WorldWideScience

Sample records for scenic river suitability

  1. BLM Colorado Wild and Scenic Rivers Line Features (Suitable/Eligible)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –- This line feature class represents the segments identified as eligible or suitable for Wild and Scenic River designation. These segments are part...

  2. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  3. The role of wild and scenic rivers in the conservation of aquatic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Rothlisberger; Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Russell F. Thurow

    2017-01-01

    Formerly diverse and abundant freshwater species are highly imperiled, with higher extinction rates than many other taxonomic groups worldwide. In the 50 years since passage of the US Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, wild and scenic rivers (WSRs) have contributed significantly to the conservation of native aquatic biodiversity as well as to the conservation and restoration...

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF INSTREAM FLOW NEEDS OF A WILD AND SCENIC RIVER FOR WATER RIGHTS LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.

    1986-01-01

    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  5. 78 FR 5490 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Tuolumne Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... achieve NPS goals, while ensuring accessibility, public safety, resource protection, and protection and... throughout the river corridor. The scenic segment below O'Shaughnessy Dam and the Tioga Road corridor east of... interpretation and education at Tuolumne Meadows. Subalpine meadow and riparian areas would be protected from...

  6. 78 FR 5492 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-PWR-PWRO-11522; PX.P0131800B.00.1] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan, Yosemite National Park, Madera and Mariposa Counties, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. 76 FR 14897 - Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild and Scenic River, Ottawa National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild... Dog National Wild and Scenic River to Congress. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information may be..., Ironwood, MI 49938, (906) 932-1330, ext. 342. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Yellow Dog Wild and Scenic...

  8. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan

    2016-03-09

    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  9. 75 FR 5803 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan Yosemite National Park, Mariposa and Madera Counties, CA ACTION: Notice of second extension of public scoping period. SUMMARY...

  10. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  11. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  12. Hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic habitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska-with special emphasis on the Niobrara National Scenic River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathan J.

    2010-01-01

    The Niobrara River is an ecologically and economically important resource in Nebraska. The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources' recent designation of the hydraulically connected surface- and groundwater resources of the Niobrara River Basin as ?fully appropriated? has emphasized the importance of understanding linkages between the physical and ecological dynamics of the Niobrara River so it can be sustainably managed. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic attributes of the Niobrara River in northern Nebraska. This report presents the results of an analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River and its valley for the approximately 330-mile reach from Dunlap Diversion Dam to its confluence with the Missouri River. Two spatial scales were used to examine and quantify the hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River: a basin scale and a reach scale. At the basin scale, digital spatial data and hydrologic data were analyzed to (1) test for differences between 36 previously determined longitudinal hydrogeomorphic segments; (2) quantitatively describe the hydrogeomorphic characteristics of the river and its valley; and (3) evaluate differences in hydraulic microhabitat over a range of flow regimes among three fluvial geomorphic provinces. The statistical analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments resulted in reclassification rates of 3 to 28 percent of the segments for the four descriptive geomorphic elements. The reassignment of classes by discriminant analysis resulted in a reduction from 36 to 25 total hydrogeomorphic segments because several adjoining segments shared the same ultimate class assignments. Virtually all of the segment mergers were in the Canyons and Restricted Bottoms (CRB) fluvial geomorphic province. The most frequent classes among hydrogeomorphic segments, and the dominant classes per unit

  13. Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the

  14. Suitability Evaluation of River Bank Filtration along the Second Songhua River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Second Songhua River is the biggest river system in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, the rapid economic development in this area has increased the prominence of water resources and water-related environmental problems; these include surface water pollution and the overexploitation of groundwater resources. Bank infiltration on the floodplains of the Second Songhua River is an important process of groundwater-surface water exchange under exploitation conditions. Understanding this process can help in the development of water resource management plans and strategies for the region. In this research, a multi-criteria evaluation index system was developed with which to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration along the Second Songhua River. The system was comprised of main suitability indexes for water quantity, water quality, the interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resources. The index system was integrated into GIS (Geographic Information System to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration (RBF in the study area was divided into five grades. Although the evaluation index system and evaluation method are applicable only to the Second Songhua River basin, the underlying principle and techniques it embodies can be applied elsewhere. For future generalization of the evaluation index system, the specific evaluation index and its scoring criteria should be modified appropriately based on local conditions.

  15. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  16. Suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.; Braeckel, van A.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of grazing, burning, mowing and cutting as tools for succession control in peatland was assessed and expressed on a scale from 0 - 1. All management tools are suitable, but their effects are conditional. The suitability depends on the targeted vegetation transition and on their

  17. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  18. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  19. Suitability of river delta sediment as proppant, Missouri and Niobrara Rivers, Nebraska and South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Piatak, Nadine

    2017-11-16

    Sediment management is a challenge faced by reservoir managers who have several potential options, including dredging, for mitigation of storage capacity lost to sedimentation. As sediment is removed from reservoir storage, potential use of the sediment for socioeconomic or ecological benefit could potentially defray some costs of its removal. Rivers that transport a sandy sediment load will deposit the sand load along a reservoir-headwaters reach where the current of the river slackens progressively as its bed approaches and then descends below the reservoir water level. Given a rare combination of factors, a reservoir deposit of alluvial sand has potential to be suitable for use as proppant for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional oil and gas development. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey began a program of researching potential sources of proppant sand from reservoirs, with an initial focus on the Missouri River subbasins that receive sand loads from the Nebraska Sand Hills. This report documents the methods and results of assessments of the suitability of river delta sediment as proppant for a pilot study area in the delta headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Results from surface-geophysical surveys of electrical resistivity guided borings to collect 3.7-meter long cores at 25 sites on delta sandbars using the direct-push method to recover duplicate, 3.8-centimeter-diameter cores in April 2015. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of upstream sand sources in the lower Niobrara River valley.At the laboratory, samples were dried, weighed, washed, dried, and weighed again. Exploratory analysis of natural sand for determining its suitability as a proppant involved application of a modified subset of the standard protocols known as American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 19C. The RP19C methods were not intended for exploration-stage evaluation of raw materials. Results for the washed samples are

  20. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key...

  1. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  2. Modeling the scenic beauty of the Highland Scenic Highway, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2010-01-01

    Finding sites with a pleasant view is important to maximize visitors' scenic satisfaction. A geographic information systems analysis of viewsheds is helpful for locating sites with maximum visibility. Viewshed analyses can also be combined with public perceptions of scenic beauty for selecting the most scenic sites. This research modeled the perceived beauty of...

  3. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  4. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    resumida brevemente, enfatizando el rol de los argumentos del investigador en descubrir el significado socialmente inconsciente en la interacción social. Finalmente, una mirada a los problemas epistemológicos contemporáneos. El enfoque de LORENZER para teorizar e investigar al sujeto como una entidad......The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist...... socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks...

  5. Talladega scenic drive corridor management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    The Talladega Scenic Drive is a 29-mile two-laned, paved road, primarily located along the ridges of Horseblock and Cheaha mountains through the Talladega National Forest in northeastern Alabama with panoramic views into Choccolocco and Cheaha Valley...

  6. Distributed snow modeling suitable for use with operational data for the American River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, E.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The mountainous terrain of the American River watershed (~4300 km2) at the Western slope of the Northern Sierra Nevada is subject to significant variability in the atmospheric forcing that controls the snow accumulation and ablations processes (i.e., precipitation, surface temperature, and radiation). For a hydrologic model that attempts to predict both short- and long-term streamflow discharges, a plausible description of the seasonal and intermittent winter snow pack accumulation and ablation is crucial. At present the NWS-CNRFC operational snow model is implemented in a semi distributed manner (modeling unit of about 100-1000 km2) and therefore lump distinct spatial variability of snow processes. In this study we attempt to account for the precipitation, temperature, and radiation spatial variability by constructing a distributed snow accumulation and melting model suitable for use with commonly available sparse data. An adaptation of the NWS-Snow17 energy and mass balance that is used operationally at the NWS River Forecast Centers is implemented at 1 km2 grid cells with distributed input and model parameters. The input to the model (i.e., precipitation and surface temperature) is interpolated from observed point data. The surface temperature was interpolated over the basin based on adiabatic lapse rates using topographic information whereas the precipitation was interpolated based on maps of climatic mean annual rainfall distribution acquired from PRISM. The model parameters that control the melting rate due to radiation were interpolated based on aspect. The study was conducted for the entire American basin for the snow seasons of 1999-2000. Validation of the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) prediction is done by comparing to observation from 12 snow Sensors. The Snow Cover Area (SCA) prediction was evaluated by comparing to remotely sensed 500m daily snow cover derived from MODIS. The results that the distribution of snow over the area is well captured and the

  7. Recreationists’ Perceptions of Scenic Beauty and Satisfaction at a Public Forest Managed for Endangered Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Paudyal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning and other active forest management treatments have been proven essential for maintaining suitable habitat conditions for many wildlife species, including the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW. This study examines the perception of forest management treatments of recreation users participating in various activities (hunting, hiking/backpacking, camping, off-highway vehicle riding, and canoeing/kayaking in terms of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. We used photographic images to capture various forest management treatments of different intensity levels and times after treatments, and assessed users’ perception of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. Results indicated variation among users participating in different recreation activities, but that good quality RCW habitats offered both higher scenic beauty and higher recreation satisfaction than poor quality habitats for most activity user groups. Finally, recreation satisfaction was statistically equal to perceived scenic beauty from both good and poor-quality RCW habitats for most of the activity user groups, thus suggesting the importance of scenic beauty of forest sites in determining recreation users’ attainment of visit satisfaction. Findings conclude that forest sites developed as good quality RCW habitats in the present state also offer quality experience to recreation users, thus supporting multi-objective forestry practices in public forests.

  8. Assessing the suitable habitat for reintroduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) in a lowland river: A modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Gobeyn, Sacha; Dillen, Alain; Poelman, Eddy; Goethals, Peter L M

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been made during the past decades to improve the water quality and to restore the physical habitat of rivers and streams in western Europe. This has led to an improvement in biological water quality and an increase in fish stocks in many countries. However, several rheophilic fish species such as brown trout are still categorized as vulnerable in lowland streams in Flanders (Belgium). In order to support cost-efficient restoration programs, habitat suitability modeling can be used. In this study, we developed an ensemble of habitat suitability models using metaheuristic algorithms to explore the importance of a large number of environmental variables, including chemical, physical, and hydromorphological characteristics to determine the suitable habitat for reintroduction of brown trout in the Zwalm River basin (Flanders, Belgium), which is included in the Habitats Directive. Mean stream velocity, water temperature, hiding opportunities, and presence of pools or riffles were identified as the most important variables determining the habitat suitability. Brown trout mainly preferred streams with a relatively high mean reach stream velocity (0.2-1 m/s), a low water temperature (7-15°C), and the presence of pools. The ensemble of models indicated that most of the tributaries and headwaters were suitable for the species. Synthesis and applications . Our results indicate that this modeling approach can be used to support river management, not only for brown trout but also for other species in similar geographical regions. Specifically for the Zwalm River basin, future restoration of the physical habitat, removal of the remaining migration barriers and the development of suitable spawning grounds could promote the successful restoration of brown trout.

  9. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2016-02-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island for construction of Eco-friendly parks/tourist destination is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands which are least vulnerable to the impact of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very useful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  10. Water quality evaluation system to assess the status and the suitability of the Citarum river water to different uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2010-09-01

    Water quality degradation in the Citarum river will increase from the year to year due to increasing pollutant loads when released particularly from Bandung region of the upstream areas into the river without treatment. This will be facing the problems on water quality status to use for multi-purposes in the downstream areas. The water quality evaluation system is used to evaluate the available water condition that distinguishes into two categories, i.e., the water quality index (WQI) and water quality aptitude (WQA). The assessment of water quality for the Citarum river from 10 selected stations was found that the WQI situates in the bad category generally and the WQA ranges from the suitable quality for agriculture and livestock watering uses to the unsuitable for biological potential function, drinking water production, and leisure activities and sports in the upstream areas of Saguling dam generally.

  11. Managing Environmental Flows for Impounded Rivers in Semi-Arid Regions- A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Approach for the Assessment of River Habitat for Salmonid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Flanagan, J.; Guo, Q.; Harmon, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Balancing ecosystem health in water-scarce, agriculturally dominated river basins remains a challenge. In dry water years, maintaining conditions for restored and sustained indigenous fish populations (a frequently used indicator for ecosystem health) is particularly challenging. Competing human demands include urban and agricultural water supplies, hydropower, and flood control. In many semi-arid regions, increasing drought intensity and frequency under future climate scenarios will combine with population increases to water scarcity. The goal of this work is to better understand how reservoir releases affect fish habitat and overall river aquatic ecosystem quality. Models integrating a diverse array of physical and biological processes and system state are used to forecast the river ecosystem response to changing drivers. We propose a distributed parameter-based Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) approach for assessing fish habitat quality. Our river ecosystem HSI maps are based on a combination of the following: (1) In situ data describing stream flow and water quality conditions; (2) Spatial observations, including surveyed cross-sections, aerial imagery and digital elevation maps (DEM) of the river and its riparian corridor; and (3) Simulated spatially distributed water depths, flow velocities, and temperatures estimated from 1D and 2D river flow and temperature models (HEC-RAS and CE-QUAL-W2, respectively). With respect to (2), image processing schemes are used to classify and map key habitat features, namely riparian edge and shallow underwater vegetation. HSI maps can be modified temporally to address specific life cycle requirements of indicator fish species. Results are presented for several reaches associated with the San Joaquin River Restoration Project, focusing on several components of the Chinook salmon life cycle. HSI maps and interpretations are presented in the context of a range of prescribed reservoir release hydrographs linked to California water

  12. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  13. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  14. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  15. Assessing the Habitat Suitability of Dam Reservoirs: A Quantitative Model and Case Study of the Hantan River Dam, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate ecologically healthy regions near a dam reservoir. This study developed a model for assessing habitat suitability as a proxy for the ecological value of reservoirs. Three main factors comprising nine assessment variables were selected and classified as having a habitat suitability (HS between 0 and 1: (1 geomorphic factors of altitude, slope steepness, and slope aspect; (2 vegetation factors of forest physiognomy, vegetation type, and tree age; and (3 ecological factors of land cover, ecological quality index, and environmental conservation value assessment. The spatial distribution of the nine HS indices was determined using geographic information systems and combined into one HS index value to determine ecologically healthy regions. The assessment model was applied to areas surrounding the Hantan River Dam, South Korea. To verify the model, wildlife location data from the national ecosystem survey of the Ministry of Environment were used. Areas with an HS index between 0.73 and 1 were found to contain 72% of observed wildlife locations. Ecologically healthy areas were identified by adding the indices of each variable. The methods shown here will be useful for establishing ecological restoration plans for dam reservoirs in South Korea.

  16. USGS geologic Mapping and karst research in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Grant, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) was created in 1964 to protect 134 miles of the Current River and its major tributary, the Jacks Fork, that are located in south-central Missouri (fig. 1). The park includes numerous large karst springs including Big Spring, by flow volume this is the largest spring in the National Park system. The National Park Service (NPS) administers a narrow, nearly continuous corridor of land adjacent to the two rivers. Base flow for the rivers is chiefly supplied by groundwater that has traveled through the karst landscape from as far as 38 miles away from the spring (Imes and Frederick, 2002). The watershed is vulnerable to pollution, but the area remains largely rural with few industries. The springs and rivers provide habitat for numerous aquatic species as well as recreational resources for floaters, fishermen, and campers. The ONSR is a major cave park with hundreds of known caves and diverse in-cave resources.

  17. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  18. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  19. China National Scenic Area and Its Planning Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Jianzhong; Deng; Wugong; Li; Caige

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years since the foundation of China’s scenic area system, a comparatively comprehensive structural system, legal system, and management system have been established in this field, which has protected precious landscape resources and made remarkable achievements. The planning of scenic areas has its own attributes and technical characteristics, which attaches great importance to establishing a functional structure that combines the three systems of sightseeing, tourism services, and social management of local residents. Moreover, with the development of scenic areas, the planning will lay more emphasis on the connection between different levels, give full play to the comprehensive function of scenic areas, pay attention to the research on village and town planning within the area, and learn from the experience of national parks in foreign countries.

  20. China National Scenic Area and Its Planning Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Jianzhong; Deng Wugong; Li Caige

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years since the foundation of China's scenic area system,a comparatively comprehensive structural system,legal system,and management system have been established in this field,which has protected precious landscape resources and made remarkable achievements.The planning of scenic areas has its own attributes and technical characteristics,which attaches great importance to establishing a functional structure that combines the three systems of sightseeing,tourism services,and social management of local residents.Moreover,with the development of scenic areas,the planning will lay more emphasis on the connection between different levels,give full play to the comprehensive function of scenic areas,pay attention to the research on village and town planning within the area,and learn from the experience of national parks in foreign countries.

  1. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  3. 边境旅游地游客环境态度与环境行为的实证分析--以丹东鸭绿江国家级风景区为例%Vistor’ s Environmental Attitude and Behavior in Border Tour Destination:a Case Study of Yalu River National Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 石岩涛; 张梅; 季长波; 王鹏; 杨清海

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visitors ’ social and economic background on their environmental attitude and environmental behavior in Yalu River National Scenic Spot .Likert 5 scale method were used , 406 valid questionnaires were collected and studied by multivariate analysis of variance .The results showed that visitor ’ s age , gender , schooling , occupation and income have effect on their environmental attitude . Visitors paid more attention to ecological relationship and environmental interpretation , as well as the public bene-fit, but their environmental duty is not so well .Statistical analysis showed the above socio -demographic factors significantly affect their environmental behavior .They focused on environmental sustention and sustainable protec-tion positively but not actively on participative behavior .They paid less attention to environmental disturbance .Fi-nally, some advice about ecological management is put forward .%为分析边境旅游地的不同社会经济背景因素游客对环境态度与环境行为的影响,文章采用李克特量表法设计问卷,调查后回收有效问卷406份,运用多元方差分析方法对问卷量表数据做综合分析。结果表明:游客年龄、性别、受教育程度、职业和收入在环境态度方面上有一定差异,游客关注人和自然生态关系和环境解说较多,关注公众福祉意愿较高,但整体环境责任一般;游客年龄、性别、教育程度、职业和收入在环境行为方面差异显著,游客环境维护行为与后续保护行为表现较好,环境参与行为一般,而环境干扰行为比较消极。最后,有针对性对鸭绿江风景区的生态管理提出相关建议。

  4. Multiresolution Network Temporal and Spatial Scheduling Model of Scenic Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of pillar industries of the world economy. Low-carbon tourism will be the mainstream direction of the scenic spots' development, and the ω path of low-carbon tourism development is to develop economy and protect environment simultaneously. However, as the tourists' quantity is increasing, the loads of scenic spots are out of control. And the instantaneous overload in some spots caused the image phenomenon of full capacity of the whole scenic spot. Therefore, realizing the real-time schedule becomes the primary purpose of scenic spot’s management. This paper divides the tourism distribution system into several logically related subsystems and constructs a temporal and spatial multiresolution network scheduling model according to the regularity of scenic spots’ overload phenomenon in time and space. It also defines dynamic distribution probability and equivalent dynamic demand to realize the real-time prediction. We define gravitational function between fields and takes it as the utility of schedule, after resolving the transportation model of each resolution, it achieves hierarchical balance between demand and capacity of the system. The last part of the paper analyzes the time complexity of constructing a multiresolution distribution system.

  5. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  6. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  7. Effect of afforestation on the scenic value of rural landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, L.; Tyrvaeinen, L.; Nousiainen, I.

    1996-01-01

    Afforestation of set-aside land will have significant impact on Finland's rural landscape. In this study, the visual impacts of gradual afforestation were evaluated by private non-industrial forest and agricultural landowners, potential recreationists, and professionals of land use management. The scenic beauty of 32 different rural landscapes were assessed from slides, which were produced from nine original pictures by image-capture technology, with the open landscape becoming gradually afforested in three stages. Scenic beauty was evaluated using a pairwise comparison technique and by rating landscapes using a scale from 1 to 10. In general, the scenic beauty decreased with the increasing intensity of afforestation. An exception to this was moderate afforestation, which can have a positive effect on scenic beauty. The more attractive the original landscape was, the greater the effect of afforestation was found to be. The differences in the evaluations of landowners were not as distinct as those of the other groups, and their attitude towards afforestation was more positive than those of the other two groups. In addition, professionals of land-use management had a clearer opinion about scenic beauty than the other groups. 25 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. Fall and winter microhabitat use and suitability for spring chinook salmon parr in a U.S. Pacific Northwest River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Jonasson, Brian C.; Peterson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Habitat degradation has been implicated as a primary threat to Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. Habitat restoration and conservation are key toward stemming population declines; however, winter microhabitat use and suitability knowledge are lacking for small juvenile salmonids. Our objective was to characterize microhabitat use and suitability for spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha parr during fall and winter. Using radiotelemetry techniques during October–February (2009–2011), we identified fall and winter microhabitat use by spring Chinook Salmon parr in Catherine Creek, northeastern Oregon. Tagged fish occupied two distinct gradient reaches (moderate and low). Using a mixed‐effects logistic regression resource selection function (RSF) model, we found evidence that microhabitat use was similar between free‐flowing and surface ice conditions. However, habitat use shifted between seasons; most notably, there was greater use of silt substrate and areas farther from the bank during winter. Between gradients, microhabitat use differed with greater use of large wood (LW) and submerged aquatic vegetation in the low‐gradient reach. Using a Bayesian RSF approach, we developed gradient‐specific habitat suitability criteria. Throughout the study area, deep depths and slow currents were most suitable, with the exception of the low‐gradient reach where moderate depths were optimal. Near‐cover coarse and fine substrates were most suitable in the moderate‐ and low‐gradient reaches, respectively. Near‐bank LW was most suitable throughout the study area. Multivariate principal component analyses (PCA) indicated co‐occurring deep depths supporting slow currents near cover were intensively occupied in the moderate‐gradient reach. In the low‐gradient reach, PCA indicated co‐occurring moderate depths, slow currents, and near‐bank cover were most frequently occupied. Our study identified suitable and interrelated microhabitat

  9. Sense of place along a scenic byway in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilynne Mann; Jessica Leahy

    2008-01-01

    Sense of place defines the value and meaning of location. The Rangeley Lakes area of Maine, an unusual natural environment with cultural and historic significance, was nationally recognized in 2000 by the designation of the Rangeley Lakes National Scenic Byway. A survey during the summer of 2006 sought to identify sense of place in the midst of tourism-related growth...

  10. Ecological Flow Assessment to Improve the Spawning Habitat for the Four Major Species of Carp of the Yangtze River: A Study on Habitat Suitability Based on Ultrasonic Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four major species of Chinese carp, namely black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, are important economic freshwater fish varieties in China. They primarily inhabit and breed in the Yangtze River. Unfortunately, the construction and operation of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Dam have dramatically changed the hydrodynamic conditions in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, leading to a sharp decline in the reproduction rates of these carp. The egg abundance of the four species of carp downstream from the Three Gorges Dam reached 8.35 billion in 1965, but abundance during 2005–2012 was only 0.25 billion. One of the main reasons was that the hydrodynamic conditions of the spawning ground could not meet the four species’ breeding requirements. However, due to the limitations of traditional detection tools, the spawning characteristics of these four species of carp were still unclear. In this study, the ultrasonic telemetry and a three–dimensional hydrodynamic model were utilized to build the habitat suitability index (HSI curves for the four species of carp. The habitat suitability model was then built based on HSI curves to assess spawning habitat quantity under different flow conditions. Finally, the habitat suitability model in the Yidu spawning ground was validated using 32 groups of sampling data in 2015 and 2017. The statistical results showed that the most suitable velocity ranged from 0.78 m/s to 0.93 m/s. The most suitable water depth ranged from 14.56 m to 16.35 m, and the most suitable Froude number ranged from 0.049 to 0.129. The habitat suitability model simulation results indicated that when the discharge was between 15,000 m3/s and 21,300 m3/s, the weighted usable area (WUA values in both the Yidu and Zhicheng spawning grounds would remain at a high level. The validation results showed that most

  11. Site suitability report in the matter of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. Docket No. 50-537. Revision to March 4, 1977 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    In March 1977, the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation issued its Site Suitability Report (SSR) for the proposed Clinch River Breeder Plant (CRBRP). That SSR documents the result of the staff's evaluation of the suitability of the proposed CRBRP site for a facility of the general size and type as the CRBRP from the standpoint of radiological health and safety considerations. The staff concluded in that SSR that the proposed CRBRP site is suitable for such a facility. Since the SSR was issued, several modifications have been made to the CRBRP design, additional data related to the site and its environs have been collected, and the Fast Flux Test Facility, a technological precursor to the CRBRP, has been completed and has commenced operation. In addition, new emergency planning requirements have been promulgated by the staff. This report is an update of the March 1977 SSR that reflects these matters and discusses them in terms of the previous staff conclusion regarding the suitability of the proposed CRBRP site

  12. Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic, irrigational, and industrial purposes: a case study from Thirumanimuttar river basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Prasanna, M V

    2012-01-01

    The Thirumanimuttar sub-basin forms an important groundwater province in south India, facing serious deficiency in both quality and quantity of groundwater due to increased demand associated with rapid population explosion, agricultural growth and industrial activities. A total of 194 groundwater samples were collected and 15 water quality parameters were analyzed using standard procedures. Na( + ), Cl( - ), Ca(2 + ), HCO(-)(3), Mg(2 + ) and SO(2-)(4) concentration ions are more dominant in both seasons. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity was observed good correlation with Na( + ), Cl( - ), HCO(-)(3), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ), Cl( - ), PO(3-)(4) and NO(-)(3) ions indicating dominance of plagioclase feldspar weathering, anthropogenic input and over drafting of groundwater irrespective of seasons. The Hill-Piper diagram indicates alkaline earths exceed the alkalis, an increase of weak acids was noted during both the seasons. For assessing the groundwater for irrigation suitability parameters like total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index, and sodium percentage are also calculated. Permanent hardness was noted in higher during both the seasons due to discharge of untreated effluents and ion exchange process. The RSC indicates 56% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes in both seasons, if continuously used will affect the crop yield. From the results, nearly 72% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation.

  13. Suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) as wastewater indicators in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jin-Na; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2017-07-15

    Wastewater indicator is a useful tool for evaluating the wastewater impact on natural water, but there is little information about the suitability of wastewater indicators for different regions. This study aimed to select suitable wastewater indicators in the Pearl River Delta region, south China by screening a range of wastewater related organic compounds. The screening campaign was carried out by investigating the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 93 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 5 artificial sweeteners (ASs) in nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the region, and the occurrence of these target compounds in the contaminated and clean surface water of the Pearl River. An ideal wastewater indicator should be hydrophilic, source-specific for domestic wastewater, ubiquitous in contaminated surface water with detection frequency (DF) >80% and absent in background water samples. For liable indicators, high removal rates (>90%) should be observed in WWTPs and they should be detected in all the influent samples at concentrations fifty times higher than their limits of quantification. For conservative indicators, low removal rates (<50%) should be observed in WWTPs and they should be detected in all the effluent samples at concentrations fifty times higher than their limits of quantification. Based on the above criteria, sucralose and fluconazole were selected as conservative indicators in the region, while cyclamate, saccharin, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, paracetamol, salicylic acid and caffeine were selected as liable indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Precision Land-Cover-Land-Use GIS Mapping and Land Availability and Suitability Analysis for Grass Biomass Production in the Aroostook River Valley, Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzeng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-precision land-cover-land-use GIS mapping was performed in four major townships in Maine’s Aroostook River Valley, using on-screen digitization and direct interpretation of very high spatial resolution satellite multispectral imagery (15–60 cm and high spatial resolution LiDAR data (2 m and the field mapping method. The project not only provides the first-ever high-precision land-use maps for northern Maine, but it also yields accurate hectarage estimates of different land-use types, in particular grassland, defined as fallow land, pasture, and hay field. This enables analysis of potential land availability and suitability for grass biomass production and other sustainable land uses. The results show that the total area of fallow land in the four towns is 7594 hectares, which accounts for 25% of total open land, and that fallow plots equal to or over four hectares in size total 4870, or 16% of open land. Union overlay analysis, using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil data, indicates that only a very small percentage of grassland (4.9% is on “poorly-drained” or “very-poorly-drained” soils, and that most grassland (85% falls into the “farmland of state importance” or “prime farmland” categories, as determined by NRCS. It is concluded that Maine’s Aroostook River Valley has an ample base of suitable, underutilized land for producing grass biomass.

