop a promotional DVD to inform and reassure the public and specific audiences on controversial aspects of proposed new wind farms. The DVD would also be used as a tool to gain acceptance and contributions from bodies involved in wind energy developments. 'Wind in Motion' complements a number of other public relations campaigns being undertaken bor proposed by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA). The DVD would cover issues such as the impact of wind farms of wild birds, the visual impact of wind farms on the landscape, the impact on tourism in scenic areas, the impact of local house prices, the impact on local residents during the construction and operational phases, and comparisons with the capacity and efficiencies of other electricity generating systems such as coal, gas and nuclear. The project's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of wind energy by addressing information barriers and providing information to help industry with transferable skills to diversify in the supply chain. Work will include cataloguing the footage taken for the DVD to allow it to be made available to the industry and producing case studies of the benefits of skills transfer.

  11. TEATRO MAYA: RABINAL ACHÍ O DANZA DEL TUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henríquez Puentes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El Rabinal Achí o Danza del Tun es teatro de origen maya puesto en escena desde el siglo XIII hasta nuestros días en la actual Guatemala. Es una composición inserta en el esquema religioso de las culturas mesoamericanas que, conservada a través de tradición oral hasta el siglo XIX, ha sido reescrita en este espacio escénico durante aproximadamente ochocientos años. El Rabinal Achí revela una forma de escribir con el cuerpo que articula danza, música y poesía, y representa ese momento en la historia del teatro en que el arte de la representación y rito compartían la misma escenaThe Rabinal Achí or Dance of the Tun is theatre of Mayan origen. The first performances date from the 13th century and continue into the present day in contemporary Guatemala. It is a composition that forms part of the religious scheme of the Indo-American cultures and, preserved through oral tradition up until the 19th century, has been rewritten in this scenic space for approximately eight hundred years. The Rabinal Achí reveals a way of writing with the body that articulates dance, music and poetry and represents a moment in the history of theatre in which the art of representation and the ritual share the same scene

  12. Teoría de la comedia en la Poética Toscana de Sebastiano Minturno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobes, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of comedy, a «mentioned but not discussed» genre in Aristotle's Poetics, has great interest in the Italian Poetics of the Renaissance, for two main reasons: to complete the Aristotelian text and to dignify some works, specially by Terence, that were represented with great success in the Italian palaces. In the Second Dialogue of A. S. Minturno's Poetica Toscana, dedicated to Scenic Poetry, Aristotle’s theory of tragedy is commented on and a theory of comedy is proposed. This study aims to analyse this Dialogue.La teoría de la Comedia, género «citado pero no tratado» en la Poética de Aristóteles, tiene gran interés en las Poéticas italianas del Renacimiento, por dos razones: completar el texto aristotélico y dignificar unas obras, sobre todo de Terencio, que se representaban con gran éxito en los palacios italianos. La Poética toscana de A. S. Minturno dedica el segundo de sus Diálogos a la Poesía Escénica, donde glosa la teoría de la tragedia de Aristóteles y crea una teoría de la comedia. Ésta es el objeto de este estudio.

  13. Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Salminen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management.

  14. Space Link Extension (SLE) Emulation for High-Throughput Network Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Robert W.; Tchorowski, Nicole; Golden, Bert

    2014-01-01

    As the data rate requirements for space communications increases, significant stress is placed not only on the wireless satellite communication links, but also on the ground networks which forward data from end-users to remote ground stations. These wide area network (WAN) connections add delay and jitter to the end-to-end satellite communication link, effects which can have significant impacts on the wireless communication link. It is imperative that any ground communication protocol can react to these effects such that the ground network does not become a bottleneck in the communication path to the satellite. In this paper, we present our SCENIC Emulation Lab testbed which was developed to test the CCSDS SLE protocol implementations proposed for use on future NASA communication networks. Our results show that in the presence of realistic levels of network delay, high-throughput SLE communication links can experience significant data rate throttling. Based on our observations, we present some insight into why this data throttling happens, and trace the probable issue back to non-optimal blocking communication which is sup-ported by the CCSDS SLE API recommended practices. These issues were presented as well to the SLE implementation developers which, based on our reports, developed a new release for SLE which we show fixes the SLE blocking issue and greatly improves the protocol throughput. In this paper, we also discuss future developments for our end-to-end emulation lab and how these improvements can be used to develop and test future space communication technologies.

  15. THE USE OF GEOTECHNOLOGY IN ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SALTO VENTOSO (FARROUPILHA/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of a survey on environmental impacts due to visitors in a tourist attraction, using geotechnology as a tool. The study was carried out at Salto Ventoso, Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil, a tourist attraction with major importance for the region. At the site, a private area, the attraction is a 60 meters (197 feet height cascade and its scenic landscape. Visitors can also hike through the trail that goes behind the waterfall. The trail was mapped using GPS (Global Positioning System and theodolite, and divided into twelve sections, which were evaluated on the issues of declivity, width, damage to natural resources and infrastructure, drainage problems, number of unofficial trails and amount of waste. The results showed that the site presents a series of environmental impacts resulting from both lack of planning and great amount of visitors. Some strategies for managing the site would be the installation of safety and signing infrastructure, as well as a work on environmental awareness of the visitors and their impacts on site.

  16. Improving ASTER GDEM Accuracy Using Land Use-Based Linear Regression Methods: A Case Study of Lianyungang, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal-Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM is important to a wide range of geographical and environmental studies. Its accuracy, to some extent associated with land-use types reflecting topography, vegetation coverage, and human activities, impacts the results and conclusions of these studies. In order to improve the accuracy of ASTER GDEM prior to its application, we investigated ASTER GDEM errors based on individual land-use types and proposed two linear regression calibration methods, one considering only land use-specific errors and the other considering the impact of both land-use and topography. Our calibration methods were tested on the coastal prefectural city of Lianyungang in eastern China. Results indicate that (1 ASTER GDEM is highly accurate for rice, wheat, grass and mining lands but less accurate for scenic, garden, wood and bare lands; (2 despite improvements in ASTER GDEM2 accuracy, multiple linear regression calibration requires more data (topography and a relatively complex calibration process; (3 simple linear regression calibration proves a practicable and simplified means to systematically investigate and improve the impact of land-use on ASTER GDEM accuracy. Our method is applicable to areas with detailed land-use data based on highly accurate field-based point-elevation measurements.

  17. Visitor Assessment of the Mandatory Alternative Transportation System at Zion National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Britton L.; Marquit, Joshua D.; Bates, Scott C.

    2013-11-01

    Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.

  18. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  19. Composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and their effect on tourism development of inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of dairy industry in Inner Mongolia has accelerated its economic growth, and its grassland culture has become appealing to the public. As an important support industry for the economic development in tourism area of Inner Mongolia, dairy industry can create economic value for the development of tourism. In view of the importance of dairy products-the habitat of lactic acid bacteria, this study aims to reveal the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and isolate lactic acid bacteria resources. Firstly, we selected 60 traditional dairy product samples (from the pasture in scenic area of Inner Mongolia as the research objects. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, lactic acid bacteria in the samples were isolated and identified; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR technology was applied to the comparative analysis on the population of dominant bacteria in samples. It was found that there were significant differences in the numbers of dominant bacteria in different dairy products. With the advantages of improving nutritional value and extending storage time of dairy products, lactic acid bacteria is contributive to the development of dairy industry, which further promotes the prosperity of economy and tourism. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products.

  20. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT technology with the development of the smart tourism industry and smart tourism cities. Many Chinese scholars stated their ideas on the technological structure of IoT and the extension of smart tourism industries. At the same time, many Chinese cities have attempted to combine IoT and smart tourism. There is a trend of embedding Application of Tourism IoT in China’s Scenic Spots. Smart tourism should build an IoT information technology public platform, covering service management to marketing management. The emerging smart tourism industry fits China’s economic growth and industrial transformation. Based on these developments, this research determines the current status and development potential of smart tourism in China, and offers recommendations for their applications in China.

  1. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the environmental aspects of potential radioactive waste repository study areas in the Ohio and New York portions of the Salina Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Various geographical regions and geological media are being evaluated to determine their potential suitability as an underground repository for commercial radioactive wastes. All three areas and the subarea of Ohio and New York have good highway and rail-transport access. More information is needed on the agricultural viability of all areas. Surface and ground-water usage are much greater in the urbanized Ohio area; because of its rural nature, New York Study Area 1 and the Beaver Dams Subarea have the lowest demand for either water source. Of the New York areas, Study Area 1 appears to provide greater possibilities, considering the objective of minimizing environmental impact. The Ohio study area includes a large part that is within the urbanized area surrounding Cleveland. In addition, the entire study area is marked by a high density of other screening factors such as historic and archaeological sites, natural areas and scenic highways. While more detailed study in the Ohio area might reveal subareas relatively lightly developed and sufficient in size for a repository, significant land use conflicts are likely for most of the area of geologic interst. The Ohio area, from a nongeologic standpoint, appears to be the least promising of the areas identified

  3. Similarities and life cycle distributions of floras of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two midwestern U.S. national parks were studied to examine the similarities of their floras and analyses of the floras in each national park were used to construct groupings of these smaller sample areas at various similarity levels in order to classify larger floristic areas. The parks were not on average very similar based on Jaccard's similarity index. The maximum average park similarity was 21% (St. Croix National Scenic Riverway), and the maximum park pair similarity was just over 55% for Isle Royale National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. The average similarity of parks increased with park area and numbers of native species, and weakly decreased with the percentage of non-native species. Weak trends were observed with latitude and negative trends with longitude. Four park groups were partitioned by cluster analysis of species relative abundance data: 7 prairie parks, 6 northern parks, 4 intermediate parks and 5 southern parks. The average percentage of non-native species was ~33% in the prairie and southern park clusters, while percentage of evergreen perennials was 2 to 4 times greater in the northern parks (8%) compared with other clusters. Deciduous perennials approached 80% in the northern and intermediate park clusters, compared with about 70% for the prairie and southern clusters. Percentage of annuals was almost double in the prairie and southern clusters (average 24%) compared with the northern and intermediate clusters (average 13%).

  4. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-León García-Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  5. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  6. [Sibling relations in processing sexual trauma: the film "The Celebration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohni, H

    2001-01-01

    Movies appeal as a subject of psychoanalytical art interpretation due to their structural closeness to "scenical understanding" and enrich our Insight into human relationships. The movie Das Pest is worth seeing because of its particular aesthetic form and because of its message about sibling relationships. According to the assessment of film journalists the movie shows the dismantling of middle class society and the reinscenation of destructive violence. In this author's interpretation, however, the movie leads out of passing violence on through the generations and herein differs from numerous current movies about siblings. The movie is about the process of a constructive development in the reciprocal relationships between four siblings and shows this in the formal structure of a film. With countertransference and our "viewing habits" the author discusses why this development could be overlooked. The movie shows neither a sibling fixation nor an idealization of sibling love as a regressive, timeless topos, but rather a horizontal relationship process. This is open towards partners and allows for a conciliatory attitude towards the parents. The movie is able to show this process conclusively under the burden of intergenerational violence and in its creativity enriches our image of sibling relationships.

  7. An ecological economics approach to estimate the value of a fragmented wetland in Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul state).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A R

    2007-11-01

    The Upper Paraná River floodplain is the last lotic stretch of an ecosystem seriously threatened given that circa 50% of the original ecosystem has been converted into reservoirs. To assess the recreational value of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, 174 tourists were interviewed using the Willingness to Pay--WTP and Travel Cost--TC methods. The annual aggregated WTP attributed by tourists was US$ 122.50 million and the variables which determine the decision in willingness to pay for the Floodplain are: 'consider oneself as a Floodplain natural resources consumer' and 'marital state'. If the single person considers her/himself as a consumer of floodplain natural resources, the WTP increases by a multiplicative factor of 38.8. The value aggregated by the TC method was US$ 234 millions and decreased by zone as the distance increases. Higher income and traveling farther increases the travel cost, which is inversely related to annual trip frequency. The total recreational value (356.5 millions per year) is high and representative since it refers to an environment fragmented by dams and with many anthropogenic effects. Therefore, the progressive changes on the landscape are a threat to local tourism, since half of the visitors are attracted solely by the scenic beauty, thereby overtaking those factors considered more important by public decision makers and managers, such as recreational fishery or boating.

  8. Combining ecosystem services assessment with structured decision making to support ecological restoration planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M; Mazzotta, Marisa; Bousquin, Justin

    2018-04-10

    Accounting for ecosystem services in environmental decision making is an emerging research topic. Modern frameworks for ecosystem services assessment emphasize evaluating the social benefits of ecosystems, in terms of who benefits and by how much, to aid in comparing multiple courses of action. Structured methods that use decision analytic-approaches are emerging for the practice of ecological restoration. In this article, we combine ecosystem services assessment with structured decision making to estimate and evaluate measures of the potential benefits of ecological restoration with a case study in the Woonasquatucket River watershed, Rhode Island, USA. We partnered with a local watershed management organization to analyze dozens of candidate wetland restoration sites for their abilities to supply five ecosystem services-flood water retention, scenic landscapes, learning opportunities, recreational opportunities, and birds. We developed 22 benefit indicators related to the ecosystem services as well as indicators for social equity and reliability that benefits will sustain in the future. We applied conceptual modeling and spatial analysis to estimate indicator values for each candidate restoration site. Lastly, we developed a decision support tool to score and aggregate the values for the organization to screen the restoration sites. Results show that restoration sites in urban areas can provide greater social benefits than sites in less urban areas. Our research approach is general and can be used to investigate other restoration planning studies that perform ecosystem services assessment and fit into a decision-making process.

