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Sample records for scene complexity influence

  1. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

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    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

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    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  3. Bidirectional Spectral Reflectance of Earth Resources: Influence of Scene Complexity and Atmospheric Effects on Remote Sensing

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    Diner, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Practical methods for remote sensing when scene complexity and atmospheric effects modify intrinsic reflective properties are developed. The radiation history from ground to space of light reflected from individual leaves is initially multiply scattered within the crop canopy, whose geometry provides a controlling influence, then scattered and attenuated as a result of transmission through the Earth's atmosphere. The experimental and theoretical tools for studying these effects quantitatively are under development. A new radiative transfer code which uses Fourier transforms to solve the 3-D equation of transfer was developed. The initial version permits inhomogeneous non-Lambertian surfaces but assumes horizontal uniformity for the atmosphere. The computational results are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. Laboratory apparatus to study the variation of spectral reflectance of individual leaves as a function of illumination incidence angle and reflection angle was used. These data can then be used in models to determine canopy scattering effects. Stress tests by observing leaf reflectance at 0.9 microns as a function of time following clipping from the stem was performed. A reflectance increase due to loss of water has been observed.

  4. Looking to score: the dissociation of goal influence on eye movement and meta-attentional allocation in a complex dynamic natural scene.

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    Shuichiro Taya

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that task instructions influence eye-movement behavior during static image observation. In contrast, during dynamic scene observation we show that while the specificity of the goal of a task influences observers' beliefs about where they look, the goal does not in turn influence eye-movement patterns. In our study observers watched short video clips of a single tennis match and were asked to make subjective judgments about the allocation of visual attention to the items presented in the clip (e.g., ball, players, court lines, and umpire. However, before attending to the clips, observers were either told to simply watch clips (non-specific goal, or they were told to watch the clips with a view to judging which of the two tennis players was awarded the point (specific goal. The results of subjective reports suggest that observers believed that they allocated their attention more to goal-related items (e.g. court lines if they performed the goal-specific task. However, we did not find the effect of goal specificity on major eye-movement parameters (i.e., saccadic amplitudes, inter-saccadic intervals, and gaze coherence. We conclude that the specificity of a task goal can alter observer's beliefs about their attention allocation strategy, but such task-driven meta-attentional modulation does not necessarily correlate with eye-movement behavior.

  5. Experiencing simultanagnosia through windowed viewing of complex social scenes.

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    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Birmingham, Elina; Bischof, Walter F; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan

    2011-01-07

    Simultanagnosia is a disorder of visual attention, defined as an inability to see more than one object at once. It has been conceived as being due to a constriction of the visual "window" of attention, a metaphor that we examine in the present article. A simultanagnosic patient (SL) and two non-simultanagnosic control patients (KC and ES) described social scenes while their eye movements were monitored. These data were compared to a group of healthy subjects who described the same scenes under the same conditions as the patients, or through an aperture that restricted their vision to a small portion of the scene. Experiment 1 demonstrated that SL showed unusually low proportions of fixations to the eyes in social scenes, which contrasted with all other participants who demonstrated the standard preferential bias toward eyes. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when healthy participants viewed scenes through a window that was contingent on where they looked (Experiment 2) or where they moved a computer mouse (Experiment 3), their behavior closely mirrored that of patient SL. These findings suggest that a constricted window of visual processing has important consequences for how simultanagnosic patients explore their world. Our paradigm's capacity to mimic simultanagnosic behaviors while viewing complex scenes implies that it may be a valid way of modeling simultanagnosia in healthy individuals, providing a useful tool for future research. More broadly, our results support the thesis that people fixate the eyes in social scenes because they are informative to the meaning of the scene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Factors Influencing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Crime Scene Investigators].

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    Nho, Seon Mi; Kim, Eun A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the relationships among social support, resilience and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and especially to identify factors influencing PTSD in police crime scene investigators. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 226 police crime scene investigators from 7 Metropolitan Police Agencies. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires during July and August, 2015. Data were analyzed using t-test, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS/WIN 21.0 program. The mean score for PTSD in police crime scene investigators was 13.69. 11 points. Of the crime scene investigators 181 (80.1%) were in the low-risk group and 45 (19.9%) in high-risk group. Social support (t=5.68, pcrime scene investigators, intervention programs including social support and strategies to increase should be established.

  7. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

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    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  8. -The Influence of Scene Context on Parafoveal Processing of Objects.

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    Castelhano, Monica S; Pereira, Effie J

    2017-04-21

    Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away. The preview object could be identical to the target, visually similar, visually dissimilar, or a control (black rectangle). The preview changed to the target object once a saccade toward the object was made. Critically, the objects were presented on either a consistent or an inconsistent scene background. Results revealed that there was a greater processing benefit for consistent than inconsistent scene backgrounds and that identical and visually similar previews produced greater processing benefits than other previews. In the second experiment, we added an additional context condition in which the target location was inconsistent, but the scene semantics remained consistent. We found that changing the location of the target object disrupted the processing benefit derived from the consistent context. Most importantly, across both experiments, the effect of preview was not enhanced by scene context. Thus, preview information and scene context appear to independently boost the parafoveal processing of objects without any interaction from object-scene congruency.

  9. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

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    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. A corticothalamic circuit model for sound identification in complex scenes.

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    Gonzalo H Otazu

    Full Text Available The identification of the sound sources present in the environment is essential for the survival of many animals. However, these sounds are not presented in isolation, as natural scenes consist of a superposition of sounds originating from multiple sources. The identification of a source under these circumstances is a complex computational problem that is readily solved by most animals. We present a model of the thalamocortical circuit that performs level-invariant recognition of auditory objects in complex auditory scenes. The circuit identifies the objects present from a large dictionary of possible elements and operates reliably for real sound signals with multiple concurrently active sources. The key model assumption is that the activities of some cortical neurons encode the difference between the observed signal and an internal estimate. Reanalysis of awake auditory cortex recordings revealed neurons with patterns of activity corresponding to such an error signal.

  11. Viewing Complex, Dynamic Scenes "Through the Eyes" of Another Person: The Gaze-Replay Paradigm.

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    Bush, Jennifer Choe; Pantelis, Peter Christopher; Morin Duchesne, Xavier; Kagemann, Sebastian Alexander; Kennedy, Daniel Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel "Gaze-Replay" paradigm that allows the experimenter to directly test how particular patterns of visual input-generated from people's actual gaze patterns-influence the interpretation of the visual scene. Although this paradigm can potentially be applied across domains, here we applied it specifically to social comprehension. Participants viewed complex, dynamic scenes through a small window displaying only the foveal gaze pattern of a gaze "donor." This was intended to simulate the donor's visual selection, such that a participant could effectively view scenes "through the eyes" of another person. Throughout the presentation of scenes presented in this manner, participants completed a social comprehension task, assessing their abilities to recognize complex emotions. The primary aim of the study was to assess the viability of this novel approach by examining whether these Gaze-Replay windowed stimuli contain sufficient and meaningful social information for the viewer to complete this social perceptual and cognitive task. The results of the study suggested this to be the case; participants performed better in the Gaze-Replay condition compared to a temporally disrupted control condition, and compared to when they were provided with no visual input. This approach has great future potential for the exploration of experimental questions aiming to unpack the relationship between visual selection, perception, and cognition.