  15. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  16. Suitability Analysis of Office Building Design against Maintenance Cost (Case Study of Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Puji Hersanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of building design's inaccuracy against the cost of maintenance, by taking the research in Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Water Resources Field and Water Resources Management Center in Yogyakarta Special Region. The first step is to analyze the inaccuracy of building design based on the result of interview and observation during field survey. The second step is to analyze the cost of building maintenance. The third step is to analyze the maintenance costs used to minimize the effects of the inaccurate design of the building. The result shows the inaccuracy of building design in the form of the use of clear glass without coated glass film and the absence of heat insulator on the roof of the building cause the room to become hot. The installation of rain gutters without vertical pipes, toilet facilities in the entire building is not yet complete, inadequate accessibility for persons with disabilities, and inadequate corridor design. There is a small portion of the maintenance budget used for reducing the impact of building design's inaccuracy, so it can be concluded that the design of the building is less meet the requirements of the Government regulations.

  17. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  18. Monitoring biological control agents and leafy spurge populations along the Smith River in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Birdsall; G. Markin; T. Kalaris; J. Runyon

    2013-01-01

    The Smith River originates in west central Montana and flows north approximately 100 miles before joining the Missouri River. The central 60 miles of the river flows through a relatively inaccessible, forested, scenic limestone canyon famous for its trout fishing. Because of its popularity, the area was designated Montana's first and only controlled river, with...

  19. The Performative Presence in the Scenics Arts and the Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Reis Biancalana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a reflection about the relevance of improvisation aspect in the performative arts as a fomenter element of scenic presence. Performances can be defined by the moment when one or more bodies shows themselves to other people eyes and the presence here means the performer ability to attract the viewer‟s attention to himself. The improvisational aspect comes out of these situations can be applied at many levels and many ways but mainly depends on the performer in his desire to do, namely, in giving psychophysically himself to his art.

  20. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above

  1. Digitisation of Scenic and Historic Interest Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Lawson, G.; Sim, J.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documents have become the major information source for heritage conservation practice. More heritage managers today use electronic maps and digital information systems to facilitate management and conservation of cultural heritage. However, the social aspects of digital heritage have not been sufficiently recognised. The aim of this paper is to examine China's `Digital Scenic Area' project, a national program started in 2004, to reveal the political and economic powers behind digital heritage practice. It was found that this project was only conducted within the most popular tourist destinations in China. Tourism information was the main object but information about landscape cultures were neglected in this project. This project also demonstrated that digital management was more like a political or economic symbol rather than a tool for heritage conservation. However, using digital technologies are still considered by the local government as a highly objective way of heritage management. Selected as a typical Scenic Area in China, Slender West Lake in Yangzhou was investigated to identify heritage stakeholder's attitudes toward digital management and the request from local management practice.

  2. Assessment of Soil Environmental Quality in Huangguoshu Waterfalls Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongbin; Feng, Kaiyu; Gu, Bo; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper concentrates on five major heavy metal pollutants as soil environmental quality evaluation factors, respectively Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), based on the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB15618 - 1995), we used single factor index evaluation model of soil environmental quality and comprehensive index evaluation model to analyze surface soil environmental quality in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area. Based on surface soil analysis, our results showed that the individual contamination index, Pb, Hg, As and Cr in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area met class I according to requirements of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards, which indicated that Pb, Hg, As and Cr were not main heavy metal pollutants in this area, but the individual contamination index of Cd in soil was seriously exceeded National Soil Environmental Quality Standards’ requirement. Soil environmental quality in Shitouzhai, Luoshitan, Langgong Hongyan Power Plant have exceeded the requirement of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards “0.7soils had been slightly polluted; the classification of soil environmental quality assessment in Longgong downstream area was above “Alert Level”, it indicated that soil in this area was not polluted. Above all, relevant measures for soil remediation are put forward.

  3. An investigation of the suitability of the Chalk River site to host a geologic waste management facility for CRL's low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.; Baumgartner, P.; Chan, T.; Kitson, C.; Kozak, E.; Man, A.; Martino, J.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Beaton, D.; Sharp, K.; Thivierge, R.

    2011-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is investigating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site for hosting a Geologic Waste Management Facility (GWMF) as part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) funded through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The GWMF is envisioned to be an underground engineered-geological repository consisting of shafts, access tunnels and emplacement caverns located at a nominal depth of 500 to 1000 m in the bedrock at the CRL site. A 5-year-long pre-project study was started in 2006 to assess the feasibility of the bedrock at the CRL site to host a GWMF. The pre-project feasibility study began with a review of various previous geological investigations performed in the bedrock at the CRL site. The 2006-2010 pre-project feasibility study involved exploring the geoscience and engineering characteristics of the bedrock to depths of over one kilometre at the CRL site through surface investigations and the drilling and testing of seven new deep characterization boreholes into the CRL bedrock. The collected information and interpretations were used to construct three-dimensional (3D) deterministic computer models of the geology of the bedrock at the CRL site and surrounding area and of the associated groundwater-flow regime. In order to technically assess the suitability of the CRL site, the GWMF feasibility study has conservatively assumed that all of the legacy and forecast Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) at CRL would report to it. The 3D deterministic models were used within a preliminary performance and safety assessment model to assess the long-term safety of a hypothetical GWMF at the CRL site on the basis of future radionuclide and toxic substance releases. Other items important to a preliminary performance and safety assessment include an inventory of CRL's radioactive wastes and other contaminants that could be placed in the GWMF, the creation of the engineered waste emplacement rooms and

  4. The Scenic performance mechanism in the Aristophanes' comedies: the prompter and the focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Kelly de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aimed to point two important mechanisms of scenic performance in the plays of the Greek comedy writer Aristophanes (V BC. Our start assumption is that it is possible to find in the text important marks for the scenic operationalization of those comedies. In the time when those comedies were composed, the author knew the material conditions of scenic performance and he used some interesting strategies, and we highlight two of them: (i he inserted reminder-speech inside the sing of chorus to work as a prompter for the coreutas' choreography; (ii he used the chorus' collective body to indicate to the spectator which scenic elements deserve the attention for being important for the progress of the plot. These two play composition strategies are similar, but not equal, to the contemporary concepts of prompter and focalization.

  5. THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSZULA MYGA-PIĄTEK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

  6. Assessment of Aesthetic Quality on Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Using the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsien Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural landscapes has become a primary issue for soil and water conservation engineering. The scenic preference beauty estimation method (SBE in psychophysics, which was proposed by Daniel and Boster in 1976, is utilized herein to evaluate the scenic aesthetics of stream control engineering in watersheds. It aims to discuss various landscape factors (water body, vegetation in the aesthetic preference and differences of various artificial structures in a watershed under people’s psychology. First, pictures and images related to soil and water conservation engineering are collected, and an in-situ investigation is performed to determine the pictures and images for discussion and design of the relevant questionnaire. The scenic aesthetics evaluation results are standardized with RMRATE, a computer program for analyzing rating judgments, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and then transformed into SBE values to compare the difference of various engineering structures in scenic aesthetics. The results reveal that flowing waterscape elements and the coverage of vegetation on the surrounding artificial structure volume in images present positive effects on the public overall scenic aesthetics. This study is expected to provide engineering designers with reference for considering a design integrating engineering structure with natural landscapes.

  7. Eyesores in sight: Quantifying the impact of man-made elements on the scenic beauty of Dutch landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Groot, de M.; Boers, J.

    2012-01-01

    The numerous man-made elements being introduced into the countryside raises the question of how negative impacts on scenic beauty can be minimized. This study investigates the visual impact of wind turbines, business parks and agricultural buildings (barns) on scenic beauty, taking into account

  8. Design and Fabricate the Remote Monitor on the Scenic Spot Based on Integrated Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the embedded Linux system, established the integrated sensing system to monitor the scenic spot and transmit the collected data to the users. The platform based on the ARM11 development board as the hardware of the system. Used the sensors to collect the different data and pictures and then they were transmitted by the wired and wireless mode. Set up the small Web server by the Boa (small Web server and realized the integrated Web technology and CGI (Common Gateway Interface program. According to the difference information of the scenic spot, the mobile platform collected the needed data and transmitted it to the control platform by the ZigBee wireless module and displayed in the embedded platform. The administrator can realize monitoring all the spots of the scenic and control the terminal equipments in the whole day.

  9. How Can Big Data Support Smart Scenic Area Management? An Analysis of Travel Blogs on Huashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from travel blogs represent important travel behavior and destination resource information. Moreover, technological innovations and increasing use of social media are providing accessible ‘big data’ at a low cost. Despite this, there is still limited big data analysis for scenic tourism areas. This research on Huashan (Mount Hua, China data-mined user-contributed travel logs on the Mafengwo and Ctrip websites. Semantic analysis explored tourist movement patterns and preferences within the scenic area. GIS provided a visual distribution of blogger origins. The relationship between Huashan and adjoining tourism areas revealed a multi-destination pattern of tourist movements. Emotional analysis indicated tourist satisfaction levels, while content analysis explored more deeply into dissatisfying aspects of tourist experiences. The results should provide guidance for scenic areas in destination planning and design.

  10. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  11. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  12. Measurement of Scenic Spots Sustainable Capacity Based on PCA-Entropy TOPSIS: A Case Study from 30 Provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Liu, Canmian; Li, Zhi

    2017-12-22

    In connection with the sustainable development of scenic spots, this paper, with consideration of resource conditions, economic benefits, auxiliary industry scale and ecological environment, establishes a comprehensive measurement model of the sustainable capacity of scenic spots; optimizes the index system by principal components analysis to extract principal components; assigns the weight of principal components by entropy method; analyzes the sustainable capacity of scenic spots in each province of China comprehensively in combination with TOPSIS method and finally puts forward suggestions aid decision-making. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference for the study of the sustainable development of scenic spots and is very significant for considering the sustainable development of scenic spots and auxiliary industries to establish specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  13. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 39.7-mile reach of the Blue River and selected tributaries (Brush Creek, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch) at Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Kansas City, Missouri. The flood-inundation maps, accessed through the USGS Flood-Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the spatial extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at 15 reference streamgages and associated stream reaches in the Blue River Basin. Near-real-time stage data from the streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at selected sites.

  14. HONDA'S IDEA ABOUT THE UTILIZATION OF NATURAL SCENERY ON "THE USE OF SCENIC LANDSCAPES"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Sanada, Junko

    Essentially, natural scenery area plan must include scenery conservation and utilization as well as natural conservation, actually however, it is said that natural scenery area plan leans much toward natural conservation. So this study aims to focus on Seiroku Honda who has a major thinking about "utilization of scenery" in the Japanese national park's formation stage and clarify Honda's idea about the utilization of natural scenery by analyzing his "the Use of Scenic Landscapes". As a result, following three points are clarified. 1) Honda has four ideas in the base of each plans. 2) scenic landscape as resources in Honda's own ideas. 3) there was some conflict between modification ways and landscape resources.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS AND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    suggested that the soils were not currently suitable for the production of the two ... crop – land suitability analysis has been used for achieving optimum utilization of the available ... Two methods of land suitability evaluation (FAO frame work and parametric) ..... Characterization and Classification of Onwu River Floodplain.

  16. Design and information requirements for travel and tourism needs on scenic byways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system design and information evaluation process that could be used to review proposed or designated scenic byways. The process was intended to ensure that the geometric and traffic design of these roads wer...

  17. Forest landscape assessment: the effects of pre-experience education on public perception of scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Kevin E. Saunders; David W. McGill; David A. Smaldone

    2008-01-01

    Aldo Leopold argued for a type of "ecological aesthetic," where perceptions of natural landscape beauty are tied to an understanding of the natural process of forests. The purpose of this study is to examine how education affects perceptions of scenic beauty. Thirty-two students were assigned to four groups, with each group participating in a different...

  18. Phytodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky (Pavlograd district of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the vegetation and flora biodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky is presented. There are 500 species including 25 of rare and threatened species in different ecotopes of the flood-plain. Two species of plants, which are rare for Steppe zone of Ukraine, were found. These species are new for a flora of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast.

  19. A Study of Scenic Spot Living Facility Recommendation Based on Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wenbiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the collection of massive complex information, the collaborative filtering system can work as a highly efficient information screening tool. It can recommend reasonable information reserve with multi angles according to the living service facility information of the scenic spots. The collaborative filtering system can collect information and forecast rating results based on users’ preference. According to different recommendation goals, the collaborative filtering system can recommend results for user feedback and give feedback of the recommendation results in various forms.

  20. 77 FR 61631 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan, Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... scenic resources and threats within debris flow hazard zones. Decision Process: Not sooner than 30 days... natural processes of the Stehekin River; and (3) partner with the Stehekin Community to provide services... priorities in the floodplain, and therefore far fewer private parcels would be high priority for purchase or...

  1. Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, aquatic habitat, and water temperature in the Lower Crooked River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Hockman-Wert, David P.; Bateman, Douglas S.; Leer, David W.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Crooked River is a remarkable groundwater-fed stream flowing through vertical basalt canyons in the Deschutes River Valley ecoregion in central Oregon (Pater and others, 1998). The 9-mile section of the river between the Crooked River National Grasslands boundary near Ogden Wayside and river mile (RM) 8 is protected under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (16 U.S.C. 1271-1287) for its outstandingly remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, hydrologic, wildlife, and botanical values (ORVs), and significant fishery and cultural values. Groundwater springs flow directly out of the canyon walls into the Lower Crooked River and create a unique hydrologic setting for native coldwater fish, such as inland Columbia Basin redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri). To protect and enhance the ORVs that are the basis for the wild and scenic designation, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has identified the need to evaluate, among other conditions, fish presence and habitat use of the Lower Crooked River. The results of this and other studies will provide a scientific basis for communication and cooperation between the BLM, Oregon Water Resources Department, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and all water users within the basin. These biological studies initiated by the BLM in the region reflect a growing national awareness of the impacts of agricultural and municipal water use on the integrity of freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Landscape perception based on personal attributes in determining the scenic beauty of in-stand natural secondary forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to validate factors affecting the in-stand landscape quality and how important each factor was in determining scenic beauty of natural secondary forests. The study was limited to 23 stand-level cases of natural secondary forests in Shen Zhen city in southern China. Typical samples of photographs and public estimations were applied to evaluate scenic beauty inside the natural secondary forests. The major factors were then selected by multiple linear-regression analysis and a model between scenic beauty estimation (SBE values and in-stand landscape features was established. Rise in crown density, fall in plant litter, glow in color of trunk, fall in arbor richness, and rise in visible distance increased scenic beauty values of in-stand landscape. These five factors significantly explained the differences in scenic beauty, and together accounted for 45% of total variance in SBEs. Personal factors (e.g. gender, age and education did not significantly affect the ratings of landscape photos, although variations of landscape quality were affected by some personal factors. Results of this study will assist policymakers, silviculturists and planners in landscape design and management of natural secondary forests in Shenzhen city. People can improve the scenic beauty values by pruning branches and clearing plant litter, which subsequently improve the forest health and contribute to forest recreation.

  3. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  4. Scenic Vistas and the Changing Policy Landscape: Visualizing and Testing the Role of Visual Resources in Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Ribe; Edward T. Armstrong; Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan applies a shift in policy to national forests in the Pacific Northwest, with implications for other public landscapes. This shift offers potentially strong scenic implications for areas that have historically emphasized clearcutting with little visual impact mitigation. These areas will now emphasize biocentric concerns and harvests formed...

  5. The status of whitebark pine along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Donald J. Goheen; Katy Marshall; Robert S. Danchok; John A. Petrick; Diane E. White

    2002-01-01

    Because of concern over widespread population declines, the distribution, stand conditions, and health of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Englem.) were evaluated along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest. Whitebark pine occurred on 76 percent of the survey transects. In general, whitebark pine was found in stands...

  6. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  7. A Model to Measure Tourist Preference toward Scenic Spots Based on Social Media Data: A Case of Dapeng in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on tourist preference toward different tourism destinations has been a hot topic for decades in the field of tourism development. Tourist preference is mostly measured with small group opinion-based methods through introducing indicator systems in previous studies. In the digital age, e-tourism makes it possible to collect huge volumes of social data produced by tourists from the internet, to establish a new way of measuring tourist preference toward a close group of tourism destinations. This paper introduces a new model using social media data to quantitatively measure the market trend of a group of scenic spots from the angle of tourists’ demand, using three attributes: tourist sentiment orientation, present tourist market shares, and potential tourist awareness. Through data mining, cleaning, and analyzing with the framework of Machine Learning, the relative tourist preference toward 34 scenic spots closely located in the Dapeng Peninsula is calculated. The results not only provide a reliable “A-rating” system to gauge the popularity of different scenic spots, but also contribute an innovative measuring model to support scenic spots planning and policy making in the regional context.

  8. The effects of road building on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in Huangshan Scenic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anna; Tang, Dongmei; Jin, Xiulong; Lu, Lin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kun

    2018-01-22

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are vital soil microbes that connect many individual plants into a large functional organism via a vast mycelial network under the ground. In this study, the changes of soil AM fungal community in response to road-building disturbance caused by tourism development in Huangshan (Yellow Mountain) Scenic Area are assessed. Road building have brought negative effects on AM fungal community, inducing lower diversity parameters, including species number, spore density and diversity indices. However, the dominant genus and species of AM fungi which play key roles in the AM fungal community composition are quite similar before and after road building. Moreover, there are no significant differences in species richness of AM fungi associated with plants, suggesting the tolerance of AM fungal community to the disturbance of road building.

  9. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of a synoptic water-quality and algal investigation during July 1995 at 36 stream sites in a 1,350 square-mile area of the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. The study area includes a headwaters hydroelectric project area, a Wild and Scenic reach in the main stem immediately downstream, and the watersheds of several major tributaries. Additional data from previous investigations are reviewed, and impacts on water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach from resource management, including forestry and reservoir operations, are inferred where sufficient data exist.

  10. Social valuation of scenic beauty in Catalonian beech forests; Valoracion social de las propiedades esteticas de los hayedos en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Garcia, C.; Burriel, M.; Alcazar, J.

    2011-07-01

    Methods tested in other countries are applied for scenic beauty valuation in several beech locations in Catalonia including significant differences in site, origin, age and stand structure. The study intends to measure stand scenic beauty as seen from inside the forest, as forest visitors see it (near-view). Assessments are obtained through panels of observers in slide sessions, which are transformed into scaled ratings and related through regression analysis to plot-based forest inventory data. The development of statistical models that describe social visual preferences allows the assessment of the contribution of different forestry-related physical variables to the aesthetic improvement of beech forests. It can also be useful as a guide to beech forest planning where recreational use is prevailing or very important. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  13. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu

    2010-01-01

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  14. Scenic drive landslide of January-March 1998, La Honda, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, Angela S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wilson, Ray C.; Wells, Ray E.

    1998-01-01

    The small rural town of La Honda, Calif., is an unincorporated region of San Mateo County situated in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the western part of the San Francisco peninsula. Much of the town is underlain by a previously recognized ancient landslide complex. The ancient slide complex covers about 1.0 to 1.25 km2, parts of which have been historically active. This report describes a recent landslide involving part of Scenic Drive, La Honda, that became active in January 1998. This report does not describe other currently active landslides in La Honda, such as the January 1998 slide on lower Recreation Drive, or the history of sliding in the area. This report concerns the principal morphological features we observed and mapped between 11 February and 21 March 1998 on an enlargement of a 1:7500-scale air photo acquired 6 March 1998 and prior to that on a town property-line map, and by laser survey carried out between 26 February and 8 March. The principal objective of this report is to make available the detailed photographic and topographic base maps and associated description of surface morphological features.

  15. Between Art and Social Science: Scenic Composition as a Methodological Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The scenic composition (SC is a methodological device enabling the synthesis and articulation of researchers' own complex experiences of events witnessed during data collection. Positioned between art and social science, it makes use of literary conventions to synthesise "experience near" accounts of data for interpretation. This article explains how the SC is composed by drawing on associative thinking and illustrates its use within a specific case study. The conceptual basis of the SC is discussed with reference to the work of LORENZER, WINNICOTT and BION. This is the first study in which four compositions, each by a different researcher, have been used to provide a multi-faceted view of a complex event, a live webcast. The compositions are presented along with researchers' reflections. Common themes and significant differences relating to life situations, histories and dispositions of the researchers emerge. The differences were expressed through choice of literary genres, which are common cultural resources. We ask what was achieved through the use of SCs compared with a thematic analysis of the webcast, and find that apart from synthesising and presentational functions, they give access to a multi-sensory range of researchers' experiences, including unconscious elements which were then available for reflexive interpretation by an interpretation panel. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140356

  16. Mapping vegetation communities using statistical data fusion in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, R.A.; Struckhoff, M.A.; He, H.S.; Larsen, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation community map was produced for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways consistent with the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System. Vegetation communities were differentiated using a large array of variables derived from remote sensing and topographic data, which were fused into independent mathematical functions using a discriminant analysis classification approach. Remote sensing data provided variables that discriminated vegetation communities based on differences in color, spectral reflectance, greenness, brightness, and texture. Topographic data facilitated differentiation of vegetation communities based on indirect gradients (e.g., landform position, slope, aspect), which relate to variations in resource and disturbance gradients. Variables derived from these data sources represent both actual and potential vegetation community patterns on the landscape. A hybrid combination of statistical and photointerpretation methods was used to obtain an overall accuracy of 63 percent for a map with 49 vegetation community and land-cover classes, and 78 percent for a 33-class map of the study area. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  17. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  18. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p beautiful than the lightly thinned and moderately thinned plots, whereas there was no significant difference between moderate thinning and light thinning. At 5 years after thinning, however, the moderately thinned plots received the highest preference scores among the four intensities, displaying an average improvement of 11.32 % compared with the unthinned plots. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model indicated that landscape value improved with increases in the average diameter at breast height (DBH) and with the improvement of environmental cleanliness in the stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value.

  19. Research on Eco-environment Carrying Capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area%南伊沟景区生态环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 杨小林; 王忠斌

    2015-01-01

    Eco-environment carrying capacity of Nanyi Valley Scenic Area in Milin County,Linzhi area,Tibet was studied, the results showed that the recent ecological footprint of the scenic area was 674.70 hm2,effective ecological carrying capacity was 841.13 hm2,and ecological surplus was 166.43 hm2. In terms of current and short-term planning of the scenic area,tourism activities will not bring serious damages to the ecological environment,and ecological footprint of the study area can be further developed. But from the perspective of ecological carrying capacity,the scenic area needs a proper long-term planning,so the paper proposes the sustainable development strategies for the Nanyi Valley Scenic Area. It provides the theoretic basis for the reasonable planning,effective management and sustainable development of the scenic area.%对西藏林芝地区米林县南伊沟景区进行生态环境承载力研究,结果表明,近期南伊沟景区生态足迹量为674.70 hm2,有效生态承载力841.13 hm2,生态盈余166.43 hm2。就景区目前及近期规划来说,开展旅游活动不会对景区生态环境产生大的影响,景区生态足迹还可进一步发展。但从生态承载力方面考虑,景区应特别注意远期规划。提出了南伊沟景区可持续发展对策。

  20. Linking Outdoor Recreation and Economic Development: A Feasibility Assessment of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Sims; Donald G. Hodges; Del Scruggs

    2004-01-01

    Rural economies in many parts of the United States have undergone significant changes over the past two decades. Faltering economies historically based on traditional economic sectors like agriculture and manufacturing are transitioning to retail and service sectors to support growth. One example of such an industry is resource-based recreation and tourism. Tourists...

  1. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  2. HYDROLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF SOME RIVERS IN EDO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest monthly hydropower yields were recorded in September for Ovia, Ikpoba and Edion Rivers and in August for Orlie River. On annual basis, Ovia River, recorded the highest power yield of 61.619MW (suggesting that Ovia river may be suitable for a Medium hydropower scheme, 10MW-100MW) with the highest ...

  3. Research on Scenic Spot’s Sustainable Development Based on a SD Model: A Case Study of the Jiuzhai Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is playing an increasingly crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. However, the eco-environment has been damaged while tourism industry develops rapidly. Thus, to solve the contradiction between tourism development and eco-environment protection is the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism. This paper builds a SD model, which is based on the analysis of the economic subsystem and environment subsystem, to promote sustainable development. In order to show the effectiveness of the model, Jiuzhai Valley is taken as the research object and a decisive basis is provided for the path adjustment of sustainable development in tourist scenic.

  4. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  5. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  7. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta. Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region, for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90 are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  9. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  10. The Institutional Sustainability in Protected Area Tourism-Case Studies of Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area, China and New Forest National Park, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Feifei; Fox, Dorothy; Zhang, J.; Cheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers sustainable tourism development in two protected areas, Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area in China and the New Forest National Park in the United Kingdom. An inductive approach is used to explore the "fourth component" of sustainable tourism development that is institutional sustainability. Primary data from in-depth interviews, together with a range of secondary data sources, are analyzed to understand the governance and management of each area. These reveal that whilst ...

  11. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  12. Landscape Aesthetics and the Scenic Drivers of Amenity Migration in the New West: Naturalness, Visual Scale, and Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Values associated with scenic beauty are common “pull factors” for amenity migrants, however the specific landscape features that attract amenity migration are poorly understood. In this study we focused on three visual quality metrics of the intermountain West (USA, with the objective of exploring the relationship between the location of exurban homes and aesthetic landscape preference, as exemplified through greenness, viewshed size, and terrain ruggedness. Using viewshed analysis, we compared the viewsheds of actual exurban houses to the viewsheds of randomly-distributed simulated (validation houses. We found that the actual exurban households can see significantly more vegetation and a more rugged (complex terrain than simulated houses. Actual exurban homes see a more rugged terrain, but do not necessarily see the highest peaks, suggesting that visual complexity throughout the viewshed may be more important. The viewsheds visible from the actual exurban houses were significantly larger than those visible from the simulated houses, indicating that visual scale is important to the general aesthetic experiences of exurbanites. The differences in visual quality metric values between actual exurban and simulated viewsheds call into question the use of county-level scales of analysis for the study of landscape preferences, which may miss key landscape aesthetic drivers of preference.

  13. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  14. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  15. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative

  16. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  17. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  18. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.

    2017-11-01

    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  19. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  20. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  1. Assessing the suitability of stream water for five different uses and its aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Surface water is one of the essential resources for supporting sustainable development. The suitability of such water for a given use depends both on the available quantity and tolerable quality. Temporary status for a surface water quality has been identified extensively. Still the suitability of the water for different purposes needs to be verified. This study proposes a water quality evaluation system to assess the aptitude of the Selangor River water for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport, irrigation use, livestock watering, and aquaculture use. Aptitude of the water has been classified in many parts of the river segment as unsuitable for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport as well as aquaculture use. The water quality aptitude classes of the stream water for nine locations along the river are evaluated to contribute to decision support system. The suitability of the water for five different uses and its aquatic ecosystem are verified.

  2. Transferability of habitat suitability criteria for fishes in warmwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Crance, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We developed habitat suitability criteria and tested their transferability for nine fishes inhabiting unregulated Piedmont and Coastal Plain streams in Alabama. Cr iteria for optimal habitat were defined as ranges of depth, velocity, substrate type and cover type for which a species' suitability index (proportional abundance divided by proportional habitat availability, scaled from 0 to 1) equalled or exceeded 0.4. We evaluated the transferability of criteria between study sites by testing the null hypothesis that species occurrence in a sample was independent of whether or not the sample was taken in optimal habitat. We also tested criteria transference to a large, flow-regulated river sampled during low flow periods. Depth, velocity and most substrate criteria developed for the bronze darter Percina palmaris successfully transferred between unregulated streams and to the flow-regulated river samples. All criteria developed for a pair of closely related, allopatric darter species, Etheostoma chuckwachattee and E. jordani, transferred sucessfully when applied between species (in the unregulated sites) and to the regulated river samples. In contrast, criteria for the Alabama shiner Cyprinella callistia failed nearly all tests of transferability. Criteria for E. stigmaeum, P. nigrofasciata, an undescribed Percina species, and a pair of related, allopatric Cyprinella species transferred inconsistently. The species with good criteria transference had high suitability indices for shallow depths, fast current velocities and coarse substrates, characteristic of riffle species. We suggest that microhabitat criteria for riffle fishes are more likely to provide a transferable measure of habitat quality than criteria for fishes that, although restricted to fluvial habitats, commonly occupy a variety of pool and riffle habitats.

  3. Intimacy as scenic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Pérez-Pradal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En sintonía con algunas manifestaciones artísticas contemporáneas atravesadas por el retorno de lo real en el campo de la representación, el cuestionamiento de los límites entre arte y vida, y en particular la recuperación de historias de vida y mundos domésticos e íntimos de personas comunes como material de creación escénica (teatro documental, un grupo de curadores e investigadores de Buenos Aires (María Fernanda Pinta —investigadora y docente en la UBA—, Juan Urraco —investigador, creador y docente en UNICEN—, Federico Baeza —investigador y docente en la UNA―, y la que escribe el presente artículo nos propusimos reflexionar acerca de dichas dimensiones, teórica y prácticamente, a través del Ciclo de Intimidad Escénica presentado en Buenos Aires.