  9. Income value of private amenities assessed in California oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Oviedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landowners in California were surveyed using a contingent valuation technique to assess its usefulness in estimating the monetary income value of private amenities from their oak woodland properties. Private amenities - such as recreation, scenic beauty and a rural lifestyle - are considered an important influence on rangeland owners, but few studies have attempted to place a monetary income value on them. Landowners were asked to estimate the maximum amount of earnings that they were willing to forgo before selling their property to invest in more commercially profitable, nonagrarian assets, and the proportion of the land price that they thought was explained by private amenities from their land. On average, landowners were willing to pay $54 per acre annually for private amenities, and they attributed 57% of the land price to them. Regression analysis revealed that the landowners' willingness to pay per acre decreased as property size increased. This approach sheds light on how landowners value the benefits of land owner-ship and offers insights for outreach and policy development for privately owned oak woodlands.

  10. Mixed-reality exercise effects on participation of individuals with spinal cord injuries and developmental disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.

  11. Evaluation of Aesthetic Function and Thermal Modification of Vertical Greenery at Bogor City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyantara, B.; Sesara, R.

    2017-10-01

    Bogor city currently develops vertical greenery due to counter the decreasing of green space quantity. Vertical greenery is a planting method using vertical structure similar to retaining walls. There are some benefits of vertical greenery, such as providing aesthetics value of the landscape, to protect from the heat, to reduce noise, and to reduce pollution. The purpose of this study were to identify thermal modification by vertical greenery in Bogor city, to assess the aesthetics value from vertical greenery, and to provide a recommendation in attempt to manage and improve the quality of vertical greenery in Bogor city. The study was conducted using Scenic Beauty Estimation method, and was done by providing questionnaires to the respondents in order to assess the aesthetics value of vertical greenery. Infrared thermometer was also used to measure the surface’s temperature to evaluate thermal modification function of the vertical greenery. The result of study proved that vertical greenery in the Bogor city has considerably good aesthetic. It also showed that there is a decreasing in surface temperature of the vertical greenery structure.

  12. El horizonte gráfico Centelles y su posición en la secuencia del Arte Levantino del Maestrazgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín VILLAVERDE BONILLA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo central del trabajo es la descripción y valoración de las figuras masculinas y femeninas del horizonte Centelles, prestando una especial atención al tipo de escenas en las que se integran y a su relación con las figuras animales. El Abric de Centelles constituye un foco preferencial de atención, especialmente a la hora de definir la variabilidad formal y compositiva del horizonte. Igualmente, se valoran los elementos que permiten su situación en la secuencia gráfica del núcleo de la Valltorta-Gasulla y se establecen relaciones con otros conjuntos similares del Maestrazgo. Finalmente, se discute la cronología de este horizonte gráfico, considerando una perspectiva territorial.ABSTRACT: The main goal of this paper is the description and appraisal of female and male depictions of the Centelles stylistic horizon, paying special attention to those scenes in which they are integrated and also in their scenic relation with animal depictions. The Centelles rock art shelter is a main focus of attention, especially for defining the formal and compositional variability of this stylistic horizon. In this sense, the elements that allow its situation in the graphic sequence of Valltorta-Gassulla Valley are valued, while stylistic parallels with similar rock art shelters of Maestrazgo area are established. Finally, we discuss the chronology of Centelles stylistic horizon considering a territorial perspective.

  13. Body mass composition of ballet dancers and elite female aesthetic sport athletes from Cuba. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of scenic beauty of ballet dancer’s figure is signified for the reason of possessing morpho-functional characteristics valid only within the artistic cannon. The female ballet dancers and the sportswomen who practice esthetic sports do have in common the need of being slim and executing efficiently the complex movements of their technical activities. The objective of this paper is to compare the body composition of ballet female dancers with that of the artistic gymnastics (GAR, the rhythmic gymnastics (GRI and the synchronized swimming (NAS elite sportswomen. Thirty two female ballet dancers of the National Cuban Ballet School and sixty three elite sportswomen who practice aesthetic sports in Cuba have been studied for the purpose. An anthropometric protocol of sixteen measures has been applied to calculate the kinanthropometric indexes of the corporal mass composition’s component. The general percentage of the fat mass (PMG in the ballet dancers was found statistically different to the GAR and GRI groups, but this one was similar in comparison with NAS group. Mayor muscle mass general percentage (PMM was obtained in the GAR and GRI groups, in comparison with the dancers. The ballet group showed the minor differential PMM-PMG, and muscular percentage of the transverse areas of the segments of extremities than the elite athlete groups. The data classified the ballet group as the one of less potential efficiency of technical and transitive movement than the other ones.

  14. ASSESSING LAND COVER CHANGES CAUSED BY GRANITE QUARRYING USING REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Moeletsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dimension stone quarrying in the area between Rustenburg and Brits in the North West Province of South Africa has been in existence for over 70 decades. The unique characteristics of the granite deposits in South Africa resulted in making the country a global producer of the granite rocks. This led to intensified quarrying activities between Rustenburg and Brits town. However, this surface mining method, has a potential to impact the environment in a negative way causing loss in vegetation, depletion of natural resources, loss of scenic beauty and contamination of surface water resources. To assess the land cover changes caused by granite quarrying activities, remotely sensed data in the form of Landsat images between 1998 and 2015 were used. Supervised classification was used to create maps. Accuracy assessment using Google EarthTM as a reference data yielded an overall accuracy of 78 %. The post classification change detection method was used to assess land cover changes within the granite quarries. Granite quarries increased by 1174.86 ha while formation of quarry lakes increased to 5.3 ha over the 17-year period. Vegetation cover decreased by 1308 ha in area while 18.3 ha bare land was lost during the same period. This study demonstrated the utility of remote sensing to detect changes in land cover within granite quarries.

  15. State of conservation of Santa Martha's hills, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Salgado, Hector Jaime; Carbono Delahoz, Eduino

    2006-01-01

    The urban growth of Santa Marta and the occupation without planning of their surrounding hills, affect their natural conditions. The hills are part of the scenic beauty of the city and its conservation is indispensable to maintain the standard of life in her the vegetal cover corresponds to forests and scrubs of isomegathermic floor with xeromorphic characters, due to the low pluvial precipitation, this landscape characterizes the Colombian Caribbean coast in a narrow strip that extends from the south of the Guajira to the gulf of Morrosquillo. At the present time, only they are left surpluses in natural state, due to the floristic simplification of the vegetation, the introduction of invading species and modification of the landscape. The responsibility of the suitable handling of the urban space is imperative for the official, private sector and citizen institutions. The objective is to make an evaluation of the environmental conditions of hills of the city, in order to obtain basic elements, for the design of appropriate strategies of handling and its conservation. By means of the use of the GIS, with verification and aerial photo interpretation of field a multi-temporary study (1955-1993-2003) of the vegetal cover of the hills was elaborated that allowed to establish the happened changes. The execution of inventors allowed knowing the wealth and the structure floristic the vegetal cover of the area. The work was executed between May of the 2004 and May of the 2005

  16. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  17. D Reconstruction of Cultural Tourism Attractions from Indoor to Outdoor Based on Portable Four-Camera Stereo Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhong, S.; Liu, B.; Jiang, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-05-01

    Building the fine 3D model from outdoor to indoor is becoming a necessity for protecting the cultural tourism resources. However, the existing 3D modelling technologies mainly focus on outdoor areas. Actually, a 3D model should contain detailed descriptions of both its appearance and its internal structure, including architectural components. In this paper, a portable four-camera stereo photographic measurement system is developed, which can provide a professional solution for fast 3D data acquisition, processing, integration, reconstruction and visualization. Given a specific scene or object, it can directly collect physical geometric information such as positions, sizes and shapes of an object or a scene, as well as physical property information such as the materials and textures. On the basis of the information, 3D model can be automatically constructed. The system has been applied to the indooroutdoor seamless modelling of distinctive architecture existing in two typical cultural tourism zones, that is, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minority villages in Sichuan Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area and Tujia ethnic minority villages in Hubei Shennongjia Nature Reserve, providing a new method and platform for protection of minority cultural characteristics, 3D reconstruction and cultural tourism.

  18. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  19. Greenways and Their Functions to Eco-Cities%绿色通道及其在生态城市中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国

    2005-01-01

    Greenways can be considered as linear open spaces along natural or artificial linear features such as rivers,shorelines, ridgelines, railroads, canals or roads. They are planned, designed, and managed to connect and protect ecological,scenic, recreational, historic, and cultural resources. The archetype of greenways could go back to the landscape axes and boulevards of Europe in the 18th century and later the parkways of USA in the late 19th century. As a means of urban ecological planning, greenway planning is getting more and more important to sustainable development in urban areas and has become a worldwide activity or a movement. This paper reviews the evolution of greenways and identifies it into three distinct stages or "generations ", introduces a general methodology of greenway planning, and expounds the functions of greenways to ecocities. At the end, this paper emphasizes that it is significant to enhance the research and implementation of greenway planning in our country in the case that urbanization will be developing quickly in the next decades.

  20. Research on the tourism resource development from the perspective of network capability-Taking Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanli; Hua, Hefeng

    2017-03-01

    Network capability is the enterprise's capability to set up, manage, maintain and use a variety of relations between enterprises, and to obtain resources for improving competitiveness. Tourism in China is in a transformation period from sightseeing to leisure and vacation. Scenic spots as well as tourist enterprises can learn from some other enterprises in the process of resource development, and build up its own network relations in order to get resources for their survival and development. Through the effective management of network relations, the performance of resource development will be improved. By analyzing literature on network capability and the case analysis of Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town, the role of network capacity in the tourism resource development is explored and resource development path is built from the perspective of network capability. Finally, the tourism resource development process model based on network capacity is proposed. This model mainly includes setting up network vision, resource identification, resource acquisition, resource utilization and tourism project development. In these steps, network construction, network management and improving network center status are key points.

  1. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  2. National planning guidelines for environment ally sustainable development in Scotland and lessons learnt for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    This piece of research work reflects the researcher's academic as well as the practical experiences of Scottish planning about the concept, issues and policy formulations. It is in the context of National Planning Policy Guidelines, originated in Scotland with particular reference to it's Fife Region. The first part reflects the general overview of Scotland followed by brief description of the region. Another part deals with the existing strategic issues in the region which are related to land and the environment notably rural planning priorities, agricultural scarce land, conservation of recreational and tourist areas, forest land potentials, landscape resources, national scenic areas, petro-chemical, industrial zones, river pollution and future land use for housing. This study has suggested National Planning Policy Guidelines to these issues. Last section deals with the lessons learnt from Scotland and appropriate application of these guidelines in case of Pakistan. The establishment of the relevant National Planning Guidelines according to our local environmental and socio-economic conditions can also play a significant role to safe guard our rural and urban landscapes and their respective environments. These broad guidelines must therefore be recommended in the broader spectrum in spatial linkage. Moreover these guidelines must therefore synthesize and articulated specifically at structure plans, master plans at district, sub district or local plans and planning processes which can lead Pakistan towards environmentally sustainable development. (author)

  3. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  4. [Comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR and one-stage MBR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Yan; Shen, Heng-Gen; Sun, Lei; Wang, Lin; Li, Shi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at resolving problems in MBR operation, like low nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency, severe membrane fouling and etc, comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR (TSBMBR) and one-stage aerobic MBR has been done in this paper. The results indicated that TSBMBR owned advantages of SBR in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, which could make up the deficiency of traditional one-stage aerobic MBR in nitrogen and phosphorous removal. During steady operation period, effluent average NH4(+) -N, TN and TP concentration is 2.83, 12.20, 0.42 mg/L, which could reach domestic scenic environment use. From membrane fouling control point of view, TSBMBR has lower SMP in supernatant, specific trans-membrane flux deduction rate, membrane fouling resistant than one-stage aerobic MBR. The sedimentation and gel layer resistant of TSBMBR was only 6.5% and 33.12% of one-stage aerobic MBR. Besides high efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, TSBMBR could effectively reduce sedimentation and gel layer pollution on membrane surface. Comparing with one-stage MBR, TSBMBR could operate with higher trans-membrane flux, lower membrane fouling rate and better pollutants removal effects.

  5. The role of age on reactivity and memory for emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, S A; Fällman, L

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate subjects' reactivity to emotional pictures and their recollection of these pictures, and to examine these two factors as they relate to age. Adolescents and young adults were shown emotionally arousing scenic pictures for long (4-s) and very brief (50-ms) durations. Recognition of the pictures and recall and recognition of words presented along with the pictures were assessed both immediately after the presentation and six weeks later. The results showed that very negative pictures are retained better than neutral or even positive pictures, and that very negative pictures reduce memory for associated information. It was also found that adolescents show a somewhat lower reactivity to very negative pictures and a higher degree of retention of these pictures than adults. The results are discussed in relation to (a) habituation effects, (b) strategies that subjects might develop to block emotional involvement, and (c) the notion that watching violence might serve as a powerful prime to socially undesirable behaviour.

  6. Joints and Strings: Body and Object in Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Kirkkopelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the ontological status of the performing body. What if it were not considered derivative in relation to any kind of discursive construction or any kind of pre-existent materiality or force? What if it were taken as a starting point of our attempts to understand the linguistic and material aspects of our bodily co-existence? If so, our ideas of what a body can do while performing, and what it consists of, have to change radically. The anatomy of the performing body is studied through a series of scenic experiments and practical examples, and the argumentation rests on the evidence thus provided. On the philosophical level the discussion focuses on ’object-oriented ontology’ and its representatives. The indications are that our understanding of objects, objectivity and things in general is based on our understanding of bodies as linguistic entities. Becoming a performing body means becoming a linguistic body, and vice versa. This does not take us back to ‘transcendentalism’ or ‘correlationism’, however. The equality of all things, claimed by ‘ooo’ proponents, can only be achieved via the medium of the performing body as an equalizing instance.