  12. An effective method of locating lisence plate in complex scenes

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    Ling, Jianing; Xie, Mei

    2013-03-01

    License plate recognition system(LPRS) is one of the most important parts of the intelligent transportation system(ITS),and the license plate location is the most important step of the LPRS,it derectly affects the performance of the character segmentation and recognition afterward.In this paper,an effective algorithm of lisence plate location is proposed.In this method,Firstly we obtain high frequency coefficient through 1-D discrete wavelet transform. Then we process the image with median filter, binarization and morphology operation.Finally,we label and record the connected regions. Then we can locate the candidate license plates according to the region information. Experiment proved that our method performs well in the long range and complex scenes,and performs well on robustness.

  13. Influence of a psychological perspective on scene viewing and memory for scenes.

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    Kaakinen, Johanna K; Hyönä, Jukka; Viljanen, Minna

    2011-07-01

    In the study, 33 participants viewed photographs from either a potential homebuyer's or a burglar's perspective, or in preparation for a memory test, while their eye movements were recorded. A free recall and a picture recognition task were performed after viewing. The results showed that perspective had rapid effects, in that the second fixation after the scene onset was more likely to land on perspective-relevant than on perspective-irrelevant areas within the scene. Perspective-relevant areas also attracted longer total fixation time, more visits, and longer first-pass dwell times than did perspective-irrelevant areas. As for the effects of visual saliency, the first fixation was more likely to land on a salient than on a nonsalient area; salient areas also attracted more visits and longer total fixation time than did nonsalient areas. Recall and recognition performance reflected the eye fixation results: Both were overall higher for perspective-relevant than for perspective-irrelevant scene objects. The relatively low error rates in the recognition task suggest that participants had gained an accurate memory for scene objects. The findings suggest that the role of bottom-up versus top-down factors varies as a function of viewing task and the time-course of scene processing. © 2011 The Experimental Psychology Society

  14. The Influence of Color on the Perception of Scene Gist

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    Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…

  15. Hierarchical Model for the Similarity Measurement of a Complex Holed-Region Entity Scene

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    Zhanlong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex multi-holed-region entity scenes (i.e., sets of random region with holes are common in spatial database systems, spatial query languages, and the Geographic Information System (GIS. A multi-holed-region (region with an arbitrary number of holes is an abstraction of the real world that primarily represents geographic objects that have more than one interior boundary, such as areas that contain several lakes or lakes that contain islands. When the similarity of the two complex holed-region entity scenes is measured, the number of regions in the scenes and the number of holes in the regions are usually different between the two scenes, which complicates the matching relationships of holed-regions and holes. The aim of this research is to develop several holed-region similarity metrics and propose a hierarchical model to measure comprehensively the similarity between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The procedure first divides a complex entity scene into three layers: a complex scene, a micro-spatial-scene, and a simple entity (hole. The relationships between the adjacent layers are considered to be sets of relationships, and each level of similarity measurements is nested with the adjacent one. Next, entity matching is performed from top to bottom, while the similarity results are calculated from local to global. In addition, we utilize position graphs to describe the distribution of the holed-regions and subsequently describe the directions between the holes using a feature matrix. A case study that uses the Great Lakes in North America in 1986 and 2015 as experimental data illustrates the entire similarity measurement process between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The experimental results show that the hierarchical model accounts for the relationships of the different layers in the entire complex holed-region entity scene. The model can effectively calculate the similarity of complex holed-region entity scenes, even if the

  16. Inferring mass in complex scenes by mental simulation.

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    Hamrick, Jessica B; Battaglia, Peter W; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2016-12-01

    After observing a collision between two boxes, you can immediately tell which is empty and which is full of books based on how the boxes moved. People form rich perceptions about the physical properties of objects from their interactions, an ability that plays a crucial role in learning about the physical world through our experiences. Here, we present three experiments that demonstrate people's capacity to reason about the relative masses of objects in naturalistic 3D scenes. We find that people make accurate inferences, and that they continue to fine-tune their beliefs over time. To explain our results, we propose a cognitive model that combines Bayesian inference with approximate knowledge of Newtonian physics by estimating probabilities from noisy physical simulations. We find that this model accurately predicts judgments from our experiments, suggesting that the same simulation mechanism underlies both peoples' predictions and inferences about the physical world around them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

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    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  18. Design and fabrication progress in BAe's high-complexity resistor-array IR scene projector devices

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    Pritchard, Alan P.; Balmond, Mark D.; Lake, Stephen P.; Gough, David W.; Venables, Mark A.; Sturland, Ian M.; Hebbron, Michael C.; Brimecombe, Lucy A.

    1998-07-01

    Developments are described in the design and manufacture of full 512 X 512 infra-red scene projector (IRSP) systems, as well as in a high complexity demonstrator program to realize 1024 X 1024 complexity. Design aspects include choice of drive circuit, the suspended resistor pixel design factors, the choice of busbar configurations, and the optimization of emissivity coatings. Design of the peripheral drive systems for the 512 system is outlined, and progress on manufacture reported. Development plans for the provision of suitable high complexity computer scene generation is outlined.

  19. The Influence of Content Meaningfulness on Eye Movements across Tasks: Evidence from Scene Viewing and Reading

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    Steven G Luke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of content meaningfulness on eye-movement control in reading and scene viewing. Texts and scenes were manipulated to make them uninterpretable, and then eye-movements in reading and scene-viewing were compared to those in pseudo-reading and pseudo-scene viewing. Fixation durations and saccade amplitudes were greater for pseudo-stimuli. The effect of the removal of meaning was seen exclusively in the tail of the fixation duration distribution in both tasks, and the size of this effect was the same across tasks. These findings suggest that eye movements are controlled by a common mechanism in reading and scene viewing. They also indicate that not all eye movements are responsive to the meaningfulness of stimulus content. Implications for models of eye movement control are discussed.

  20. Temporal and spatial neural dynamics in the perception of basic emotions from complex scenes

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    Costa, T.; Cauda, F.; Crini, M.; Tatu, M.K.; Celeghin, A.; de Gelder, B.; Tamietto, M.

    2014-01-01

    The different temporal dynamics of emotions are critical to understand their evolutionary role in the regulation of interactions with the surrounding environment. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying the perception of four basic emotions from complex scenes varying in valence and

  1. Autonomous Recognition System for Barcode Detection in Complex Scenes

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    Chen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear barcode technology has been widely used in our common life, such as in logistics, retailed products and many other applications. Many researches and smart applications focus on how to decode the barcode so that it is difficult to locate precisely when the background becomes very complex. Moreover, many smart apps need human interaction to make sure the detected region is in a correct position of the screen. This paper presents an effective approach to locate the barcodes in real-time without manual disturbing. Basic morphological operations and Parallel Line Segment Detector (P-LSD are applied to achieve the legal block of barcodes. Our method has been evaluated by a standard database and the experimental results show that our approach is more robuster than other earlier methods.