  4. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  5. Evaluation on the Emergency Capacity of the Mountain-type Scenic Spot based on Matter-units Analysis Model:A case study of Henan Yuantaishan Scenic spot%基于物元模型的山岳型景区应急能力评价研究*--以河南云台山景区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永领; 张红

    2014-01-01

    山地灾害的破坏性和山地地形地貌特征给山岳型景区突发事件应急救援带来了巨大挑战,因此亟须对山岳型景区的应急能力进行评价,全面提高山岳型景区突发事件的应急救援能力。以应急管理周期理论和山地突发事件特征为基础,构建了山岳型景区应急能力评价指标体系,包括9个一级指标和29个二级指标;建立了以物元分析法为基础的山岳型应急能力评价模型,并以山岳型景区云台山为例进行评价,结果表明:基于物元分析法的山岳型景区应急能力评价模型,不仅能够科学评定应急能力的等级,而且还能揭示应急能力的发展和转化趋势,评估结果可为景区应急能力建设的科学决策提供参考。%Mountain-type scenic spots have emergency rescue difficulty because of devastation of mountain disasters and typical mountain topography characteristics,therefore it needs to evaluate the emergency capacity for emergent events and comprehen-sively improve the emergency response capabilities for the emergency capacity to emergent events.The assessment index system of emergency capacity for the mountain-type emergencies is constructed from 9 level indicators and 29 secondary indicators based on 4-stage emergency management and Mountain-type scenic spot characteristics;the emergency capacity evaluation model was established based on the matter-element analysis method.And emergency capacity was evaluated for the Yuntaishan scenic spot as a case study.The result shows that the emergency capacity assessment model based on matter-element analysis method not only can carry on the scientific evaluation to the emergency ability level,but also can reveal the emergency ability development and transformation trend,which can offer references to scientific decision-making of emergency capacity for the mountain-type scenic spots.

  6. 45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underutilized will be reviewed for suitability no earlier than six months prior to the expected date when the... following: (1) The suitability determination for a particular piece of property, and the reasons for that...

  7. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  8. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  9. A expressão cênica como elemento facilitador da performance no coro juvenil Scenic expression as a facilitator in the youth choir performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo nasceu do desejo de pesquisar e divulgar este excelente veículo facilitador do canto coral - sobretudo para adolescentes - que é a expressão cênica. Tal recurso vem oferecer uma gama maior de possibilidades criativas e soluções originais para o desenvolvimento da linguagem coral, além de instigar os envolvidos ao exercício do autoconhecimento. Este trabalho é parte de pesquisa do Mestrado em Música desenvolvido na UNIRIO.The present paper results from the need to research and promote scenic expression as an ideal facilitator for singing, especially among adolescents. It may offer a wider range of creative possibilities and original solutions for the development of the choral language, besides encouraging the exercise of self-knowledge. This paper is part of a Masters Degree in Music research developed at UNIRIO (Brazil.

  10. Land Suitability and Insurance Premiums: A GIS-based Multicriteria Analysis Approach for Sustainable Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monjurul Islam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a land suitability model for rice production based on suitability levels and to propose insurance premiums to obtain maximum returns based on the harvest index and subsidy dependence factor for the marginal and moderately suitable lands in the northern part of Bangladesh. A multicriteria analysis was undertaken and a rice land suitability map was developed using geographical information system and analytical hierarchy process. The analysis identified that 22.74% of the area was highly suitable, while 14.86% was marginally suitable, and 28.54% was moderately suitable for rice production. However, 32.67% of the area, which was occupied by water bodies, rivers, forests, and settlements, is permanently not suitable; 1.19% is presently not suitable. To motivate low-quality land owners to produce rice, there is no alternative but to provide protection through crop insurance. We suggest producing rice up to marginally suitable lands to obtain support from insurance. The minimum coverage is marginal coverage (70% to cover the production costs, while the maximum coverage is high coverage (90% to enable a maximum return. This new crop insurance model, based on land suitability can be a rational support for owners of different quality land to increase production.

  11. Midyear FY 1983 Richton Dome screening and suitability review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The NWTS screening of Gulf Coast salt domes for suitable nuclear waste repository sites identified three candidate domes. These are, in order of preference, Richton Dome, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. A qualitative review of information obtained since this initial ranking gives no basis for revising this ranking. A review of unresolved siting issues at Richton Dome shows siting concerns presently center on the geologic stability and hydrology suitability of Richton Dome and vicinity. Tectonic concerns of regional uplift and faulting are examined, as are salt tectonic concerns related to salt dome movement and dissolution. Both geologic and geodetic data suggest the Mississippi Salt Basin is experiencing uplift. However, uplift rates estimated from geologic evidence are an order of magnitude less than rates estimated from releveling data. Faults are present throughout much of the basin, and most are the result of horizontal and vertical movements of the Louann Salt during the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. Several faults are present in the sediments surrounding Richton Dome, but current evidence suggests no movements have occurred since the Miocene. Richton Dome's hydrologic suitability is considered in analysis of the regional ground-water flow system. A three-dimensional, ground-water flow model has been utilized to calculate travel paths and travel times for releases of contaminants from various points on the dome. Based on model analyses, a release at repository level would take nearly 39,000 years to reach the upper aquifer and would eventually discharge into the Leaf River or upper reaches of the Pascagoula River over 50 km from the dome. This estimate of travel time greatly exceeds the minimum 1000 year travel time required by proposed Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. 76 references

  12. Water quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River, Oregon, 1995-2007, and their response to Diamond Lake restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Jones, Mikeal E.

    2014-01-01

    The Wild and Scenic North Umpqua River is one of the highest-quality waters in the State of Oregon, supporting runs of wild salmon, steelhead, and trout. For many years, blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae in Diamond and Lemolo Lakes have threatened water quality, fisheries, and public health. The blooms consist primarily of Anabaena, a nitrogen (N)-fixing planktonic alga that appears to have contributed to N enrichment, which could account for changes in communities and biomass of periphyton, or attached benthic algae, in the river. Periphyton can become a nuisance in summer by affecting riffle habitat and causing high pH that fails to meet State of Oregon water-quality standards. These symptoms of nutrient enrichment in the North Umpqua River were first documented in 1995, and the symptoms have continued since then. Restoring natural ecosystem processes that store nutrients rather than fueling algae might help improve pH and water-clarity conditions.

  13. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  14. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  15. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  16. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  17. 基于互补资产的旅游景区发展战略研究%Development Strategy Research of Tourism Scenic based on Complementary Assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊义; 李小芳

    2016-01-01

    从互补资产角度来研究旅游景区的发展是一个新的视角。互补资产是旅游景区竞争优势的重要来源,影响着旅游景区的可持续发展。在界定了旅游景区互补资产的基础上,将旅游景区的互补资产分为互补人力资产、互补物质资产和互补组织资产。本文从景区产品创新、经济效益和提升景区竞争力等方面分析了互补资产对旅游景区发展的重要性,从互补人力资产、互补物质资产和互补组织资产等方面分析景区发展制约因素,在此基础上运用互补资产理论对旅游景区的发展提出了战略联盟、营销战略、人才发展战略,试图通过构建和充分利用互补资产促进创新和提升景区服务,促进景区的可持续发展。%It is a new perspective to study the development of tourist attractions. Complementary assets are a significant source of competitive advantage which affects the sustainable development of tourist scenic area. On the basis of clarifying the complementary assets of tourist attraction, the complementary assets are further divided into complementary human resource assets, complementary material assets and complementary organizational assets. On the one hand, this paper analyzes the importance of complementary assets to the development of tourist scenic area from the spheres of product innovation, economic benefit and competitiveness of tourist attraction. On the other hand, the constraints are discussed from the aspects of complementary human resource assets, complementary material assets and complementary organizational assets. Moreover, the suggestions and solutions that relate to strategic alliance, marketing strategy and talents development strategy are proposed according to the analysis in order to construct and fully utilize the complementary assets to promote the standard of innovation and service capacity in the tourist attraction and achieve sustainable development.

  18. The Cause of Tourism Seasonality and Development Countermeasures on the Grand Canyon Scenic%地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性成因及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爱良

    2011-01-01

    This paper clearly shows the tourism seasonaliy of the grand canyon scenic with an analysis of visitors and income monthly. Tourism seasonality influence the grand canyon scenic on the carrying capacity in tourism, the tourist facilities, cost-effective, quality of service and so on.And then we analyze the cause of the tourism seasonality of the grand canyon scenic in the location, climate, tourism resources, holiday arrangements, source markets, tourism product development.Finally, to slove the tourism seasonality of the grand canyon scenic,we should design the tourism product, use of price leverage, play an intermediary role in the hotel and travel agency and focuse on collaboration with the surrounding scenic areas and so on.%通过分析地下大峡谷景区月际游客量、月收入,得出地下大峡谷景区明显呈现旅游季节性,淡旺季明显等结论。旅游季节性在旅游承载力、旅游接待设施、经济效益、服务质量等方面对地下大峡谷景区造成影响,然后从区位、气候、旅游资源、节假日安排、客源市场、旅游产品开发等方面分析了地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性的成因,最后从旅游产品设计、加强宣传、利用价格杠杆、发挥酒店旅行社中介作用、注重与周边景区协作等方面提出了解决地下大峡谷景区旅游季节性的应对策略。

  19. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i

  20. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M

    1851-11-12

    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  1. Using Machine Learning for Land Suitability Classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. ... evidence for the utility of machine learning methods in land suitability classification especially MCS methods. ... Artificial intelligence tools. ..... Numerical values of index for the various classes.

  2. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive study of public attitudes towards river restoration was conducted in three floodplains, both before and after river restoration. The study combined quantitative questionnaires (N=562) with open interviews (N=29). This paper describes how local residents perceive the effects of river restoration on landscape quality and how residents and protest groups use landscape quality in combination with other arguments to strategically frame river management policies. Results show that measurement of the perceived outcomes of nature restoration needs to be complemented by a more dynamic type of research, focusing on the social processes of the framing of restoration plans. Theoretically, the paper aims to contribute to the development of a rigorous research strategy to study framing processes in environmental management, using a mixed-methods approach. In general, local residents are supportive of river restoration projects. Although restoration may diminish feelings of attachment to an area, for most people this negative effect is compensated by the positive effects on scenic beauty and perceived protection from flooding. However, these positive effects may become contested because of the active framing of river restoration by protest groups. Residents use three distinct frames to give meaning to river restoration projects: (i) an attachment frame, focusing on cultural heritage and place attachment (ii) an attractive nature frame, focusing on nature as attractive living space and the intrinsic value of nature (iii) a rurality frame, focusing on rural values, agriculture and cultural heritage. Resistance to river restoration plans stems from the attachment and rurality frames

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF LAND SUITABILITY FOR RICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    agricultural types are being developed to meet various growing food ... 250m with relative relief of between 50 and. 200m. Swamps and flood plains are a prominent aspect of the landscape of these ... flood plains of the river Gurara. ... frequent rainfall and a noticeable increase in ... (Climatic, Geomorphic and Vegetation). In.

  4. Reverse electrodialysis : evaluation of suitable electrode systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a method for directly extracting electrical energy from salinity gradients, especially from sea and river water. For the commercial implementation of RED, the electrode system is a key component. In this paper, novel electrode systems for RED were compared with

  5. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  6. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  7. 36 CFR 297.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 297.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS Water Resources Projects § 297.3 Definitions. Act means the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (82 Stat... assistance affecting the free-flowing characteristics or the scenic or natural values of a Wild and Scenic...

  8. [Ecology suitability study of Ephedra intermedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Lu, You-Yuan; Huang, De-Dong; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Lv, Pei-Lin; Jin, Ling

    2017-06-01

    The study aims at predicting ecological suitability of Ephedra intermedia in China by using maximum entropy Maxent model combined with GIS, and finding the main ecological factors affecting the distribution of E. intermedia suitability in appropriate growth area. Thirty-eight collected samples of E. intermedia and E. intermedia and 116 distribution information from CVH information using ArcGIS technology were analyzed. MaxEnt model was applied to forecast the E. intermedia in our country's ecology. E. intermedia MaxEnt ROC curve model training data and testing data sets the AUC value was 0.986 and 0.958, respectively, which were greater than 0.9, tending to be 1.The calculated E. intermedia habitat suitability by the model showed a high accuracy and credibility, which indicated that MaxEnt model could well predict the potential distribution area of E. intermedia in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Additional media studies for site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donich, T.R.; Kaufman, A.M.; Sauter, G.D.; Steinborn, T.L.; Towse, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Site suitability studies have been made previously at LLL on bedded salt and shale. In the present study domed salt, basalt, and crystalline rock are compared with bedded salt and shale and with each other as possible repositories. The level of effort required to develop models for these media that are similar in quality to those available for bedded salt and shale is evaluated. The effort necessary to develop data bases on the physical and chemical properties comparable to that available for bedded salt and shale is also estimated. Each medium is evaluated as a suitable repository environment. The funding necessary for model and data base development is estimated

  10. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Web page classification on child suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractChildren spend significant amounts of time on the Internet. Recent studies showed, that during these periods they are often not under adult supervision. This work presents an automatic approach to identifying suitable web pages for children based on topical and non-topical web page

  12. Suitability of obstetric ultrasonographic parameters in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: A prospective study aimed at assessing the suitability of Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Femoral Length (FL), Transverse abdominal Diameter (TAD) and Composite value by ultrasonography, in determining foetal or gestational age derived by last menstrual period (LMP) in our environment was undertaken.

  13. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  14. SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT JUICE AS A SUBSTRATE FOR WINE FERMENTATION. ... The analysis of the sugars showed glucose, fructose and sucrose as the predominant sugars present. Vitamin C content was substantially high (35 mg/100 g), but fat content was low (0.25%).

  15. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  16. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of land unit suitability for conservation using a knowledge-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Hope C; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Reynolds, Keith M

    2010-08-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River basin using NetWeaver software in the Ecosystem Management Decision Support application framework. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of suitability ratings, derived from evaluating the knowledge bases, to fuzzy logic function parameters and to the removal of data layers (land use condition, road density, disturbance regime change index, vegetation change index, land unit size, cover type size, and cover type change index). The amount and geographic distribution of suitable land polygons was most strongly altered by the removal of land use condition, road density, and land polygon size. Removal of land use condition changed suitability primarily on private or intensively-used public land. Removal of either road density or land polygon size most strongly affected suitability on higher-elevation US Forest Service land containing small-area biophysical environments. Data layers with the greatest influence differed in rank between the two knowledge bases. Our results reinforce the importance of including both biophysical and socio-economic attributes to determine the suitability of land units for conservation. The sensitivity tests provided information about knowledge base structuring and parameterization as well as prioritization for future data needs.

  18. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  19. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  20. Projective synchronization based on suitable separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohui; Xiong Chuan; Sun Xiaonan

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for constructing a projective-synchronized chaotic slave system is proposed in this paper. This method is based on suitable separation by decomposing the system as the linear part and the nonlinear one. From matrix measure theory, some simple but efficient criteria are derived for projective synchronization of chaotic system. Numerical simulations for the Lorenz system show that this control method works very well

  1. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  2. Modeling the Land Suitability Using GIS and AHP for Cotton Cultivation in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, N.; Rasheed, H.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to establish a spatial model for identification of suitable land for cotton in Punjab, Pakistan through evaluation of multidisciplinary variables by applying geographic information system (GIS) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach. In this model, rivers were used as constraint and seven factors were temperature, soil physical and chemical properties, soil pH, aridity classes, agro-ecological zones, and river command area. On the basis of these parameters suitability maps were generated. By pair-wise comparison matrix (PWCM) of AHP, weights were extracted by means of principal Eigen vector by Saaty method, with accepted consistency ratio of 0.09. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) employing weighted linear combination aggregates all suitability maps to generate final suitability map. It was found that more potential sites exist along with existing cotton practiced area. The result provided important information for farmers to establish linkage between policy decisions and regulatory actions and to improve agricultural land management. (author)

  3. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  4. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  5. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  6. The Suitable Geological Formations for Spent Fuel Disposal in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marunteanu, C.; Ionita, G.; Durdun, I.

    2007-01-01

    Using the experience in the field of advanced countries and formerly Romanian program data, ANDRAD, the agency responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, started the program for spent fuel disposal in deep geological formations with a documentary analysis at the national scale. The potential geological formations properly characterized elsewhere in the world: salt, clay, volcanic tuff, granite and crystalline rocks,. are all present in Romania. Using general or specific selection criteria, we presently consider the following two areas for candidate geological formations: 1. Clay formations in two areas in the western part of Romania: (1) The Pannonian basin Socodor - Zarand, where the clay formation is 3000 m thick, with many bentonitic strata and undisturbed structure, and (2) The Eocene Red Clay on the Somes River, extending 1200 m below the surface. They both need a large investigation program in order to establish and select the required homogeneous, dry and undisturbed zones at a suitable depth. 2. Old platform green schist formations, low metamorphosed, quartz and feldspar rich rocks, in the Central Dobrogea structural unit, not far from Cernavoda NPP (30 km average distance), 3000 m thick and including many homogeneous, fine granular, undisturbed, up to 300 m thick layers. (authors)

  7. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2. A reduced supersonic cruise

  8. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet ─ results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S.A. Isaksen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level, cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWm2. A reduced supersonic cruise altitude or speed (from Mach 2 to Mach 1.6 reduces both, climate impact and ozone destruction, by around 40%. An increase in the range of the supersonic aircraft leads to

  9. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  10. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.

    2002-01-01

    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  11. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  12. Habitat suitability and movement corridors of grey wolf (Canis lupus) in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad; Hameed, Shoaib; Ali, Hussain; Bosso, Luciano; Din, Jaffar Ud; Bischof, Richard; Redpath, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Habitat suitability models are useful to understand species distribution and to guide management and conservation strategies. The grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been extirpated from most of its historic range in Pakistan primarily due to its impact on livestock and livelihoods. We used non-invasive survey data from camera traps and genetic sampling to develop a habitat suitability model for C. lupus in northern Pakistan and to explore the extent of connectivity among populations. We detected suitable habitat of grey wolf using a maximum entropy approach (Maxent ver. 3.4.0) and identified suitable movement corridors using the Circuitscape 4.0 tool. Our model showed high levels of predictive performances, as seen from the values of area under curve (0.971±0.002) and true skill statistics (0.886±0.021). The main predictors for habitat suitability for C. lupus were distances to road, mean temperature of the wettest quarter and distance to river. The model predicted ca. 23,129 km2 of suitable areas for wolf in Pakistan, with much of suitable habitat in remote and inaccessible areas that appeared to be well connected through vulnerable movement corridors. These movement corridors suggest that potentially the wolf range can expand in Pakistan’s Northern Areas. However, managing protected areas with stringent restrictions is challenging in northern Pakistan, in part due to heavy dependence of people on natural resources. The habitat suitability map provided by this study can inform future management strategies by helping authorities to identify key conservation areas. PMID:29121089

  13. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  14. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography

    2013-03-01

    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  15. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...... of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses....

  16. Glass compositions suitable for PFR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boult, K.A.; Dalton, J.T.; Eccles, E.W.; Hough, A.; Marples, J.A.C.; Paige, E.L.; Sutcliffe, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    Previous work had identified glass compositions that were suitable for vitrifying current and future high level wastes from the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) fuel reprocessing plant. Further work on these glasses has shown that: a) Foaming and crystallisation can occur under certain conditions, both probably associated with the presence of iron in the waste. Either of these could lead to greater difficulties in processing. b) Inconel 690, the preferred JCM (Joule-heated Ceramic Melter) electrode material has an acceptable corrosion rate at 1200 0 C: ca 0.6mm.y -1 . c) The leach rates are unaffected by radiation damage. The density of the glass decreases slightly with α-dose, with a dependency that extrapolates, at infinite time, to an 0.13% linear expansion. d) The concentrations of the radiologically important elements Tc, Np, Pu and Am, observed in a 'repository simulation' leach test, were satisfactorily low. (author)

  17. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Green; Jin Xu [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Land Suitability Assessment And Precision Farming Prospects For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils on the farm were sampled and profiles classified using South African Binomial system of soil classification. The farm was divided into suitability classes of highly suitable (S1), suitable (S2), and unsuitable (N1), and permanently unsuitable (N2) classes. Maize-soybean suitability maps were produced based on soil ...

  19. On the suitability of fiberglass reinforced polyester as building material for mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, R; Brandsch, J; Piringer, O; Pluta, H J; Winkler, T

    1999-07-01

    Gel- and topcoat surface layers on fiberglass [glass-reinforced plastic (GRP)] made of unsaturated resin based on isophthalic acid polyester and neopentyl glycol (ISO-NPG) were tested for leaching, ecotoxicity of water eluates, and abrasion by river sediments at a current speed of 0.5 m * s-1. Leaching from topcoat tempered at low temperature was significant, whereas it was negligible from highly tempered gelcoat. Water eluates from both gel-and topcoat were nontoxic in routinely employed biotests (bacteria, algae, daphnids). No abrasion by river sediments was detectable. Based on these results, GRP with gelcoat made of ISO-NPG is considered a suitable building material for mesocosms. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. - Highlights: • We analysed P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus muscle from Mid-Atlantic. • We determined stable isotopes, trophic ecology and heavy metal content. • Results reflect bioaccumulation for As and Hg. • Oxyrinchus already presented Hg values above regulatory limits. • Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs appear to be effective metal bioindicators.

  1. Selecting suitable enclosures for digitally printed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Rima, L

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that storage enclosures considered safe for traditionally printed images and documents are suitable for modern, digitally printed materials. In this project, a large variety of digital print types were tested using a modified version of the ISO 18916 Imaging materials-Processed imaging materials-Photographic activity test for enclosure materials standard to assess the risk to digital prints by paper enclosures known to be inert or reactive with traditional photographic prints. The types of enclosures tested included buffered and non-buffered cotton papers, and groundwood paper. In addition, qualitative filter paper that had been wetted and dried with either an acidic or basic solution was also tested to determine the effects of enclosure pH on digitally printed materials. It was determined that, in general, digital prints tended to be less reactive with various enclosure types than traditional prints. Digital prints were most sensitive to paper that contained groundwood. The enclosure reactivity test results were then integrated with previous published work on the tendencies of various enclosure types to abrade, ferrotype, or block to digital prints in order to create a comprehensive set of recommendations for digital print storage enclosures.

  2. Perspective in site-suitability modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency decided in April 1981 to set up a Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) with the objective of reinforcing the scientific basis of future assessments of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site to be made under the NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism. A major component of the initial CRESP plan was the development of a site-specific model to predict radionuclide transfer rates and patterns in the marine environment. A new general approach to the design of such a site-specific model is discussed.Although this approach originates partly from methodologies presented in GESAMP partly from an approach put forward within the NEA Seabed Working Group/Geochemical and Physical Oceanography Task Group and partly from methods previously agreed by the CRESP Modelling Task Group, the modelling philosophy developed in the text expressed the personal viewpoint of the author. This text aims to state the present methods of modelling the marine transfer of radionuclides and to anticipate modelling strategies which may be adopted in the future (in France for example), but it does not necessarily meet present NEA viewpoints and the philosophy of other CRESP participating countries

  3. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  4. Coupling habitat suitability and ecosystem health with AEHRA to estimate E-flows under intensive human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Zhang, H. T.; Liu, C. M.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Dong, B. E.; Lim, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Sustaining adequate environmental flows (e-flows) is a key principle for maintaining river biodiversity and ecosystem health, and for supporting sustainable water resource management in basins under intensive human activities. But few methods could correctly relate river health to e-flows assessment at the catchment scale when they are applied to rivers highly impacted by human activities. An effective method is presented in this study to closely link river health to e-flows assessment for rivers at the catchment scale. Key fish species, as indicators of ecosystem health, were selected by using the foodweb model. A multi-species-based habitat suitability model (MHSI) was improved, and coupled with dominance of the key fish species as well as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) to enhance its accuracy in determining the fish-preferred key hydrologic habitat variables related to ecosystem health. Taking 5964 fish samples and concurrent hydrological habitat variables as the basis, the combination of key variables of flow-velocity and water-depth were determined and used to drive the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) to study e-flows in a Chinese urban river impacted by intensive human activities. Results showed that upstream urbanization resulted in abnormal river-course geomorphology and consequently abnormal e-flows under intensive human activities. Selection of key species based on the foodweb and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems can reflect a comprehensive requirement on e-flows of the whole aquatic ecosystem, which greatly increases its potential to be used as a guidance tool for rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems at large spatial scales. These findings have significant ramifications for catchment e-flows assessment under intensive human activities and for river ecohealth restoration in such rivers globally.

  5. Assessing the impacts of water abstractions on river ecosystem services: an eco-hydraulic modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolli, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.carolli@unitn.it; Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: davide.geneletti@unitn.it; Zolezzi, Guido, E-mail: guido.zolezzi@unitn.it

    2017-03-15

    The provision of important river ecosystem services (ES) is dependent on the flow regime. This requires methods to assess the impacts on ES caused by interventions on rivers that affect flow regime, such as water abstractions. This study proposes a method to i) quantify the provision of a set of river ES, ii) simulate the effects of water abstraction alternatives that differ in location and abstracted flow, and iii) assess the impact of water abstraction alternatives on the selected ES. The method is based on river modelling science, and integrates spatially distributed hydrological, hydraulic and habitat models at different spatial and temporal scales. The method is applied to the hydropeaked upper Noce River (Northern Italy), which is regulated by hydropower operations. We selected locally relevant river ES: habitat suitability for the adult marble trout, white-water rafting suitability, hydroelectricity production from run-of-river (RoR) plants. Our results quantify the seasonality of river ES response variables and their intrinsic non-linearity, which explains why the same abstracted flow can produce different effects on trout habitat and rafting suitability depending on the morphology of the abstracted reach. An economic valuation of the examined river ES suggests that incomes from RoR hydropower plants are of comparable magnitude to touristic revenue losses related to the decrease in rafting suitability.

  6. Assessing the impacts of water abstractions on river ecosystem services: an eco-hydraulic modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolli, Mauro; Geneletti, Davide; Zolezzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The provision of important river ecosystem services (ES) is dependent on the flow regime. This requires methods to assess the impacts on ES caused by interventions on rivers that affect flow regime, such as water abstractions. This study proposes a method to i) quantify the provision of a set of river ES, ii) simulate the effects of water abstraction alternatives that differ in location and abstracted flow, and iii) assess the impact of water abstraction alternatives on the selected ES. The method is based on river modelling science, and integrates spatially distributed hydrological, hydraulic and habitat models at different spatial and temporal scales. The method is applied to the hydropeaked upper Noce River (Northern Italy), which is regulated by hydropower operations. We selected locally relevant river ES: habitat suitability for the adult marble trout, white-water rafting suitability, hydroelectricity production from run-of-river (RoR) plants. Our results quantify the seasonality of river ES response variables and their intrinsic non-linearity, which explains why the same abstracted flow can produce different effects on trout habitat and rafting suitability depending on the morphology of the abstracted reach. An economic valuation of the examined river ES suggests that incomes from RoR hydropower plants are of comparable magnitude to touristic revenue losses related to the decrease in rafting suitability.

  7. The Spatial Suitable Habitat Model of Acacia decurrens in Mount Merbabu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Untoro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green wattle (Acacia decurrens is an invasive alien species (IAS found in the Mount Merbabu National Park (TNGMb. This study aim to obtain spatially studies on habitat suitability models of A. decurrens in TNGMb region. In fact, this species became as a high invasive and dominance in the TNGMb and contributes the negative impact to the ecosystem. In addition, the result of this study should be useful for controling activities of A. decurrens. Predictor variables in this research were (altitude, slope, rainfall, air temperature, distance from river, NDVI, NDMI, distance from hiking trail, and distance from burnt area. The survey was conducted with random sampling of presence or absence of A. decurrens by marking the coordinate point of location using GPS. Data analysis in this research was used binary logistic regression enter method. Binary logistic regression involves the data acquisition of the presence and absence of A. decurrens as the y variable, while the predictor variable map as the variable x. The type of spatial distribution of A. decurrens in the TNGMb was identified as clumped. The Nagelkerke R2 values obtained in the model was 39,2%, while 60,8% was explained by other variables were not used in the model. The results of the logistic regression model showed a high percentage of suitability of 64,29%, a medium suitability of 28,57%, and a low suitability of 7.14% then the Implications for controlling activities of A. decurrens in TNGMb could be prioritized in high suitability habitat. Keywords: Acacia decurrens, green wattle, invasive, spatial suitable habitat 

  8. Characteristics and suitability of waste dump sites in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five point criteria screening of the three major waste dumpsites in Owerri Municipality was identified, and a ranking procedure adopted to determine the suitability or otherwise of the dumpsites. The sites were screened and ranked hydro-geologically and geo-technically in order of suitable, moderately suitable, and not ...

  9. Selection of suitable sites for NPP in Slovenia (stage 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, M.; Fabjan, L.; Premru, U.

    1977-01-01

    Selection of suitable sites for nuclear power plants in Slovenia is considered. This includes the studies of available data on regional and local characteristics specified in general site suitability criteria for NPP. The most suitable selected sites will be included into land use urbanistic planning of Slovenia

  10. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  11. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  12. Physical aspects of estuarine pollution - A case study in Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Tide dominated Amba river estuary was studied to evaluate it's physical characteristics with a point on application to locate a suitable release point of industrial effluents. It is important to site the outfall in a manner ensuring that the water...