  7. Computer Vision and Image Processing: A Paper Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    victor - wiley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision has been studied from many persective. It expands from raw data recording into techniques and ideas combining digital image processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and computer graphics. The wide usage has attracted many scholars to integrate with many disciplines and fields. This paper provide a survey of the recent technologies and theoretical concept explaining the development of computer vision especially related to image processing using different areas of their field application. Computer vision helps scholars to analyze images and video to obtain necessary information,    understand information on events or descriptions, and scenic pattern. It used method of multi-range application domain with massive data analysis. This paper provides contribution of recent development on reviews related to computer vision, image processing, and their related studies. We categorized the computer vision mainstream into four group e.g., image processing, object recognition, and machine learning. We also provide brief explanation on the up-to-date information about the techniques and their performance.

  8. Assessment of Air Quality Status in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabei Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air quality characteristics in Wuhan were assessed through descriptive statistics and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. Results show that air quality has slightly improved over the recent years. While the NO2 concentration is still increasing, the PM10 concentration shows a clearly downward trend with some small fluctuations. In addition, the SO2 concentration has steadily decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, the current level of air pollutants is still quite high, with the PM10 and NO2 levels exceeding the air quality standard. Seasonal variation exists consistently for all the pollutants, with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Cluster analysis evidenced that nine urban monitoring sites could be classified into three clusters. Cluster I consists of only the LY site, which is located in the famous East Lake scenic area with the best air quality. Cluster II corresponds to three monitoring sites with heavily trafficked roads nearby, where relatively severe NO2 pollution occurred. Cluster III is comprised of the remaining five sites, characterized by PM10 and SO2 pollution.

  9. Landscapes of Memory and Forgetting: Memorialisation, Emotion and Tourism along Australia’s Great Ocean Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kerr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the history of the Great Ocean Road, described in its recent National Heritage listing as “Australia’s most famous coastal drive”. The road is unique in Australia as it was purposely constructed as a scenic tourist route and as a memorial to World War I servicemen. Over time the road’s memorial function was largely forgotten in public memory, overtaken by its fame as a tourist route. The history of the road’s setting, construction, promotion and interpretation reveals that it is a route which reflects changing, and sometimes conflicting, cultural preoccupations. Despite attempts to link its sublime setting and challenges of building the road with the heroic struggles of the servicemen in war; in spite of physical commemorative markers along the road; and in spite of the power and endurance of the “Anzac legend” in Australian culture, the connection did not resonate as intended. The road’s construction and subsequent interpretation illustrate the difficulty of inscribing “memory” onto a landscape with no prior connection to the events being memorialised. Its history reveals insights into the road’s cultural construction; tangible and intangible expressions of remembering and forgetting along the road; and the relationship between the road, landscape, memory and emotion.

  10. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future.

  11. More than A to B: Understanding and managing visitor spatial behaviour in urban forests using public participation GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpilo, Silviya; Virtanen, Tarmo; Saukkonen, Tiina; Lehvävirta, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it. In our sample (n = 233), different activity types were associated with distinctive spatial patterns and potential extent of impacts. The density mapping and statistical analyses indicated three types of behaviour: predominantly on or close to formal trails (runners and cyclists), spatially concentrated off-trail behaviour confined to a few informal paths (mountain bikers), and dispersed off-trail use pattern (walkers and dog walkers). Across all user groups, off-trail behaviour was mainly motivated by positive attraction towards the environment such as scenic view, exploration, and viewing flora and fauna. Study findings lead to several management recommendations that were presented to city officials. These include reducing dispersion and the spatial extent of trampling impacts by encouraging use of a limited number of well-established informal paths away from sensitive vegetation and protected habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  13. Sophistication and integration of plant engineering CAD-CAE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Hanyu, Masaharu; Ota, Yoshimi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro.

    1995-01-01

    In respective departments in charge of basic planning, design, manufacture, inspection and construction of nuclear power plants, by the positive utilization of CAD/CAE system, efficient workings have been advanced. This time, the plant integrated CAE system wich heightens the function of these individual systems, and can make workings efficient and advanced by unifying and integrating them was developed. This system is composed of the newly developed application system and the data base system which enables the unified management of engineering data and high speed data conversion in addition to the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning. On the basis of the rich experience and the proposal of improvement of designers by the application of the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning to actual machines, the automation, speed increase and the visualization of input and output by graphical user interface (GUI) in the processing of respective applications were made feasible. As the advancement of plant CAE system, scenic engineering system, integrated layout CAE system, electric instrumentation design CAE system and construction planning CAE system are described. As for the integration of plant CAE systems, the integrated engineering data base, the combination of plant CAE systems, and the operation management in the dispersed environment of networks are reported. At present, Hitachi Ltd. exerts efforts for the construction of atomic energy product in formation integrated management system as the second stage of integration. (K.I.)

  14. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  15. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  17. Assessing the recreational demand for agricultural land in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. POUTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that the scenic attractiveness and other public good aspects of agricultural land can be utilized as a source of livelihood in rural areas in the form of recreation and tourism. In this study we use two approaches to consider whether agricultural landscapes are preferred as a destination for recreation (day trips and rural tourism (overnight trips. We first analyse the choice of recreation site type based on a model that aggregates sites using the presence of agricultural land as an aggregation variable. Population survey data on recreation trips reveal an association between the respondent’s living environment, recreational activities and visit characteristics and the probability of choosing a destination with agricultural land. Second, we also estimate the demand functions for trips to agricultural sites and other destination types to consider whether the presence of agricultural land, as opposed to other land use categories, increases the number of trips and the benefits of recreation. The results suggest that agricultural landscapes are inferior to alternative site types in terms of per-trip benefits. However, agricultural landscapes are associated with high annual benefits because of the high rate of visitation.;

  18. Ecosystem services provided by agricultural terraces in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Díaz, Asunción; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Since ancient times, agricultural terraces are common features throughout the world, especially on steep slope gradients. Nowadays many terraces have been abandoned or removed and few new terraces are build due to increased mechanisation and intensification of agriculture. However, terraces are amongst the most effective soil conservation practices, reducing the slope gradient and slope length, as well as runoff rate and soil erosion, and without terraces, it would be impossible to cultivate on many hillslopes. Moreover, their scenic interest is undeniable, as in some cases, terraced slopes have even become part of UNESCO World Heritage. In order to highlight the potential benefits, requirements and limitations of terraces, we reviewed different types of sustainable land management practices related to terraces and characterised their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We centred our review on terraces in semi-arid environments worldwide, as were documented in the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. Our results show that the most important ecosystem services provided by terraces relate to regulation of the on-site and off-site effects of runoff and erosion, and maintenance of soil fertility and vegetation cover. The presence of terraces also favours the provision of food, fiber, and clean water. In short, our results stress the crucial environmental, geomorphological and hydrological functions of terraces that directly relate to improving the quality of life of the people that use them. These results highlight the need for renewed recognition of the value of terraces for society, their preservation and maintenance.

  19. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  20. Outdoor recreational use of the Salton Sea with reference to potential impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G.; Burke, J.E.

    1978-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)

  1. Constructing a Theatrical Performance for Three Brazilian Imperial Modinhas by Lino José Nunes (1789-1847

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Borém

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An auto-ethnographic study of the construction process of a theatrical performance for three imperial modinhas by Brazilian bassist-singer-composer-pedagogue, Lino José Nunes (NUNES, 1984a, 1984b, 1984c starting with: (1 an analysis of the text-music binomial, examining (2 the theatrical version proposed by the first co-author of this article with the creation of his respective arrangements for voice, double bass and piano (NUNES, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c to finally reach (3 the staging realization of the voice according to the performance of the second co-author. We discuss the interactions between music and staging in the instances of the primary sources (the original scores of the three modinhas, the resulting secondary sources (the scores of the three scenic-musical arrangements and their performance (the realization of the arrangements. The analysis, which includes MaPAs (Maps of Audiovisual Performance and EdiPAs (Audiovisual Performance Editions (BORÉM, 2016c, 2014. BORÉM; TAGLIANETTI, 2014, considered the use of contrasting emotional atmospheres (RUSSELL, 1980, discrete gestures (facial expressions; EKMAN; FRIESEN, 2003, ampler body movements (head, neck, trunk and limbs; LABAN, 1978, body plans (LABAN, 1978. RENGEL, 2001, props and lighting. The adaptations, solutions and additions, which emerged through a doubly creative performance process (composition and performance, aimed at a more significant communication of the senses in the trinomial text-music-image.

  2. PR Handbook for new energies. More marketing success through more media presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krampitz, Iris (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The handbook explains to managing directors and marketing and PR heads of biomass, solar and wind companies, how they select PR measures, find the right topics and the appropriate target media and prepare a timetable and action plan. Step by step, the main author Iris Krampitz explains to her readers how to prepare their own concept and monitor the success of their media work. In practical terms, she describes how to compile a press distribution list, how to get in contact with journalists at a trade fair and what to pay attention to when organising a press conference. In her texts, she rigorously uses examples from the renewable energies sector and sector specific checklists - regardless of whether it concerns the structure and language of a press release, the concept for a trade fair, the scenic preamble to a professional article or the questions for an interview. Besides the main author and publisher Iris Krampitz, marketing and social media experts and a crisis communications expert have their say as co-authors. Sector journalists comment on the press relations work of companies from the renewable energies sector. (orig.)

  3. LEO TOLSTOY’S POPULAR THEATRE: THE BEGINNING OF THE WRITER’S EDUCATIONAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I. Sizova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the first phase of Leo Tolstoy’s educational service in the field of the popular theatre on the example of the stage history of his comedy The First Distiller (1886. I see my task in the reconstruction of the first stage version of this play prepared by V. G. Chertkov on the author’s request, with the use of archival information and data from the periodicals of 1886. For the first time, the essay argues that Chertkov was working in four different directions. He was negotiating with Moscow Buffonery Theatre, Vasileostrovskiy Workers’ Theater, St. Petersburg scenic platforms, and the Theatre of Popular Entertainment in the village of Alexandrovskoe near St. Petersburg. Chertkov covered the first performance of The First Distiller (Alexandrovskoe, July 6 and 20 1886 that had a big resonance. The essay explains (for the first time in Tolstoy criticism why other performances of this play had never taken place. Technical and financial difficulties prevented performances in Moscow Buffonery Theater and Vasileostrovskiy Theater. The symbolism of Tolstoy’s comedy (his images of devils and hell became an impediment for staging the play at other popular theaters that Chertkov reached with the help of the patron of art, I. M. Sibiryakov.

  4. The industrial and cultural heritage in landscape: Industrial Heritage, Landscape, Intelligent Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Álvarez Areces

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenic values, industrial traces and artistic heritage are intertwined in a continuous space. IndustrialHeritage has acquired a meaning beyond the aesthetic or testimonial to become a spatial or temporalcore face of forgetfulness and loss of place memory. The “smartplaces”, where active communitieslive, are or were able to organize themselves to design and reach a consensus concerning a projectfor the future. There is no approach to conservation, preservation and enhancement, or new uses ofheritage without assuming a new ethic regarding the natural and urban environment, with new spacesfor reflection to deal environmental issues with coherence, new spaces for working, especially at theregional level, taking into account the singularity of the physical environment, the complexity of energyand natural heritage resources. In the mining heritage, the whole vision is essential for a moreeffective results in the conservation job. It should not be considered a marginal issue but a priority inurban and regional planning. In the "architectural complex" cultural identity is implied, as well asindustrial and cultural landscapes, concerning to mining history, sometimes it is a discontinuous process. It takes centuries with remains and vestiges, and grouping of urban and rural constructions that have an interest in the surroundings. It analyses several Spanish and international experiences,cases and archetypes from regions with significant vestiges of the industrial revolution which illustratethe limits and possibilities of regional development programs, cultural and industrial tourism,museums, civic and social facilities which incite an interrelationship between nature, culture andindustry.

  5. Banat-Crişana as Micro-destination – Elements of Tourism Image and Tourism Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena STOIAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographical regions, according to some authors, are defined and delimited by criteria that vary from one geographical school to another. These criteria may be: scenic, functional, political-administrative, mental etc. (processed after Cocean cited in Neguţ, 2011, p. 157. They also can be combined according to the objectives/strategies that are elaborated for each branch of the economy: industry, agriculture, tourism, etc. In this regard, from tourism point of view, the region of Banat-Crişana was taken into consideration, that includes the following counties: Caraş-Severin, Timiş, Arad and Bihor. Due to the many land and air border points, it represents the first contact with the tourists coming from the West, with other words “its visiting card… crucial in formulating the first impressions regarding Romania” (Cocean, 2010, p. 201. The presented research aims to highlight the role of the image of the region of Banat-Crişana in building its own brand, by identifying its main tourist attractions and forms of tourism.

  6. Mitigative measures for the Laforge-2 hydroelectric development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, O.; Gagnon, R.