  2. Salient object changes influence overt attentional prioritization and object-based targeting in natural scenes.

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    Anderson, Nicola C; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations.

  3. Salient object changes influence overt attentional prioritization and object-based targeting in natural scenes

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    Anderson, Nicola C.; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations. PMID:28222190

  4. Effect of background scene complexity and field dependence on the legibility of head-up displays for automotive applications.

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    Ward, N J; Parkes, A; Crone, P R

    1995-12-01

    This study examined the legibility of information presented on head-up displays (HUDs) for automotive application as a function of background scene complexity, the position of the HUD within field of view relative to the background scene, and the perceptual capacity of the perceiver. Groups of field-dependent and field-independent subjects viewed video footage from the perspective of following a lead car on an open road with low, moderate, and high scene complexity. Subjects were required to track the lead vehicle and identify HUD-presented targets of a specified orientation and specified changes in a HUD-presented speedometer. The results indicate that (a) HUD legibility deteriorated with increased visual complexity of the background scene; (b) positioning the HUD on the roadway reduced the effect of background scene complexity on HUD legibility; and (c) field-dependent subjects made fewer correct and more false positive target identifications than did field-independent subjects.

  5. Brief Report: How Adolescents with ASD Process Social Information in Complex Scenes. Combining Evidence from Eye Movements and Verbal Descriptions

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    Freeth, Megan; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Loher, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attention, encoding and processing of social aspects of complex photographic scenes. Twenty-four high-functioning adolescents (aged 11-16) with ASD and 24 typically developing matched control participants viewed and then described a series of scenes, each containing a person. Analyses of eye movements and verbal descriptions…

  6. Attention Switching during Scene Perception: How Goals Influence the Time Course of Eye Movements across Advertisements

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    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…

  7. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

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    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real

  8. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

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    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Long-term memories bias sensitivity and target selection in complex scenes.

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    Patai, Eva Zita; Doallo, Sonia; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2012-12-01

    In everyday situations, we often rely on our memories to find what we are looking for in our cluttered environment. Recently, we developed a new experimental paradigm to investigate how long-term memory (LTM) can guide attention and showed how the pre-exposure to a complex scene in which a target location had been learned facilitated the detection of the transient appearance of the target at the remembered location [Summerfield, J. J., Rao, A., Garside, N., & Nobre, A. C. Biasing perception by spatial long-term memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 14952-14960, 2011; Summerfield, J. J., Lepsien, J., Gitelman, D. R., Mesulam, M. M., & Nobre, A. C. Orienting attention based on long-term memory experience. Neuron, 49, 905-916, 2006]. This study extends these findings by investigating whether and how LTM can enhance perceptual sensitivity to identify targets occurring within their complex scene context. Behavioral measures showed superior perceptual sensitivity (d') for targets located in remembered spatial contexts. We used the N2pc ERP to test whether LTM modulated the process of selecting the target from its scene context. Surprisingly, in contrast to effects of visual spatial cues or implicit contextual cueing, LTM for target locations significantly attenuated the N2pc potential. We propose that the mechanism by which these explicitly available LTMs facilitate perceptual identification of targets may differ from mechanisms triggered by other types of top-down sources of information.

  10. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

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    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  11. Eye Movement Sequences during Simple versus Complex Information Processing of Scenes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena K. Au-Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minshew and Goldstein (1998 postulated that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a disorder of complex information processing. The current study was designed to investigate this hypothesis. Participants with and without ASD completed two scene perception tasks: a simple “spot the difference” task, where they had to say which one of a pair of pictures had a detail missing, and a complex “which one's weird” task, where they had to decide which one of a pair of pictures looks “weird”. Participants with ASD did not differ from TD participants in their ability to accurately identify the target picture in both tasks. However, analysis of the eye movement sequences showed that participants with ASD viewed scenes differently from normal controls exclusively for the complex task. This difference in eye movement patterns, and the method used to examine different patterns, adds to the knowledge base regarding eye movements and ASD. Our results are in accordance with Minshew and Goldstein's theory that complex, but not simple, information processing is impaired in ASD.

  12. Cross-cultural differences in item and background memory: examining the influence of emotional intensity and scene congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Sturkie, Charlee M; Rochester, Nina M; Liu, Xiaodong; Gutchess, Angela H

    2017-11-25

    After viewing a scene, individuals differ in what they prioritise and remember. Culture may be one factor that influences scene memory, as Westerners have been shown to be more item-focused than Easterners (see Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922-934). However, cultures may differ in their sensitivity to scene incongruences and emotion processing, which may account for cross-cultural differences in scene memory. The current study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine scene memory while controlling for scene congruency and the perceived emotional intensity of the images. American and East Asian participants encoded pictures that included a positive, negative, or neutral item placed on a neutral background. After a 20-min delay, participants were shown the item and background separately along with similar and new items and backgrounds to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that even when congruency and emotional intensity were controlled, there was evidence that Americans had better item memory than East Asians. Incongruent scenes were better remembered than congruent scenes. However, this effect did not differ by culture. This suggests that Americans' item focus may result in memory changes that are robust despite variations in scene congruency and perceived emotion.

  13. Simulation of video sequences for an accurate evaluation of tracking algorithms on complex scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreu, Christine; Manzanera, Antoine; Bohain, Eric

    2008-04-01

    As target tracking is arousing more and more interest, the necessity to reliably assess tracking algorithms in any conditions is becoming essential. The evaluation of such algorithms requires a database of sequences representative of the whole range of conditions in which the tracking system is likely to operate, together with its associated ground truth. However, building such a database with real sequences, and collecting the associated ground truth appears to be hardly possible and very time-consuming. Therefore, more and more often, synthetic sequences are generated by complex and heavy simulation platforms to evaluate the performance of tracking algorithms. Some methods have also been proposed using simple synthetic sequences generated without such complex simulation platforms. These sequences are generated from a finite number of discriminating parameters, and are statistically representative, as regards these parameters, of real sequences. They are very simple and not photorealistic, but can be reliably used for low-level tracking algorithms evaluation in any operating conditions. The aim of this paper is to assess the reliability of these non-photorealistic synthetic sequences for evaluation of tracking systems on complex-textured objects, and to show how the number of parameters can be increased to synthesize more elaborated scenes and deal with more complex dynamics, including occlusions and three-dimensional deformations.