  13. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  14. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2012-01-01

    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  15. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  16. Flowing with Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  17. Soil aquifer treatment to remove priority organic pollutants in the Llobregat river area

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Maria; Solé, Josep; Aceves, Mercè; Valhondo González, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Gullón Santos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    The Llobregat River is the main source of water supply in this area. This river together with its aquifer has suffered from several damages which had contributed to endanger a suitable ecological and hydrological status; among them, pollution is a serious problem to deal with. In the last decades, the presence of organic pollutants in this river has been demonstrated [1,2]. Some of them are persistent to biological degradation and have shown to survive wastewater treatments almost unaltered a...

  18. Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability: Impact and Effectiveness of Environmental Flow Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Galeati, G.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Ventura, M.; Montanari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The anthropogenic alteration of the natural flow regime of a river for hydropower production can significantly modify the processes and functions associated with fluvial ecosystems. In order to preserve the fluvial habitat downstream of dams and diversion structures, environmental flows are commonly defined. Such environmental flows are generally computed from empirical methodologies, which are seldom based on site-specific studies, and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. Here we present the results of a quantitative analysis on the effectiveness of two alternative environmental flow scenarios prescribed in Central Italy (time-invariant experimental and empirically-based flow release versus time-variant hydrogeomorphologically-based flow release) and their impact on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability. The latter is examined by means of several models of habitat suitability curve, which is a well-known approach capable of analysing fluvial species preferences as a function of key eco-hydraulic features, such as water depth, flow velocity and river substrate. The results show an evident loss of hydropower production moving from the time-invariant experimental flow release to the hydrogeomorphological one (nearly 20% at the annual scale). Concerning the effects in terms of fish habitat suitability, our outcomes are less obvious, since they are species- and life stage-specific. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the derivation of optimal water resource management strategies in order to ensure both hydropower production and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  19. Study of interaction of shallow groundwater and river along the Cisadane and Ciliwung river of Jakarta basin and its management using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Syafalni; Satrio

    2012-01-01

    The environmental isotopes were employed to study the interaction of shallow groundwater and river along the Cisadane River and Ciliwung River in Jakarta basin. The rapid growth and development of Jakarta and its surrounding cities, coupled with increasing industrial and other business sectors have impacted on the demand of the water supply for the area. These investigations have been conducted to determine the interaction between shallow groundwater and the river. The 14 C results showed that the groundwater samples (above 40 m) which were close to the river influenced the iso-age contour of 14 C, which indicated the contributions of river water. The analysis of stable isotopes 18 O and Deuterium from the river implied that the river water from upstream to downstream was influenced by the mixing of the river water with the human activities in the upstream (the isotopic compositions becoming enriched). Further, the 18 O and Deuterium data revealed that rivers of Cisadane and Ciliwung are contributing to recharge the shallow groundwater in Jakarta, especially in the nearby river bank. In general, the quality of the shallow groundwater along the rivers is good and is suitable as fresh water resource. Due to pollution and declining water table problems in the Jakarta basin, the artificial recharge wells is shown to be a good way out to delineate the problems as indicated by pilot project conducted at Kelurahan Kramat Jati, using infiltration basin method. (author)

  20. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  1. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  2. Assessment of Climate Suitability of Maize in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Choi, D.; Seo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing suitable areas for crops would be useful to design alternate cropping systems as an adaptation option to climate change adaptation. Although suitable areas could be identified by using a crop growth model, it would require a number of input parameters including cultivar and soil. Instead, a simple climate suitability model, e.g., EcoCrop model, could be used for an assessment of climate suitability for a major grain crop. The objective of this study was to assess of climate suitability for maize using the EcoCrop model under climate change conditions in Korea. A long term climate data from 2000 - 2100 were compiled from weather data source. The EcoCrop model implemented in R was used to determine climate suitability index at each grid cell. Overall, the EcoCrop model tended to identify suitable areas for maize production near the coastal areas whereas the actual major production areas located in inland areas. It is likely that the discrepancy between assessed and actual crop production areas would result from the socioeconomic aspects of maize production. Because the price of maize is considerably low, maize has been grown in an area where moisture and temperature conditions would be less than optimum. In part, a simple algorithm to predict climate suitability for maize would caused a relatively large error in climate suitability assessment under the present climate conditions. In 2050s, the climate suitability for maize increased in a large areas in southern and western part of Korea. In particular, the plain areas near the coastal region had considerably greater suitability index in the future compared with mountainous areas. The expansion of suitable areas for maize would help crop production policy making such as the allocation of rice production area for other crops due to considerably less demand for the rice in Korea.

  3. Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.E.; Geiser, L.; Bachman, R.; Blubaugh, T.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Topographic and meteorological conditions make the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) an 'exhaust pipe' for air pollutants generated by the Portland-Vancouver metropolis and Columbia Basin. We sampled fog, bulk precipitation, throughfall, airborne particulates, lichen thalli, and nitrophytic lichen distribution. Throughfall N and S deposition were high, 11.5-25.4 and 3.4-6.7 kg ha -1 over 4.5 months at all 9 and 4/9 sites, respectively. Deposition and lichen thallus N were highest at eastern- and western-most sites, implicating both agricultural and urban sources. Fog and precipitation pH were frequently as low as 3.7-5.0. Peak NO x , NH 3 , and SO 2 concentrations in the eastern CRG were low, suggesting enhanced N and S inputs were largely from particulate deposition. Lichens indicating nitrogen-enriched environments were abundant and lichen N and S concentrations were 2x higher in the CRG than surrounding national forests. The atmospheric deposition levels detected likely threaten Gorge ecosystems and cultural resources. - Nitrogen, sulfur and acidic deposition threaten natural and cultural resources in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

  4. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River... held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to Patuxent River, Maryland from September 1...

  5. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  6. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  7. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes - An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes - notably alien species - due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes - the first time it has been applied in this context - in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum , Sparganium erectum , and Potamogeton crispus ) in regard to the physical parameters 'flow velocity,' 'water depth,' and 'substrate size'. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show that the growth

  8. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes – An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes – notably alien species – due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes – the first time it has been applied in this context – in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum, Sparganium erectum, and Potamogeton crispus) in regard to the physical parameters ‘flow velocity,’ ‘water depth,’ and ‘substrate size’. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show

  9. suitability of burnt and crushed cow bones as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    3 mix ratio measuring 150x150x150mm were tested for the compressive strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. ... the suitability of using waste products to produce lightweight ... suitability of machine crushed animal bones as partial or.

  10. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and delineating the suitable sites for Yam, Rice and Cotton production in Adamawa State. Site suitability mapping is necessary to create data bank and to guide the farmers in decision making on sites for crop production in the state. The use of GIS for this ...

  11. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Sheng, W.; Li-Juan, L.; Qin-Fen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  12. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied

  13. Land Suitability Assessment for Pineapple Production in the A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linking land resources assessment to any land use decision-making process. like elsewhere, land ... managers as decision-support tools, for instance, to outline the most suitable land areas for subsidy ...... increase rational decisions. In this ..... essentially dynamic. it is pertinent that land suitability analysis is framed within an ...

  14. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  15. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of didactic suitability indicators from curricular orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arteaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of didactic suitability of mathematics teaching and learning processes requires suitable instruments to guide and support it. This paper presents a methodology for progressive improvement of such instruments to evaluate the suitability of mathematical instruction processes based on the analysis of curricular orientations. Analysis units are classifi ed according to the facets and components proposed by the Didactic Suitability Theory to identify norms and suitability indicators,which are compared with the system proposed by this theory, in order to point out agreements and complementarities. This methodology is exemplified through its application to the principles and standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in the statistics content area at the level K-8.

  17. Forecasting Temporal and Spatial Climatological Influence for Land Suitability Evaluation in Bentota Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has raised much concern regarding its impacts on future land use planning, varying by region, time, and socio-economic development path. The principle purpose of land suitability evaluation is to predict the potential and limitation of the land for crop production and other land uses. This study was carried out to predict the temperature and rainfall trends as one of the major factor for evaluating land suitability. Climatic data such as monthly mean temperature, total monthly rainfall, maximum daily rainfall and total annual rainfall during last 30 years of all weather stations located in Bentota River basin was collected and analyzed applying time series analysis, correlation analysis and Manna Kendall trend test methods. Spatial distribution of forecast rainfall values was illustrated applying Arc GIS software. The findings revealed that monthly mean temperature and maximum daily rainfall had a general increasing trend whereas, total monthly rainfall and total annual rainfall showed a general decreasing trend in  Bentota area. It was indicated relatively high rainfall situations during May and October while low rainfall situations during January and February by occurring flood situation in once per five year. During Yala season the area will be received comparatively more rainfall (331mm than Maha season (300mm in future. Community and the farmers in this area can be aware about the anticipated spatial distribution of total monthly rainfall during two major seasons and flood occurrence periods. Decision makers should evaluate land suitability of Bentota area by considering above climatological influences and its spatial distribution pattern that identified as major outcome of this research. The approach and the methodology adopted in this study will be useful for other researchers, agriculturalist and planners to identify the future climatological influences and its spatial distribution pattern for land suitability evaluations

  18. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...

  19. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  20. Habitat suitability criteria via parametric distributions: estimation, model selection and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Nicholas A.; Goodman, Damon H.; Perry, Russell W.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Previous methods for constructing univariate habitat suitability criteria (HSC) curves have ranged from professional judgement to kernel-smoothed density functions or combinations thereof. We present a new method of generating HSC curves that applies probability density functions as the mathematical representation of the curves. Compared with previous approaches, benefits of our method include (1) estimation of probability density function parameters directly from raw data, (2) quantitative methods for selecting among several candidate probability density functions, and (3) concise methods for expressing estimation uncertainty in the HSC curves. We demonstrate our method with a thorough example using data collected on the depth of water used by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Klamath River of northern California and southern Oregon. All R code needed to implement our example is provided in the appendix. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. [Ecology suitability study of Chinese materia medica Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Jin, Ling

    2016-09-01

    This paper is aimed to predict ecology suitability distribution of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix and search the main ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution. The 313 distribution information about G. macrophylla, 186 distribution information about G. straminea, 343 distribution information about G. dauricaand 131 distribution information about G. crasicaulis were collected though investigation and network sharing platform data . The ecology suitable distribution factors for production Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was analyzed respectively by the software of ArcGIS and MaxEnt with 55 environmental factors. The result of MaxEnt prediction was very well (AUC was above 0.9). The results of predominant factors analysis showed that precipitation and altitude were all the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Getiana Macrophylla Radix production. G. macrophylla ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south of Gansu, Shanxi, central of Shaanxi and east of Qinghai provinces. G. straminea ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, north and northwest of Sichuan, east of Xizang province. G. daurica ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south and southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, Shanxi and north of Shaanxi province. G. crasicaulis ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in Sichuan and north of Yunnan, east of Xizang, south of Gansu and east of Qinghai province. The ecological suitability distribution result of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution. The study could provide reference for the collection and protection of wild resources, meanwhile, provide the basis for the selection of cultivation area of Gentiana Macrophylla Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  3. Shifts in the suitable habitat available for brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) under short-term climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, R; Lopez-Nicolas, A; Martínez-Capel, F; Pulido-Velazquez, M

    2016-02-15

    The impact of climate change on the habitat suitability for large brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was studied in a segment of the Cabriel River (Iberian Peninsula). The future flow and water temperature patterns were simulated at a daily time step with M5 models' trees (NSE of 0.78 and 0.97 respectively) for two short-term scenarios (2011-2040) under the representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). An ensemble of five strongly regularized machine learning techniques (generalized additive models, multilayer perceptron ensembles, random forests, support vector machines and fuzzy rule base systems) was used to model the microhabitat suitability (depth, velocity and substrate) during summertime and to evaluate several flows simulated with River2D©. The simulated flow rate and water temperature were combined with the microhabitat assessment to infer bivariate habitat duration curves (BHDCs) under historical conditions and climate change scenarios using either the weighted usable area (WUA) or the Boolean-based suitable area (SA). The forecasts for both scenarios jointly predicted a significant reduction in the flow rate and an increase in water temperature (mean rate of change of ca. -25% and +4% respectively). The five techniques converged on the modelled suitability and habitat preferences; large brown trout selected relatively high flow velocity, large depth and coarse substrate. However, the model developed with support vector machines presented a significantly trimmed output range (max.: 0.38), and thus its predictions were banned from the WUA-based analyses. The BHDCs based on the WUA and the SA broadly matched, indicating an increase in the number of days with less suitable habitat available (WUA and SA) and/or with higher water temperature (trout will endure impoverished environmental conditions ca. 82% of the days). Finally, our results suggested the potential extirpation of the species from the study site during short time spans. Copyright © 2015

  4. Theorising complex water governance in Africa: the case of the proposed Epupa Dam on the Kunene River

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various multi-dimensional governance models have been suggested by scholars and policy makers alike as suitable conceptual lenses through which to view the complexity of water governance, particularly in international river basins. While...

  5. Natural Environment Suitability of China and Its Relationship with Population Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1 the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2 There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies.

  6. Natural Environment Suitability of China and Its Relationship with Population Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Ma, Hanqing

    2009-01-01

    The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI) model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1) the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2) There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies. PMID:20049243

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 10 years of research, development, and testing, the US Department of Energy is building a new facility which will prepare high-level radioactive waste for permanent disposal. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, known as the DWPF, will be the first production-scale facility of its kind in the United States. In the DWPF, high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Savannah River Plant will be processed into a solid form, borosilicate glass, suitable for permanent off-site geologic disposal. With construction beginning in the fall of 1983, the DWPT is scheduled to be operational in 1989. By 2005, the DWPF will have immobilized the backlog of high-level waste which has been accumulating in storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant since 1954. Canisters of the immobilized waste will then be ready for permanent disposal deep under the ground, safely isolated from the environment

  8. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  9. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 1. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in Physics Laboratories. Vijay H Raybagkar. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 1 January 2010 pp 76-82 ...

  10. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  11. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana. ... In the event of shortages in petroleum products, these power plants will have ... Layers of these criteria setting were combined using the overlay function in a GIS environment.

  12. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  13. A RECURSIVE ALGORITHM SUITABLE FOR REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bucci

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a recursive algorithm suitable for realtime measurement applications, based on an indirect technique, useful in those applications where the required quantities cannot be measured in a straightforward way. To cope with time constraints a parallel formulation of it, suitable to be implemented on multiprocessor systems, is presented. The adopted concurrent implementation is based on factorization techniques. Some experimental results related to the application of the system for carrying out measurements on synchronous motors are included.

  14. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  15. Developing user-friendly habitat suitability tools from regional stream fish survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, T.G.; Seelbach, P.; Wiley, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We developed user-friendly fish habitat suitability tools (plots) for fishery managers in Michigan; these tools are based on driving habitat variables and fish population estimates for several hundred stream sites throughout the state. We generated contour plots to show patterns in fish biomass for over 60 common species (and for 120 species grouped at the family level) in relation to axes of catchment area and low-flow yield (90% exceedance flow divided by catchment area) and also in relation to axes of mean and weekly range of July temperatures. The plots showed distinct patterns in fish habitat suitability at each level of biological organization studied and were useful for quantitatively comparing river sites. We demonstrate how these plots can be used to support stream management, and we provide examples pertaining to resource assessment, trout stocking, angling regulations, chemical reclamation of marginal trout streams, indicator species, instream flow protection, and habitat restoration. These straightforward and effective tools are electronically available so that managers can easily access and incorporate them into decision protocols and presentations.

  16. Influence of discharge on fish habitat suitability curves in mountain watercourses in IFIM methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macura Viliam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quality of the aquatic habitats of mountain and piedmont streams was evaluated using the ‘Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM’ decision-making tool. The quality of habitats was interpreted from the behaviour of bioindicators in the form of habitat suitability curves (HSCs. From 1995 until the present, 59 different reaches of 43 mountain streams in Slovakia and 3 validation reaches were evaluated, and the results analysed. The aim of this study was to generalize the parameters of the HSCs for the brown trout. The generalized curves will be useful for water management planning. It is difficult and time-consuming to take hydrometrical and ichthyological measurements at different water levels. Therefore, we developed a methodology for modifying suitability curves based on an ichthyological survey during a low flow and a flow at which fish lose the ability to resist the flow velocity. The study provides the information how such curves can be modified for a wider flow range. In summary, this study shows that generalized HSCs provide representative data that can be used to support both the design of river restoration and the assessment of the impacts of the water use or of climate change on stream habitat quality.

  17. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  18. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  19. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  20. Hydrologic and water-quality rehabilitation of environments for suitable fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Liu, C. M.; Zhang, H. T.; Yang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Mitrovic, S. M.; Yu, Q.; Lim, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is attracting increasing public and research attention, but without knowledge of the responses of aquatic species to their habitats the success of habitat restoration is uncertain. Thus efficient study of species response to habitat, through which to prioritize the habitat factors influencing aquatic ecosystems, is highly important. However many current models have too high requirement for assemblage information and have great bias in results due to consideration of only the species' attribute of presence/absence, abundance or biomass, thus hindering the wider utility of these models. This paper, using fish as a case, presents a framework for identification of high-priority habitat factors based on the responses of aquatic species to their habitats, using presence/absence, abundance and biomass data. This framework consists of four newly developed sub-models aiming to determine weightings for the evaluation of species' contributions to their communities, to quantitatively calculate an integrated habitat suitability index for multi-species based on habitat factors, to assess the suitable probability of habitat factors and to assess the rehabilitation priority of habitat factors. The framework closely links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. Breakpoint identification techniques based on curvature in cumulated dominance along with a newly developed weighting calculation model based on theory of mass systems were used to help identify the dominant fish, based on which the presence and abundance of multiple fish were normalized to estimate the integrated habitat suitability index along gradients of various factors, based on their variation with principal habitat factors. Then, the appropriate probability of every principal habitat factor was

  1. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  2. [Study on ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides in Guizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Wang, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Xie, Yu

    2014-05-01

    To study the ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides, for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material purchase area of the herb in Guizhou. Based on the investigation of 14 Eucommia ulmoides producing areas, pinoresinol diglucoside content and ecological factors were obtained. Using spatial analysis method to carry on ecological suitability regionalization. Meanwhile, combining pinoresinol diglucoside content, the correlation of major active components and environmental factors were analyzed by statistical analysis. The most suitability planting area of Eucommia ulmoides was the northwest of Guizhou. The distribution of Eucommia ulmoides was mainly affected by the type and pH value of soil, and monthly precipitation. The spatial structure of major active components in Eucommia ulmoides were randomly distributed in global space, but had only one aggregation point which had a high positive correlation in local space. The major active components of Eucommia ulmoides had no correlation with altitude, longitude or latitude. Using the spatial analysis method and statistical analysis method, based on environmental factor and pinoresinol diglucoside content, the ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides can provide reference for the selection of suitable planting area, artificial planting base and directing production layout.

  3. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  4. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Proestos, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  5. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability for observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ning; Weng, Chunhua; Hripcsak, George

    2017-09-08

    To contribute a conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability to satisfy the research needs of observational studies. Suitability considerations were derived from a systematic literature review on researchers' common data needs in observational studies and a scoping review on frequent clinical database design considerations, and were harmonized to construct a suitability conceptual framework using a bottom-up approach. The relationships among the suitability categories are explored from the perspective of 4 facets of data: intrinsic, contextual, representational, and accessible. A web-based national survey of domain experts was conducted to validate the framework. Data suitability for observational studies hinges on the following key categories: Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, Relevance, Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, Usability, and Quality. We describe 16 measures and 33 sub-measures. The survey uncovered the relevance of all categories, with a 5-point Likert importance score of 3.9 ± 1.0 for Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, 4.1 ± 1.0 for Relevance, 3.9 ± 0.9 for Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, 4.2 ± 1.0 for Usability, and 4.0 ± 0.9 for Quality. The suitability framework evaluates a clinical data source's fitness for research use. Its construction reflects both researchers' points of view and data custodians' design features. The feedback from domain experts rated Usability, Relevance, and Quality categories as the most important considerations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Andrew P. [PPPL; Bloom, Josh [PPPL; Albertson, Robert [PPPL; Gershman, Sophia [PPPL

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  8. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  9. Hunting camp. River Murray

    OpenAIRE

    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer

    2003-01-01

    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  10. 基于5A景区最大承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型研究%Study of Mathematical Model Between Tourism Supply and Demand Based on Relationship of the 5A Level Scenic Spots' Maximum Carrying Capacity and the Amount of the Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 刘耀龙; 段锦

    2017-01-01

    旅游承载量是反映旅游供给能力的重要指标,游客接待量是衡量旅游需求状况的常用指标.在分析我国5A级景区最大承载量空间分异特征的基础上,对2014年各省市5A级景区日最大承载量和年游客接待量进行相关性和回归分析,构建基于景区承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型.结果表明:(1)5A级景区最大承载量和游客接待量之间存在显著的正相关关系;(2)旅游供需关系模型可由复合函数定量表征;(3)模型能够预测旅游供需变化,对旅游业发展具有一定的指示意义.%Tourism carrying capacity is an important index to reflect the tourism supply capacity, and the amount of the tourists is a common index to measure tourism demand. On the basis of the analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics of 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity, the paper carries out correlation and regression analysis about the 5A level scenic' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Sample data is calculated or statistical results of 31 provinces in 2014. Tourism supply and demand model is constructed based on the relationship between the 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Results indicate: (1)There is a significant positive correlation between the 5A level scenic spot'maximum carrying capacity and the amount of tourists; (2)The model of tourism supply and demand relations can be quantitatively characterized by complex functions;(3)The model can predict the change of tourism supply and demand, which have referential meaning to the development of tourism.

  11. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Columbia and Yakima rivers where abundance was higher (e.g., Tabor et al. 1993; Fritts and Pearsons 2004). We speculate that predation on subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass in the Snake River may have increased in recent years for several reasons. Since their ESA listing, recovery measures implemented for Snake River Fall Chinook salmon have resulted in a large increase in the juvenile population (Connor et al. 2013). Considering that subyearlings probably now make up a larger portion of the forage fish population, it is plausible they should make up a large portion of Smallmouth Bass diets. Second, migrating subyearlings delay downstream movement in the transition zones of the Clearwater River and Snake River for varying lengths of time (Tiffan et al. 2010), which increases their exposure and vulnerability to predators. Spatial overlap in locations of Smallmouth Bass and subyearlings that died during migration provides support for this (Tiffan et al. 2010). Finally, the later outmigration of subyearlings from the Clearwater River results in their presence in Lower Granite Reservoir during the warmest summer months when predation rates of Smallmouth Bass should be highest. In 2016, we focused our efforts on Smallmouth Bass predation in Lower Granite Reservoir downstream of the transition zones and the confluence area where we worked during 2012–2015. Similar to past years, our first objective was to quantify Smallmouth Bass consumption rates of subyearlings, determine relative bass abundance, and describe bass diets. In addition, Tiffan et al. (2016a) posited that predation risk to subyearlings may be higher in shoreline habitats that are more suitable for Smallmouth Bass and lower in shoreline habitats that are more suitable for subyearlings. To test this hypothesis, our second objective examines the relationship between Smallmouth Bass predation of subyearlings and habitat suitability.

  12. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  13. What makes a thermal plasma suitable for hazardous waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benocci, R.; Florio, R.; Galassi, A.; Paolicchio, M.; Sindoni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The basic transport and thermodynamic characteristic of a thermal plasma are analysed in order to emphasize those properties that make a high-temperature source profitable and suitable over the conventional devices for hazardous waste treatment. In addition a survey of the basic reaction sequence and apparatus units is made together with the different approaches to thermal plasma waste treatments

  14. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  15. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  16. Suitable or optimal noise benefits in signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shujun; Yang, Ting; Tang, Mingchun; Wang, Pin; Zhang, Xinzheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Six intervals of additive noises divided according to the two constraints. • Derivation of the suitable additive noise to meet the two constraints. • Formulation of the suitable noise for improvability or nonimprovability. • Optimal noises to minimize P FA , maximize P D and maximize the overall improvement. - Abstract: We present an effective way to generate the suitable or the optimal additive noises which can achieve the three goals of the noise enhanced detectability, i.e., the maximum detection probability (P D ), the minimum false alarm probability (P FA ) and the maximum overall improvement of P D and P FA , without increasing P FA and decreasing P D in a binary hypothesis testing problem. The mechanism of our method is that we divide the discrete vectors into six intervals and choose the useful or partial useful vectors from these intervals to form the additive noise according to different requirements. The form of the optimal noise is derived and proven as a randomization of no more than two discrete vectors in our way. Moreover, how to choose suitable and optimal noises from the six intervals are given. Finally, numerous examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical analysis, where the background noises are Gaussian, symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian mixture noise, respectively.

  17. Determining the most suitable method of otolith preparation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares sectioned and whole lapillus and asterisci otoliths as suitable structures for ageing tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus. Fifty tigerfish were collected from the Pongolapoort Dam, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Growth zone counts on sectioned lapilli showed the greatest percentage agreement (52%) and highest ...

  18. Otoliths versus scales: evaluating the most suitable structure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of scales for ageing Micropterus salmoides was determined by comparing the precision of growth zone counts on scales with those obtained from sectioned sagittal otoliths from a sample of 496 fish collected from Wriggleswade and Mankazana Impoundments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Otoliths (1.4% ...

  19. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  20. suitability of polyvinyl waste powder as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    as partial replacement of cement in the production o. PWP at interval ... conducted to assess the suitability of polyvinyl waste p polyvinyl waste p .... pose a serious environmental threat because of the fact that they ... served as the control. 2.2.3.

  1. A Logarithmic Detection System Suitable for a 4π Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, G.D.; Yurkon, J.E.; Plicht, J. van der; Koenig, Z.M.; Jacak, B.V.; Fox, R.; Crawley, G.M.; Maier, M.R.; Hasselquist, B.E.; Tickle, R.S.; Horn, D.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure multiwire proportional counter, a Bragg curve counter, and an array of CaF2/plastic scintillator telescopes have been developed in a geometry suitable for close packing into a 4π detector designed to study nucleus-nucleus reactions at 100-200 MeV/nucleon. The multiwire counter is

  2. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  3. Apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women with the prevalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition ... women. Thus, this study aimed at assessing apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women .... create a balance on other body shapes to be ... composition in the work of a designer by ..... and flared skirt) were found to maintain the.

  4. Suitability of an artificial diet for rape aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Brevicoryne brassicae, using life table parameters. A. Balvasi1* ... In this work, suitability of an artificial diet was studied through age-specific life tables. Development ... In large measure, the success of entomology over the past century is ..... balance on the improvement of an artificial diet for a biotype of.

  5. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  6. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test for...

  7. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of a medical history, tests, and...

  8. Soil physical criteria for evaluating irrigation suitability of Okija ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of upland soils of Anigbo Okija for irrigation was assessed using soil physical criteria of texture, depth, pore type, slope percent colour and soil structure for the purpose of estimating season farming and rainy season drought. Soils were classified using Soil Taxonomy and FAO/UNESCO legend. Mapping was ...

  9. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  10. On the suitability of BPMN for business process modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dumas, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Dustdar, S.; Fiadeiro, J.L.; Sheth, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine the suitability of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for business process modelling, using the Workflow Patterns as an evaluation framework. The Workflow Patterns are a collection of patterns developed for assessing control-flow, data and resource capabilities

  11. Selecting Suitable Drainage Pattern to Minimize Flooding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water shed analysis is a geographic information system (GIS) based technique designed to model the way surface water flows on the earth surface. This was the method adopted to select suitable drainage pattern to minimized flood in some parts of sangere. The process of watershed computes the local direction of flow ...

  12. Regional technical innovation suitability and economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Dan; Brouwers-Ren, Liqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to use quantitative method to analyse the suitability of regional technical innovation and further compare its influence to regional economic growth in China. Based on literature review, the authors develop an evaluation index system containing four aspects (namely, innovators,

  13. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  14. Determining suitable pedagogical approaches to the application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this pilot action research study was to document the process of choosing a suitable pedagogical approach that best fits a participant. Three pedagogical approaches as described by Ware were chosen: mechanistic, holistic and eclectic (a combination of mechanistic and holistic). Results indicated that each ...

  15. Ecological variables governing habitat suitability and the distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    governed by soil particle size distribution), in combination with the cover provided by trees, as the two ecological factors that best explained habitat suitability for Juliana's golden mole at the three localities. An IndVal analysis failed to identify ...

  16. Assessment of Suitability of Wood Fibres of Four Nigerian Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood fibres of four fruit trees of Nigeria commonly found in Nsukka metropolis were studied and assessed for their suitability for paper-making. These trees include Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Persea americana and Dacryodes edulis. The parameters used in the study were the fibre dimensions and derived ...