    1995-01-01

    Corrective, preventive and enhancement measures undertaken as part of the development of the Laforge-2 Hydroelectric Power Plant, were described. The environment into which the project has been integrated was also described. General background information and technical characteristics of the Laforge-2 and Caniapiscau-Laforge diversion were provided. The Laforge-2 Mitigative Master Plan's measures for improving wildlife potential, cleaning-up of tributaries, protecting wildlife habitats, seeding around ponds and humid zones, installing platforms to encourage and facilitate the nesting of ospreys, and promoting proper harvesting of the territory, were described as corrective measures that will promote sustainable development. Contractual obligations to protect the environment were outlined. Enhancement measures described included reclamation of areas disturbed during construction, landscaping around main structures and construction of scenic lookouts. It was fully expected that the mitigative measures described for the Laforge-2 project will minimize negative impacts of the project and will maximize positive ones by improving wildlife potential in areas near the reservoir. 5 figs

  7. Title 16 united states code §55 and its implications for management of concession facilities in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, John

    1987-08-01

    Yosemite National Park is one of the nation's most scenic and ecologically/geologically important parks. Unfortunately, the park is subject to extensive development of concession facilities and associated high levels of visitor use. Those concerned with preservation of the park's resources have attempted to limit the types and extent of such facilities to reduce adverse impacts. Strictly speaking, resolution of the preservation versus use controversy must be based on whether the National Park Service is adhering to its legislative mandate to regulate development and use in the parks. The common interpretation of legislative mandates for national parks, including Yosemite, is that they call for a difficult balancing between the conflicting goals of preservation and use. Accordingly, although concession developments cause significant impacts, they usually have been interpreted to be within the legal discretion allowed the secretary of the interior. However, the usual interpretations of the meanings of legislative mandates for Yosemite National Park have not considered Title 16 United States Code §55, which is a very restrictive statute limiting concession facilities. Many of the limitations imposed on concession facilities by the plain language of the statute have been exceeded. If it can be shown that 16 United States Code §55 is a valid statute, the policy implications for park management in Yosemite National Park would be considerable — namely, that significant reductions in concession facilities could be required. This article examines whether the statute can reasonably be thought to be valid and encourages others to conduct further examination of this question.

  8. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  9. Fell runners and walking walls: towards a sociology of living landscapes and aesthetic atmospheres as an alternative to a Lakeland picturesque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    This article draws on analysis of data generated by way of an ethnography of fell running in the English Lake District and suggests that participants who have lived and run in the area for many years experience a particular mode of aesthetic. The Lake District has long been valued for its outstanding scenery represented in the aesthetic of the picturesque comprising relatively static landscapes that should be conserved. Established fell runners who have run in the area for many decades apprehend and appreciate the landscape in more complex, rooted and situated ways. The anthropologist Ingold, distinguishes between landscape and landsceppan, and this insight is instructive for grasping the way in which the runners do not simply scope scenery but work with the land: they shape it and are shaped by it. Fell runners are elements within the living environment and along with walls, sheep, becks, sun, rain--what Ingold evocatively calls the 'weather-world'--are mobile. Movement is central to their aesthetic, they enjoy not so much the scenic but rather a fellsceppan and do so through their fast eye-gait-footwork and their lively, variable occupation with the terrain. The fells infiltrate and interpenetrate the runners and movement through the fells generates a somatic aesthetic. The pleasure in turn breeds existential capital an embodied gratification that serves as an attractor that binds those who appreciate feelings of being alive with and in the fells. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2013-12-01

    Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of ecosystems services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988, and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008 and 2009, and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely End Point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression Rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms erosion and accretion respectively are significant at the Eastern and Western Sea sides of the Ca Mau tip. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. For the accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side averaged at rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  11. Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Mui Ca Mau, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, V.; Tien Thi Xuan, A.; Phan Nguyen, H.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2014-07-01

    Mui Ca Mau at the southern tip of Vietnam supports a large area of mangroves and has a high value for biodiversity and scenic beauty. This area is affected by erosion along the East Sea and accretion along the Gulf of Thailand, leading to the loss of huge stretches of mangroves along the East Sea and, in some cases, loss of environmental and ecosystem services provided by mangroves. In this study, we used remotely sensed aerial (1953), Landsat (1979, 1988 and 2000) and SPOT (1992, 1995, 2004, 2008, 2009 and 2011) images and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to quantify the rate of mangrove shoreline change for a 58 yr period. There were 1129 transects sampled at 100 m intervals along the mangrove shoreline and two statistical methods, namely end point rate (EPR) and linear regression rate (LRR), were used to calculate the rate of change of mangrove shorelines and distance from 1953 to 2011. The study confirms that erosion and accretion, respectively, are significant at the East Sea and Gulf of Thailand sides of Mui Ca Mau. The East Sea side had a mean erosion LRR of 33.24 m yr-1. The accretion trend at the Gulf of Thailand side had an average rate of 40.65 m yr-1. The results are important in predicting changes of coastal ecosystem boundaries and enable advanced planning for specific sections of coastline, to minimize or neutralize losses, to inform provincial rehabilitation efforts and reduce threats to coastal development and human safety.

  12. Feature of extradosed PC bridge and its design; Daihenshin keburu PC kyo no tokucho to sono sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, M. [Japan Bridge and Structure Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    A PC bridge with the eccentricity of the external cable increased by protruding the deviated member to the outside of the beam for more effective use of the external cable is called a `PC bridge with tendons of large eccentricity.` The extradosed bridge of main beam/cable joint type is a PC bridge with the external cable arranged via a tower-shaped eccentric member provided at the intermediate support, and resembles morphologically a cable stayed bridge having a very low tower. There are two types of extradosed bridges, i.e. a type with concrete coated external cable (cable stayed slab bridge) and the other with non-coated external cable (external cable stayed bridge). Features, structural planning and designing of the general external cable stayed bridge are shown. The features are the possession of intermediate characteristics of those of the PC beam bridge and the PC cable stayed bridge from the viewpoints of structural property, workability, economic efficiency, and scenic property. Outline of the plan, selection of structural data, design of the external cable, and structural characteristics in the ultimate state are discussed. 19 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Scene and character: interdisciplinary analysis of musical and sound symbols for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Gustems Carnicer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze interdisciplinary and educationally the descriptive aspects of the characters in literature in the world of music (opera, ballet, musical theater, program music, audiovisual, etc. through a wide range of resources and creative processes in various skills that include or encompass the sound. Because of that a literature review and multidisciplinary documentary is done from the most relevant texts and principal authors of the dynamic and stable personality models, from the analysis of vocal features in the scene and in the audiovisuals, from the leitmotiv as a symbol and sound representation of the character, from the the conflicts faced by the characters and how they can overcome them and how we could translated into music those transitions. The subject of myths brought to the world of music scene, character stereotypes and sound symbols that may characterize these scenic and literary content is also addressed. Notably, there is a broad consensus on the use of sound resources to characterize the different characters throughout the history of Western music in its various styles and genres. Furthermore, indications for their use are given and suggestions for activities to higher education suggest.

  14. The first pictures: perceptual foundations of Paleolithic art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, J

    1992-01-01

    Paleolithic representational art has a number of consistent characteristics: the subjects are almost always animals, depicted without scenic background, usually in profile, and mostly in outline; the means of representation are extremely economical, often consisting of only a few strokes that indicate the salient features of the animal which are sufficient to suggest the whole form; and it is naturalistic to a degree, but lacks anything like photographic realism. Two elementary questions are raised in this essay: (i) why did the earliest known attempts at depiction have just these characteristics and not others? and (ii) how are objects so minimally represented recognizable? The answers seem to lie with certain fundamental features of visual perception, especially figure-ground distinction, Gestalt principles of closure and good continuation, line surrogacy, component feature analysis, and canonical imaging. In the earliest pictures the graphic means used are such that they evoke the same visual responses as those involved in the perception of real-world forms, but eschew redundancies of color, texture, linear perspective, and completeness of representation.

  15. HABITAT AND HABITANTS IN THE CATALAN PYRENEES: DYNAMICS AND POLICIES FOR UNDER-POPULATED HIGH MOUNTAIN VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Bonet Casas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research carried out in 2006 in a partnership between the Universitat de Barcelona and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, which was aimed to define guidelines to recover the architectural and scenic values of villages in almost abandoned Pyrenean valleys in Catalunya. The research studied at different levels (geographical, urban and architectural the villages of several valleys in order to find out the factors more determinant to explain their degree of revitalization or decay. As a result of the research, the paper presents some conclusions on how to intervene on those pyrenean valleys: to work at the level of geographical units rather than with singular villages or individuals; to establish degrees of priority of intervention between the valleys in order to increase the efficiency of the actions; to ensure high quality infrastructure levels on the selected valleys; to fix strict limits to the construction of new vacation houses in high mountain villages in order to orient the real state demand to the rehabilitation of existing buildings; to create a program of subsidies to help the permanent population working on the primary sector to rehabilitate their dwellings; to promote the display of the natural and cultural richness of the valleys as a main factor for their revitalization; to support private and civic actions oriented to the recover of the valleys.

  16. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  17. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  18. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  19. Wudang Daoist Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean De Bernardi; Zheng Weibin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the promotion of tea culture at Wudang Mountain, a Daoist tem-ple complex in Hubei Province that is a popular tourist destination. At shops in temples and market areas, vendors brand their tea as Wudang Daoist tea, emphasizing its health benefits and connecting their teas to the Daoist discourse of life-nourishing ( yang sheng) practices. In their marketing materi-als and on their websites, the management of the Eight Immortal Temple Tea Plantation further cites folklore and mythic history to claim profound local roots for Wudang tea culture. In so doing, this company echoes the memory narratives of more fa-mous Chinese teas like Iron Guanyin and Dahong-pao. In China as elsewhere, convenient travel now puts people in contact with areas and peoples that a few decades earlier only a few non-locals explored. As a consequence of a global trend towards com-modification, members of local groups, including distinctive ethnocultural groups, now seek to create distinctive local brands for a tourist market. Corpo-rations now regularly mine local traditions to find i-tems that they can transform into commodities for a wider market ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2009 ) . One of Hubei’s richest tourism assets is the Daoist temple complex at Wudang Moutain, which draws pilgrims and tourists from China and Greater China. China’s State Council identified Wudang Moutain as a National Key Scenic Area in 1982 , and UNESCO added its ancient temples to its World Heritage list in 1994 . The Chinese govern-ment has worked with the Daoist Federation to de-velop Wudang’s temples and pavilions, which are spread over 400 square kilometers of mountainous terrain, into a major tourist destination. The gov-ernment tourist office promotes Wudang Mountain for its scenic beauty, its deep historical heritage, its religious culture, and famous martial arts. Al-though its tea culture is less renowned, local tea sellers claim that Wudang tea has a deep history and Daoist

  20. PUSAKA SAUJANA BOROBUDUR: PERUBAHAN DAN KONTINUITASNYA (Borobudur Cultural Landscape: Change and Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwita Hadi Rahmi

    2012-03-01

    cultural landscape heritage are found, which are: a land management pattern; b way of living; c traditional architecture; and d natural features. The potencies of Borobudur cultural landscape heritage include cultural, historic, natural features, and panoramic potencies. Those potencies and continuity of the landscape and culture contribute to the Borobudur area  as an outstanding cultural landscape heritage with four outstanding values: a rich environmental history, b area with archaeological remains; c village cultural landscapes with their agrarian community; and d scenic beauty of the landscape. In a dynamic environment, changes are experienced by Borobudur cultural landscape heritage over time that can be a threat for its continuity. Changes happen particularly on land use, visual quality, and some community culture, whereas its continuity still can be found in traditional farming activity; some traditions relate to agriculture,  religion,  and  beliefs;  village  traditional  architecture;  and  scenic  beauty of  the  landscape. At present, impact of changes on Borobudur cultural landscape heritage has not influenced  the degradation of its continuity yet. Nevertheless, efforts in conservation and management are needed to maintain its continuity.