  14. Temporal and spatial neural dynamics in the perception of basic emotions from complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tommaso; Cauda, Franco; Crini, Manuella; Tatu, Mona-Karina; Celeghin, Alessia; de Gelder, Beatrice; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The different temporal dynamics of emotions are critical to understand their evolutionary role in the regulation of interactions with the surrounding environment. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying the perception of four basic emotions from complex scenes varying in valence and arousal (fear, disgust, happiness and sadness) with the millisecond time resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG). Event-related potentials were computed and each emotion showed a specific temporal profile, as revealed by distinct time segments of significant differences from the neutral scenes. Fear perception elicited significant activity at the earliest time segments, followed by disgust, happiness and sadness. Moreover, fear, disgust and happiness were characterized by two time segments of significant activity, whereas sadness showed only one long-latency time segment of activity. Multidimensional scaling was used to assess the correspondence between neural temporal dynamics and the subjective experience elicited by the four emotions in a subsequent behavioral task. We found a high coherence between these two classes of data, indicating that psychological categories defining emotions have a close correspondence at the brain level in terms of neural temporal dynamics. Finally, we localized the brain regions of time-dependent activity for each emotion and time segment with the low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Fear and disgust showed widely distributed activations, predominantly in the right hemisphere. Happiness activated a number of areas mostly in the left hemisphere, whereas sadness showed a limited number of active areas at late latency. The present findings indicate that the neural signature of basic emotions can emerge as the byproduct of dynamic spatiotemporal brain networks as investigated with millisecond-range resolution, rather than in time-independent areas involved uniquely in the processing one specific emotion. © The Author (2013

  15. The influence of scene context on object recognition is independent of attentional focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap eMunneke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans can quickly and accurately recognize objects within briefly presented natural scenes. Previous work has provided evidence that scene context contributes to this process, demonstrating improved naming of objects that were presented in semantically consistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a beach relative to semantically inconsistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a football field. The current study was aimed at investigating which processes underlie the scene consistency effect. Specifically, we tested: 1 whether the effect is due to increased visual feature and/or shape overlap for consistent relative to inconsistent scene-object pairs; and 2 whether the effect is mediated by attention to the background scene. Experiment 1 replicated the scene consistency effect of a previous report (Davenport & Potter, 2004. Using a new, carefully controlled stimulus set, Experiment 2 showed that the scene consistency effect could not be explained by low-level feature or shape overlap between scenes and target objects. Experiments 3a and 3b investigated whether focused attention modulates the scene consistency effect. By using a location cueing manipulation, participants were correctly informed about the location of the target object on a proportion of trials, allowing focused attention to be deployed towards the target object. Importantly, the effect of scene consistency on target object recognition was independent of spatial attention, and was observed both when attention was focused on the target object and when attention was focused on the background scene. These results indicate that a semantically consistent scene context benefits object recognition independently of the focus of attention. We suggest that the scene consistency effect is primarily driven by global scene properties, or scene gist, that can be processed with minimal attentional resources.

  16. How saliency, faces, and sound influence gaze in dynamic social scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Antoine; Guyader, Nathalie

    2014-07-03

    Conversation scenes are a typical example in which classical models of visual attention dramatically fail to predict eye positions. Indeed, these models rarely consider faces as particular gaze attractors and never take into account the important auditory information that always accompanies dynamic social scenes. We recorded the eye movements of participants viewing dynamic conversations taking place in various contexts. Conversations were seen either with their original soundtracks or with unrelated soundtracks (unrelated speech and abrupt or continuous natural sounds). First, we analyze how auditory conditions influence the eye movement parameters of participants. Then, we model the probability distribution of eye positions across each video frame with a statistical method (Expectation-Maximization), allowing the relative contribution of different visual features such as static low-level visual saliency (based on luminance contrast), dynamic low level visual saliency (based on motion amplitude), faces, and center bias to be quantified. Through experimental and modeling results, we show that regardless of the auditory condition, participants look more at faces, and especially at talking faces. Hearing the original soundtrack makes participants follow the speech turn-taking more closely. However, we do not find any difference between the different types of unrelated soundtracks. These eyetracking results are confirmed by our model that shows that faces, and particularly talking faces, are the features that best explain the gazes recorded, especially in the original soundtrack condition. Low-level saliency is not a relevant feature to explain eye positions made on social scenes, even dynamic ones. Finally, we propose groundwork for an audiovisual saliency model. © 2014 ARVO.

  17. Scanning behaviour in natural scenes is influenced by a preceding unrelated visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Crundall, David

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments explored the transference of visual scanning behaviour between two unrelated tasks. Participants first viewed letters presented horizontally, vertically, or as a random array. They then viewed still images (experiments 1 and 2) or video clips (experiment 3) of driving scenes, under varying task conditions. Despite having no relevance to the driving images, layout of stimuli in the letter task influenced scanning behaviour in this subsequent task. In the still images, a vertical letter search increased vertical scanning, and in the dynamic clips, a horizontal letter search decreased vertical scanning. This indicated that (i) models of scanning behaviour should account for the influence of a preceding unrelated task; (ii) carry-over is modulated by demand in the current task; and (iii) in situations where particular scanning strategies are important for primary task performance (eg driving safety), secondary task information should be displayed in a manner likely to produce a congruent scanning strategy.

  18. An fMRI study on memory discriminability for complex visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, François; Lepage, Martin

    2008-10-01

    The fan effect represents an increase in reaction time for the recognition of an item as a function of the amount of information associated with that item in memory. The present study used fMRI to study the neural correlates of the fan effect for complex visual scenes. We used a test in which landscape pictures were divided vertically into three equal segments. In the high discriminability condition only one segment was presented during encoding, whereas in the low discriminability condition two different segments from the same picture were presented. During a subsequent forced-choice recognition test, reaction times were significantly faster for the high discriminability condition. Increase in brain activity for the low relative to high discriminability condition was observed in the right prefrontal cortex, several regions of parietal cortex bilaterally, and several late visual processing areas, including the occipito-temporal regions, precuneus, and cuneus. These results support the hypothesis that a region of the prefrontal cortex is involved in the control of memory interference at retrieval elicited by the amount of related information in memory, and further suggests that this involvement is right-lateralized for nonverbal material. The high versus low discriminability contrast showed an increase in activity principally in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus, including the enthorinal cortex/hippocampus and in several bilateral prefrontal cortex regions mostly located in BA 10. These activations were associated with a condition, in which the stimuli were more salient in memory and thus could represent the perceptual salience of items in memory.

  19. Rapid identification information and its influence on the perceived clues at a crime scene: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J

    2017-11-01

    Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario. The present study builds on this study and gains more insight into (1) the exact investigative and forensic information that was used by CSIs to construct their scenario, (2) the inferences drawn from this information, and (3) the kind of evidence that was selected at the crime scene to (dis)prove this scenario. We asked 48 CSIs to investigate a potential murder crime scene on the computer and explicate what information they used to construct a scenario and to select traces for analysis. The results show that the introduction of rapid ID information at the start of an investigation contributes to the recognition of different clues at the crime scene, but also to different interpretations of identical information, depending on the kind of information available and the scenario one has in mind. Furthermore, not all relevant traces were recognized, showing that important information can be missed during the investigation. In this study, accurate crime scenarios where mainly build with forensic information, but we should be aware of the fact that crime scenes are always contaminated with unrelated traces and thus be cautious of the power of rapid ID at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; Roelofs, K.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; de Gelder, B.