  17. EXPERT MODEL OF LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đurđević

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  18. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  19. Readability, complexity, and suitability analysis of online lymphedema resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Lee, Bernard T; Rudd, Rima; Singhal, Dhruv

    2017-06-01

    Over 72% of Americans use online health information to assist in health care decision-making. Previous studies of lymphedema literature have focused only on reading level of patient-oriented materials online. Findings indicate they are too advanced for most patients to comprehend. This, more comprehensive study, expands the previous analysis to include critical elements of health materials beyond readability using assessment tools to report on the complexity and density of data as well as text design, vocabulary, and organization. The top 10 highest ranked websites on lymphedema were identified using the most popular search engine (Google). Website content was analyzed for readability, complexity, and suitability using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, PMOSE/iKIRSCH, and Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), respectively. PMOSE/iKIRSCH and SAM were performed by two independent raters. Fleiss' kappa score was calculated to ensure inter-rater reliability. Online lymphedema literature had a reading grade level of 14.0 (SMOG). Overall complexity score was 6.7 (PMOSE/iKIRSCH) corresponding to "low" complexity and requiring a 8th-12th grade education. Fleiss' kappa score was 80% (P = 0.04, "substantial" agreement). Overall suitability score was 45% (SAM) correlating to the lowest level of "adequate" suitability. Fleiss' kappa score was 76% (P = 0.06, "substantial" agreement). Online resources for lymphedema are above the recommended levels for readability and complexity. The suitability level is barely adequate for the intended audience. Overall, these materials are too sophisticated for the average American adult, whose literacy skills are well documented. Further efforts to revise these materials are needed to improve patient comprehension and understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen retention in river corridors: European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycock, N [Dept. of Agriculture and Water Management, Silsoe College, Cranfield Institute of Technology (United Kingdom); Pinay, G [CERR/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Walker, Charles [SBEG, Inst. of Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    The problem of nitrogen pollution in European surface- and groundwaters has become a focus of recent European and Scandinavian directives, with legislation calling for a 50% reduction of N losses by the years 1995 and 2000, respectively. This paper provides a conceptual framework upon which management strategies to reduce losses of diffuse nitrogen pollution to surface waters may be based. The control of nitrogen pollution may take place through an increase in the complexity of the landscape, not throughout the catchment area, but rather in specific zones, the river corridor in particular. Within river corridors, riparian areas have been recognized globally for their value as nutrient removal ''buffer systems''. Studies have identified vegetation uptake and microbial denitrification as the primary mechanisms responsible for N removal in these systems. For these processes to function optimally on an annual basis, both vegetation and water regime must be managed. The establishment and management of riparian buffer zones in suitable places within river corridors, will provide a stable and sustainable water-protection function. This will complement future nitrogen input control strategies, needed for both the long-term protection of groundwater and surface waters in Europe as a whole, and for the proposed 50% reduction in nitrogen loading to the Baltic and North Sea coastal waters by the turn of the century. 52 refs, 5 figs

  1. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  2. Magnetic properties of fishes from rivers near Semarang, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaedi; Nurbaiti, U.; Setyaningsi, N. E.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic properties, in the form of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and frequency-dependent susceptibility (χ fd) were measured on scores of samples made of fishes from river nearby Semarang, Central Java. Semarang is one of the major cities in Indonesia, where the river systems are very likely to be contaminated by anthropogenic activities. The objective of this study is to identify the presence of heavy metals in the fishes that will determine the suitability of these fishes for healthy food. The results show that magnetic susceptibility varies from -0.3 to 13.8 × 10-8 m3/kg, while the frequency-dependent susceptibility is less than 3% indicating the predominance of ferromagnetic minerals. Quantitative chemical analyses on four samples show consistently high concentration of Ca, while Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni present a few in some of the samples. This finding shows that the fishes are suitable for the ongoing research on environmental magnetism.

  3. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T J; Conklin, J. C.; Thomas, John F.; Armstrong, T. R.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  4. Suitability of fluorescent whitening compounds (FWCs) as indicators of human faecal contamination from septic tanks in rural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W

    2017-12-15

    Rural river catchments are impacted by diffuse pollution sources from agricultural practices and on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTS), mainly septic tanks. Methods that can distinguish between contamination sources will significantly increase water management efficiency as they will allow for the development and application of targeted remediation measures. Fluorescent whitening compounds (FWC), are used as optical brighteners in laundry detergents and enter the environment through the discharge of domestic wastewater effluents. Due to their human specific source and potential simple fluorometric measurement this represents a very attractive method to be used by state monitoring agencies. In this study the suitability of FWCs as chemical indicators for human faecal contamination has been investigated in rural Irish catchments. It was found that no quantitative measurements are possible for FWCs in natural waters when using simple fluorometric methods. Hence a simple presence/absence approach needs to be applied. The detectability of FWCs was quantified and found to decrease with higher organic matter content of the river water which has its own fluorescence. This enabled the establishment of equations to predict detection limits and assess the method's suitability for individual catchments based on organic matter concentrations. Furthermore a modified photodecay method is suggested that increases sensitivity of the technique by up to 59%. Applications at rural study sites found some removal of FWCs in percolation areas of DWWTSs but they were still detectable 40 cm below the infiltration depth. FWCs were also detected as distinguishable peaks in impacted streams where septic tank effluents have a high contribution to the river flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Site suitability for riverbed filtration system in Tanah Merah, Kelantan-A physical model study for turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Mastura; Adlan, Mohd Nordin; Kamal, Nurul Hana Mokhtar; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    A laboratory physical model study on riverbed filtration (RBeF) was conducted to investigate site suitability of soil from Tanah Merah, Kelantan for RBeF. Soil samples were collected and transported to the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Universiti Sains Malaysia for sieve analysis and hydraulic conductivity tests. A physical model was fabricated with gravel packs laid at the bottom of it to cover the screen and then soil sample were placed above gravel pack for 30 cm depth. River water samples from Lubok Buntar, Kedah were used to simulate the effectiveness of RBeF for turbidity removal. Turbidity readings were tested at the inlet and outlet of the filter with specified flow rate. Results from soil characterization show that the soil samples were classified as poorly graded sand with hydraulic conductivity ranged from 7.95 x 10-3 to 6.61 x 10-2 cm/s. Turbidity removal ranged from 44.91% - 92.75% based on the turbidity of water samples before filtration in the range of 33.1-161 NTU. The turbidity of water samples after RBeF could be enhanced up to 2.53 NTU. River water samples with higher turbidity of more than 160 NTU could only reach 50% or less removal by the physical model. Flow rates of the RBeF were in the range of 0.11-1.61 L/min while flow rates at the inlet were set up between 2-4 L/min. Based on the result of soil classification, Tanah Merah site is suitable for RBeF whereas result from physical model study suggested that 30 cm depth of filter media is not sufficient to be used if river water turbidity is higher.

  6. Calculation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Modeling the Pollution Transmission in Rivers (Case studies: Severn and Narew Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parsaie

    2017-01-01

    empirical formulas and artificial intelligent techniques have been proposed. In this study LDC is calculated for the Severn River and Narew River and some selected empirical formulas have been assessed to calculate the LDC. Dispersion Routing Method: As mentioned previously, calculating the LDC is more important, so firstly, the longitudinal dispersion was calculated from the concentration profile by Dispersion Routing Method (DRM. Using the DRM included the four stage.1-considering of initial value for LDC .2-calculating the concentration profile at the downstream station by using the upstream concentration profile and LDC.3- Performing a comparison between the calculated profile and measured profile.4- if the calculating profile is not a suitable cover, the measured profile of the process will be repeated until the calculated profile shows a good covering on the measured profile. Numerical Method: The ADE includes two different parts advection and dispersion. The pure advection term is related to transmission modeling without any dispersing and the dispersion term is related to the dispersion without any transmission. To discrete the ADE the finite volume method was used. According to physical properties of these two terms and the recommendation of researchers a suitable scheme should be considered for numerical solution of ADE terms. Among the finite volume schemes, the quickest scheme was selected to discrete the advection term, because of this scheme has suitable ability to model the pure advection term. The quickest scheme is an explicit scheme and the stability condition should be considered. To discrete the dispersion term, the central implicit scheme was selected. This scheme is unconditionally stable. Results and Discussion: The results of longitudinal dispersion coefficient for the Severn River and Narew River were calculated using the DRM method and empirical formulas. The results of LDC calculation showed that the minimum and maximum values for the Severn River

  7. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  8. Model-Based Evaluation of Urban River Restoration: Conflicts between Sensitive Fish Species and Recreational Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Zingraff-Hamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban rivers are socioecological systems, and restored habitats may be attractive to both sensitive species and recreationists. Understanding the potential conflicts between ecological and recreational values is a critical issue for the development of a sustainable river-management plan. Habitat models are very promising tools for the ecological evaluation of river restoration projects that are already concluded, ongoing, or even to be planned. With our paper, we make a first attempt at integrating recreational user pressure into habitat modeling. The objective of this study was to analyze whether human impact is likely to hinder the re-establishment of a target species despite the successful restoration of physical habitat structures in the case of the restoration of the Isar River in Munich (Germany and the target fish species Chondostroma nasus L. Our analysis combined high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic modeling with mapping of recreational pressure and used an expert-based procedure for modeling habitat suitability. The results are twofold: (1 the restored river contains suitable physical habitats for population conservation but has low suitability for recruitment; (2 densely used areas match highly suitable habitats for C. nasus. In the future, the integrated modeling procedure presented here may allow ecological refuge for sensitive target species to be included in the design of restoration and may help in the development of visitor-management plans to safeguard biodiversity and recreational ecosystem services.

  9. A parsimonious dynamic model for river water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Water quality modelling is of crucial importance for the assessment of physical, chemical, and biological changes in water bodies. Mathematical approaches to water modelling have become more prevalent over recent years. Different model types ranging from detailed physical models to simplified conceptual models are available. Actually, a possible middle ground between detailed and simplified models may be parsimonious models that represent the simplest approach that fits the application. The appropriate modelling approach depends on the research goal as well as on data available for correct model application. When there is inadequate data, it is mandatory to focus on a simple river water quality model rather than detailed ones. The study presents a parsimonious river water quality model to evaluate the propagation of pollutants in natural rivers. The model is made up of two sub-models: a quantity one and a quality one. The model employs a river schematisation that considers different stretches according to the geometric characteristics and to the gradient of the river bed. Each stretch is represented with a conceptual model of a series of linear channels and reservoirs. The channels determine the delay in the pollution wave and the reservoirs cause its dispersion. To assess the river water quality, the model employs four state variables: DO, BOD, NH(4), and NO. The model was applied to the Savena River (Italy), which is the focus of a European-financed project in which quantity and quality data were gathered. A sensitivity analysis of the model output to the model input or parameters was done based on the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results demonstrate the suitability of such a model as a tool for river water quality management.

  10. [Research on climatic factors of ecology suitability regionalization of atractylodis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhe-tian; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Shou-dong; Yan, Yu-ping; Guo, Lan-ping; Zheng, Yu-guang

    2015-11-01

    Through study on the correlation between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we research regionalization from climatic of five main producing provinces of the country, in order to provide a scientific basis for atractylodis' conscious cultivation. By sampling from 40 origins which from five main producing provinces of the country, we use SPSS to analysis variation of atractylodis lactones ingredient content in different conditions of climatic factors and the effect of each factors. Then according to the relationship between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we use ArcGIS to conduct ecological suitability regionalization based on climatic factors. The most suitable climatic condition for cultivation of atractylodis: the wettest month precipitation 220-230 mm, the warmest average temperature 25 degrees C, the average temperature of driest season 10 degrees C.

  11. Suitability of NAA for certification of reference materials for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    2000-01-01

    Certifications of trace elements in existing CRMs, especially biological CRMs, are far from satisfactory. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for its inherent advantages combined with newly established parametric standardization, may contribute to improve this situation. The continuing progress of the hybrid extended k 0 -relative NAA technique developed in our laboratory is discussed. Examples are given to show the reliability of the method in certification of multielements. RNAA is still one of the best methods, or even the method of choice, in analysis at sub-μg/g concentration levels. The suitability of the technique for this purpose has been studied through the determination of rare earth elements at ng/g concentration level in two Chinese biological CRMs using both RNAA and ICPMS. Sampling behaviors of multielements in CRMs have been studied by INAA in an effort to develop CRMs suitable for analysis with small sample sizes. (author)

  12. Suitability of commercial transport for a shift to electric mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, Ole; Klauenberg, Jens

    2016-01-01

    the travel range of large vans is an important barrier for electrification due to the battery weight and the limitation of 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight for driving with a normal driving licence. The rule needs amendments for electric vehicles, as has been done in Germany. The paper recommends EU countries......This paper identifies commercial sectors suitable for a shift to electric mobility. The paper concludes that the construction and the health care service sectors are the most suitable for electric mobility because many vehicles are registered in these sectors and daily mileage is reasonably low....... They should be primary target groups of specific policy measures to promote the use of electric vehicles. Denmark has only had a few incentives to promote the use of commercial electric vehicles. Until now electric vehicles do generally not show economic benefits unless travel distance is high. However, today...

  13. [Quality Suitability of Magnolia officinalis in China Based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Cheng-cheng; Ming, Meng-die; Guo, Lan-ping; Zhu, Shou-dong; Yang, Hong-bing

    2015-04-01

    To study the quality suitability rank dividing of Magnolia officinalis on the basis of investigation on the correlation between the ratio of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and ecological factors, in order to provide scientific basis for its planting area of high-quality medicinal materials. Based on the samples' quality analysis of 43 sampling points of Magnolia officinalis,the relationship between the ratio of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae officinalis Cortex and ecological factors was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information system(GIS) was applied to assess the quality suitability rank dividing of Magnolia officinalis in China. There were 12 ecological factors mainly affecting the quality of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex; The ratio of magnolol and honokiol had obvious characteristics of regional quality. Conclusion: Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex which produced in Hubei and Chongqing is dao-di herbs.

  14. Whole-blood donation: blood donor suitability and adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H

    2004-11-01

    Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on fish habitat suitability index models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James W.

    1984-01-01

    One of the habitat-based methodologies for impact assessment currently in use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980). HEP is based on the assumption that the quality of an area as wildlife habitat at a specified target year can be described by a single number, called a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI). An HSI of 1.0 represents optimum habitat: an HSI of 0.0 represents unsuitable habitat. The verbal or mathematical rules by which an HSI is assigned to an area are called an HSI model. A series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, described by Schamberger et al. (1982), have been published to assist users in applying HEP. HSI model building approaches are described in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1981). One type of HSI model described in detail requires the development of Suitability Index (SI) graphs for habitat variables believed to be important for the growth, survival, standing crop, or other measure of well-being for a species. Suitability indices range from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 representing optimum conditions for the variable. When HSI models based on suitability indices are used, habitat variable values are measured, or estimated, and converted to SI's through the use of a Suitability Index graph for each variable. Individual SI's are aggregated into an HSI. Standard methods for testing this type of HSI model did not exist at the time the studies reported in this document were performed. A workshop was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, February 14-15, 1983, that brought together biologists experienced in the use, development, and testing of aquatic HSI models, in an effort to address the following objectives: (1) review the needs of HSI model users; (2) discuss and document the results of aquatic HSI model tests; and (3) provide recommendations for the future development, testing, modification, and use of HSI models. Individual presentations, group discussions, and group

  16. Land use suitability screening for power plant sites in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing an automated procedure for land use suitability screening. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded the project to aid in the selection of power plant sites in Maryland. Its purpose is to identify candidate areas from which specific candidate sites can be chosen for detailed analyses. The ORNL approach assures that certain key variables are examined empirically for every cell in the study region before candidate sites are selected. Each variable is assigned an importance weight and compatibility score based upon its effect on the economic, social, or ecologic costs associated with construction in a given cell. The weighted scores for each variable are aggregated and output as a suitability score for each cell

  17. Predicting Software Suitability Using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.; Berrios, Joseph S.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to reliably predict the end quality of software under development presents a significant advantage for a development team. It provides an opportunity to address high risk components earlier in the development life cycle, when their impact is minimized. This research proposes a model that captures the evolution of the quality of a software product, and provides reliable forecasts of the end quality of the software being developed in terms of product suitability. Development team skill, software process maturity, and software problem complexity are hypothesized as driving factors of software product quality. The cause-effect relationships between these factors and the elements of software suitability are modeled using Bayesian Belief Networks, a machine learning method. This research presents a Bayesian Network for software quality, and the techniques used to quantify the factors that influence and represent software quality. The developed model is found to be effective in predicting the end product quality of small-scale software development efforts.

  18. 公示语英译现状分析及应对策略探讨--以南通濠河风景区为例%Analysis and Discussion on the Current Situation of Eng-lish Translation for Public Signs and the Coping Strategy:Taking the Scenic Area of Moat Hao in Nantong as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      公示语的英译就如同一张名片,向外国友人介绍我们的城市。景区公示语的英译水平更代表着一个旅游景区的形象。本文结合实例,从南通濠河风景区公示语英译的现状出发,指出存在的问题,分析造成错误的原因,同时探讨提高公示语英译水平的相关策略。%English translation of public signs sends information of a city to foreigners just like a business card. The level of transla-tion of the public signs in a scenic spot will affect its image as well. The scenic area of Moat Hao in Nantong is taken as an ex-ample. According to the current situation and analysis of given examples, existing problems are pointed out together with the causes of them. And coping strategies for improving the level of translation are explored.

  19. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  20. Suitability of the thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated foods can be detected by thermoluminescence (TL) of contaminating minerals. Altogether about 300 lots of herbs, spices, berries, mushrooms and seafood were studied by the TL method. Irradiated herbs and spices were easily differentiated from unirradiated ones two years after irradiation of a 10 kGy dose. The mineral composition of seafood was variable; and while calcite was suitable for the TL analysis, aragonite and smectite gave unreliable results. Control analyses during two years confirmed the reliability of TL method. (author)

  1. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  4. Reference model analysis of suitability for logistics management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Mańkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reference models are one of the many instruments aspiring to find into a set of different concepts, methods and techniques used in managing the logistics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the results of assessing the suitability of reference models for solving logistical problems. This evaluation indicates that they are universal, support the realization of all the logistics management function in various areas, such as logistics of manufacturing glass products.

  5. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  6. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  7. Clay sealing for dumps - new findings from suitability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, L.; Kuntsche, K.; Duellmann, H.

    1988-06-01

    Extensive suitability tests were carried out in the laboratory and field on various clays of the Lower-Rhineland brown coal mining area. The purpose of these tests was to determine the basic suitability of these clays for use as sealing layers for residue dumps. The tests also furnished criteria according to which a specific imperviousness can be achieved. The results of the tests can be summed up as follows: Since the material properties of the in-situ clays vary widely, not only mean values but also corresponding variation coefficients must be adhered to. For the purpose of checking the quality - contrary to the hitherto applied assessment practice - the decisive factor is not the testing of the dry density as compared to the Proctor density, but the homogeneity of the sealing layer that is achieved as a result of the size reduction and compaction of the pseudo-granular structure. Using suitable equipment, homogeneities, for which permeability coefficients of k less than or equal to 10/sup -9/ m/s in the dump sealing are obtained can be achieved with the clays that were examined.

  8. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  9. Suitability of different formulated carriers for sustaining microbial shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassam, T.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-availability of a suitable carrier for bioinnoculant is a serious constraint for dissemination of biofertilizer technology in Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate a suitable carrier from locally available cheap material and evaluate for shelf life by using locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10- 10.8x10 cfu g for MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population of PGPR was sustained in all the formulation tested up to six months of storage period. (author)

  10. Footwear suitability in Turkish preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2014-06-01

    Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  11. Implications of the timing of the preliminary determination of suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires that the Enviromental Impact Statement prepared for the recommendation of a repository site must consider three sites -- the one selected for the repository and at least two alternatives. All of these sites must have been characterized, and the Secretary of Energy must have made a preliminary determination that each is suitable for development as a repository. There is great disagreement about whether that ''preliminary determination of suitability'' is to be made before or after site characterization. If the Act is interpreted as requiring the determination to be made after characterization is completed, DOE cannot recommend the first site for licensing until it has three sites that appear suitable after full characterization; if the determination can be made before characterization, DOE can proceed to licensing even if only one site survives characterization. While DOE plans to make the preliminary determination before starting characterization, the uncertainty about how a court might ultimately interpret the Act injects a significant institutional uncertainty into the schedule for the repository, and complicates contingency planning for the siting process. Early resolution of the interpretation would greatly aid DOE's planning for the siting program

  12. Examination of High Resolution Channel Topography to Determine Suitable Metrics to Characterize Morphological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. L.; Gaeuman, D.

    2015-12-01

    Complex bed morphology is deemed necessary to restore salmonid habitats, yet quantifiable metrics that capture channel complexity have remained elusive. This work utilizes high resolution topographic data from the 40 miles of the Trinity River of northern California to determine a suitable metric for characterizing morphological complexity at the reach scale. The study area is segregated into reaches defined by individual riffle pool units or aggregates of several consecutive units. Potential measures of complexity include rugosity and depth statistics such as standard deviation and interquartile range, yet previous research has shown these metrics are scale dependent and subject to sampling density-based bias. The effect of sampling density on the present analysis has been reduced by underrepresenting the high resolution topographic data as a 3'x 3' raster so that all areas are equally sampled. Standard rugosity, defined as the three-dimensional surface area divided by projected area, has been shown to be dependent on average depth. We therefore define R*, a empirically depth-corrected rugosity metric in which rugosity is corrected using an empirical relationship based on linear regression between the standard rugosity metric and average depth. By removing the dependence on depth using a regression based on the study reach, R* provides a measure reach scale complexity relative to the entire study area. The interquartile range of depths is also depth-dependent, so we defined a non-dimensional metric (IQR*) as the interquartile range dividing by median depth. These are calculated to develop rankings of channel complexity which, are found to closely agree with perceived channel complexity observed in the field. Current efforts combine these measures of morphological complexity with salmonid habitat suitability to evaluate the effects of channel complexity on the various life stages of salmonids. Future work will investigate the downstream sequencing of channel

  13. River, delta and coastal morphological response accounting for biological dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Goldsmith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management and construction can increase resilience in the face of climate change, and benefits can be enhanced through integration of biogenic materials including shells and vegetation. Rivers and coastal landforms are dynamic systems that respond to intentional and unintended manipulation of critical factors, often with unforeseen and/or undesirable resulting effects. River management strategies have impacts that include deltas and coastal areas which are increasingly vulnerable to climate change with reference to sea level rise and storm intensity. Whereas conventional assessment and analysis of rivers and coasts has relied on modelling of hydrology, hydraulics and sediment transport, incorporating additional biological factors can offer more comprehensive, beneficial and realistic alternatives. Suitable modelling tools can provide improved decision support. The question has been whether current models can effectively address biological responses with suitable reliability and efficiency. Since morphodynamic evolution exhibits its effects on a large timescale, the choice of mathematical model is not trivial and depends upon the availability of data, as well as the spatial extent, timelines and computation effort desired. The ultimate goal of the work is to set up a conveniently simplified river morphodynamic model, coupled with a biological dynamics plant population model able to predict the long-term evolution of large alluvial river systems managed through bioengineering. This paper presents the first step of the work related to the application of the model accounting for stationary vegetation condition. Sensitivity analysis has been performed on the main hydraulic, sedimentology, and biological parameters. The model has been applied to significant river training in Europe, Asia and North America, and comparative analysis has been used to validate analytical solutions. Data gaps and further areas for investigation are identified.

  14. River, delta and coastal morphological response accounting for biological dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, W.; Bernardi, D.; Schippa, L.

    2015-03-01

    Management and construction can increase resilience in the face of climate change, and benefits can be enhanced through integration of biogenic materials including shells and vegetation. Rivers and coastal landforms are dynamic systems that respond to intentional and unintended manipulation of critical factors, often with unforeseen and/or undesirable resulting effects. River management strategies have impacts that include deltas and coastal areas which are increasingly vulnerable to climate change with reference to sea level rise and storm intensity. Whereas conventional assessment and analysis of rivers and coasts has relied on modelling of hydrology, hydraulics and sediment transport, incorporating additional biological factors can offer more comprehensive, beneficial and realistic alternatives. Suitable modelling tools can provide improved decision support. The question has been whether current models can effectively address biological responses with suitable reliability and efficiency. Since morphodynamic evolution exhibits its effects on a large timescale, the choice of mathematical model is not trivial and depends upon the availability of data, as well as the spatial extent, timelines and computation effort desired. The ultimate goal of the work is to set up a conveniently simplified river morphodynamic model, coupled with a biological dynamics plant population model able to predict the long-term evolution of large alluvial river systems managed through bioengineering. This paper presents the first step of the work related to the application of the model accounting for stationary vegetation condition. Sensitivity analysis has been performed on the main hydraulic, sedimentology, and biological parameters. The model has been applied to significant river training in Europe, Asia and North America, and comparative analysis has been used to validate analytical solutions. Data gaps and further areas for investigation are identified.

  15. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  16. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  17. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  18. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  19. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  20. Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasseh JOEL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Crushed granite fine (CGF to replace river sand in concrete production for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Slump, compressive and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete.28 days Peak compressive and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70N/mm2 and 2.30N/mm2 respectively was obtained, with the partial replacement of river sand with 20% CGF, as against values of 35.00N/mm2 and 1.75N/mm2, obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based on economic analysis and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20% CGF is recommended for use in the production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF.

  1. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  2. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  3. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  4. Environmental predictors of habitat suitability and biogeographical range of Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan J. Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use species distribution models to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscanas along their overall biogeographical distribution. Based on the literature, we selected six environmental variables to be included in the models; four climatic factors (surface sea temperature, salinity, turbidity and productivity and two biotic factors (prey availability and fishing effort. We determined that the biographic range is under the following limits: temperature less than 19°C, a salinity of 36 psu and a minimal probability of the occurrence of fish C. guatucupa of 0.297. In the discussion, we postulate hypotheses on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that cause these associations between environmental predictors and Franciscanas distribution. There was a good fit between the distribution predicted by the species distribution model and the one proposed by the experts of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; however, our analysis failed to highlight the fundamental role of bycatch as the main threat to this dolphin species.

  5. Modelling recent and future climatic suitability for fasciolosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana

    2015-03-19

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic worm responsible for fasciolosis in grazed ruminants in Europe. The free-living stages of this parasite are sensitive to temperature and soil moisture, as are the intermediate snail hosts the parasite depends on for its life-cycle. We used a climate-driven disease model in order to assess the impact of recent and potential future climate changes on the incidence of fasciolosis and to estimate the related uncertainties at the scale of the European landmass. The current climate appears to be highly suitable for fasciolosis throughout the European Union with the exception of some parts of the Mediterranean region. Simulated climatic suitability for fasciolosis significantly increased during the 2000s in central and northwestern Europe, which is consistent with an observed increased in ruminant infections. The simulation showed that recent trends are likely to continue in the future with the estimated pattern of climate change for northern Europe, possibly extending the season suitable for development of the parasite in the environment by up to four months. For southern Europe, the simulated burden of disease may be lower, but the projected climate change will increase the risk during the winter months, since the simulated changes in temperature and moisture support the development of the free-living and intra-molluscan stages between November and March. In the event of predicted climate change, F. hepatica will present a serious risk to the health, welfare and productivity of all ruminant livestock. Improved, bespoke control programmes, both at farm and region levels, will then become imperative if problems, such as resistance of the parasite associated with increased drug use, are to be mitigated.

  6. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B

    2017-07-01

    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Geomorphic classification of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Buffington; D. R. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, environmental legislation and a growing awareness of historical human disturbance to rivers worldwide (Schumm, 1977; Collins et al., 2003; Surian and Rinaldi, 2003; Nilsson et al., 2005; Chin, 2006; Walter and Merritts, 2008) have fostered unprecedented collaboration among scientists, land managers, and stakeholders to better understand,...

  8. Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a monthly progress report from the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of January 1993. It has sections with work in the areas of reactor safety, tritium processes and absorption, separations programs and wastes, environmental concerns and responses, waste management practices, and general concerns

  9. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Discover the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  11. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers that...

  12. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  13. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  14. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  15. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  16. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  17. A new methodology for repository site suitability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.; Kossik, R.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. The major portion of the software is the performance assessment model, which consists of a series of coupled component models for radionuclide transfer. The performance model itself is embedded within a decision analysis model which allows the user to evaluate alternative site characterization strategies. This paper provides an overview of the methodology, and summarizes the basic concepts of RIP

  18. Profiling coaching training: what is a suitable coaching training curricula?

    OpenAIRE

    Farinha, Carolina Gomes

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to shed some light into the debate of what is a suitable coaching training curricula, specifically in Portugal. We conducted a Delphi study with 5 coaching experts to analyse: i) what is the minimum academic training for a future coach, ii) what is the minimum of hours required for a coaching training program, iii) which competencies should it develop, iv) which contents should the training address, v) which are the requisites for one to be a coaching trainer and, vi) what ...

  19. Hydrological characterization of the Usumacinta River Basin towards the preservation of environmental services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Silva, F.-O.; Contreras-Silva, A.-I.; Rosales-Arriaga, E.-R.