  1. THE ICONOGRAPHIC COLOUR SYMBOLISM IN BIBLICAL POEMS BY SERGEI YESENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Mikhalenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Biblical poems by Sergei Yesenin are full of pathos of theurgic reforms and creation of a new world. All components of these poems (images, spatial-temporal organization, colour symbolics stressed the importance of ongoing changes. The colours in small poems not only correspond to normal natural colours, but also bear a symbolic meaning, drawing the reader to the iconographic mysticism. The colourful preferences correspond to the tradition (of the Old or New Testaments, iconography or liturgy, as well as scenic tradition, which Yesenin follows in his poetry. Creating images of cosmic transformation, the poet turns to the traditional icon colour combinations and reinterprets the Old and New Testaments images. It puts the cases of prophet Sergei Yesenin in line with the acts of the biblical prophets. All poems in their colour scheme are consistent with iconographic tradition. In these poems three basic colours are used which repeat the colours of thematically close icons. So, Th e Coming is coloristically associated with the icon of the Nativity, The Transfiguration corresponds to the eponymous icon of Christ. The colours show the relationship and the parallelism of the processes occurring in earthly and heavenly worlds. It emphasizes the unity of the poetic world, the engagement of the Earth and the Heaven in the conversion process. The consideration of Yesenin’s revolutionary epic in line with biblical and iconographic symbolism allows analyzing in a more detailed and deep way originality of poetic recreation of the World and enables to reveal philosophical and esoteric content of the works.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Water Quality Dynamics in the Lake Maumelle Reservoir (Arkansas): Geochemical and Planktonic Variance in a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, M. D.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lake Maumelle reservoir is Central Arkansas's main water supply. Maintaining a high standard of water quality is important to the over 400,000 residents of this area whom rely on this mesotrophic waterbody for drinking water. Lake Maumelle is also a scenic attraction for recreational boating and fishing. Past research has focused primarily on watershed management with land use/land cover modeling and quarterly water sampling of the 13.91mi2 reservoir. The surrounding land within the watershed is predominately densely forested, with timber farms and the Ouachita National Forest. This project identifies water quality changes spatially and temporally, which have not been as frequently observed, over a 6-month timespan. Water samples were collected vertically throughout the water column and horizontally throughout the lake following reservoir zonation. Parameters collected vertically for water quality profiles are temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, and pH. Soft sediment samples were collected and pore water was extracted by centrifuge. Cation and anion concentrations in the water samples were determined using ion chromatography, and trace element concentrations were determined using ICPMS. Planktonic abundances were determined using an inverted microscope and a 5ml counting chamber. Trace element, cation, and anion concentrations have been compared with planktonic abundance and location to determine microorganismal response to geochemical variance. During June 2017 sampling, parameters varied throughout the water column (temperature decreased 4 degrees Celsius and dissolved oxygen decreased from 98% to 30% from surface to bottom depths), revealing that the reservoir was becoming stratified. Collected plankton samples revealed the presence of copepod, daphnia, and dinoflagellate algae. Utricularia gibba was present in the littoral zone. Low electrical conductivity readings and high water clarity are consistent with the lake

  3. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  4. The development of viticulture and the possibilities of implantation wine tourism routes in the Region of São Joaquim (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Baratieri Losso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the origins and development of viticulture in the region of São Joaquim (SC, this paper proposes wine tourism routes for an area of the Serra de Santa Catarina already recognized for their experience to the segment of tourism in rural areas, based on their climatic and scenic resources. In order to achieve those goals are focused on the introduction and development of production of fine wines, as well as tourism in the region. Although the investigation has focused on the central cities of Bom Retiro, São Joaquim, Urubici and Urupema, where are the wines with wine companies launched in the market since 2004, the coverage area of research also includes the cities of Bom Jardim da Serra and Lages, because of its significance for the development of activities linked to tourism. As a fundamental theoretical basis is used the category of socio-spatial formation allied to the idea of geographical combinations, the analysis of the geographical area, considering how they are combined, over time, the physical, biological and human. The interest in wine in altitude, its origins, evolution and current situation in Santa Catarina, stems from the understanding that this reality presents itself as a new potential to be exploited by tourism, in view of the natural landscape features of the producing areas, the new parameters of articulation of resources and strategies of competitiveness that has affected the global market and domestic wines. Thus, grape growing and wine production in the region of São Joaquim provides an alternative to the growth of regional tourism, from the definition and deployment scripts for the practice of wine tourism.

  5. Los autores como actores en el teatro experimental español de los años veinte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga Fernández-Cuevas, María Jesús

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the attempts for theatrical renewal in the twenties, several playwrights worked also as actors. The Baroja’s acted in the company ‘El Mirlo Blanco’; D. Pío participation was enthusiastic although brief, while his brother Ricardo was better recognized for his work as stage designer. Rivas Cherif participated in numerous performances and his coherence with the new theatre model that he defended was unanimously praised. Eusebio de Gorbea was considered the best actor among the playwrights, although his more appreciated characteristics like tone, gesture and roughness approached him to naturalism. The interpretative work of these authors as components of a group, whose nucleus remained amongst successive renovation attempts, is also recognized by its discipline, renounce to individual success and subordination to scenic treatment.En los ensayos de renovación teatral de los años veinte, varios dramaturgos intervinieron como actores. Los hermanos Baroja actuaron en la compañía ‘El Mirlo Blanco’: la participación de D. Pío fue entusiasta pero breve; de su hermano Ricardo se recuerda con mayor interés su labor de escenógrafo. Las numerosas actuaciones de Rivas Cherif fueron unánimemente valoradas por su coherencia con los presupuestos del nuevo teatro que tanto defendió. Eusebio de Gorbea fue el dramaturgo más reconocido en su labor de actor, si bien sus rasgos más destacados, tono, ademán, rudeza le sitúan cercano al naturalismo. La labor interpretativa de estos autores como componentes de un grupo, cuyo núcleo se mantiene en los sucesivos intentos renovadores, es también alabada por su disciplina, renuncia al lucimiento y supeditación al tratamiento escénico.

  6. [Management of violent acts within the scope of a pedagogic concept of self and social development--or: talking with school children about violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, K

    1997-03-01

    In order to deal with physical aggression in schools it is necessary to develop an educational concept in which the teachers parallel to their observations of the subject orientated learn-track include the relationship- and the self-development-track (three-track-education). In this concept of classifying dialogs which follow the conflict situations have equal importance to other events during school-lessons. The dialogs take place parallel to the lessons. This method requires a flexible organisation of the lessons in which the pupils are used to work on their own. An extension of the teachers competence is necessary. The extension of competence is related to a close observation of social events and to a development of models to explain the problematic behavior of pupils. If it becomes possible for example to interpret part of the pupils' behavior as scenic acting this new point of view may lead to new solutions. The educational concept is orientated on a model of psychoanalytical explanation in which the current situation stands in the foreground. The problem which thus becomes apparent can be now be handled by reconstructing the exterior events (interactions) and by the symbolic presentation of the interior perception (annoyance, anger, rage). Thus the pupils learn to deal with their inner turbulences in the constructive manner. For the acting in the public forms of making amends are practised. Physical aweness and fitness is seen as an important base for self- and social processes. The work of a man within a boys' group and of a woman within a girls' group offers the possibility of sexual identity.

  7. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  8. Perception and Attitude of Residents Toward Urban Green Spaces in Guangzhou (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Chen, Wendy Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fast economic and social changes in recent years in China have brought massive expansion, redevelopment, and restructuring of cities. These changes offer cities the opportunity to improve environmental quality through urban green spaces (UGSs) and to address the challenges of meeting community aspirations. This study explored peoples’ minds concerning UGSs in Guangzhou city in south China in relation to the following: (1) knowledge and perception of 25 ecosystem services and 8 negative impacts; (2) attitude toward site condition and management; (3) expectation of landscape design; and (4) preference ranking of venues. A questionnaire was designed to solicit opinions from 340 respondents randomly chosen from residents living in the study area. The results indicated widespread recognition of ecosystem services and strong support of UGS programs. Negative responses were weakly expressed. Amelioration of urban microclimate and environmental quality were emphasized. Environmental functions stressed in publicity programs, together with aggravating environmental problems in the city, tended to focus respondents’ attention on UGS benefits. Wildlife habitat, species conservation and other natural ecosystem services drew limited concerns. Awareness of economic benefits was very low. Visual-landscape contributions with strong preference for naturalistic design and recreational benefits were highlighted. Compared with other countries, Guangzhou residents were characterized by visual-scenic-recreation orientation and pragmatic-utilitarian perception of UGSs, reflecting underlying differences in the understanding of inherent ecosystem services of green spaces. Relevant UGS policies and practices could adopt the approaches of market survey, citizen participation, and precision planning in order to meet increasingly mature and refined demands. Citizens’ understanding of high-order ecosystem services could be enhanced to encourage appreciation of nature and their associated

  9. Use of cameras for monitoring visibility impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Cismoski, Scott; Prenni, Anthony; Peters, Melanie

    2018-02-01

    Webcams and automated, color photography cameras have been routinely operated in many U.S. national parks and other federal lands as far back as 1988, with a general goal of meeting interpretive needs within the public lands system and communicating effects of haze on scenic vistas to the general public, policy makers, and scientists. Additionally, it would be desirable to extract quantifiable information from these images to document how visibility conditions change over time and space and to further reflect the effects of haze on a scene, in the form of atmospheric extinction, independent of changing lighting conditions due to time of day, year, or cloud cover. Many studies have demonstrated a link between image indexes and visual range or extinction in urban settings where visibility is significantly degraded and where scenes tend to be gray and devoid of color. In relatively clean, clear atmospheric conditions, clouds and lighting conditions can sometimes affect the image radiance field as much or more than the effects of haze. In addition, over the course of many years, cameras have been replaced many times as technology improved or older systems wore out, and therefore camera image pixel density has changed dramatically. It is shown that gradient operators are very sensitive to image resolution while contrast indexes are not. Furthermore, temporal averaging and time of day restrictions allow for developing quantitative relationships between atmospheric extinction and contrast-type indexes even when image resolution has varied over time. Temporal averaging effectively removes the variability of visibility indexes associated with changing cloud cover and weather conditions, and changes in lighting conditions resulting from sun angle effects are best compensated for by restricting averaging to only certain times of the day.

  10. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  11. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.. We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  12. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  13. Using ecological indicators and a decision support system for integrated ecological assessment at two national park units in the Mid-Atlantic region, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce; Saunders, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks’ conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a −1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.

  14. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman M A Syamsul; Nur A'in C M; Ramachandran S; Ahmad S

    2014-01-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (€1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach

  15. Wind energy report : views of residents of PEI and visitors to PEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    Tourist brochures describe Prince Edward Island (PEI) as an island with pastoral landscapes and sandy beaches. At the same time, PEI is encouraging and actively supporting the development of a major wind energy industry. PEI is also promoting itself as Canada's green province. This report discussed a wind energy survey that was implemented to capture perceptions of wind energy production and wind farms, and their perceived effects on the landscape. Specifically, the survey questioned whether wind farms fit with the gentle island brand for visitors, and whether they support the attempt to label PEI as a green province. The survey also compared perceptions of renewable and non-renewable energy generation methods and determined if there was support for further expansion of wind farms on PEI. The report discussed the objectives of the study as well as the methodology including data collection; statistical issues; and sample characteristics. General travel data for visitors was also presented, such as composition and size of travel party; type of visitation; and regions visited while on PEI. Topics and results that were addressed in the survey included propensity for taking scenic driving tours; percentage of electricity generated from coal, gas, oil, or diesel; desired method to generate electricity; willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy sources; impressions of fossil based methods; impressions of wind power; percentage of electricity generated from wind turbines; perception of the phrase promoting PEI as Canada's green province; seeing a wind farm on PEI; and attitudes toward wind farms on PEI. In general, the report demonstrated support from both Islanders and visitors for the development of energy though renewable sources, particularly wind energy. tabs., figs.

  16. Masks and metamorphosis of female creativity - Doll by Milena Pavlović Barili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Petrija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the painting Doll by Milena Pavlović Barili in the context of anthropology, fine arts and feminist studies. Phantasmic figures in the painting are discussed as symbols of transformation, gender and sexual identity tittuping, and their scenic “masking” as a platform for finding comprehensive creative personality, ironizing biological “specialization of females”. The name Doll suggests pondering about gender roles, because a doll is a must toy for girls, thus preparing them for motherhood and housework; in addition, it also carries a status of (beautiful an object manipulated in men's world. Attaching a male head onto the ”Doll’s” body can be seen as a form of revolt and struggle to overcome inferior position. On one hand, the male head, with its size and audacity pushes into the background body /object doll-girl, while on the other hand, the head as a symbol of "men’s intelligence" provides subjectivity to the "doll" and the desired superiority in the world of male dominance. The Doll, with the characteristics of male power, simultaneously conceals and highlights the vulnerability and social marginalization of femininity. At the same time, in the desire for self-realization, the doll can fall into the trap of imitating men-- the struggle to gain power, but also could mean a recognition of one’s own/ female inadequacy and inferior position. However, the male’s naked body, deprived of the face and hands - and hence subjectivity and activity -is turned into a (beautiful object and pushed into the background, emphasizing the ambiguity of the relationship of "male" and "female" position and hence opening up the possibility of various interpretations of the painting within the theory of gender, sexuality and creativity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet-portala Pojmovnik srpske kulture

  17. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  18. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Green; Jin Xu [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Using Ecological Indicators and a Decision Support System for Integrated Ecological Assessment at Two National Park Units in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Saunders, Michael C.

    2015-02-01

    We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks' conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a -1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.

  20. O jogo dramático e o imaginário de alunos nas aulas de teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Barbosa Thomaz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present how it was possible the apprehension of the students imaginary through the theater-education, using the methodological orientations of Jean Pierre Ryngaert about the dramatic games, under the epistemological view of the Imaginary Anthropology of Gilbert Durand. During the research the scenes were constructed without abandoning the necessary practices to the actor formation – initiation to the game technics – using the scenic space, the knowledge, the body dominion, the relation with the other, with the objects, the use of the voice, of the gestures and to make himself seen and heard, and the typology practices of Ryngaert (1985. The starting point was the district history. We consider that the cases that remain in people’s memory, represent images-remembrances, that emerged through the dramatic games practices that constitute the group’s imaginary, allowing the students group to re-signify their existence, through the scenes created and performed. Beyond a linear and rational temporality, the players left images emerge, characteristic of the colective memory and that nowadays are present in the group quotidian life. Past, present and future were mixed, like the physical and social body were mixed, in a fight against death in favor of lives, where the ossified gestures ended elucidating a state, a spirit problem. Despite of being afraid of death, living the day-to-day terror, fighting without achieving to win evil, threatened, corraled and lost, the players reveal themselves as situation mediators, in search of alternatives that allow that life can be lived.