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to

  1. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  2. Combined influence of visual scene and body tilt on arm pointing movements: gravity matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.

  3. Combined influence of visual scene and body tilt on arm pointing movements: gravity matters!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Scotto Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward. Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts. We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.

  4. Selective Segmentation for Global Optimization of Depth Estimation in Complex Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a segmentation-based global optimization method for depth estimation. Firstly, for obtaining accurate matching cost, the original local stereo matching approach based on self-adapting matching window is integrated with two matching cost optimization strategies aiming at handling both borders and occlusion regions. Secondly, we employ a comprehensive smooth term to satisfy diverse smoothness request in real scene. Thirdly, a selective segmentation term is used for enforcing the plane trend constraints selectively on the corresponding segments to further improve the accuracy of depth results from object level. Experiments on the Middlebury image pairs show that the proposed global optimization approach is considerably competitive with other state-of-the-art matching approaches.

  5. Application for 3d Scene Understanding in Detecting Discharge of Domesticwaste Along Complex Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsalam, Y.; Qin, R.; Rekittke, J.

    2016-06-01

    In our study we use 3D scene understanding to detect the discharge of domestic solid waste along an urban river. Solid waste found along the Ciliwung River in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Duri and Kampung Melayu may be attributed to households. This is in part due to inadequate municipal waste infrastructure and services which has caused those living along the river to rely upon it for waste disposal. However, there has been little research to understand the prevalence of household waste along the river. Our aim is to develop a methodology that deploys a low cost sensor to identify point source discharge of solid waste using image classification methods. To demonstrate this we describe the following five-step method: 1) a strip of GoPro images are captured photogrammetrically and processed for dense point cloud generation; 2) depth for each image is generated through a backward projection of the point clouds; 3) a supervised image classification method based on Random Forest classifier is applied on the view dependent red, green, blue and depth (RGB-D) data; 4) point discharge locations of solid waste can then be mapped by projecting the classified images to the 3D point clouds; 5) then the landscape elements are classified into five types, such as vegetation, human settlement, soil, water and solid waste. While this work is still ongoing, the initial results have demonstrated that it is possible to perform quantitative studies that may help reveal and estimate the amount of waste present along the river bank.

  6. Impact of schizophrenia on anterior and posterior hippocampus during memory for complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, J D; Layher, E; Hannula, D E; Niendam, T A; Lesh, T A; Solomon, M; Carter, C S; Ranganath, C

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal dysfunction has been proposed as a mechanism for memory deficits in schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that the anterior and posterior hippocampus could be differentially affected. Accordingly, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis that activity in posterior hippocampus is disproportionately reduced in schizophrenia, particularly during spatial memory retrieval. 26 healthy participants and 24 patients with schizophrenia from the UC Davis Early Psychosis Program were studied while fMRI was acquired on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner. During encoding, participants were oriented to critical items through questions about item features (e.g., "Does the lamp have a square shade?") or spatial location (e.g., "Is the lamp on the table next to the couch?"). At test, participants determined whether scenes were changed or unchanged. fMRI analyses contrasted activation in a priori regions of interest (ROI) in anterior and posterior hippocampus during correct recognition of item changes and spatial changes. As predicted, patients with schizophrenia exhibited reduced activation in the posterior hippocampus during detection of spatial changes but not during detection of item changes. Unexpectedly, patients exhibited increased activation of anterior hippocampus during detection of item changes. Whole brain analyses revealed reduced fronto-parietal and striatal activation in patients for spatial but not for item change trials. Results suggest a gradient of hippocampal dysfunction in which posterior hippocampus - which is necessary for processing fine-grained spatial relationships - is underactive, and anterior hippocampus - which may process context more globally - is overactive.

  7. APPLICATION FOR 3D SCENE UNDERSTANDING IN DETECTING DISCHARGE OF DOMESTICWASTE ALONG COMPLEX URBAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ninsalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we use 3D scene understanding to detect the discharge of domestic solid waste along an urban river. Solid waste found along the Ciliwung River in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Duri and Kampung Melayu may be attributed to households. This is in part due to inadequate municipal waste infrastructure and services which has caused those living along the river to rely upon it for waste disposal. However, there has been little research to understand the prevalence of household waste along the river. Our aim is to develop a methodology that deploys a low cost sensor to identify point source discharge of solid waste using image classification methods. To demonstrate this we describe the following five-step method: 1 a strip of GoPro images are captured photogrammetrically and processed for dense point cloud generation; 2 depth for each image is generated through a backward projection of the point clouds; 3 a supervised image classification method based on Random Forest classifier is applied on the view dependent red, green, blue and depth (RGB-D data; 4 point discharge locations of solid waste can then be mapped by projecting the classified images to the 3D point clouds; 5 then the landscape elements are classified into five types, such as vegetation, human settlement, soil, water and solid waste. While this work is still ongoing, the initial results have demonstrated that it is possible to perform quantitative studies that may help reveal and estimate the amount of waste present along the river bank.

  8. Auditory Scene Analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  9. A Game Theory Based on Monte Carlo Analysis for Optimizing Evacuation Routing in Complex Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With more complex structures and denser populations, congestion is a crucial factor in estimating evacuation clearance time. This paper presents a novel evacuation model that implements a game theory combining the greatest entropy optimization criterion with stochastic Monte Carlo methods to optimize the congestion problem and other features of emergency evacuation planning. We introduce the greatest entropy criterion for convergence to Nash equilibrium in the n-person noncooperative game. The process of managing the conflict problem is divided into two steps. In the first step, we utilize Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the risk degree of each route. In the second step, we propose an improved method based on game theory, which obtains an optimal solution to guide the evacuation of all agents from the building.

  10. DEWA: A Multiaspect Approach for Multiple Face Detection in Complex Scene Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Hadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for detecting faces in a digital image with unconstrained background has been developed. The approach is composed of three phases: segmentation phase, filtering phase and localization phase. In the segmentation phase, we utilized both training and non-training methods, which are implemented in user selectable color space. In the filtering phase, Minkowski addition-based objects removal has been used for image cleaning. In the last phase, an image processing method and a data mining method are employed for grouping and localizing objects, combined with geometric-based image analysis. Several experiments have been conducted using our special face database that consists of simple objects and complex objects. The experiment results demonstrated that the detection accuracy is around 90% and the detection speed is less than 1 second in average.