    2015-04-01

    The Usumacinta basin is characterized by aboundance of natural and scenic resources. It also houses a vast biodiversity (wich also means invaluable genetic resources). Its river is the longest in Mexico (main channel length of 927 km). Therefore it is one of the most productive regions of the country in terms of ecosystem services (such as habitat for biodiversity, maintenance of wetlands, water flows generation, carbon sequestration, soil retention, etc.) that are directly related to the hydrological functioning. During the last centuries, human activities on the Usumacinta basin have drastically changed its geomorphology and vegetation cover. As a result the hydrological cycle has been greatly modified. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct studies in order to support planning activities and implementation of public policies, as well as, to generate a permanent scientific ecosystem monitoring system. This paper presents the results of a study focused on estimating the water balance of this frontier basin. Satellite and field data is used. Variables as vegetation cover (generated by classification of Landsat and MODIS), digital terrain model (SRTM), surface temperature (MODIS), potential evaporation, precipitation and runoff measurements were processed. Various techniques of Remote Sensing, geospatial models (as SSEB and the model for definition of surface hydrological connectivity) and spatial analysis (geostatistics and map algebra) were implemented. The results were integrated into the environment of a Geographic Information System. These are estimates of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, among other biophysical parameters. For the lower part of the basin a balance was performed to estimate inputs of water from runoff and precipitation to the large amount of wetlands in the area. Additionally, areas generating runoff and areas in which most of the precipitaion infiltrates were also mapped. The geo-information obtained is requiered for

  20. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  1. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  2. Tracking the movements of a post-nesting Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pelf-Nyok; Wong, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    A Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli) Conservation Project was initiated on one terrapin nesting bank in 2011, following the discovery of a River Terrapin population in the Kemaman River, Terengganu in 2010. Since this project was initiated, Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS) was instrumental in the gazettement of three nesting banks along the Kemaman River, from which all River Terrapin eggs are collected for incubation. However, there are at least a dozen other "unprotected" nesting banks along the river, where all eggs were collected for human consumption. This project attempted to determine the movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin, with hopes that it would provide the preliminary baseline information on the utilization of adjacent nesting banks. The solution was a GPS tracking device that transmitted coordinates every hour over cellular networks. Location-based data was sent via Short Message Service (SMS) to our own SMS gateway running on a Raspberry Pi credit-card size computer, which was then logged in a database and presented graphically via Google Maps. It was a complete tracking and monitoring system. This solution enabled researchers to remotely track the movements of a River Terrapin, hence reducing the costs of research. The movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin were tracked for eight days before the battery was drained. On the third day, this River Terrapin ascended an adjacent riverbank and spent less than an hour on the bank, presumably to deposit her remaining eggs. This study confirmed that River Terrapins do utilize other suitable nesting banks if/whenever available. Results from such tracking studies will be used to leverage on the protection of adjacent nesting banks, thus providing greater protection for the critically endangered River Terrapins.

  3. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  4. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, T; Suzuki, T

    2010-01-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  5. Suitability of digital camcorders for virtual reality image data capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola; Maas, Hans-Gerd

    1998-12-01

    Today's consumer market digital camcorders offer features which make them appear quite interesting devices for virtual reality data capture. The paper compares a digital camcorder with an analogue camcorder and a machine vision type CCD camera and discusses the suitability of these three cameras for virtual reality applications. Besides the discussion of technical features of the cameras, this includes a detailed accuracy test in order to define the range of applications. In combination with the cameras, three different framegrabbers are tested. The geometric accuracy potential of all three cameras turned out to be surprisingly large, and no problems were noticed in the radiometric performance. On the other hand, some disadvantages have to be reported: from the photogrammetrists point of view, the major disadvantage of most camcorders is the missing possibility to synchronize multiple devices, limiting the suitability for 3-D motion data capture. Moreover, the standard video format contains interlacing, which is also undesirable for all applications dealing with moving objects or moving cameras. Further disadvantages are computer interfaces with functionality, which is still suboptimal. While custom-made solutions to these problems are probably rather expensive (and will make potential users turn back to machine vision like equipment), this functionality could probably be included by the manufacturers at almost zero cost.

  6. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  7. Thermogravimetric evaluation of the suitability of precursors for MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, G V; Shivashankar, S A; Umarji, A M

    2008-01-01

    A method based on the Langmuir equation for the estimation of vapour pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of subliming compounds is described. The variable temperature thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) curve of benzoic acid is used to arrive at the instrument parameters. Employing these parameters, the vapour pressure–temperature curves are derived for salicylic acid and camphor from their TG/DTG curves. The values match well with vapour pressure data in the literature, obtained by effusion methods. By employing the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, the enthalpy of sublimation could be calculated. Extending the method further, two precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of titanium oxide bis-isopropyl bis tert-butyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 , and bis-oxo-bis-tertbutyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, [TiO(tbob) 2 ] 2 , have been evaluated. The complex Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 is found to be a more suitable precursor. This approach can be helpful in quickly screening for the suitability of a compound as a CVD precursor

  8. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  9. QFD Based Benchmarking Logic Using TOPSIS and Suitability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Users’ satisfaction on quality is a key that leads successful completion of the project in relation to decision-making issues in building design solutions. This study proposed QFD (quality function deployment based benchmarking logic of market products for building envelope solutions. Benchmarking logic is composed of QFD-TOPSIS and QFD-SI. QFD-TOPSIS assessment model is able to evaluate users’ preferences on building envelope solutions that are distributed in the market and may allow quick achievement of knowledge. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution provides performance improvement criteria that help defining users’ target performance criteria. SI (Suitability Index allows analysis on suitability of the building envelope solution based on users’ required performance criteria. In Stage 1 of the case study, QFD-TOPSIS was used to benchmark the performance criteria of market envelope products. In Stage 2, a QFD-SI assessment was performed after setting user performance targets. The results of this study contribute to confirming the feasibility of QFD based benchmarking in the field of Building Envelope Performance Assessment (BEPA.

  10. Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Husain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Nidhi

    2017-12-01

    Surface water samples from Godavari river basin was analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of eight heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analyzed data revealed that iron and zinc metals were found to be the most abundant metals in the river Godavari and its tributaries. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest, while cadmium (Cd) had the least concentration. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron and zinc metals are within the acceptable limit of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 1050 (2012) Specification for drinking water, pp 1-5). The analysis of Godavari river and its tributary's water samples reveals that the water is contaminated at selected points which are not suitable for drinking. Nickel and Copper concentration is above acceptable limit and other metal concentration is within the acceptable limit. Comprehensive study of the results reveals that out of 18 water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 7 water quality stations are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes. While Rajegaon, Tekra, Nandgaon, P. G. Bridge, Bhatpalli, Kumhari, Pauni, Hivra, Ashti, Bamini, and Jagda stations were beyond the desirable limit due to presence of copper and nickel metals. The contents of copper metal ions were higher at some water quality stations on Wunna river (Nandgaon); Wardha river (Hivra) and Wainganga river (Kumhari, Pauni, Ashti) during Feb. 2012, while nickel concentration during Feb. 2012, June 2012, March 2013 and Aug. 2013 at some water quality stations on rivers Bagh, Indravati, Pranhita, Wunna, Penganga, Peddavagu, Wainganga and Wardha. It can be concluded that rapid population growth and industrialization have brought about resource degradation and a decline in environmental quality.

  11. Suitable landscape classification systems for quantifying spatiotemporal development of riverine ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K.R.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Breure, A.M.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    River systems provide numerous ecosystem services that contribute to human well-being. Biophysical quantification of spatiotemporal development of ecosystem services is useful for environmental impact assessments or scenario analyses of river management and could be done by linking biophysical

  12. Simulation of relationship between river discharge and sediment yield in the semi-arid river watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Mohammad Reza; Varvani, Javad

    2018-02-01

    Complex and variable nature of the river sediment yield caused many problems in estimating the long-term sediment yield and problems input into the reservoirs. Sediment Rating Curves (SRCs) are generally used to estimate the suspended sediment load of the rivers and drainage watersheds. Since the regression equations of the SRCs are obtained by logarithmic retransformation and have a little independent variable in this equation, they also overestimate or underestimate the true sediment load of the rivers. To evaluate the bias correction factors in Kalshor and Kashafroud watersheds, seven hydrometric stations of this region with suitable upstream watershed and spatial distribution were selected. Investigation of the accuracy index (ratio of estimated sediment yield to observed sediment yield) and the precision index of different bias correction factors of FAO, Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimator (QMLE), Smearing, and Minimum-Variance Unbiased Estimator (MVUE) with LSD test showed that FAO coefficient increases the estimated error in all of the stations. Application of MVUE in linear and mean load rating curves has not statistically meaningful effects. QMLE and smearing factors increased the estimated error in mean load rating curve, but that does not have any effect on linear rating curve estimation.

  13. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  14. Pastoral suitability driven by future climate change along the Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the impacts of climate change on pastoral resources located along the Apennines chain. To this end, random forest machine learning model was first calibrated for the present period and then applied to future conditions, as projected by HadCM3 general circulation model, in order to simulate possible spatial variation/shift of pastoral areas in two time slices (centred on 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Pre-existent spatial database, namely Corine land cover map and WorldClim, were integrated and harmonised in a GIS environment in order to extract climate variables (mean seasonal precipitation, mean maximum temperature of the warmest month and minimum temperature of the coldest month and response variables (presence/absence of pastures to be used as model predictors. Random forest model resulted robust and coherent to simulate pastureland suitability under current climatology (classification accuracy error=19%. Accordingly, results indicated that increases in temperatures coupled with decreases in precipitation, as simulated by HadCM3 in the future, would have impacts of great concern on potential pasture distribution. In the specific, an overall decline of pasturelands suitability is predicted by the middle of the century in both A2 (–46% and B2 (–41% along the entire chain. However, despite alarming reductions in pastures suitability along the northern (–69% and –71% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively and central Apennines (–90% under both scenarios by the end of the century, expansions are predicted along the southern areas of the chain (+96% and +105% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. This may be probably due to expansions in pastures dominated by xeric and thermophiles species, which will likely benefit from warmer and drier future conditions predicted in the southern zone of the chain by the HadCM3. Hence, the expected climate, coupled with an increasing abandonment of the

  15. IFMIF suitability for evaluation of fusion functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, N.; Sordo, F.; Mota, F.; Jordanova, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Vila, R.; Rapisarda, D.; Queral, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a future neutron source based on the D-Li stripping reaction, planned to test candidate fusion materials at relevant fusion irradiation conditions. During the design of IFMIF special attention was paid to the structural materials for the blanket and first wall, because they will be exposed to the most severe irradiation conditions in a fusion reactor. Also the irradiation of candidate materials for solid breeder blankets is planned in the IFMIF reference design. This paper focuses on the assessment of the suitability of IFMIF irradiation conditions for testing functional materials to be used in liquid blankets and diagnostics systems, since they are been also considered within IFMIF objectives. The study has been based on the analysis and comparison of the main expected irradiation parameters in IFMIF and DEMO reactor.

  16. Plastic reactor suitable for high pressure and supercritical fluid electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branch, Jack; Alibouri, Mehrdad; Cook, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a reactor suitable for high pressure, particularly supercritical fluid, electrochemistry and electrodeposition at pressures up to 30 MPa at 115◦C. The reactor incorporates two key, new design concepts; a plastic reactor vessel and the use of o-ring sealed brittle electrodes...... by the deposition of Bi. The application of the reactor to the production of nanostructures is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of ∼80 nm diameter Te nanowires into an anodic alumina on silicon template. Key advantages of the new reactor design include reduction of the number of wetted materials, particularly...... glues used for insulating electrodes, compatability with reagents incompatible with steel, compatability with microfabricated planar multiple electrodes, small volume which brings safety advantages and reduced reagent useage, and a significant reduction in experimental time....

  17. Selection of suitable NDT methods for building inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad

    2017-11-01

    Construction of modern structures requires good quality concrete with adequate strength and durability. Several accidents occurred in the civil constructions and were reported in the media. Such accidents were due to poor workmanship and lack of systematic monitoring during the constructions. In addition, water leaking and cracking in residential houses was commonly reported too. Based on these facts, monitoring the quality of concrete in structures is becoming more and more important subject. This paper describes major Non-destructive Testing (NDT) methods for evaluating structural integrity of concrete building. Some interesting findings during actual NDT inspections on site are presented. The NDT methods used are explained, compared and discussed. The suitable methods are suggested as minimum NDT methods to cover parameters required in the inspection.

  18. A new FPGA architecture suitable for DSP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyun; Lai Jinmei; Tong Jiarong; Tang Pushan; Chen Xing; Duan Xueyan; Chen Liguang; Wang Jian; Wang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    A new FPGA architecture suitable for digital signal processing applications is presented. DSP modules can be inserted into FPGA conveniently with the proposed architecture, which is much faster when used in the field of digital signal processing compared with traditional FPGAs. An advanced 2-level MUX (multiplexer) is also proposed. With the added SLEEP MODE PASS to traditional 2-level MUX, static leakage is reduced. Furthermore, buffers are inserted at early returns of long lines. With this kind of buffer, the delay of the long line is improved by 9.8% while the area increases by 4.37%. The layout of this architecture has been taped out in standard 0.13 μm CMOS technology successfully. The die size is 6.3 x 4.5 mm 2 with the QFP208 package. Test results show that performances of presented classical DSP cases are improved by 28.6%-302% compared with traditional FPGAs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  20. Choosing a suitable sample size in descriptive sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Choi, Dong Hoon; Cha, Kyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive sampling (DS) is an alternative to crude Monte Carlo sampling (CMCS) in finding solutions to structural reliability problems. It is known to be an effective sampling method in approximating the distribution of a random variable because it uses the deterministic selection of sample values and their random permutation,. However, because this method is difficult to apply to complex simulations, the sample size is occasionally determined without thorough consideration. Input sample variability may cause the sample size to change between runs, leading to poor simulation results. This paper proposes a numerical method for choosing a suitable sample size for use in DS. Using this method, one can estimate a more accurate probability of failure in a reliability problem while running a minimal number of simulations. The method is then applied to several examples and compared with CMCS and conventional DS to validate its usefulness and efficiency

  1. Tsunami shelter in Padang city: Location suitability and management issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Eva; Permata, Robby; Yonne, Hilma; Carlo, Nasfryzal

    2017-11-01

    The building of Temporary Evacuation Sites (TES/shelter) is an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the population who live in coastal city areas with high risk of tsunami. Padang city in Indonesia, one of the cities with high risk of tsunami, has built shelter in North Ulak Karang Village, North Padang Sub-district. The problems are the location of shelter does not meet the standard of population number, how to manage the shelter in normal condition (without disaster), and who will be responsible for the management of the shelter. The aim of the study is to learn the suitability of shelter location and the management of the shelter in normal condition as well as the expectation of the people who live near the shelter location. This research uses evaluative-descriptive method with the collection of secondary and primary data through structured interviews with 200 respondents in the area of shelter building. The result shows that the furthest location of the shelter is located at RW 03 with a distance of 1.3 kms which takes 12.15-24.30 minutes. It shows that the shelter location in Padang meets the requirement of FEMA P646. At normal condition, shelter can be used for sport and educational activities, as a center for socialisation and simulation of disaster and other activities. The management of the shelter is done together by government and stakeholders. The proposed management is by forming a team (organization) which involves Disaster Alert groups (KSB) and by making the Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) for their implementation. People expect that the number of shelter is added and the building of the shelter is based on the suitability of location, number of population and availability of land.

  2. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P guiding invasive species monitoring, and we support the use of an iterative sampling design for

  3. Sapucai River Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.L.; Rosa, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Sapucai River Project is a gold, ilmenite, monazite and zircon alluvial deposit. It is located on Sapucai River valley in the south of Minas Gerais State. The reserves are 28.000.000 m 3 of pay bed. The production will be 1.400.000 m 3 /year and the mine's life 20 years. A cutterhead suction dredge will do the overburden removal. The pay bed will be mined with an underwater bucket-wheel dredge. The ROM will be concentrated in a washing plant. The gold will be recovered by leaching method. The other heavy minerals will be recovered by electrostatic, magnetic and gravitic methods. SAMITRI believes that it's possible to implant and operate the Project without ecological damage. (author) [pt

  4. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  5. Heat dispersion in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  6. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  7. Movement of radionuclides from river to ground water in vicinity of location for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Lj.; Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of ground water contamination caused by radionuclide from river water to which liquid effluents were released from a nuclear power station was estimated using one-dimensional transport model. This model is suitable for a homogeneous medium and takes into account hydraulic convection and dispersion as well as physical-chemical retardation for the various radionuclides. (author)

  8. Assessment of climate change impact on river flow regimes in The Red River Delta, Vietnam – A case study of the Nhue-Day River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cao Duong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has caused dramatic changes in regional climate variability, particularly regarding fluctuations in temperature and rainfall. Thus, it is predicted that river flow regimes will be altered accordingly. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling such changes by simulating discharge using the HEC-HMS model. The precipitation was projected using super-high resolution multiple climate models (20 km resolution with newly updated emission scenarios as the input for the HEC-HMS model for flow analysis at the Red River Basin in the northern area of Vietnam. The findings showed that climate change impact on the river flow regimes tend towards a decrease in the dry season and a longer duration of flood flow. A slight runoff reduction is simulated for November while a considerable runoff increase is modeled for July and August amounting to 30% and 25%, respectively. The discharge scenarios serve as a basis for water managers to develop suitable adaptation methods and responses on the river basin scale.

  9. Onilahy River, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.

  10. Charles River Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    duration, deck sections will be prefabricated off-site and delivered just-in-time for assembly and installation. The schedule assumes that the parts of...on one side (the side which abuts the existing bridges) there will be the appearance that the new bridges cantilever off the existing bridges. (See...many events that takes place on the Charles River such as crew racings and the “Head of the Charles”. Prefabricated off 19  ANCHORAGE GROUP, LTD

  11. AHP 45: Review: River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zon thar rgyal says that inspiration for River came with the arrival of his second child (a son, which made his daughter very uncomfortable. "At first, I just wanted to make a simple movie for children as a gift for my daughter,"6 he said during an interview in Lha sa. Later, however, the film became more elaborate with the addition of a grandfather, creating a story that embraces three generations.

  12. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  13. Columbia River pathway report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the river-pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project is estimating radiation doses that could have been received by the public from the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the river-pathway dose reconstruction effort sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the area from above the Hanford Site at Priest Rapids Dam to below the site at McNary Dam from January 1964 to December 1966. Of the potential sources of radionuclides from the river, fish consumption was the most important. Doses from drinking water were lower at Pasco than at Richland and lower at Kennewick than at Pasco. The median values of preliminary dose estimates calculated by HEDR are similar to independent, previously published estimates of average doses to Richland residents. Later phases of the HEDR Project will address dose estimates for periods other than 1964--1966 and for populations downstream of McNary Dam. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  14. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.

    1984-01-01

    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  15. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininger, Peter; Hoess, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Juergen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure

  16. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heininger, Peter [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hoess, Sebastian [Ecossa - Ecological Sediment and Soil Assessment, Thierschstr. 43, 80538 Munich (Germany); Claus, Evelyn [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Pelzer, Juergen [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Traunspurger, Walter [University of Bielefeld, Department of Animal Ecology, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: traunspurger@uni-bielefeld.de

    2007-03-15

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure.

  17. Evaluation of habitat suitability models for forest passerines using demographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Richard L. Clawson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat suitability is often used as a surrogate for demographic responses (i.e., abundance, survival, fecundity, or population viability) in the application of habitat suitability index (HSI) models. Whether habitat suitability actually relates to demographics, however, has rarely been evaluated. We validated HSI models of breeding habitat suitability for wood thrush...

  18. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  19. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1985-12-01

    The Bitterroot River, located in western Montana, is an important and heavily used resource, providing water for agriculture and a source for diversified forms of recreation. Water shortages in the river, however, have been a persistent problem for both irrigators and recreational users. Five major diversions and numerous smaller canals remove substantial quantities of water from the river during the irrigation season. Historically, the river has been severely dewatered between the towns of Hamilton and Stevensville as a result of these withdrawals. Demands for irrigation water from the Bitterroot River have often conflicted with the instream flow needs for trout. Withdrawals of water can decrease suitable depths, velocities, substrates and cover utilized by trout (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976, Wesche 1976). Losses in habitat associated with dewatering have been shown to diminish the carrying capacities for trout populations (Nelson 1980). Additionally, dewatering of the Bitterroot River has forced irrigators to dike or channelize the streambed to obtain needed flows. These alterations reduce aquatic habitat and degrade channel stability. Odell (personal communication) found a substantial reduction in the total biomass of aquatic insects within a section of the Bitterroot River that had been bulldozed for irrigation purposes. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP) has submitted a proposal to the Northwest Power Planning Council for the purchase of 10,000 acre-feet (AF) of stored water in Painted Rocks Reservoir to augment low summer flows in the Bitterroot River. This supplemental water potentially would enhance the fishery in the river and reduce degradation of the channel due to diversion activities. The present study was undertaken to: (1) develop an implementable water management plan for supplemental releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir which would provide optimum benefits to the river: (2) gather fisheries and habitat information to

  20. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  1. Relative distribution and abundance of fishes and crayfish in 2010 and 2014 prior to saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.) removal in the Amargosa River Canyon, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Mark E.

    2016-07-22

    The Amargosa River Canyon, located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, contains the longest perennial reach of the Amargosa River. Because of its diverse flora and fauna, it has been designated as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and a Wild and Scenic River by the Bureau of Land Management. A survey of fishes conducted in summer 2010 indicated that endemic Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were abundant and occurred throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. The 2010 survey reported non-native red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) captures were significantly higher, whereas pupfish captures were lower, in areas dominated by non-native saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.). Based on the 2010 survey, it was hypothesized that the invasion of saltcedar could result in a decrease in native species. In an effort to maintain and enhance native fish populations, the Bureau of Land Management removed saltcedar from a 1,550 meter reach of stream on the Amargosa River in autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. Prior to the removal of saltcedar, a survey of fishes and crayfish using baited minnow traps was conducted in the treatment reach to serve as a baseline for future comparisons with post-saltcedar removal surveys. During the 2014 survey, 1,073 pupfish and 960 speckled dace were captured within the treatment reach. Catch per unit effort of pupfish and speckled dace in the treatment reach was less in 2014 than in 2010, although differences could be owing to seasonal variation in capture probability. Non-native mosquitofish catch per unit effort decreased from 2010 to 2014; however, the catch per unit effort of crayfish increased from 2010 to 2014. Future monitoring efforts of this reach should be conducted at the same time period to account for potential seasonal fluctuations of abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish. A more robust study design that

  2. Suitability of ground penetrating radar for locating large fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Kantia, P. [Roadscanners Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analysed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting features (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). Suitability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for locating large fractures was assessed. The assessment used data measured with 100 MHz and 270 MHz radar tool on ONKALO access tunnel right-hand wall, chainage 3344 - 3578 and on TKU-3 niche floor chainage 15 - 55 and 25 - 67 m. GPR images were processed to enhance reflections and suppress interference and diffractions. Images were placed on measurement position in 3D presentation software. The tunnel wall and floor mapping data was presented along with GPR images. A review of observed GPR reflections, and assessment of visibility of large fractures, was drawn on basis of 3D view examination. The GPR tool can detect reflections from cleaned and dry rock floor and wall. Depth of penetration is 8-12 m for 270 MHz antenna. The antenna has high resolution. Coupling on rock surface is good, which suppresses ringing and interference. Penetration is 20-24 m for 100 MHz antenna, which has a trade off of higher interference due to weaker contact to surface caused by large antenna. There are observed many kind of reflecting surfaces and diffractors in the images, like for example lithological contacts and high grade shearing, and also fractures. Proper manner to apply the method is to use raw and processed images during geological mapping to confirm the origin of reflections. Reflections deemed to be caused by fractures are useful to be compiled to 3D model objects. The

  3. Suitability of ground penetrating radar for locating large fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Kantia, P.

    2011-12-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analysed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting features (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). Suitability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for locating large fractures was assessed. The assessment used data measured with 100 MHz and 270 MHz radar tool on ONKALO access tunnel right-hand wall, chainage 3344 - 3578 and on TKU-3 niche floor chainage 15 - 55 and 25 - 67 m. GPR images were processed to enhance reflections and suppress interference and diffractions. Images were placed on measurement position in 3D presentation software. The tunnel wall and floor mapping data was presented along with GPR images. A review of observed GPR reflections, and assessment of visibility of large fractures, was drawn on basis of 3D view examination. The GPR tool can detect reflections from cleaned and dry rock floor and wall. Depth of penetration is 8-12 m for 270 MHz antenna. The antenna has high resolution. Coupling on rock surface is good, which suppresses ringing and interference. Penetration is 20-24 m for 100 MHz antenna, which has a trade off of higher interference due to weaker contact to surface caused by large antenna. There are observed many kind of reflecting surfaces and diffractors in the images, like for example lithological contacts and high grade shearing, and also fractures. Proper manner to apply the method is to use raw and processed images during geological mapping to confirm the origin of reflections. Reflections deemed to be caused by fractures are useful to be compiled to 3D model objects. The

  4. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for

  5. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  6. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...

  7. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seletskiy, Sergey M.; Rochester U.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the first cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cooling. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Tevatron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV carrying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 (micro)rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible. Chapter 1 is an introduction where I describe briefly the theory and the history of electron cooling, and derive the requirements to the quality of electron beam and requirements to the basic parameters of the Recycler Electron Cooler. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical consideration of the motion of electrons in the cooling section, description of the cooling section and of the measurement of the magnetic fields. In Chapter 3 I consider different factors that increase the effective electron angle in the cooling section and suggest certain algorithms for the suppression of parasitic angles. Chapter 4 is devoted to the measurements of the energy of the electron beam. In the concluding Chapter 5 I review

  8. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods: The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results: The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream to poor (downstream water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions: Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  9. Determination of Selection Method in Genetic Algorithm for Land Suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfianti Asti Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algoirthm is one alternative solution in the field of modeling optimization, automatic programming and machine learning. The purpose of the study was to compare some type of selection methods in Genetic Algorithm for land suitability. Contribution of this research applies the best method to develop region based horticultural commodities. This testing is done by comparing the three methods on the method of selection, the Roulette Wheel, Tournament Selection and Stochastic Universal Sampling. Parameters of the locations used in the test scenarios include Temperature = 27°C, Rainfall = 1200 mm, hummidity = 30%, Cluster fruit = 4, Crossover Probabiitiy (Pc = 0.6, Mutation Probabilty (Pm = 0.2 and Epoch = 10. The second test epoch incluides location parameters consist of Temperature = 30°C, Rainfall = 2000 mm, Humidity = 35%, Cluster fruit = 5, Crossover Probability (Pc = 0.7, Mutation Probability (Pm = 0.3 and Epoch 10. The conclusion of this study shows that the Roulette Wheel is the best method because it produces more stable and fitness value than the other two methods.

  10. A new FPGA architecture suitable for DSP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liyun; Lai Jinmei; Tong Jiarong; Tang Pushan; Chen Xing; Duan Xueyan; Chen Liguang; Wang Jian; Wang Yuan, E-mail: 071021037@fudan.edu.cn [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-05-15

    A new FPGA architecture suitable for digital signal processing applications is presented. DSP modules can be inserted into FPGA conveniently with the proposed architecture, which is much faster when used in the field of digital signal processing compared with traditional FPGAs. An advanced 2-level MUX (multiplexer) is also proposed. With the added SLEEP MODE PASS to traditional 2-level MUX, static leakage is reduced. Furthermore, buffers are inserted at early returns of long lines. With this kind of buffer, the delay of the long line is improved by 9.8% while the area increases by 4.37%. The layout of this architecture has been taped out in standard 0.13 {mu}m CMOS technology successfully. The die size is 6.3 x 4.5 mm{sup 2} with the QFP208 package. Test results show that performances of presented classical DSP cases are improved by 28.6%-302% compared with traditional FPGAs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. PEM fuel cell model suitable for energy optimization purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caux, S.; Hankache, W.; Fadel, M.; Hissel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many fuel cell stack models or fuel cell system models exist. A model must be built with a main objective, sometimes for accurate electro-chemical behavior description, sometimes for optimization procedure at a system level. In this paper, based on the fundamental reactions present in a fuel cell stack, an accurate model and identification procedure is presented for future energy management in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). The proposed approach extracts all important state variables in such a system and based on the control of the fuel cell's gas flows and temperature, simplification arises to a simple electrical model. Assumptions verified due to the control of the stack allow simplifying the relationships within keeping accuracy in the description of a global fuel cell stack behavior from current demand to voltage. Modeled voltage and current dynamic behaviors are compared with actual measurements. The obtained accuracy is sufficient and less time-consuming (versus other previously published system-oriented models) leading to a suitable model for optimization iterative off-line algorithms.