  1. The quest for a 'better life': Second-generation Turkish-Germans 'return' to 'paradise'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Kılınç

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper uses a lifestyle-migration lens to analyse the 'return' of the Turkish-German second generation to their parents' homeland, Turkey. It focuses on a scenically attractive touristic region, Antalya on the south coast, where second-generation 'returnees' find a highly congenial environment to pursue their project of living a 'better life' in the ancestral homeland. Methods: Thirty in-depth interviews with second-generation Turkish-Germans, mostly in their 30s and 40s, were carried out in and around Antalya in 2014. Narratives were coded and prepared for thematic analysis using NVivo. Results: According to thematic analysis of interview narratives, many respondents were seeking to 'escape' from difficult personal, family, and economic situations. They mobilised their human capital of educational qualifications, language skills, and life experience to set up or get jobs in hotels, restaurants, and other tourist services, combining work with a relaxed attitude to life in what they saw as a 'paradise' of natural beauty and social open-mindedness. Alongside these practical considerations of seeking a better work-life balance were more existential themes of rediscovering their 'true selves' and reinventing the meaning of 'home' in this cosmopolitan niche. Contribution: The first contribution relates to the use of the concept of lifestyle migration to explain the experiences of second-generation Turkish-German 'returnees' who resettle in Turkey. Secondly we focus on a particular place in Turkey - Antalya - which offers a particular 'space' for the study population to achieve what they perceive as a 'better life'.

  2. "And Then Break the Cliché": Understanding and Addressing HIV Vulnerability Through Development of an HIV Prevention Telenovela with Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L

    2018-02-20

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera. Workshops were stratified by self-reported socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity: (1) low-income MSM (n = 9); (2) middle/high-income MSM (n = 6); and (3) TW (n = 8). Employing a conceptual model based on sexual scripts and critical consciousness theories, this paper reports on three themes identified during the telenovela-development process as participants sought to "rescript" social and sexual stereotypes associated with HIV-related vulnerability: (1) management of MSM and TW social identities at the intersection of socioeconomic status, sexuality, and gender performance; (2) social constructions of gender and/or sexual role and perceived and actual HIV/STI risk(s) within sexual partnership interactions; and (3) idealized and actual sexual scripts in the negotiation of safer sex practices between MSM/TW and their partners. These findings are key to reframing existing prevention strategies that fail to effectively engage poorly defined "high-risk populations." Leveraging community-based expertise, the results provide an alternative to the static transfer of information through expert-patient interactions in didactic sessions commonly used in HIV prevention interventions among MSM and TW.

  3. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  4. СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ СТРАТЕГИИ В ХОРЕОГРАФИЧЕСКОМ ОБРАЗОВАНИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokovikova Natalia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the need to create adequate scholarly approach according to educational plans and programs for the dance and choreographic pedagogy concerning perception of music. Perception of music is considered here as the crucial element which sets up the basis for the scenic image, mood and character of the dance stage performance. In the process of learning classical and ethnic dance, as well as choreography the attention must be paid on the dance music which develops rhythmic pulsations and emotionally sensitive mechanisms that form the memory, attention, sense of rhythm and tempo, plasticity and musicality. For the dancer/choreographer music plays a major role in the formation of musical and creative thinking. The author emphasizes that it is necessary for a choreographer/ dancer to analyze the levels of music and motion relationships in the context of musical structure, the effects of musical laws on movements, and to clarify how musical tempo, rhythm, and intonation effect the tempo, rhythm and sense of movement. Accordingly, the author concluded that for the dance pedagogy it is crucial to include all mentioned since the primary level, and points to the failures and shortcomings of dance teachers which should be overcome. Dance teachers and choreographers must have the high-quality and deep understanding of music as they have different problems to deal with concerning music material in dance. They have to teach their students to adequately understand the music at the lowest level of perception (tempo, rhythm, etc. and prepare them for the highest level of perception (image, idea, tone, content, meaning. In addition, the author argue about her with some authors, who she deeply honors but has different views and attitudes towards the same questions.

  5. Montague Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2: Final environmental statement (Docket Nos. 50-496 and 50-497)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company for the construction of the Montague Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the Connecticut River in the Town of Montague, Massachusetts. The plant will employ two identical boiling-water reactors to produce up to 3579 megawatts thermal (MWt) each. Two steam turbine-generators will use this heat to provide 1150 MWe (net) of electrical power capacity from each turbine-generator. A design power level of 3759 MWt (1220 Mwe net) for each unit is anticipated at a future date and is considered in the assessments contained in this statement. The waste heat will be rejected through natural-draft cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Connecticut River. The 1900-acre site is about 90% forest, with the remaining acreage in transmission-line corridor and old-field vegetation. The total loss of mixed-age forest will be 1273 acres. Nodesignated scenic areas will be crossed. Sixty acres of public lands, State forests, and parks will be lost to transmission facilities as well as losses associated with crossings of 2.0 miles of water bodies and 11.9 miles of wetlands. The maximum estimated potential loss of salable wood products will be $849,600. A maximum of 85.8 cfs of cooling water will be withdrawn from the Connecticut River. A maximum of 17.2 cfs will be returned to the river with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about 5. A maximum of 68.6 cfs will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. 143 refs., 58 figs., 69 tabs

  6. Disturbed neural circuits in a subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia demonstrated by F-18-FDG-PET and F-18-DOPA-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, M.; Beckmann, H.; Stoeber, G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Gerhard, A.; Ellitok, E.; Reske, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent verbal, visual scenic and coenaestetic hallucinations are the most prominent psychopathological symptoms aside from psychomotor disorders in speech-sluggish catatonia, a subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia according to Karl Leonhard. These continuous hallucinations serve as an excellent paradigm for the investigation of the assumed functional disturbances of cortical circuits in schizophrenia. Data from positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG-PET and F-18-DOPA-PET) from three patients with this rare phenotype were available (two cases of simple speech-sluggish catatonia, one case of a combined speech-prompt/speech-sluggish subtype) and were compared with a control collective. During their permanent hallucinations, all catatonic patients showed a clear bitemporal hypometabolism in the F-18-FDG-PET. Both patients with the simple speech-sluggish catatonia showed an additional bilateral thalamic hypermetabolism and an additional bilateral hypometabolism of the frontal cortex, especially on the left side. In contrast, the patient with the combined speech-prompt/speech-sluggish catatonia showed a bilateral thalamic hypo-metabolism combined with a bifrontal cortical hypermetabolism. However, the left/right ratio of the frontal cortex also showed a lateralization effect with a clear relative hypometabolism of the left frontal cortex. The F-18-DOPA-PET of both schizophrenic patients with simple speech-sluggish catatonia showed a normal F-18-DOPA storage in the striatum, whereas in the right putamen of the patient with the combined form a higher right/left ratio in F-DOPA storage was discernible, indicating an additional lateralized influence of the dopaminergic system in this subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia. (author)

  7. 陕西金丝峡国家森林公园旅游环境承载力探析%Analysis on Tourism Environmental Capacity of Jinsi Canyon National Forest Park in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜忠潮

    2012-01-01

    基于旅游环境承载力的概念和分析评价方法,对金丝峡国家森林公园的资源空间承载力、设施承载力、生态环境承载力,以及综合承载能力进行分析测算.结果表明,研究区最佳日游客容量为6 238人,合理的年游客容量为112.28万人次/a.金丝峡国家森林公园的现状年、日游客接待量均处于适载状态,逢“假日旅游”高峰期却会出现游客流量严重超载.针对该旅游风景区游客接待状况及其旅游业发展,提出对策性建议和措施.%Based on the concept of tourism environmental capacity and the methods of evaluation, the resource space carrying capacity, facility capacity, ecological carrying capacity, as well as the overall carrying capacity of the Jinsi Canyon National Forest Park were analyzed and measured. The results showed that the rational daily number of tourists was 6 238 and the reasonable annual capacity was 1. 122 8 million. The current daily number and annual amount of tourists of the park were in reasonable levels. The number of tourist would reach the peak during national holidays, which seriously exceeded the overall carrying capacity. In accordance with the tourist reception conditions of the tourist scenic spot, several suggestions were proposed.

  8. Overview of the Domestic Research on Tourism Carrying Capacity%国内旅游容量研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇文波; 李德云; 秦愿; 鲁梦

    2017-01-01

    旅游饱和、旅游超载等现象频出,旅游容量及相关研究日益成为学界和业界共同关注的焦点.本文利用文献分析法,检索、梳理并评析国内旅游容量研究的相关文献,围绕旅游容量的概念、内涵、研究成果以及面临的挑战等内容进行分类归纳.研究发现,国内旅游容量研究侧重于概念、内涵解析以及旅游景区管理面临的挑战等方面,未来应侧重于完善概念体系、改进计算方法、融入可持续发展理念以及实际应用方面的研究,以期本文的研究能为今后国内相关研究和旅游地管理实践提供参考和借鉴.%The phenomenon of tourism saturation and tourism overload frequently happens,which increases the attention of academic and tourism destination managers.This paper retrieves and analyzes the relevant literatures on domestic tourism capacity research,and summarizes the contents of tourism capacity,connotation,research results and challenges.It is found that the domestic tourism capacity research should focus on the conceptual system,the connotation analysis and the challenge of tourism scenic spot management.The future should focus on perfecting the conceptual system,improving the calculation method,integrating into the concept of sustainable development and practical research.This research can provide reference for the future domestic research and tourism management practice.

  9. 承德市旅游环境承载力分析%Analysis of Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity of Chengde City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾紫牧; 曾维华

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of domestic tourism demands,the number of tourists had increased dramatically.Relatively poor facilities and services led to overload of the tourism environment carrying capacity.Eleven most attractive scenic spots in Chengde City were chosen to quantitatively analyze resource carrying capacity,environment carrying capacity and psychological carrying capacity.Then,tourism environment carrying capacity of Chengde City was calculated by use of Buckets effect.The results showed that carrying capacity of the tourism environment of Chengde City was about 29.93 million tourists per year and almost reached to saturation with the increase of tourists year by year.%我国旅游需求快速膨胀,游客数量急剧增加,但配套设施及管理、服务水平相对落后,旅游环境超负荷承栽.选择承德市11个最具吸引力的景区,综合考虑资源、环境和心理3个维度,定量分析各承载力分量,在此基础上根据“木桶原理”确定承德市旅游环境承载力.研究表明:承德市全年的旅游环境承栽力约为2993万人,随着游客人数逐年递增,旅游环境承载力已接近饱和.

  10. 森林旅游开发与森林资源保护关系的探讨——以福建省泰宁县为例%Discussion on Forest Tourism Development and Forest Resources Protection: A Case Study of Taining County, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈起阳

    2012-01-01

    Under the context of vigorous development of forest ecotourism nationwide, how to coordinate the develop ment of forest tourism and the protection of forest resources is a problem to be solved in all scenic spots. This article took Taining County of Fujian Province as an example to analyze the conditions and advantages enjoyed by Taining County for forest ecotourism development and carried out the research on the carrying capacity of forest resources and environment and the influencing mechanism of ecotourism on forest resources. It was proposed to optimize tourism projects, construct talent teams, strengthen propaganda, and help improve the consciousness of tourist to protect and get close to forest, in bid to realize the sustainable development of forest eeotourism.%在全国大力发展森林生态旅游的背景下,如何协调森林旅游开发与森林资源保护的关系是各个景区亟待解决的问题。文中以福建省泰宁县为例,分析了泰宁县发展森林生态旅游的条件和优势,提出优化森林旅游项目,建设人才队伍,加强宣传、提高游客保护森林、亲近森林的意识3条建议。以实现森林生态旅游事业的可持续发展。

  11. Research on Tourism Environmental Capacity of Ganquan Lake in Chunhua County, Shaanxi Province%甘泉湖风景区旅游环境承载力测度与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜忠潮; 张波

    2012-01-01

    基于旅游环境承载力的概念和评价方法,运用层次分析法,对研究区的资源空间承载力、生态环境承载力,以及综合承载能力进行了分析与测算.结果表明,规划区最佳日游客容量为4148人,合理年游客容量为75万人次/a.甘泉湖风景区的现状年、日游客接待量均处于适载状态,应提高景区的知名度和吸引力,加大游客的实际接待量,促使旅游业健康稳定发展.%Based on the concept of tourism environmental capacity and its analytically evaluating methods, chief district-level analysis was introduced to analyze and measure the resource space carrying capacity, eco-environmental carrying capacity, as well as the overall carrying capacity on the study area. The results showed that 4 148 visitors are the best daily number of tourists and 75 million tourists are the reasonable annual capacity of the study area. The daily number of tourists and the annual amount of tourists of the Ganquan lake scenic area are reasonable load status. The overall population is 3. 0 million people in the planning area. The rational thoughts and recommendations on the tourism industry healthy and stable development of Ganquan lake were proposed.

  12. El camino de la mina, vehículo de emociones en Calderón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, Enrique

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Calderón uses some scenic devices to stablish certain dramatic situations in the plays. The studied here is related to the function of the mine, which possessed important polisemic values. Not only it is used for stablishing a belie religious or a reat loving environement but also to use this motif with the metaphoric value of passion or as a true laberinto of love, includying trascendental mitological symbols. Everything together is aimed to create a very fast and mysterious activity mixing both comic and tragic effects in which the nonexpected becomes not only dramatical essence but also a personal experience about destinity and life.Calderón utiliza varios recursos escénicos para establecer determinadas situaciones dramáticas en sus obras. El que se estudia aquí se refiere a la función de la mina, que posee valores polisémicos muy notables, los cuales van desde los que le sirven para establecer un ámbito guerrero, religioso, amoroso de carácter real, hasta la utilización de este motivo con carácter metafórico de la pasión amorosa o como verdadero laberinto de amor que incluye incluso una mitologización trascendente de la misma. Todo ello le sirve para configurar en sus obras una acción trepidante, misteriosa, en la que se mezcla lo cómico con lo trágico, y en donde lo inesperado cobra un valor no sólo de esencia dramática sino también de vivencia existencial acerca del destino de la vida.