  11. What’s Behind the Scenes? Exploring the Unspoken Dimensions of Complex and Challenging Surgical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra M.; Bidinosti, Susan J.; Lingard, Lorelei A.; Novick, Richard J.; Ott, Michael C.; Forbes, Tom L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physicians regularly encounter challenging and/or complex situations in their practices; in training settings, they must help learners understand such challenges. Context becomes a fundamental construct when seeking to understand what makes a situation challenging and how physicians respond to it; however, the question of how physicians perceive context remains largely unexplored. If the goal is to teach trainees to deal with challenging situations, the medical education community requires an understanding of what “challenging” means for those in charge of training. Method The authors relied on visual methods for this research. In 2013, they collected 40 snapshots (i.e., data sets) from a purposeful sample of five faculty surgeons through a combination of interviews, observations, and drawing sessions. The analytical process involved three phases: analysis of each drawing, a compare-and-contrast analysis of multiple drawings, and a team analysis conducted in collaboration with three participating surgeons. Results Findings demonstrate that experts perceive the challenge of surgical situations to extend beyond their procedural dimensions to include unspoken, nonprocedural dimensions—specifically, team dynamics, trust, emotions, and external pressures. Conclusions Findings show that analysis of surgeons’ drawings is an effective means of gaining insight into surgeons’ perceptions. The findings refine the common belief that procedural complexity is what makes a surgery challenging for expert surgeons. Focusing exclusively on the procedure during training may put trainees at risk of missing the “big picture.” Understanding the multidimensionality of medical challenges and having a language to discuss these both verbally and visually will facilitate teaching around challenging situations. PMID:25250744

  12. Cultural differences in scene perception

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Albandari

    2016-01-01

    Do individuals from different cultures perceive scenes differently? Does culture have an influence on visual attention processes? This thesis investigates not only what these influences are, and how they affect eye movements, but also examines some of the proposed mechanisms that underlie the cultural influence in scene perception. Experiments 1 & 2 showed that Saudi participants directed a higher number of fixations to the background of images, in comparison to the British participants. Brit...

  13. Emotional conflict in facial expression processing during scene viewing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Entao; Qiao, Fuqiang; Lin, Wenyi; Liang, Ningjian

    2015-05-22

    Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli as they convey important information in social interaction. In everyday life a face always appears in complex context. Scenes which faces are embedded in provided typical visual context. The aim of the present study was to investigate the processing of emotional conflict between facial expressions and emotional scenes by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We found that when the scene was presented before the face-scene compound stimulus, the scene had an influence on facial expression processing. Specifically, emotionally incongruent (in conflict) face-scene compound stimuli elicited larger fronto-central N2 amplitude relative to the emotionally congruent face-scene compound stimuli. The effect occurred in the post-perceptual stage of facial expression processing and reflected emotional conflict monitoring between emotional scenes and facial expressions. The present findings emphasized the importance of emotional scenes as a context factor in the study of the processing of facial expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-10-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control stimuli. The results showed that the valence of the background influences face selective activity in the right anterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with higher activation for neutral backgrounds compared to threatening backgrounds (controlled for isolated background effects) and that this effect correlated with trait empathy in the sgACC. In addition, the left fusiform gyrus (FG) responds to the affective congruence between face and background scene. The results show that valence of the background modulates face processing and support the hypothesis that empathic processing in sgACC is inhibited when affective information is present in the background. In addition, the findings reveal a pattern of complex scene perception showing a gradient of functional specialization along the posterior-anterior axis: from sensitivity to the affective content of scenes (extrastriate body area: EBA and posterior PPA), over scene emotion-face emotion interaction (left FG) via category-scene interaction (anterior PPA) to scene-category-personality interaction (sgACC). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  16. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Valence-specific modulation in the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to visual scene recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Schettino

    Full Text Available Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures, our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.

  18. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  19. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  20. Practical bomb scene investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurman, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... The book also uses examples of chain of custody and scene administration forms, diagrams and tables, methods of equipment decontamination, explosives residue collection procedures and spread sheets...

  1. Influence of Hydrophobicity on Polyelectrolyte Complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadman, Kazi [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Wang, Qifeng [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Yaoyao [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Keshavarz, Bavand [Department; Jiang, Zhang [X-ray; Shull, Kenneth R. [Department; amp, Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States

    2017-11-16

    Polyelectrolyte complexes are a fascinating class of soft materials that can span the full spectrum of mechanical properties from low viscosity fluids to glassy solids. This spectrum can be accessed by modulating the extent of electrostatic association in these complexes. However, to realize the full potential of polyelectrolyte complexes as functional materials their molecular level details need to be clearly correlated with their mechanical response. The present work demonstrates that by making simple amendments to the chain architecture it is possible to affect the salt responsiveness of polyelectrolyte complexes in a systematic manner. This is achieved by quaternizing poly(4-vinylpyridine) (QVP) with methyl, ethyl and propyl substituents– thereby increasing the hydrophobicity with increasing side chain length– and complexing them with a common anionic polyelectrolyte, poly(styrene sulfonate). The mechanical 1 ACS Paragon Plus Environment behavior of these complexes is compared to the more hydrophilic system of poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium) by quantifying the swelling behavior in response to salt stimuli. More hydrophobic complexes are found to be more resistant to doping by salt, yet the mechanical properties of the complex remain contingent on the overall swelling ratio of the complex itself, following near universal swelling-modulus master curves that are quantified in this work. The rheological behavior of QVP complex coacervates are found to be approximately the same, only requiring higher salt concentrations to overcome strong hydrophobic interactions, demonstrating that hydrophobicity can be used as an important parameter for tuning the stability of polyelectrolyte complexes in general, while still preserving the ability to be processed “saloplastically”.

  2. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-01

    In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the

  3. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berman

    Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings

  4. The Time-Course of Ultrarapid Categorization: The Influence of Scene Congruency and Top-Down Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Steven; Calders, Filip; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Although categorization can take place at different levels of abstraction, classic studies on semantic labeling identified the basic level, for example, dog, as entry point for categorization. Ultrarapid categorization tasks have contradicted these findings, indicating that participants are faster at detecting superordinate-level information, for example, animal, in a complex visual image. We argue that both seemingly contradictive findings can be reconciled within the framework of parallel distributed processing and its successor Leabra (Local, Error-driven and Associative, Biologically Realistic Algorithm). The current study aimed at verifying this prediction in an ultrarapid categorization task with a dynamically changing presentation time (PT) for each briefly presented object, followed by a perceptual mask. Furthermore, we manipulated two defining task variables: level of categorization (basic vs. superordinate categorization) and object presentation mode (object-in-isolation vs. object-in-context). In contradiction with previous ultrarapid categorization research, focusing on reaction time, we used accuracy as our main dependent variable. Results indicated a consistent superordinate processing advantage, coinciding with an overall improvement in performance with longer PT and a significantly more accurate detection of objects in isolation, compared with objects in context, at lower stimulus PT. This contextual disadvantage disappeared when PT increased, indicating that figure-ground separation with recurrent processing is vital for meaningful contextual processing to occur.

  5. The role of memory for visual search in scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. While a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. PMID:25684693

  6. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish......, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve...