  12. Modular magazine for suitable handling of microparts in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Ralf; Schmutz, Wolfgang; Schlenker, Dirk; Schuenemann, Matthias; Stock, Achim; Schaefer, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Microassembly and microadjustment techniques are key technologies in the industrial production of hybrid microelectromechanical systems. One focal point in current microproduction research and engineering is the design and development of high-precision microassembly and microadjustment equipment capable of operating within the framework of flexible automated industrial production. As well as these developments, suitable microassembly tools for industrial use also need to be equipped with interfaces for the supply and delivery of microcomponents. The microassembly process necessitates the supply of microparts in a geometrically defined manner. In order to reduce processing steps and production costs, there is a demand for magazines capable of providing free accessibility to the fixed microcomponents. Commonly used at present are feeding techniques, which originate from the field of semiconductor production. However none of these techniques fully meets the requirements of industrial microassembly technology. A novel modular magazine set, developed and tested in a joint project, is presented here. The magazines are able to hold microcomponents during cleaning, inspection and assembly without nay additional handling steps. The modularity of their design allows for maximum technical flexibility. The modular magazine fits into currently practiced SEMI standards. The design and concept of the magazine enables industrial manufacturers to promote a cost-efficient and flexible precision assembly of microelectromechanical systems.

  13. PEM fuel cell model suitable for energy optimization purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caux, S.; Hankache, W.; Fadel, M. [LAPLACE/CODIASE: UMR CNRS 5213, Universite de Toulouse - INPT, UPS, - ENSEEIHT: 2 rue Camichel BP7122, 31071 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France); Hissel, D. [FEMTO-ST ENISYS/FCLAB, UMR CNRS 6174, University of Franche-Comte, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort (France)

    2010-02-15

    Many fuel cell stack models or fuel cell system models exist. A model must be built with a main objective, sometimes for accurate electro-chemical behavior description, sometimes for optimization procedure at a system level. In this paper, based on the fundamental reactions present in a fuel cell stack, an accurate model and identification procedure is presented for future energy management in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). The proposed approach extracts all important state variables in such a system and based on the control of the fuel cell's gas flows and temperature, simplification arises to a simple electrical model. Assumptions verified due to the control of the stack allow simplifying the relationships within keeping accuracy in the description of a global fuel cell stack behavior from current demand to voltage. Modeled voltage and current dynamic behaviors are compared with actual measurements. The obtained accuracy is sufficient and less time-consuming (versus other previously published system-oriented models) leading to a suitable model for optimization iterative off-line algorithms. (author)

  14. Suitability of technical materials for machinery subsoilers for soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bednář

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil processing belongs to the basic elements in the process of crop production. Currently classic tillage method is decreasing and the only trend has stated as a shallow plowing. Suitable post harvest soil tillage greatly affects yields in the next cycle. The aim of the study is the analysis of abrasive wear of selected construction materials and their subsequent use for DXRV-HD cultivator. The performed tests are focused on monitoring the mechanical properties of the materials and their use for variable cutting tip of cultivator body. Tested materials are divided into four categories. These materials include tool steel (19436, carbon steel (12050, cast iron with globular graphite and welding material supplied as a functional complex on low carbon steel by the Abraweld company. These materials are tested together with the original part of share cultivator. The present experiment is focused on metallorgraphic, mechanical and abrasive analysis. Structural component of the material is identified by metallographic photos and then compared with the impact strength tested on Charpy hammer. Followed the abrasion resistance according to CSN 01 5084 and the total evaluation of the tested samples are done.

  15. Evaluation of excess nuclear materials suitability for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.W.; White, W.C.; Davis, R.M.; Cherry, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton announced in March 1995 the permanent withdrawal of 200 tons of fissile material from the US nuclear stockpile. This action was made possible by the dramatic reduction in nuclear weapons stockpile size and a desire to demonstrate the US'' commitment to nonproliferation goals. To provide further assurance of that commitment, the US is addressing placement of these materials under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. An initial step of this overall assessment was evaluation of the nuclear materials'' suitability for international safeguards. US Department of Energy (DOE) field organizations reviewed a detailed listing of all candidate materials with respect to characterization status, security classification, and acceptability for international safeguards compared to specified criteria. These criteria included form, location, environment and safety considerations, measurability, and stability. The evaluation resulted in broad categorizations of all materials with respect to preparing and placing materials under IAEA safeguards and provided essential information for decisions on the timing for offering materials as a function of materials attributes. A plan is being prepared to determine the availability of these materials for IAEA safeguards considering important factors such as costs, processes and facilities required to prepare materials, and impacts on other programs

  16. Neuroprotection by Radical Avoidance: Search for Suitable Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is frequently associated with damage by free radicals. However, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may ultimately lead to neuronal cell death, do not necessarily reflect its primary cause, but can be a consequence of otherwise induced cellular dysfunction. Detrimental processes which promote free radical formation are initiated, e.g., by disturbances in calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial malfunction, and an age-related decline in the circadian oscillator system. Free radicals generated at high rates under pathophysiological conditions are insufficiently detoxified by scavengers. Interventions at the primary causes of dysfunction, which avoid secondary rises in radical formation, may be more efficient. The aim of such approaches should be to prevent calcium overload, to reduce mitochondrial electron dissipation, to support electron transport capacity, and to avoid circadian perturbations. l-Theanine and several amphiphilic nitrones are capable of counteracting excitotoxicity and/or mitochondrial radical formation. Resveratrol seems to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial effects of leptin include attenuation of electron leakage. Melatonin combines all the requirements mentioned, additionally regulates anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes and is, with few exceptions, very well tolerated. In this review, the perspectives, problems and limits of drugs are compared which may be suitable for reducing the formation of free radicals.

  17. Suitability of various materials for porous filters in diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaba, David; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Glaus, Martin; Van Loon, Luc [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Leupin, Olivier [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of different porous materials (stainless steel, VYCOR {sup registered} glass, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PEEK) for use as confining filters in diffusion experiments was evaluated by measuring the effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub e}) of neutral (HTO) and ionic solutes (Na{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the materials in through-diffusion experiments. For stainless steel filters, the D{sub e} values of the target solutes correlated satisfactorily with their bulk diffusion coefficient in water (D{sub w}); thus, the diffusion process in the stainless steel filters was primarily controlled by the diffusivity of the solvated ions. For the remaining materials, the D{sub e} and D{sub w} values were also correlated for the target solutes, and the geometric factors were in the sequence: VYCOR {sup registered} glass < Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} < PEEK. Stainless steel and VYCOR {sup registered} glass were the most appropriate materials because of their high D{sub e} values, but a specific interaction of caesium with VYCOR {sup registered} glass was hypothesised because the D{sub e} values obtained for this solute were slightly higher than expected.

  18. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  19. The Edge Detectors Suitable for Retinal OCT Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal layer thickness measurement offers important information for reliable diagnosis of retinal diseases and for the evaluation of disease development and medical treatment responses. This task critically depends on the accurate edge detection of the retinal layers in OCT images. Here, we intended to search for the most suitable edge detectors for the retinal OCT image segmentation task. The three most promising edge detection algorithms were identified in the related literature: Canny edge detector, the two-pass method, and the EdgeFlow technique. The quantitative evaluation results show that the two-pass method outperforms consistently the Canny detector and the EdgeFlow technique in delineating the retinal layer boundaries in the OCT images. In addition, the mean localization deviation metrics show that the two-pass method caused the smallest edge shifting problem. These findings suggest that the two-pass method is the best among the three algorithms for detecting retinal layer boundaries. The overall better performance of Canny and two-pass methods over EdgeFlow technique implies that the OCT images contain more intensity gradient information than texture changes along the retinal layer boundaries. The results will guide our future efforts in the quantitative analysis of retinal OCT images for the effective use of OCT technologies in the field of ophthalmology.

  20. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  1. Predator size and the suitability of a common prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kristin S; Morse, D H

    1997-02-01

     Although a predator's mass should influence the suitability of its prey, this subject has received little direct attention. We studied the capture and processing of an abundant syrphid fly Toxomerus marginatus (c. 4 mg) by 0.6- to 40-mg juvenile crab spiders Misumena vatia (Thomisidae) to determine how profitability, relative profitability (profitability/predator mass), overall gain in mass, and relative gain in mass differed with predator mass, and whether foraging changed concurrently. In multi-prey experiments, the smallest successful spiders (0.6-3.0 mg) extracted less mass from flies, and did so more slowly, than large spiders. This gain was proportionately similar to that of 10- to 40-mg spiders with access to many Toxomerus. However, many small spiders failed to capture flies. When we gave spiders only a single Toxomerus, the smallest ones again extracted mass more slowly than the large ones and increased in mass less than the large ones, but increased in mass proportionately more than large ones. Relative gain in mass from a single prey decreased with increasing spider mass. Spiders larger than 10 mg all extracted similar amounts of mass from a single Toxomerus at similar rates, but varied in time spent between captures. Thus, Toxomerus changes with spider mass from a large, hard-to-capture bonanza to a small, easy-to-capture item of low per capita value. However, Toxomerus is common enough that large spiders can capture it en masse, thereby compensating for its decline in per capita value.

  2. Nurses' understandings of suitable footwear for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Andrea; Martin, Caroline Hollins; Locke, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into nurses' understandings of what constitutes suitable footwear for older people in care homes. An exploratory descriptive qualitative survey was carried out of 20 registered nurses employed in six Scottish care homes for older people. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that included five open-ended questions. Content analysis was used to theme footwear perceptions. Participants had several views about what encompasses safe footwear; some were erroneous. The link between inappropriate footwear and falls was recognised by 80 per cent of respondents, but some were unclear about the features that effect or inhibit safety. No UK or international standardised guidelines were identified that advise nurses about appropriate footwear for older people. It is unknown whether respondents represent the nurse population because findings are restricted by a small sample size. Nonetheless, the group showed variable understanding of what constitutes safe footwear for older people and links with fall prevention. Improved nurse-education about what comprises safe footwear and the links with falls prevention in older people is required. Structured guidelines to direct nurse educators about what to teach student nurses about appropriate footwear for older people may work towards reducing falls. No guidelines to direct nurses about appropriate footwear for older people in care homes have been written. Key points have been developed.

  3. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  4. Prestressed concrete vessels suitable for helium high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, G.E.; Kinkead, A.N.

    1967-02-01

    In considering prestressed concrete vessels for use with helium cooled high temperature reactors, a number of new problems arise and projected designs involve new approaches and new solutions. These reactors, having high coolant outlet temperature from the core and relatively high power densities, can be built into compact designs which permit usefully high working pressures. Consequently, steam generators and circulating units tend to be small. Although circuit activity can be kept quite low with coated particle fuels, designs which involve entry for subsequent repair are not favoured, and coupled with the preferred aim of using fully shop fabricated units within the designs with removable steam generators which involve no tube welding inside the vessel. A particular solution uses a number of slim cylindrical assemblies housed in the wall of the pressure vessel and this vessel design concept is presented. The use of helium requires very high sealing standards and one of the important requirements is a vessel design which permits leak testing during construction, so that a repair seal can be made to any faulty part in a liner seam. Very good demountable joint seals can be made without particular difficulty and Dragon experience is used to provide solutions which are suitable for prestressed concrete vessel penetrations. The concept layout is given of a vessel meeting these requirements; the basis of design is outlined and special features of importance discussed. (author)

  5. Dose measurement method suitable for management of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1990-01-01

    The report describes major features of dose measurement performed for the management of food irradiation processes, and dose measuring methods suitable for this purpose, and outlines some activities for establishing international standards for dose measurement. Traceability studies made recently are also reviewed. Compared with the sterilization of medical materials, food irradiation is different in some major points from a viewpoint of dose measurement: foods can undergo significant changes in bulk density, depending on its properties, during irradiation, and the variation in the uniformity of bulk density can be large within an irradiation unit and among different units. An accurate dosimeter and well-established traceability are essential for food irradiation control, and basically a dosimeter should be high in reproducibility and stable in dose response, and should be easy to readjust for eliminating systematic errors. A new type of dosimeter was developed recently, in which ESR is used to measure the free radicals generated by radiations in crystals of alanine, an amino acid. Standardization of large dose measurement procedures has been carried out by committee E10 set up under ASTM. (N.K.)

  6. Assessment of Suitable Areas for Home Gardens for Irrigation Potential, Water Availability, and Water-Lifting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Assefa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin of Ethiopia to assess potentially irrigable areas for home gardens, water availability, and feasibility of water-lifting technologies. A GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE technique was applied to access the potential of surface and groundwater sources for irrigation. The factors affecting irrigation practice were identified and feasibility of water-lifting technologies was evaluated. Pairwise method and expert’s opinion were used to assign weights for each factor. The result showed that about 345,000 ha and 135,000 ha of land were found suitable for irrigation from the surface and groundwater sources, respectively. The rivers could address about 1–1.2% of the irrigable land during dry season without water storage structure whereas groundwater could address about 2.2–2.4% of the irrigable land, both using conventional irrigation techniques. If the seven major dams within the basin were considered, surface water potential would be increased and satisfy about 21% of the irrigable land. If rainwater harvesting techniques were used, about 76% of the basin would be suitable for irrigation. The potential of surface and groundwater was evaluated with respect to water requirements of dominant crops in the region. On the other hand, rope pump and deep well piston hand pump were found with relatively the most (26% and the least (9% applicable low-cost water-lifting technologies in the basin.

  7. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  8. Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Hyginus E.; Eziefula, Uchechi G.; Eziefula, Bennett I.

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete. The constituent materials were batched by weight. The water-cement ratio and mix ratio selected for the experimental investigation were 0.55 and 1:2:4, respectively. The specimens were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Slump, density and compressive strength tests were carried out. The results showed that river sand concrete had greater density and compressive strength than quarry dust concrete for all curing ages. At 28 days of curing, river sand concrete exceeded the target compressive strength by 36%, whereas quarry dust concrete was less than the target compressive strength by 12%. Both river sand concrete and quarry dust concrete for the selected water/cement ratio and mix ratio are suitable for non-structural applications and lightly-loaded members where high strength is not a prerequisite.

  9. Saga of Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    An epic struggle in the US Congress between what the author calls the forces of transcendence and the forces of experience over development of a breeder reactor for electric power generation is described in this article. The project was started by President Nixon, survived repeated attacks under President Carter, and ironically succumbed under a strong supporter, President Reagan, as a result of an unlikely coalition of conservative organizations and Republican politicians. The broader meanings of the demise of the Clinch River project are examined on several levels, examining the significance for the nation's energy future and for the nation's political future

  10. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  11. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  12. The suitability of EDXRF for compositional classification of archaeological pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Alvarez, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Many investigations have been carried out trying to enlarge the information that can be gathered through the chemical analysis of archaeological findings. Chemical composition data sets, properly interpreted with multivariate analysis techniques, have been used extensively to supplement investigations involving provenance studies or more complex socio-economic aspects of the past communities. Correct inferences from the gathered compositional data are only possible if well documented background information about the studied samples is available, such as a correct interpretation of the archaeological contexts, knowledge about the nature of the used raw materials or procurement sources (geology of the territories), among others. The combined use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) has been widely applied to the classification of archaeological pottery. However the need to remove at least a minimal part (invasion) of the sample and the time delay required for radioisotope decay and the high costs involved in INAA often restrict its use. Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is advantageous to perform a completely non-destructive analysis in a relatively fast way, but several problems have restricted its wider use in the past. The highly matrix-dependent attenuation of x-rays in the analysed sample hampers the use of the standard-less quantification procedures as an alternative when suitable certified reference materials are not at hand, and the relatively limited instrumental sensitivity of the conventional spectrometers has not allowed the determination of some trace elements that are relevant for compositional differentiation and provided a comparatively higher uncertainties. This contribution presents the results of several investigations aimed to achieving classification of archaeological pottery using reliable quantitative EDXRF procedures. The main factors affecting the

  13. Suitability of geopolymeric concretes for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatti, A.; Kallio, L.

    1991-12-01

    Concrete barriers are in essential role in most of the disposal concepts for nuclear waste. As to the binders, the used high-quality, strong and dense concretes may be based both on the present types of cements and on new types of special cements. One feasible special cement discussed in this literature report is the geopolymeric cement, which is, at its cleanest, a completely lime-free binder composed mainly of aluminium silicates. However, in 1990 the lime-free aluminium silicate cement had not yet reached the stage of development required of a widely marketed factory product. On the other hand, as an applicable product the development work started as early as in the 70s in France and in the USA has reached a blended cement consisting both of geopolymeric and Portland cements. The main advantages of the geopolymeric concrete compared to the ordinary Portland cement concrete are based on richer and stronger chemical bonds of the cement stone. The strong three-dimensional networks of bonds make the geopolymeric concrete stronger, denser and, above all, more ductile. The geopolymeric concrete is particularly suitable for hazardous waste applications, since hazardous materials have been found to be locked inside the geopolymeric networks. The properties of the geopolymeric cements and concretes and the implemented applications seem to be highly promising, but as to the nuclear waste applications there is not sufficient amount of reliable experimental information available yet. The domestic cement and concrete industry will be in key position in accumulation of information and operating experiences. (orig.)

  14. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  15. Investigation into the suitability of capillary tubes for microcrystalline testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Leonie E; Baron, Mark G; Croxton, Ruth S; Elie, Mathieu P

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between microcrystalline tests performed on microscope slides and flat capillary tubes with inner diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mm was carried out to explore the appropriateness of tubes for rapid testing of suspected drugs of abuse in the laboratory as well as in the field. Tests for mephedrone, cocaine, and phencyclidine were chosen as examples to investigate the handling of the capillary tubes, the influence on crystal habit, size, and the effects on the limit of detection. Image stacking software was used to increase the depth of field of micrographs taken from developed microcrystals greatly enhancing the interpretability even months after carrying out the microcrystalline test. Additionally, the potential of seeding capillary tubes with a reagent was studied. Pre-treatment of tubes would allow microcrystalline tests to be carried out quicker and anywhere without the necessity of taking along expensive and hazardous reagents. The sealing of capillary tubes containing developed microcrystalline tests in order to preserve results for a long period of time was successfully done by applying paraffin wax to the open ends. Finally, it was concluded that capillary tubes are suitable vessels for performing microcrystalline tests. The increased portability of the improved set-up allows tests to be safely executed outside laboratories without impairing the quality of the result. Findings were applied to six legal high samples purchased online between May and August 2011. The active ingredients like MDAI as well as cutting agents like caffeine were successfully identified using the microcrystalline test technique in capillary tubes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the suitability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Little, M.S.; Rehfeldt, K.; Spiegler, P.

    1983-05-01

    Determination of the suitability of the site for WIPP is only the first major phase in the evaluation of the radiological impact of the repository on the public health and safety. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) will continue to independently review the design of the facility, the operational procedures, the criteria for packaging and shipment of the waste, the plans, procedures and results of the WIPP experiments, emergency preparedness, adherence to EPA and pertinent NRC regulations, and other important features of the project. EEG has concluded from existing evidence that the Los Medanos site for the WIPP project has been characterized in sufficient detail to warrant confidence in the validation of the site for the permanent emplacement of approximately 6 million cubic feet of defense transuranic waste. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the maximum surface dose rate for the unshielded remote-handled transuranic waste canisters will be 100 rem/hr with a maximum radionuclide concentration of 23 Ci/liter. The Site and Preliminary Design Validation program, through the drilling of two shafts to the selected repository level at 2160 ft below the surface and excavation of about 9000 ft of tunnels, has confirmed the interpretations made about the subsurface geological conditions at the site. For an assessment of the potential radiation effects of the nuclear waste repository on the public health and safety, it is necessary to understand the regional geological and hydrological setting. Much work has been done to understand these conditions and to address several specific issues which have arisen as a result of such studies. However, it is almost inevitable that some questions remain unanswered at a given time in the decision-making process. EEG has identified work which still needs to be done at the Los Medanos site in order to improve confidence in the worst case scenario models of possible breaches of the repository

  17. Ergonomic suitability of kitchen furniture regarding height accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrovatin, Jasna; Prekrat, Silvana; Oblak, Leon; Ravnik, David

    2015-03-01

    It is possible to significantly ease kitchen chores with properly sized and appropriately arranged cupboards. In designing kitchen furniture and the optimal depth and the height of storage capacities, accessibility should be taken into consideration. It is known that the optimal storage zone is between 800 and 1100 mm and that there is reduced visibility and accessibility at the level between 1400 and 1700 mm, which is even more prominent for the elderly. This suggests that wall cabinets are not recommended for the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent kitchens manufactured by Slovenian furniture manufacturers are suitable for users of different age groups with regard to the accessibility of goods stored in the cupboards. Furthermore, based on the measurement analysis, recommendations are provided for designing kitchen furniture that would meet the needs of the elderly. The study, carried out using a computer simulation model, analyzed the products of three Slovenian kitchen manufacturers. The cross section of accessibility in the wall cabinets was determined for different age groups of men and women. The results show that the efficacy of the volume in wall cabinets higher than 600 mm, in comparison to places where objects are easily reachable, is 30% lower for women, thus indicating the inefficiency of storage space in wall cabinets. In terms of accessibility, existing kitchens are not optimal for the elderly, and a model with a deeper worktop and wall cabinets lowered onto the worktop is proposed. Accessibility in such wall cabinets is increased by up to 70% if the body is moved forward by 30°.

  18. Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgate, M.; Irwin, G.; Cousins, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section

  19. Induction New Suitable Soybean Genotypes for Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs

  20. FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM SUITABLE TO APUSENI MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is the result of the melange between tourism and sustainable tourism. The concept has evolved during the last decades of the twentieth century, in international conferences, summits etc. organized by the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations and other international organizations where it was defined, characterized and criticized. Unfortunately, the concept was not able to overcome its theoretical conceptualization and it did not reach practitioners of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism has several forms which are actually practiced by tourists all over the world: ecotourism, backpacking, rural tourism, nature-based tourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism etc. In the present paper, we have focused on an area in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. We tried to identify the forms of sustainable tourism most suitable for this area considering: natural resources, socio-economical development, protected areas, gastronomic traditions etc. After considering all these we have selected three forms: ecotourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism, which could have the highest impact in promoting this area, and actually all the Apuseni Mountains as an important destination for sustainable tourism. The arguments for ecotourism are based on the numerous natural tourism resources> caves, gorges, forests and wildlife. Volunteers are needed especially in conservation and English language course. For slow tourism, there are numerous trails for walking and biking. Also there are several foods, mainly based on milk and wild berries that should be promoted and sold under the slow food brand. The shortcomings of the research are the lack of quantitative and qualitative results, as there is no information regarding the number of tourists which visit the area during each year. Also, it is hard to compare the benefits of sustainable tourism with those of mass tourism, due to the lack of references. So it is harder to argue for sustainable

  1. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  2. Dams and river dolphins: Can they co-exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, R.R.; Leatherwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    Dam construction is one of many ways that humans have modified river-dolphin habitats. It is suggested that physiographic and hydrologic complexity plays an important role in making rivers suitable for dolphins. If this hypothesis is true, then it can be assumed that dams and other artificial obstructions degrade dolphin habitat insofar as they reduce such complexity. This paper identifies some of the impacts that dams, barrages, and dikes might have on dolphins. Research is needed at project sites, both before and after construction, to document impacts. Specially designed ''swimways'' may allow upstream and downstream passage by dolphins and thus mitigate at least one of the adverse effects of dam projects, namely population fragmentation, but such measures aimed at benefiting single species are no substitute for protecting ecosystems. 30 refs

  3. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  4. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. Yangon River Geomorphology Identification and its Enviromental Imapacts Analsysi by Optical and Radar Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, A.; Khaing, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Yangon river, also known as the Rangoon river, is about 40 km long (25miles), and flows from southern Myanmar as an outlet of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) river into the Ayeyarwady delta. The Yangon river drains the Pegu Mountains; both the Yangon and the Pathein rivers enter the Ayeyarwady at the delta. Fluvial geomorphology is based primarily on rivers of manageable dimensions. The emphasis is on geomorphology, sedimentology of Yangon river and techniques for their identification and management. Present techniques such as remote sensing have made it easier to investigate and interpret in details analysis of river geomorphology. In this paper, attempt has been made the complicated issues of geomorphology, sedimentation patterns and management of river system and evolution studied. The analysis was carried out for the impact of land use/ land cover (LULC) changes on stream flow patterns. The hydrologic response to intense, flood producing rainfall events bears the signatures of the geomorphic structure of the channel network and of the characteristic slope lengths defining the drainage density of the basin. The interpretation of the hydrologic response as the travel time distribution of a water particle randomly injected in a distributed manner across the landscape inspired many geomorphic insights. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis was seriously damaged to mangrove area and its biodiversity system in and around of Yangon river terraces. A combination of digital image processing techniques was employed for enhancement and classification process. It is observed from the study that middle infra red band (0.77mm - 0.86mm) is highly suitable for mapping mangroves. Two major classes of mangroves, dense and open mangroves were delineated from the digital data.

  6. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  7. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  8. Optimization of the scheme for natural ecology planning of urban rivers based on ANP (analytic network process) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichuan; Wang, Jiangping

    2015-07-01

    Rivers serve as a highly valued component in ecosystem and urban infrastructures. River planning should follow basic principles of maintaining or reconstructing the natural landscape and ecological functions of rivers. Optimization of planning scheme is a prerequisite for successful construction of urban rivers. Therefore, relevant studies on optimization of scheme for natural ecology planning of rivers is crucial. In the present study, four planning schemes for Zhaodingpal River in Xinxiang City, Henan Province were included as the objects for optimization. Fourteen factors that influenced the natural ecology planning of urban rivers were selected from five aspects so as to establish the ANP model. The data processing was done using Super Decisions software. The results showed that important degree of scheme 3 was highest. A scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation of schemes could be made by ANP method on natural ecology planning of urban rivers. This method could be used to provide references for sustainable development and construction of urban rivers. ANP method is also suitable for optimization of schemes for urban green space planning and design.

  9. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost

  10. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    fields, and protection of channel banks by revetments throughout the basin, have reduced the overall sediment yield of the MRB by more than 60 percent. The primary alterations to channel morphology by dams and other engineering projects have been (1) channel simplification and reduced dynamism; (2) lowering of channel-bed elevation; and (3) disconnection of the river channel from the flood plain, except during extreme flood events. Freshwater discharge from the Mississippi River and its associated sediment and nutrient loads strongly influence the physical and biological components in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Ninety percent of the nitrogen load reaching the Gulf of Mexico is from nonpoint sources with about 60 percent coming from fertilizer and mineralized soil nitrogen. Much of the phosphorus is from animal manure from pasture and rangelands followed by fertilizer applied to corn and soybeans. Increased nutrient enrichment in the northern Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the degradation of water quality as more phytoplankton grow, which increases turbidity and depletes oxygen in the lower depths creating what is known as the "dead zone." In 2002, the dead zone was 22,000 square kilometers (km2), an area similar to the size of the State of Massachusetts. Changes in the flow regime from engineered structures have had direct and indirect effects on the fish communities. The navigation pools in the upper Mississippi River have aged, and these overwintering habitats, which were created when the pools filled, have declined as sedimentation reduces water depth. Reproduction of paddlefish may have been adversely affected by dams, which impede access to suitable spawning habitats. Fishes that inhabit swift-current habitats in the unimpounded lower Mississippi River have not declined as much as in the upper Mississippi River. The decline of the pallid sturgeon may be attributable to channelization of the Missouri River above St. Louis, Missouri. The Missouri River supports a

  11. Global relationships in river hydromorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Durand, M. T.; Schumann, G.; Beighley, E.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Since the widespread adoption of digital elevation models (DEMs) in the 1980s, most global and continental-scale analysis of river flow characteristics has been focused on measurements derived from DEMs such as drainage area, elevation, and slope. These variables (especially drainage area) have been related to other quantities of interest such as river width, depth, and velocity via empirical relationships that often take the form of power laws. More recently, a number of groups have developed more direct measurements of river location and some aspects of planform geometry from optical satellite imagery on regional, continental, and global scales. However, these satellite-derived datasets often lack many of the qualities that make DEM=derived datasets attractive, including robust network topology. Here, we present analysis of a dataset that combines the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database of river location, width, and braiding index with a river database extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM and the HydroSHEDS dataset. Using these combined tools, we present a dataset that includes measurements of river width, slope, braiding index, upstream drainage area, and other variables. The dataset is available everywhere that both datasets are available, which includes all continental areas south of 60N with rivers sufficiently large to be observed with Landsat imagery. We use the dataset to examine patterns and frequencies of river form across continental and global scales as well as global relationships among variables including width, slope, and drainage area. The results demonstrate the complex relationships among different dimensions of river hydromorphology at the global scale.

  12. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Wolfram [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Jessica G. [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Mašek, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.masek@ed.ac.uk [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg{sup −1} biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg{sup −1} biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni

  13. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    , and root-to-shoot dry weight ratio (0.45 than native Euphorbia. At the end of year 2, the relative growth rate (RGR of native Euphorbia of 0.15 g·g−1·d−1 was greater than that of Sedum. While the native succulent had a smaller root biomass, its greater RWC and RGR would indicate it had better plant water status and grew faster than the non-native. The lack of differences in plant performance regardless of assignment to monoculture or community would imply that communities and monocultures are equally suitable for arid region green roofs.