  13. Hydrological characterization of the Usumacinta River Basin towards the preservation of environmental services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Silva, F.-O.; Contreras-Silva, A.-I.; Rosales-Arriaga, E.-R.

    2015-04-01

    The Usumacinta basin is characterized by aboundance of natural and scenic resources. It also houses a vast biodiversity (wich also means invaluable genetic resources). Its river is the longest in Mexico (main channel length of 927 km). Therefore it is one of the most productive regions of the country in terms of ecosystem services (such as habitat for biodiversity, maintenance of wetlands, water flows generation, carbon sequestration, soil retention, etc.) that are directly related to the hydrological functioning. During the last centuries, human activities on the Usumacinta basin have drastically changed its geomorphology and vegetation cover. As a result the hydrological cycle has been greatly modified. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct studies in order to support planning activities and implementation of public policies, as well as, to generate a permanent scientific ecosystem monitoring system. This paper presents the results of a study focused on estimating the water balance of this frontier basin. Satellite and field data is used. Variables as vegetation cover (generated by classification of Landsat and MODIS), digital terrain model (SRTM), surface temperature (MODIS), potential evaporation, precipitation and runoff measurements were processed. Various techniques of Remote Sensing, geospatial models (as SSEB and the model for definition of surface hydrological connectivity) and spatial analysis (geostatistics and map algebra) were implemented. The results were integrated into the environment of a Geographic Information System. These are estimates of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, among other biophysical parameters. For the lower part of the basin a balance was performed to estimate inputs of water from runoff and precipitation to the large amount of wetlands in the area. Additionally, areas generating runoff and areas in which most of the precipitaion infiltrates were also mapped. The geo-information obtained is requiered for

  14. Al Hirschfeld's NINA as a prototype search task for studying perceptual error in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1997-04-01

    Artist Al Hirschfeld has been hiding the word NINA (his daughter's name) in line drawings of theatrical scenes that have appeared in the New York Times for over 50 years. This paper shows how Hirschfeld's search task of finding the name NINA in his drawings illustrates basic perceptual principles of detection, discrimination and decision-making commonly encountered in radiology search tasks. Hirschfeld's hiding of NINA is typically accomplished by camouflaging the letters of the name and blending them into scenic background details such as wisps of hair and folds of clothing. In a similar way, pulmonary nodules and breast lesions are camouflaged by anatomic features of the chest or breast image. Hirschfeld's hidden NINAs are sometimes missed because they are integrated into a Gestalt overview rather than differentiated from background features during focal scanning. This may be similar to overlooking an obvious nodule behind the heart in a chest x-ray image. Because it is a search game, Hirschfeld assigns a number to each drawing to indicate how many NINAs he has hidden so as not to frustrate his viewers. In the radiologists' task, the number of targets detected in a medical image is determined by combining perceptual input with probabilities generated from clinical history and viewing experience. Thus, in the absence of truth, searching for abnormalities in x-ray images creates opportunities for recognition and decision errors (e.g. false positives and false negatives). We illustrate how camouflage decreases the conspicuity of both artistic and radiographic targets, compare detection performance of radiologists with lay persons searching for NINAs, and, show similarities and differences between scanning strategies of the two groups based on eye-position data.

  15. Monitoring urban greenness dynamics using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muye Gan

    Full Text Available Urban greenness is increasingly recognized as an essential constituent of the urban environment and can provide a range of services and enhance residents' quality of life. Understanding the pattern of urban greenness and exploring its spatiotemporal dynamics would contribute valuable information for urban planning. In this paper, we investigated the pattern of urban greenness in Hangzhou, China, over the past two decades using time series Landsat-5 TM data obtained in 1990, 2002, and 2010. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was used to derive vegetation cover fractions at the subpixel level. An RGB-vegetation fraction model, change intensity analysis and the concentric technique were integrated to reveal the detailed, spatial characteristics and the overall pattern of change in the vegetation cover fraction. Our results demonstrated the ability of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis to accurately model the vegetation cover fraction in pixels despite the complex spectral confusion of different land cover types. The integration of multiple techniques revealed various changing patterns in urban greenness in this region. The overall vegetation cover has exhibited a drastic decrease over the past two decades, while no significant change occurred in the scenic spots that were studied. Meanwhile, a remarkable recovery of greenness was observed in the existing urban area. The increasing coverage of small green patches has played a vital role in the recovery of urban greenness. These changing patterns were more obvious during the period from 2002 to 2010 than from 1990 to 2002, and they revealed the combined effects of rapid urbanization and greening policies. This work demonstrates the usefulness of time series of vegetation cover fractions for conducting accurate and in-depth studies of the long-term trajectories of urban greenness to obtain meaningful information for sustainable urban development.

  16. FORMING PROSPECTIVE PRIMAPY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ NATIONAL SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN THE COURSE “FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2017-04-01

    traditional dancing movements the original scenic works may be created; modern folk dances combine traditional choreographic features and their new interpretations.

  17. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    dancing movements the original scenic works may be created; modern folk dances combine traditional choreographic features and their new interpretations.

  18. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  19. Strategic planning at the national level: Evaluating and ranking energy projects by environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen

    2007-01-01

    A method for evaluating and ranking energy alternatives based on impact upon the natural environment and cultural heritage was developed as part of the first phase of an Icelandic framework plan for the use of hydropower and geothermal energy. The three step procedure involved assessing i) site values and ii) development impacts within a multi-criteria analysis, and iii) ranking the alternatives from worst to best choice from an environmental-cultural heritage point of view. The natural environment was treated as four main classes (landscape + wilderness, geology + hydrology, species, and ecosystem/habitat types + soils), while cultural heritage constituted one class. Values and impacts were assessed within a common matrix with 6 agglomerated attributes: 1) diversity, richness, 2) rarity, 3) size (area), completeness, pristineness, 4) information (epistemological, typological, scientific and educational) and symbolic value, 5) international responsibility, and 6) scenic value. Standardized attribute scores were used to derive total class scores whose weighted sums yielded total site value and total impact. The final output was a one-dimensional ranking obtained by Analytical Hierarchical Process considering total predicted impacts, total site values, risks and uncertainties as well as special site values. The value/impact matrix is compact (31 cell scores) but was considered to be of sufficient resolution and has the advantage of facilitating overview and communication of the methods and results. The classes varied widely in the extent to which value assessments could be based on established scientific procedures and the project highlighted the immense advantage of an internationally accepted frame of reference, first for establishing the theoretical and scientific foundation, second as a tool for evaluation, and third for allowing a global perspective

  20. Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Griffith, Brad; Joyce, Linda A.; Kareiva, Peter; Keller, Brian D.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Peterson, Charles H.; Scott, J. Michael; Julius, Susan Herrod; West, Jordan M.

    2008-01-01

    Climate variables are key determinants of geographic distributions and biophysical characteristics of ecosystems, communities, and species. Climate change is therefore affecting many species attributes, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes. Because changes in the climate system will continue into the future regardless of emissions mitigation, strategies for protecting climate-sensitive ecosystems through management will be increasingly important. While there will always be uncertainties associated with the future path of climate change, the response of ecosystems to climate impacts, and the effects of management, it is both possible and essential for adaptation to proceed using the best available science. This report provides a preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources in the United States. The term “adaptation” in this document refers to adjustments in human social systems (e.g., management) in response to climate stimuli and their effects. Since management always occurs in the context of desired ecosystem conditions or natural resource management goals, it is instructive to examine particular goals and processes used by different organizations to fulfill their objectives. Such an examination allows for discussion of specific adaptation options as well as potential barriers and opportunities for implementation. Using this approach, this report presents a series of chapters on the following selected management systems: National Forests, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Estuaries, and Marine Protected Areas. For these chapters, the authors draw on the literature, their own expert opinion, and expert workshops composed of resource management scientists and representatives of managing agencies. The information drawn from across these chapters is then analyzed to develop the key synthetic messages presented below.

  1. SOBRE A COMPLETUDE SEMÂNTICA EM O LIVRO DE JÓ: LITERARIEDADE OSCILANTE ENTRE TEXTO E CENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago H. Fernandes Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Este trabalho apresenta uma discussão que se desprende da prática cênica contemporânea no intuito de verificar o quanto vicioso pode estar o texto teatral advindo de um processo colaborativo, no que de pressuposto e subentendido guarda a dramaturgia da cena. O presente texto procura através da obra O livro de Jó, de Luís Alberto de Abreu, e do que mais relevante pode-se considerar sobre a intervenção do Teatro da Vertigem, verificar no texto, posto que publicado, traços de uma completude semântica que significaria a literariedade plena. Por fim, busca-se refletir sobre a importância do gênero dramático quando ainda possível à publicação.  PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Teatro, processo colaborativo, dramaturgia, literariedade. ABSTRACT:This essay presents a discussion that stemmed from the contemporary scenic environment, aiming at to verify how vicious the theatrical text from a collaborative process, taking into consideration all the assumption concerning the ‘dramaturgy’ of te scene. From the play O livro de Jó by Luís Alberto de Abreu and also from what's most relevant about the Teatro da Vertigem intervention, it tries to verify in the text, since it is published, traces of a semantic completeness that'll mean full literacy. Finally, reflect on the importance of the dramatic genre while still possible publication.   KEYWORDS: Theathre, collaborative process, ‘dramaturgy’, literacy.Recebido: 24/02/2011         Aceito: 07/04/2011

  2. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  3. Diagnóstico e hierarquização de problemas de drenagem urbana da zona costeira sul do estado da Paraíba Diagnosis and hierarchization of urban drainage problems in the south coast zone of Paraíba state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Cabral da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A zona costeira do litoral sul do estado da Paraíba é configurada por paisagens diversificadas e caracterizada pela presença de elementos naturais e artificiais que a conferem grande fragilidade e notável beleza cênica. Neste cenário se integram partes de malhas urbanas de municípios litorâneos, áreas de proteção ambiental, falésias, estuários, entre outros. As intervenções antrópicas que desconsideram a complexidade ambiental destas áreas vêm provocando impactos negativos na paisagem, associados aos problemas de drenagem de águas pluviais. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um diagnóstico, que permitiu a hierarquização dos problemas relativos à drenagem pluvial por orla de cada município inserido nesta zona. Os resultados permitem a tomada de decisão para a escolha de ações visando a atenuação ou eliminação dos problemas identificados.The coastal zone of the south coastline of Paraíba State is shaped by diversified landscapes and characterized by the presence of natural and artificial elements that provide this space with great fragility and notable scenic beauty. In this scenery, integrated urban zones, areas of environmental protection, sea cliffs, estuaries of rivers, among others, coexist. The anthropic interventions that do not take into account the complexity of environmental elements cause negative impacts on the landscape of the urbanized maritime edges, as well as associated problems of urban drainage. In this work, a diagnosis searching for a hierarchization of the problems related to the pluvial drainage in these areas is presented. The results allow to the decision taker the choice of better solutions aiming at reducing or eliminating the identified problems.

  4. Tourism in protected areas: Disentangling road and traffic effects on intra-guild scavenging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donázar, José Antonio; Ceballos, Olga; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara

    2018-07-15

    The expansion of road networks and the increase in traffic have emerged in recent years as key threats to the conservation of biodiversity. This is particularly concerning in many protected areas because the increase of recreational activities requiring the use of vehicles. Effects of roads and traffic within guild scenarios and ecological processes remain however poorly known. Here we examined how road proximity and traffic intensity influence patterns of resource use in an Old-World avian scavenger guild living in a protected natural park in northern Spain. We experimentally placed 130 carcasses at different distances from a scenic road in the centre of the park. Vehicles were recorded by means of traffic counters which revealed that maximum numbers were reached during weekends and holidays and during the middle hours of the day. Avian scavenger attendance at carcasses was recorded by means of camera-traps. Obligated scavengers, Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus) and Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) were frequently observed (59.4% and 37.7% of the consumed carcasses) together with five other facultative scavenger species. We found that the richness (number of species) and the probability of consumption of the resource were reduced the smaller the distance to the road and in days with higher traffic intensity. The same factors affected the probability of presence of all the scavenger species. Moreover, some of them, notably griffon vultures, showed hourly patterns of carcass attendance suggesting avoidance of maximum traffic levels. Our results highlight that roads and traffic would trigger consequences on the structure and functioning of scavenger food webs, which may be particularly concerning in protected areas with remarkable levels of biodiversity. Future regulations at protected areas should couple both traffic and tourist affluence with wildlife conservation. In this way important ecological processes would be preserved while maintaining a good

  5. The no-project alternative analysis: An early product of the Tahoe Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Hessenflow, Mark L.; Wein, Anne

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a No-project alternative analysis (NPAA) or “business as usual” scenario with respect to a 20-year projection of 21 indicators of environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin for the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA). Our effort was inspired by earlier work that investigated the tradeoffs between an environmental and an economic objective. The NPAA study has implications for a longer term goal of building a Tahoe Decision Support System (TDSS) to assist the TRPA and other Basin agencies in assessing the outcomes of management strategies. The NPAA assumes no major deviations from current management practices or from recent environmental or societal trends and planned Environmental Improvement Program (EIP) projects. Quantitative “scenario generation” tools were constructed to simulate site-specific land uses, various population categories, and associated vehicle miles traveled. Projections of each indicator’s attainment status were made by building visual conceptual models of the relevant natural and social processes, extrapolating trends, and using available models, research, and expert opinion. We present results of the NPAA, projected indicator status, key factors affecting the indicators, indicator functionality, and knowledge gaps. One important result is that current management practices may slow the loss or degradation of environmental qualities but not halt or reverse it. Our analysis also predicts an increase in recreation and commuting into and within the basin, primarily in private vehicles. Private vehicles, which are a critical mechanism by which the Basin population affects the surrounding environment, are a key determinant of air-quality indicators, a source of particulate matter affecting Secchi depth, a source of noise, and a factor in recreational and scenic quality, largely owing to congestion. Key uncertainties in the NPAA include climate change, EIP project effectiveness, and