  8. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  9. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Michele Aminoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective – the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA, the retrosplenial complex (RSC, and the occipital place area (TOS – have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size, rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: 1 BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; 2 behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and 3 several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: 1 models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; 2 NEIL and SUN – the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS – were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; 3 The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method – NEIL (Never-Ending-Image-Learner, which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes – showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

  10. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Influence of pectin characteristics on complexation with ß-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, B.L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin and proteins are both common food constituents. The type of pectin that forms complexes with protein is known to be of great influence on the structure and stability of liquid foods. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of the overall charge and local charge

  12. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing efficient structure of fuel and energy complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, N. G.; Novikova, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The development of the Russian fuel-energy complex is a priority for the national economic policy, and the Far East is a link between Russia and the Asia-Pacific region. Large-scale engineering of numerous resources of the Far East will force industrial development, increase living standard and strengthen Russia’s position in the global energy market. So, revealing the factors which influence rational structure of the fuel-energy complex is very urgent nowadays. With the use of depth analysis of development tendencies of the complex and its problems the authors show ways of its efficiency improvement.

  14. Influence of complexing agent (Na 2 EDTA) on chemical bath ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray ...

  15. Route complexity and simulated physical ageing negatively influence wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Emma; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cornelis; Mobach, Mark P.

    The aim of this age-simulation field experiment was to assess the influence of route complexity and physical ageing on wayfinding. Seventy-five people (aged 18-28) performed a total of 108 wayfinding tasks (i.e., 42 participants performed two wayfinding tasks and 33 performed one wayfinding task),

  16. INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXING AGENT (Na2EDTA) ON CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X- ...

  17. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    salient objects and environments providing mutual context (i.e., a primary or key object in an outdoor scene embedded in a realistic environmental ...tracking: a two part vision system for small robot navigation in forested environment . Proc. SPIE 8387, Unmanned Systems Technology XIV Conference; 2012...of realistic autonomous outdoor missions in complex and changing environments . Scene understanding for realistic outdoor missions has been

  18. Robust Scene Categorization by Learning Image Statistics in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Veenman, C.J.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a generic and robust approach for scene categorization. A complex scene is described by proto-concepts like vegetation, water, fire, sky etc. These proto-concepts are represented by low level features, where we use natural images statistics to compactly represent color invariant texture

  19. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  20. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts.

  1. Lumichrome complexation by cyclodextrins: influence of pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilletvedt, M; Kristensen, S; Tønnesen, H H

    2010-12-01

    Complexation of the model drug lumichrome by 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD), the most widely used cyclodextrin derivative in pharmaceutical preparations, was investigated in this study. The influence of frequently used pharmaceutical excipients, i.e. alcohols (ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol), buffers (phosphate, citrate) and tonicity modulators (NaCl, MgCl2) was evaluated by phase solubility, absorption and fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime studies. Further, complex formation constants and fluorescence quantum yields were calculated. The formation of a 1:1 complex was indicated by phase solubility studies. The shape of the absorption and emission spectra for lumichrome was nearly independent of dissolution medium. The intensity of the absorption peak was slightly decreasing by the addition of HPbetaCD, which indicates formation of an inclusion complex of lumichrome in the ground state. The intensity of the fluorescence emission peak (i.e. fluorescence quantum yield) was also steadily decreasing by the increase in HPbetaCD concentration. Monoexponential fluorescence decay was obtained in the absence of cyclodextrin. In the presence of cyclodextrin, bi-exponential decays were observed in all aqueous vehicles with the exception of plain water or samples containing salts. The longest decay time corresponds to the lifetime of free (uncomplexed) lumichrome, while the shortest decay time was attributed to the excited state of the complexed alloxazine form of lumichrome. The selected excipients influence the complexation constant and the lumichrome excited state deactivation pathways to various extents.

  2. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  3. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  4. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lewicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to a number of important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated. Despite this progress, there are also critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying analysis comprising four essential properties: 1 the ability to solve ill-posed problems, 2 the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, 3 efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and 4 the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress towards behavioral goals.

  5. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  6. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  7. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  8. Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D. DiLiberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda, health system challenges limit access to good quality healthcare and contribute to slow progress on malaria control. We developed a complex intervention (PRIME, which was designed to improve quality of care for malaria at public health centres. Objective: Responding to calls for increased transparency, we describe the PRIME intervention's design process, rationale, and final content and reflect on the choices and challenges encountered during the design of this complex intervention. Design: To develop the intervention, we followed a multistep approach, including the following: 1 formative research to identify intervention target areas and objectives; 2 prioritization of intervention components; 3 review of relevant evidence; 4 development of intervention components; 5 piloting and refinement of workshop modules; and 6 consolidation of the PRIME intervention theories of change to articulate why and how the intervention was hypothesized to produce desired outcomes. We aimed to develop an intervention that was evidence-based, grounded in theory, and appropriate for the study context; could be evaluated within a randomized controlled trial; and had the potential to be scaled up sustainably. Results: The process of developing the PRIME intervention package was lengthy and dynamic. The final intervention package consisted of four components: 1 training in fever case management and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs; 2 workshops in health centre management; 3 workshops in patient-centred services; and 4 provision of mRDTs and antimalarials when stocks ran low. Conclusions: The slow and iterative process of intervention design contrasted with the continually shifting study context. We highlight the considerations and choices made at each design stage, discussing elements we included and why, as well as those that were ultimately excluded. Reflection on and reporting of ‘behind the scenes’ accounts of intervention

  9. Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernan; CUNY Collaboration; CUNY Collaboration

    The whole frame of interconnections in complex networks hinges on a specific set of structural nodes, much smaller than the total size, which, if activated, would cause the spread of information to the whole network, or, if immunized, would prevent the diffusion of a large scale epidemic. Localizing this optimal, that is, minimal, set of structural nodes, called influencers, is one of the most important problems in network science. Here we map the problem onto optimal percolation in random networks to identify the minimal set of influencers, which arises by minimizing the energy of a many-body system, where the form of the interactions is fixed by the non-backtracking matrix of the network. Big data analyses reveal that the set of optimal influencers is much smaller than the one predicted by previous heuristic centralities. Remarkably, a large number of previously neglected weakly connected nodes emerges among the optimal influencers. Reference: F. Morone, H. A. Makse, Nature 524,65-68 (2015)

  10. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  11. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  12. Advanced Techniques for Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    example, 3D movies . The change of demand results in an attention for smooth visual quality of the reconstructed scene. In this case, visual quality of the...Vergauwen, and L. Van Gool, “Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images,” ISPRS Journal Of Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing, vol. 55

  13. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional) states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported) face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people) cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits) of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  14. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamena Alshamsi

    Full Text Available Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  15. Contextual effects of scene on the visual perception of object orientation in depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of background scene on the human visual perception of depth orientation (i.e., azimuth angle of three-dimensional common objects. Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects. The objects were surrounded by scenes with an apparent axis of the global reference frame, such as a sidewalk scene. When a scene axis was slightly misaligned with the gaze line, object orientation perception was biased, as if the gaze line had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 1. When the scene axis was slightly misaligned with the object, evaluated object orientation was biased, as if it had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 2. This assimilation may be due to confusion between the orientation of the scene and object axes (Experiment 3. Thus, the global reference frame may influence object orientation perception when its orientation is similar to that of the gaze-line or object.