  14. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C.; Shepherd, Jessica G.; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg −1 biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg −1 biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni from the

  15. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    chemical composition of the streams. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration and hardness of water observed in major irrigation areas were 507 and 262 parts per million, respectively, for the. Walla Walla River near Touchet, Wash. In terms of the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff classification (1954, p. 80), water in most streams in the basin has low salinity and sodium hazards and is suitable for irrigation. A salt-balance problem does exist in the Hermiston-Stanfield, Oreg., area of the Umatilla River basin, and because of poor drainage, improper irrigation practices could cause salt-balance problems in the Willamette River Valley, Oreg., in which irrigation is rapidly increasing. Pollution by sewage disposal has reached undesirable levels in the Walla Walla River, in the Willamette River from Eugene to Portland, Oreg., and in the Columbia River from Portland to Puget Island. In the lower reaches of the Willamette River, the pollution load from sewage and industrial-waste disposal at times depletes the dissolved oxygen in the water to concentrations below what is considered necessary for aquatic life. Water in most of the tributaries to the lower Columbia River is of excellent quality and after some treatment could be used for industrial and municipal supplies. The principal treatment required would be disinfection and turbidity removal.

  16. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  17. Savannah River Site Bagless Transfer - What Have We Learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional glovebox techniques for handling radioactive material include the use of plastic sleeving for ''bagging out'' material in order to remove it from the glovebox. This method has been used for many years, and has proven very effective when implemented by trained operators. One drawback to this method is that it is not suitable for removal of material for long-term storage, due to radiolytic decomposition of the plastic. In order to comply with long term storage criteria, engineers at the Savannah River Site developed an alternative process for removal of radioactive material known as ''bagless transfer''

  18. Plants of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, I.D.; Finlayson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Published and unpublished lists of plants of the Alligator Rivers Region have been combined into a single, up-to-date check-list. The list has been designed to replace fragmented, regional listings with a single document suitable for use by both professional and amateur botanists. The list is ordered in the taxonomic sequence adopted for the Flora of Australia and includes 1346 species from 165 families. These are 1275 native and 71 alien species listed. Separate lists of rare species are given and discussed

  19. Podnikatelský plán - River Terrace Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Řezníček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Even though it is often forgotten, the meaning of a business plan is of great importance to hospitality facilities and it should be created during an early stage of entrepreneurial activity. I focused on the operation of a 30s-style cabaret bar which is to be built as a part of prospective River Terrace hotel in Smichov, Prague. I analyse procedures that lead to the successful business plan in the theoretical part of my thesis. The practical part of my thesis contains a suitable plan for my c...

  20. Plants of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowie, I D; Finlayson, C M

    1986-01-01

    Published and unpublished lists of plants of the Alligator Rivers Region have been combined into a single, up-to-date check-list. The list has been designed to replace fragmented, regional listings with a single document suitable for use by both professional and amateur botanists. The list is ordered in the taxonomic sequence adopted for the Flora of Australia and includes 1346 species from 165 families. These are 1275 native and 71 alien species listed. Separate lists of rare species are given and discussed.

  1. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  2. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  3. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.1175 - Who issues the suitability determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underutilized will be reviewed for suitability no earlier than six months prior to the expected date when the... following: (1) The suitability determination for a particular piece of property, and the reasons for that...

  5. Less is more: Strategic scale site suitability for concentrated solar thermal power in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Lucas; Schlyter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Thermal Power (CSP) represents a technology with a great deal of promise for low-emissions electricity generation. Several recent studies have identified large swathes of the world’s ‘sunbelt’ as technically suitable for the technology, but current estimates grossly overestimate site suitability for CSP. There is a need for more realistic suitability estimations in order to provide a more accurate basis for policy and investment decisions. This paper establishes a generally applicable GIS-based methodology to better enable identification of CSP-suitable sites at the continental scale. We test the methodology, identifying a large number of CSP suitable sites in Western Australia (WA). Our results indicate a 99.4% reduction from technically suitable areas to areas showing medium-to-very-high suitability in the current and near term in WA. The availability of infrastructure is critical to site suitability and the introduction of new major loads and infrastructure in currently under-developed regions is likely to open up further areas with medium to very high suitability. Despite the fact that current global/continental scale estimates of CSP potentials are likely overestimated by at least two orders of magnitude, truly CSP-suitable areas remain more than sufficient to motivate investment in utility-scale CSP and power potentials from this technology remain enormous. - Highlights: ► 1.78 million km 2 of Western Australia is identified as technically suitable. ► Hypothetical production potential of technically suitable area ≈908,000 TW h/year. ► Only 0.6% of technically suitable areas considered to be medium-very highly suitable. ► Site suitability highly dependent on availability of infrastructure and load. ► Suitable areas still more than sufficient to motivate CSP production.

  6. A habitat suitability model for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, T.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Brink, van den A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The modelled habitat suitability maps show a reasonable estimation of the suitability for oysters throughout the Delta and can be used to broadly indicate the consequences of the effect of climate change and infrastructural changes on the habitat suitability for oysters. The largest effect on the

  7. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  8. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  9. Robotics at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A Robotics Technology Group was organized at the Savannah River Laboratory in August 1982. Many potential applications have been identified that will improve personnel safety, reduce operating costs, and increase productivity using modern robotics and automation. Several active projects are under way to procure robots, to develop unique techniques and systems for the site's processes, and to install the systems in the actual work environments. The projects and development programs are involved in the following general application areas: (1) glove boxes and shielded cell facilities, (2) laboratory chemical processes, (3) fabrication processes for reactor fuel assemblies, (4) sampling processes for separation areas, (5) emergency response in reactor areas, (6) fuel handling in reactor areas, and (7) remote radiation monitoring systems. A Robotics Development Laboratory has been set up for experimental and development work and for demonstration of robotic systems

  10. Assessment of river plan changes in Terengganu River using RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The database can help in the appropriate understanding of river plan change and know ... The data collected from Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) database.

  11. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  12. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  13. Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and channel morphology, and hydrologic regime to define conditions promoting distinct floodplain forest assemblages. Species assemblages were dominated by floodplain-associated trees on surfaces experiencing flood durations between 4.5 and 91 days/year, which were generally well below the stage of the two-year recurrence interval flood, a widely-used benchmark for floodplain restoration. These tree species rarely occurred on surfaces that flooded less than 1 day/year. By contrast abundance of most woody invasive species decreased with flooding. Such flood-prone surfaces were jointly determined by characteristics of the hydrograph (high discharges of long duration and topography (low gradient and reduced valley constraint, resulting in increased availability of floodplain habitat with increasing watershed area and/or decreasing stream gradient. Downstream mainstem reaches provided the most floodplain habitat, largely associated with low-energy features such as back swamps and point bars, and were dominated by silver maple (Acer saccharinum. However, we were able to identify a number of suitable sites in the upper part of the basin and in large tributaries, often associated with in-channel islands and bars and frequently dominated by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis and flood disturbance-dependent species. Our results imply that restoring flows by modifying dam operations to benefit floodplain forests on existing surfaces need not conflict with flood protection in some regional settings. These results underscore the need to understand how flow, geomorphology, and species traits

  14. The identification of suitable areas for afforestation in order to reduce the potential for surface runoff in the upper and middle sectors of Buzãu catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS COSTACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deforestations, besides the global climate change, are the main cause of the intensification of f loods and flash - floods in the latest years. Since surface runoff is the main phenomenon leading to floods or flash - floods, afforestation is necessary, forest coverage being the element that retains most of the water from precipitation. The study area, repr esented by the upper and middle sectors of Buzau River basin, is one of the most affected regions of Romania by torrential phenomena. Also, the study area was chosen due to its considerable deforestation. This paper proposes a methodology created exclusive ly by GIS techniques in order to identify the areas suitable for afforestation. Thus, land cover and slope relief were taken into account when running the GIS model. Database processing and obtaining the final results were possible by implementing a workfl ow in Model Builder from ArcGIS 10.3, which can be later used as a tool for other study areas. The results of the study highlight Balaneasa, Bâsca Chiojdului and Sărăţel river basins, which record the highest shares of areas suitable for afforestation.

  15. Monitoring of fish species in the Lamone river: distribution and morphometric measures of the populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish samplings were carried out monthly from spring to autumn during 2008, on the Lamone river and the Campigno stream by an electrofishing, in order to verify the presence of fish populations and the most common species represented. Barb, Barbus plebejus, Blageon, Leuciscus muticellus, Chub, Leuciscus cephalus, South European Nase, Chondrostoma genei were identified. A small population of Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario was also recognized. Barb is the most represented species in all the sites. The samplings highlight that Lamone river presented conditions suitable to fully guarantee the life of the fish populations.

  16. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  17. Four Common Simplifications of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis do not hold for River Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Simone D; Lienert, Judit

    2016-01-01

    River rehabilitation aims at alleviating negative effects of human impacts such as loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem services. Such interventions entail difficult trade-offs between different ecological and often socio-economic objectives. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a very suitable approach that helps assessing the current ecological state and prioritizing river rehabilitation measures in a standardized way, based on stakeholder or expert preferences. Applications of MCDA in river rehabilitation projects are often simplified, i.e. using a limited number of objectives and indicators, assuming linear value functions, aggregating individual indicator assessments additively, and/or assuming risk neutrality of experts. Here, we demonstrate an implementation of MCDA expert preference assessments to river rehabilitation and provide ample material for other applications. To test whether the above simplifications reflect common expert opinion, we carried out very detailed interviews with five river ecologists and a hydraulic engineer. We defined essential objectives and measurable quality indicators (attributes), elicited the experts´ preferences for objectives on a standardized scale (value functions) and their risk attitude, and identified suitable aggregation methods. The experts recommended an extensive objectives hierarchy including between 54 and 93 essential objectives and between 37 to 61 essential attributes. For 81% of these, they defined non-linear value functions and in 76% recommended multiplicative aggregation. The experts were risk averse or risk prone (but never risk neutral), depending on the current ecological state of the river, and the experts´ personal importance of objectives. We conclude that the four commonly applied simplifications clearly do not reflect the opinion of river rehabilitation experts. The optimal level of model complexity, however, remains highly case-study specific depending on data and resource

  18. Spatio temporal population dynamics of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, V; Molina, X; Bothwell, M; Muñoz, P; Carrevedo, M L; Salinas, F; Kumar, S; Castillo, M L; Bizama, G; Bustamante, R O

    2016-10-15

    We document the distribution of Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers and identify the chemical and physical factors associated with its presence/absence (p/a). Repeated surveys in five successive years provided evidence that D. geminata could be nearing a biogeographic equilibrium in the region. D. geminata databases from extensive biological and environmental surveys in 187 rivers, within ten catchments, south of 38°S commenced in November 2010 and ran through May 2013. In addition, data from two other field surveys were used. The sites evenly distributed latitudinally were climatically characterized. The recent sampling program, following a published species distribution model, was designed to explore D. geminata distribution within thirteen catchments (34°S-48°S). An extensive river survey in 2014 (spring-summer) and in 2015 (autumn) included the p/a, and relative abundance of D. geminata cells in phytobenthos and in the drift. These p/a results showed that the probability of re-encountering D. geminata cells at sites where the species was previously found was significantly high while the probability of finding D. geminata cells at sites previously without the species was significantly low. This suggests that the distribution of D. geminata cells among suitable habitats was nearing completion. The relative abundance of D. geminata cells in the phytobenthos versus in the drift indicates seasonality with higher proportion of cells in the phytobenthos during the spring-summer than during the autumn. During the final surveys, principal component analysis of chemical and physical characteristics of rivers showed significant differences between rivers with and without D. geminata. Based on our observations of the distribution of D. geminata cells among rivers with suitable habitat conditions and the fluctuating rate of spread between rivers, we conclude that D. geminata is probably in the ending stage of its spatial demographic expansion in

  19. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    . Finally, for the first time, the suitability of intercalating dye pre-treatment for the estimation of the quality of the water produced by treatment plants was demonstrated using samples from four drinking-water plants and two rivers. Although 55% (27/49) of drinking water samples were positive for enteric viruses using molecular detection, none of the samples were positive when the intercalating dye pre-treatment method was used. This could indicate that the viruses that were detected are not infectious. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  1. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... go adrift. Immediately after completion of the emergency mooring, the lockmaster of the first lock... of approach to unattended, normally open automatic, movable span bridges, the factor of river flow...

  2. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  3. Missouri River, Natural Resources Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    1971. Thermal study of the 366. CUNDAY TW, BROOKS KN. 1981. Calibrating Missouri River in North Dakota using infrared and verifying the SSARR model...in North and South 1612. SCHUELER RL, SULLIVAN JK. 1967. Quantifying Dakota using NOAA-5 infrared data. In: current and potential commercial fishery...use survey, 1984. South Dakota River. Journal of the Waterways Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Pierre, 101( WW2 ):119-33. SD. Interim report. South

  4. Continuum Model for River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of erosion, avalanching, and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modeling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) modelling as an exploratory tool for assessing passability of riverine migratory challenge zones for fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Chelminski, Michael; Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed two-dimensional computational fluid hydraulics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) models to identify and qualitatively assess potential zones of shallow water depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five major anadromous fish species in a 2.63-km reach of the main stem Penobscot River, Maine, as a result of a dam removal downstream of the reach. Suitability parameters were based on distribution of fish lengths and body depths and transformed to cruising, maximum sustained and sprint swimming speeds. Zones of potential depth and velocity challenges were calculated based on the hydraulic models; ability of fish to pass a challenge zone was based on the percent of river channel that the contiguous zone spanned and its maximum along-current length. Three river flows (low: 99.1 m3 sec-1; normal: 344.9 m3 sec-1; and high: 792.9 m3 sec-1) were modelled to simulate existing hydraulic conditions and hydraulic conditions simulating removal of a dam at the downstream boundary of the reach. Potential depth challenge zones were nonexistent for all low-flow simulations of existing conditions for deeper-bodied fishes. Increasing flows for existing conditions and removal of the dam under all flow conditions increased the number and size of potential velocity challenge zones, with the effects of zones being more pronounced for smaller species. The two-dimensional CFD-HSI model has utility in demonstrating gross effects of flow and hydraulic alteration, but may not be as precise a predictive tool as a three-dimensional model. Passability of the potential challenge zones cannot be precisely quantified for two-dimensional or three-dimensional models due to untested assumptions and incomplete data on fish swimming performance and behaviours.

  6. Process and device for determining the effect of river water heating by waste heat on its temperature characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, L.; Kauer, H.; Lautersack, K.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed to use measurements for determining the effect of heating river water by introducing waste heat from industrial plants or power-stations, instead of deriving the effect from calculations. A suitable method of measurement is proposed and discussed. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 CKA [de

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  8. 75 FR 54378 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan; Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... systems to prevent degradation of water quality and scenic resources. Given drastic changes in flood... frequency of flooding at some sites, while decreasing erosion rates at others. Integrated management actions... infrastructure and protection of resources. Management of large wood and proliferation of bank protection...

  9. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  10. Ecology of ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera (insecta) in rivers of the gunung jerai forest reserve: diversity and distribution of functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-08-01

    A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.

  11. 基于改进AHP的旅游环境承载力评价研究--以鼓浪屿景区为例%Assessment of Tourist Environment Carrying Capacity Based on Improved AHP:a Case Study of Gulangyu Island Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志涛; 曾繁英

    2017-01-01

    Tourist environment carrying capacity must be confirmed for protecting the ecological environment, realizing a sustainable de-velopment of sightseeing districts, managing tourist activities in scenic spots effectively, and regulating the development and utilization of tourism resources. The environment carrying capacity data of Gulangyu island on weekdays and holidays is analyzed with improved AHP by establishing an index system for assessing the environmental carrying capacity, combining the natural ecology, social psychology and e-conomic environment carrying capacity. The analysis finds out that the scenic spot should enhance the management of long-term over ca-pacity of tourists, the improvement of the atmosphere purifying capacity, pollutant disposal processing capacity, and the restrictive factors of the psychological bearing capacity of tourists. By doing so, the tourist environment carrying capacity could be promoted with tourist number controlled at an acceptable level, facilitating the sustainable development of Gulangyu island.%为了实现旅游地的生态环境保护及可持续发展目标,有效管理景区游客活动和调控旅游资源的开发利用,必须确定景区的旅游资源环境承载力。通过构建兼顾自然生态环境承载力、社会心理承载力和经济环境承载力三个维度的环境承载力评价指标体系,运用改进的层次分析模型,对景区旅游环境承载力进行量化测算和评价,分析鼓浪屿景区在工作日和节假日的旅游环境承载力数据结果,鼓浪屿景区的可持续发展既需要根据景区旅游环境承载力对当前的长期游客过载现象加强治理,也需要重视大气净化能力、污染物处理能力、游客心理承载力限制性要素的改善以提高景区自身的旅游环境承载力,把景区的旅游数量控制在可接受范围内,推动鼓浪屿景区的持续发展。

  12. A Rejang River rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Li Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old Iban woman presented to a rural primary healthcare clinic located along the Batang Rejang in Sarawak. She had a 2-day history of rash, which started over her trunk and later spread to her face and limbs. What started out as individual erythematous maculopapular spots later coalesced to form larger raised blotches. The rash was extremely pruritic and affected her sleep, and hence her visit. The rash was preceded by high grade, persistent fever that was temporarily relieved by paracetamol. She also complained of malaise, arthralgia and myalgia. Her appetite had been poor since the onset of the fever. She lived in a long house at the edge of the jungle. Although she did not have a history of going into the jungle to forage, she went regularly to the river to wash clothes. Clinically, she appeared lethargic and had bilateral conjunctival injection. Her left anterior cervical lymph nodes were palpable. There were erythematous macules measuring 5 to 15 mm distributed over her whole body but predominantly over the chest and abdominal region (Figure 1. An unusual skin lesion was discovered at the right hypochondriac region. This lesion resembled a cigarette burn with a necrotic centre (Figure 2. There was no evidence of hepato-splenomegaly. Examination of the other systems was unremarkable. On further questioning, the patient admitted being bitten by a ‘kutu babi’ or mite 3 days before the onset of her fever.

  13. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  14. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  15. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  16. Synthetic river flow time series generator for dispatch and spot price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Decision-making in electricity markets is complicated by uncertainties in demand growth, power supplies and fuel prices. In Peru, where the electrical power system is highly dependent on water resources at dams and river flows, hydrological uncertainties play a primary role in planning, price and dispatch forecast. This paper proposed a signal processing method for generating new synthetic river flow time series as a support for planning and spot market price forecasting. River flow time series are natural phenomena representing a continuous-time domain process. As an alternative synthetic representation of the original river flow time series, this proposed signal processing method preserves correlations, basic statistics and seasonality. It takes into account deterministic, periodic and non periodic components such as those due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The new synthetic time series has many correlations with the original river flow time series, rendering it suitable for possible replacement of the classical method of sorting historical river flow time series. As a dispatch and planning approach to spot pricing, the proposed method offers higher accuracy modeling by decomposing the signal into deterministic, periodic, non periodic and stochastic sub signals. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Influence of the Three Gorges Project on saltwater intrusion in the Yangtze River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiang; Wu, Yanqing; Taylor, Shauna; Zhao, Bin

    2009-02-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is a transcentury project that has aroused world attention. It is expected that the flow velocity and runoff of the Yangtze River will be changed after the project has been accomplished. Consequently, however, the ecological environment in the Yangtze River Basin, particularly in the estuary region, will be affected. Salinity intrusion into the Yangtze River estuary, in general, is mostly affected by the Yangtze River discharge and its external tidal level. This paper focuses on examining the influence of changes in runoff on salinity value. The question, to which should be paid attention is: how is the interaction between changes in runoff of the Yangtze River and salinity distribution in the Yangtze River estuary, China? In this research, a three-dimensional model has been used to identify the effects of runoff change on salinity distribution. The drawn conclusion is that the change of salinity is influenced by discharge variation. Positive and negative impacts of TGP would both turn up but in different period. In sum, TGP is in favor of restraining saltwater intrusion. Nevertheless a suitable method should be found to resolve its negative influences.

  18. Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proia, Lorenzo; Schiller, Daniel von; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Sabater, Sergi; Borrego, Carles M.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and their subsequent release into the environment may have direct consequences for autochthonous bacterial communities, especially in freshwater ecosystems. In small streams and rivers, local inputs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may become important sources of organic matter, nutrients and emerging pollutants, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the effect of WWTP effluents as a source of ARGs in river biofilms. The prevalence of genes conferring resistance to main antibiotic families, such as beta-lactams (bla_C_T_X_-_M), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), sulfonamides (sul I), and macrolides (ermB), was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in biofilm samples collected upstream and downstream WWTPs discharge points in four low-order streams. Our results showed that the WWTP effluents strongly modified the hydrology, physico-chemistry and biological characteristics of the receiving streams and favoured the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance in microbial benthic communities. It was also shown that the magnitude of effects depended on the relative contribution of each WWTP to the receiving system. Specifically, low concentrations of ARGs were detected at sites located upstream of the WWTPs, while a significant increase of their concentrations was observed in biofilms collected downstream of the WWTP discharge points (particularly ermB and sul I genes). These findings suggest that WWTP discharges may favour the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance among streambed biofilms. The present study also showed that the presence of ARGs in biofilms was noticeable far downstream of the WWTP discharge (up to 1 km). It is therefore reasonable to assume that biofilms may represent an ideal setting for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants and thus be considered suitable biological indicators of anthropogenic pollution by active

  19. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzyslaw Poleszczuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream. The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments.

  20. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  2. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  3. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  4. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  5. A study of the management strategies for river aeolian dust inhibition at the estuary of Zhuo-shui River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S. F.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    With the characteristics of humidity in summer and drought in winter, there existing lots of bare lands due to the decline of water level cause large amounts of aeolian dust and environmental deterioration during the monsoon seasons in central Taiwan. How to adopt effective measures to inhibit the damage of dust is an essential issue. This study selected the serious dust-affected section of Zhuo-shui river (bridge Zi-qiang to Xi-bin) to delineate the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence, explore the relationship between elevation and water level determined from return period analysis, submit the countermeasures for dust inhibition at the bare lands and/or cultivated areas, and address the responsibilities of related authority offices for dust prevention by means of literature review. The return period of inundation for the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence is 1.1 years. Engineering of dust prevention with highly unit price are not recommended due to could be destroyed annually. The deposition sites of a river are usually located at the convex bank, which with silt texture and high salinity are not suitable for cultivation, are delineated as the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence. Besides technology consideration in dust prevention, this study also examined the related articles of river management to integrate a comprehensive vision for better riverside environment and air quality.

  6. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kail

    Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact

  7. 78 FR 61851 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... COO-16888 Jeffries Plant SC Serv. Authority Cooper River Wake NC 27589 Landholding Agency: COE... Ave. St. George Island FL 32328 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201310041 Status...

  8. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  9. Research on the water environment capacity of Qingyi River (Xuchang Section) with GIS technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Li; Yu Luji; Liu Chunxiao; Sun Nan; Feng Minquan

    2017-01-01

    Water environment capacity calculation is the foundation of basin environment management. Due to lack of basic materials and data, the water environment capacity in small basin was not massively researched with appropriate calculating method. This paper mentioned a water capacity calculating method suitable for environment management. The method was based on the study of Xuchang Section of Qingyi River and described with details as follows: Xuchang Section was divided into four control units ...

  10. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  11. Are hybrids between Atlantic salmon and brown trout suitable long-term hosts of Gyrodactylus salaris during winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, R; Henriksen, E H; Gjelland, K Ø; Hansen, H; Hendrichsen, D K; Kristoffersen, R; Olstad, K

    2017-10-01

    The monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris poses serious threats to many Atlantic salmon populations and presents many conservation and management questions/foci and challenges. It is therefore critical to identify potential vectors for infection. To test whether hybrids of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) × brown trout (Salmo trutta) are suitable as reservoir hosts for G. salaris during winter, infected hybrid parr were released into a natural subarctic brook in the autumn. Six months later, 23.9% of the pit-tagged fish were recaptured. During the experimental period, the hybrids had a sixfold increase in mean intensity of G. salaris, while the prevalence decreased from 81% to 35%. There was high interindividual hybrid variability in susceptibility to infections. The maximum infrapopulation growth rate (0.018 day -1 ) of G. salaris throughout the winter was comparable to earlier laboratory experiments at similar temperatures. The results confirm that infrapopulations of G. salaris may reproduce on a hybrid population for several generations at low water temperatures (~1 °C). Wild salmon-trout hybrids are undoubtedly susceptible to G. salaris and represent an important reservoir host for the parasite independent of other co-occurring susceptible hosts. Consequently, these hybrids may pose a serious risk for G. salaris transmission to nearby, uninfected rivers by migratory individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hydro-power production and fish habitat suitability: Assessing impact and effectiveness of ecological flows at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Ventura, Matteo; Galeati, Giorgio; Montanari, Alberto; Castellarin, Attilio

    2018-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers may be of major concern for fluvial ecosystems, e.g. abstraction and impoundment of surface water resources may profoundly alter natural streamflow regimes. An established approach aimed at preserving the behavior and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of ecological flows (e-flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. E-flow prescriptions are usually set by basin authorities at regional scale, often without a proper assessment of their impact and effectiveness. On the contrary, we argue that e-flows should be identified on the basis of (i) regional and (ii) quantitative assessments. We focus on central Italy and evaluate the effects on habitat suitability of two near-threatened fish species (i.e. Barbel and Chub) and an existing hydro-power network when shifting from the current time-invariant e-flow policy to a tighter and seasonally-varying soon-to-be-enforced one. Our example clearly shows that: (a) quantitative regional scale assessments are viable even when streamflow observations are entirely missing at study sites; (b) aprioristic e-flows policies may impose releases that exceed natural streamflows for significantly long time intervals (weeks, or months); (c) unduly tightening e-flow policies may heavily impact regional hydro-power productivity (15% and 42% losses on annual and seasonal basis, respectively), yet resulting in either marginal or negligible improvements of fluvial ecosystem.

  13. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  14. Developing a Model to Assess the Potential Impact of TUM Hydropower Turbines on Small River Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower is a renewable energy technology that is used for electricity generation worldwide, but still has potential for further development. However, during the installation of small hydropower, the ecological impacts of the power plants need to be thoroughly investigated. In addressing the challenges of energy production and minimizing the environmental impacts of small hydropower installation and operation, this study has applied an ecohydraulic model to investigate river hydrodynamics, hydromorphology, habitat, and the population impacts of small hydropower, and presented the Mum River as a case study. Two scenarios were implemented in this research to simulate the hydrodynamic, sedimentation, habitat, and population status in order to assess the potential effects caused by the TUM plant. At the Mum River, two scenarios were proposed: the TUM plant was not considered in scenario S1, but was considered in scenario S2. The model results for scenario S2 indicated that the habitat was suitable for fish species living in the Mum River, with fish population numbers between 4.6 × 103 and 6.6 × 103. The S2 results indicated that the impacts of the TUM plant were negligible when compared with S1. Although the impact of the TUM plant on the Mum River is relatively large when the discharge is high (19 m3/s, calculations based on stable flow shows that the TUM plant could function well on the river ecosystem when the discharge is low or at normal rates. Therefore, this study shows that the TUM plant would be a good option to meet the needs of energy generation whilst having a minimal impact on river habitats and changes in fish species population in similar small rivers and streams.

  15. The River Danube: An Examination of Navigation on the River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. W.

    One of the definitions of Navigation that gets little attention in this Institute is (Oxford English Dictionary), and which our French friends call La Navigation. I have always found this subject fascinating, and have previously navigated the Rivers Mekong, Irrawaddy, Hooghly, Indus, Shatt-al-Arab, Savannah and RhMainKanal (RMDK) and the River Danube, a distance of approximately 4000 km. This voyage has only recently become possible with the opening of the connecting RMDK at the end of 1992, but has been made little use of because of the civil war in the former Yugoslavia.

  16. Calculation of the Instream Ecological Flow of the Wei River Based on Hydrological Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great significance for the watershed management department to reasonably allocate water resources and ensure the sustainable development of river ecosystems. The greatly important issue is to accurately calculate instream ecological flow. In order to precisely compute instream ecological flow, flow variation is taken into account in this study. Moreover, the heuristic segmentation algorithm that is suitable to detect the mutation points of flow series is employed to identify the change points. Besides, based on the law of tolerance and ecological adaptation theory, the maximum instream ecological flow is calculated, which is the highest frequency of the monthly flow based on the GEV distribution and very suitable for healthy development of the river ecosystems. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the sustainable development of river ecosystems under some bad circumstances, minimum instream ecological flow is calculated by a modified Tennant method which is improved by replacing the average flow with the highest frequency of flow. Since the modified Tennant method is more suitable to reflect the law of flow, it has physical significance, and the calculation results are more reasonable.

  17. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  19. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  20. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...