  6. Radiological characterisation by means of 3D-laser modelling and positioning of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, Robert; Johansson, Patrik; Erixon, Peter; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Quanhong, Feng

    2012-01-01

    AB SVAFO is a nuclear waste technology and decommissioning company based in Sweden in the scenic surroundings of Studsvik on the Baltic coast. SVAFO is owned by the Swedish nuclear power industry. MultiInfo 3D Laser Scan Solution AB is a technical consult company focusing on the development and solution of 3D laser scanning techniques and its applications in different fields. For better viewing we are using a 3D-laser modelling of a building, national coordinates and using radiological measurements from a database. It is then possible to visualize the contamination situation in the whole building using a CAD-program. The results will be used for the upcoming R2-reactor decommissioning and for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. For better documentation of radioactivity distribution of a decommissioned facility any object in a building can be accurately measured in 3D and visualized in 3D-laser image in a CAD program (e.g. AutoCAD), and then link to a database (e.g. SVALA), which have stored the measurements of radioactivity by other tools (e.g. RFID-tags). The position of any measured object can also be identified in 3D model and laser image, so the situation of contamination levels and distribution can be monitored and visualized in 3D. The results will be used for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. AB SVAFO's main business is to take care of formerly state-owned spent nuclear waste at the site, including small amounts of nuclear fuel. Buildings are also included, mainly nuclear waste storage buildings and a research reactor. Some buildings have already been decommissioned with results of contamination shown in long and not very clear tables. With 3D-modelling the results are shown more clear. (authors)

  7. Binocular Fusion and Invariant Category Learning due to Predictive Remapping during Scanning of a Depthful Scene with Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object’s surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  8. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations. PMID:25642198

  9. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  10. Applying an ecosystem service approach to unravel links between ecosystems and society in the coast of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, Silvia; Gelcich, Stefan; Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Fernandez, Miriam

    2015-11-15

    Ecosystem-based management implies understanding feedbacks between ecosystems and society. Such understanding can be approached with the Drivers-Pressures-State change-Impacts-Response framework (DPSIR), incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ecosystem services to assess impacts on society. This framework was adapted to six locations in the central coast of Chile, where artisanal fisheries coexist with an increasing influx of tourists, and a set of fisheries management areas alternate with open access areas and a no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA). The ecosystem services in the study area were quantified using biomass and species richness in intertidal and subtidal areas as biological indicators. The demand for ecosystem services was elicited by interviews to the principal groups of users. Our results evidenced decreasing landings and a negative perception of fishermen on temporal trends of catches. The occurrence of recreational fishing was negligible, although the consumption of seafood by tourists was relatively high. Nevertheless, the consumption of organisms associated to the study system was low, which could be linked, amongst other factors, to decreasing catches. The comparison of biological indicators between management regimens provided variable results, but a positive effect of management areas and the MPA on some of the metrics was observed. The prioritising of ecosystem attributes by tourists was highly homogenous across the six locations, with "scenic beauty" consistently selected as the preferred attribute, followed by "diversity". The DPSIR framework illustrated the complex interactions existing in these locations, with weak linkages between society's priorities, existing management objectives and the state of biological communities. Overall, this work improved our knowledge on relations between components of coastal areas in central Chile, of paramount importance to advance towards an ecosystem-based management in the area. Copyright © 2015

  11. Eastmain-1-A powerhouse and Rupert diversion : environmental impact statement : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Following an agreement signed in 2002 between the Government of Quebec and the Crees of Quebec, Hydro-Quebec plans to launch the Eastmain-1-A powerhouse and Rupert diversion project scheduled for commissioning in 2010-2011. The project involves building powerhouses and diverting part of the flow from the river into a reservoir to drive turbines at several powerhouses before being channelled to three existing generating stations. This project also requires building a series of hydraulic structures to direct the flow and keep the water diverted. The project also calls for the construction of a new drinking water plant at Waskaganish. The report first presents a justification and description of the project including: purpose, distributor needs, electricity exports and markets outside Quebec, economic aspects, description of the Rupert diversion and powerhouses, roadways, work camps, project schedule and costs. Next, the report provides the study area boundaries and a description of the biophysical and human environment including such topics as climate, hydrography, hydrology and hydraulics, geology and geomorphology, fish, vegetation, wildlife, and birds. Issues regarding the cultural environment, land use, heritage, and landscape were also addressed. The report also discusses public participation issues such as: conservation of fish and fish habitats in the Rupert River; continuation of Cree hunting, fishing and trapping; recreational and scenic values of the Rupert River; and, economic spinoffs for Cree and Jamesian communities. A summary of environmental impacts is provided including sources of impact; modifications to the physical environment; biological impacts; and, impacts on the human environment. Highlights by Cree community are then presented. Mitigation, compensation and enhancement measures and environmental compliance and follow-up programs are also discussed. 20 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Literature and its modality of love: a psychoanalytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Söhnle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychoanalysis has always needed art, in special literature, but also, visual and scenic art to reveal what theory cannot see, by representing structures and procedures of psychical and social functioning. In these terms, Lacan will read this primordial love, which is the love of his own reflection, under the sign of Narcissus myth, as well as the transferential love, themed by Freud, will be calledunder the sign of Symposium, being as an assumption of knowledge, that knows nothing beyond Alcibiades´ desire for Agathon, or as the master´s speech, for assigning the love philia in place of the seductive agalma. The psychoanalysis will also address the tragic love from Antigone´s lesson, the one who gave even what she did not have, in name of human dignity. Whereas the love-passion comes under the heading bovarysme, romantic expression of a loving desire that, in frustration, will end up on melancholy, as a prelude to death. The comic love, on Molière´s sentence, will be the love that degrades the Other, so that the individual does not require the death of love. The love for thinking comes in terms of the one who loves the love itself, whose model will be the Provencal courtly love. At last, on Lacan, Beatrice´s love will illuminate Dante´s sublimation path towards the empty meaning of eternal love. For that, Lacan will remind us, in his homage to Marguerite Duras, that the artist will always precede the psychoanalyst on unknown paths, both in relation to knowledge and love…

  13. From theoretical to actual ecosystem services: mapping beneficiaries and spatial flows in ecosystem service assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Bagstad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service, sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows, users (user locations and level of demand, and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for

  14. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  15. Biological characterization, habits, naturals enemy and populational fluctuation of Aconophora elongatiformis Dietrich in Tecoma Stans (L.) Juss. Ex Hbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon F, Olga Patricia; Quintero C, Paola Fernanda

    2001-01-01

    The ornamental trees complete a very important environmental function for the quality of the inhabitants' life in the urban areas, when offering momentous benefits as the subduing of the climate, regulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere and the scenic beauty. Thanks to the interest of the District Administration, in Bogota, in the last four years, the urban plantation of trees acquired a preponderant paper that became apparent during the biggest plantation of trees program and maintenance of green areas that it has been carried out in the history of the capital; day by day they get more importance, and they are recognized by the citizenship like fundamental values of its environment. Previously to this program, the attention received were minimum or were remembered soon after the surprising devastating consequences of phyto sanitary problems: the grooved cochineal of the acacia, the louse plant of the cypress and the bedbug of the Urapan in whose cases the ignorance of basic aspects of the biology, natural control and the harmful populations' behavior, it has forced to generally apply measured of chemical type to try to reduce the high levels population. The importance that have, the green areas in the city, it favors a continuous pursuit that allows to deepen in the knowledge of the main risk factors, current problems and potentials of the species, types and consequences of the damages and the intra and inter relationships of the arthropofauna of the urban vegetation, their relationship with the plants, as well as the incidence of biotic and abiotic in the tree phonologic behavior and in the fluctuation of the populations of this individuals in order to coming closer to the understanding of the dynamics of the populations of arthropods harmful, in such a way that is possible to design kind handling strategies with the environment, having in consideration in integrated form the conditions under the attack of arthropods harmful

  16. Complaints about noise from windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    With the aim of examining the subject of noise made by windmills and discovering the characteristics that are commonly found with regard to complaints in this respect, 10 cases were selected from a total of 40 in order to carry out a critical examination of the matter. The chosen cases were concerned with both small and medium-sized wind turbines located in groups or standing alone. The authors of the complaints lived within a distance of 160-166 meters from the cited windmills which could be described as producing an average amount of noise in relation to their size. It was clear from available material (including telephone interviews) that noise was experienced as being the most disturbing, although light-flashing from turbine blades, shadowing and aesthetic considerations related to scenic location were also named. In most cases the noise was so distressing that it influenced people's decisions on whether, or where, to go outside their homes and whether or not to open their windows. Most complaints were about machine noise and other audible tones, and about half of them concerned the swish of turning blades. Most people were especially bothered when the wind did not blow so hard (so that the wind in the trees etc. was not so loud). The persistancy of the noise generated was considered to contribute most to the depreciation of life quality. It was found that the amount of irritation coincided with noise loads of L r at a wind velocity of 5 or 8 m/s. A table is presented to illustrate registered noise conditions. (AB)

  17. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  18. Linking biophysical models and public preferences for ecosystem service assessments: a case study for the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Reed, James; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Troy, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Through extensive research, ecosystem services have been mapped using both survey-based and biophysical approaches, but comparative mapping of public values and those quantified using models has been lacking. In this paper, we mapped hot and cold spots for perceived and modeled ecosystem services by synthesizing results from a social-values mapping study of residents living near the Pike–San Isabel National Forest (PSI), located in the Southern Rocky Mountains, with corresponding biophysically modeled ecosystem services. Social-value maps for the PSI were developed using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services tool, providing statistically modeled continuous value surfaces for 12 value types, including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values. Biophysically modeled maps of carbon sequestration and storage, scenic viewsheds, sediment regulation, and water yield were generated using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services tool. Hotspots for both perceived and modeled services were disproportionately located within the PSI’s wilderness areas. Additionally, we used regression analysis to evaluate spatial relationships between perceived biodiversity and cultural ecosystem services and corresponding biophysical model outputs. Our goal was to determine whether publicly valued locations for aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values relate meaningfully to results from corresponding biophysical ecosystem service models. We found weak relationships between perceived and biophysically modeled services, indicating that public perception of ecosystem service provisioning regions is limited. We believe that biophysical and social approaches to ecosystem service mapping can serve as methodological complements that can advance ecosystem services-based resource management, benefitting resource managers by showing potential locations of synergy or conflict between areas supplying ecosystem services and those valued by the public.

  19. The tourism sector in Asom - a critical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasree Karamala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism Sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The State of Asom in India is one of the most beautiful and attractive regions of India. There is hardly any other state which offers what Asom has. Asom has greater variety and colors in its natural scenery and in the cultural treasures of the people that inhabit it. Asom is blessed with an abundance of scenic grandeur. In view of the growing importance of the tourism sector all over the world in general, and in the State of Asom in particular, the tourism sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The present study intends to study the position of the Asom tourism sector. It was found that Asom has occupied the lionsshare in the North East Region, with almost 68 percent of this share, while in India it has only 0.005per cent, 0.0035per cent of the Asia Pacific region and accounts for 0.00044 per cent of the world tourist arrivals from 2011-2012. Although it is suffering from different threats and challenges, it has a number of key attributes to attract domestic and foreign tourists into the state. This has enormous potential for the future development of the tourism sector in the state, hence government should encourage the private sector to be involved in the tourism field and try to attract private investment. Consequently, a well co-ordinated tourism plan and a policy of publicprivate partnership is required so as to develop the tourism sector in the state in the long run.

  20. Planning of renewables schemes: Deliberative and fair decision-making on landscape issues instead of reproachful accusations of non-cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    The main issues related to successful implementation policies concern the socio-economic institutions that are conditional to planning in the energy policy domain, but also in the domain of spatial planning. Successful investments and the siting of renewable power plants eventually determine the success rate of national efforts in establishing renewable capacity. Central planning usually has several objectives and these often have a detrimental effect on the goal of renewable energy application. Current problems related to implementation decisions concerning wind power schemes are an example to those who will be faced by other renewable power plants, notably biomass. Regarding community acceptance of wind power schemes, the visual evaluation of the impact of wind power on the values of the landscape is by far the most dominant factor in explaining opposition or support. Type of landscape fully overshadows other attitudinal attributes, as well as other visual and scenic factors such as the design of wind turbines and wind farms, and the number and the size of turbines. Planning regimes and decision-making practices that really enhance the implementation processes of renewable energy require 'strong' ecological modernization. This means institutional changes that create involvement and trust of actors at the actual implementation level. Local opposition cannot be explained by the egotistical motives of local residents. When the inclination to behave according to (supposed) backyard motives is investigated, the scale to measure this phenomenon appears to indicate commitment to equity issues and fairness of decision-making. Hence, for wind power, local involvement to represent the local values of site-specific landscapes is crucial. For other renewables the source-specific features are different, but conflicts can be expected as well because the fairness of implementation decisions will be equally significant