  16. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  17. Research in interactive scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, J. M.; Barrow, H. G.; Weyl, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Cooperative (man-machine) scene analysis techniques were developed whereby humans can provide a computer with guidance when completely automated processing is infeasible. An interactive approach promises significant near-term payoffs in analyzing various types of high volume satellite imagery, as well as vehicle-based imagery used in robot planetary exploration. This report summarizes the work accomplished over the duration of the project and describes in detail three major accomplishments: (1) the interactive design of texture classifiers; (2) a new approach for integrating the segmentation and interpretation phases of scene analysis; and (3) the application of interactive scene analysis techniques to cartography.

  18. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  19. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds...

  20. Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    OpenAIRE

    Azumi eTanabe-Ishibashi; Takashi eIkeda; Naoyuki eOsaka

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. ...

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. Neuroscience-Enabled Complex Visual Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    34, Rivista di Psicologia 49 (1): 7–30 • Kauppinen, Hannu. Seppanen, Tapio and Pietikainen, Matti. An Experimental Comparison of Autoregressive and...trial. Similarity maps for each feature were constructed individually . A feature similarity map for hue, for example would contain in each cell i the...significant trend was found in saccadic amplitude or velocity individually (data not shown). However, when we analyzed the ISI we found a significant

  3. Singapore - The Nursing Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Doyle

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In many ways Singapore still bears evidence of the period of British colonialism and the system of nursing service and nursing education is also still greatly influenced by the British system of nursing.

  4. Singapore - The Nursing Scene

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Doyle

    1985-01-01

    In many ways Singapore still bears evidence of the period of British colonialism and the system of nursing service and nursing education is also still greatly influenced by the British system of nursing.

  5. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2016-03-26

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965–2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  6. Functional imaging of auditory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  8. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    , physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual......Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus...... of meaning has been implemented. This may take place at different levels, which will be presented and investigated in this article and exemplified by some cases from the fields of tourism and computer games.                       The article suggests that we may use the forensic term crime scene in order...

  9. [Operative outcomes of complex acetabular fractures and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changchao; Wu, Gang; Wang, Guanglin; Yang, Tianfu; Fang, Yue; Liu, Lei; Xue, Jianli

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the results of operative treatment of complex acetabular fractures and to investigate its influence factors. From June 2000 to August 2006, 54 patients with complex acetabular fractures were treated, including 44 males and 10 females aged 20-75 years old (average 39.1 years old). Fractures were due to traffic accident in 40 cases, falling from high places in 8 cases and crush by heavy objects in 6 cases. All cases were fresh and close fractures and the time from injury to operation was 5-72 days. There were 5 cases of posterior column and posterior wall fracture, 25 of transverse and posterior wall fracture, 2 of T-type fracture, and 22 of double column fracture. During operation, Kocker-Lagenbach approach was used in 23 cases, anterior ilioinguinal approach was applied for 3 cases and the combination of anterior and posterior approaches was performed on 28 cases. AO reconstructive plate and screw internal fixation were used in all the cases. Fifty-two cases were followed up for 12-74 months (average 31.3 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 23 cases, satisfactory reduction in 19 cases, poor reduction in 10 cases, and the excellent and good rate reached 80.77%. During operation, 1 case suffered from a tear in the external iliac vein and healed after vein repair; 2 cases had sciatic nerve injury and took mecobalamin as oral administration, one of them fully recovered, and the other had incomplete recovery at 18-month follow-up. At the final follow-up, there were 6 cases of severe heterotopic ossification, one of them received heterotopic bone resection and the rest 5 patients received conservative treatment; there were 9 cases of traumatic osteoarthritis, one of them received total hip replacement and the rest 8 patients received conservative treatment; there were 5 cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, two of them received total hip replacement, 1 received no further treatment because the femoral head didn't collapse, and the rest 2

  10. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  11. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  12. The Influence of Complexation on Radionuclide Migration: A Theoretical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L.; Nielsen, O.J.; Bo, P.

    1989-01-01

    -order kinetics. It is shown that as long as the rate of interconversion between the free and complexed metal ions is rapid relative to the residence time in the system studied, the two species will migrate with the same speed, controlled by an "effective retention factor." It is clearly demonstrated...... that approaching zero complexation the effective retention approaches that of the more retarded species (the free metal ion), whereas the effective retention approached that of the less retarded species (the complex) for increased complexation. The implication for the distribution of radionuclides...

  13. Raise two effects with one scene: scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.

  14. Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azumi eTanabe-Ishibashi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene or meaningless (scrambled scene backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1 disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2 weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by different two subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual-array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.

  15. Multiagent architecture for scene interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealet, Fabienne; Collin, Bertrand; Sella, G.; Garbay, Catherine

    2000-06-01

    Scene interpretation is a crucial problem for navigation and guidance systems. The necessary integration of a large variety of heterogeneous knowledge leads us to design an architecture that distributes knowledge and that performs parallel and concurrent processing. We choose a multi- agent approach which specialized agents implementation is based on incrementality, distribution, cooperation, attention mechanism and adaptability.

  16. ROBOT TASK SCENE ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Steven Everett

    2000-08-01

    Environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) challenges in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and around the world, involve radiation or other hazards which will necessitate the use of remote operations to protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote operations carry the implication of greater costs since remote work systems are inherently less productive than contact human work due to the inefficiencies/complexities of teleoperation. To reduce costs and improve quality, much attention has been focused on methods to improve the productivity of combined human operator/remote equipment systems; the achievements to date are modest at best. The most promising avenue in the near term is to supplement conventional remote work systems with robotic planning and control techniques borrowed from manufacturing and other domains where robotic automation has been used. Practical combinations of teleoperation and robotic control will yield telerobotic work systems that outperform currently available remote equipment. It is believed that practical telerobotic systems may increase remote work efficiencies significantly. Increases of 30% to 50% have been conservatively estimated for typical remote operations. It is important to recognize that the basic hardware and software features of most modern remote manipulation systems can readily accommodate the functionality required for telerobotics. Further, several of the additional system ingredients necessary to implement telerobotic control--machine vision, 3D object and workspace modeling, automatic tool path generation and collision-free trajectory planning--are existent.

  17. Influence of vitamin b-12 complex injection (eldervit-12) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin B-12 complex injection on the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate injection and Vitamin B-12complex injection containing 2500mcg ...

  18. Visual Complexity and Its Effects on Referring Expression Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Micha; Clarke, Alasdair; Rohde, Hannah

    2017-06-26

    Speakers' perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it-which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which the target object is either unique or non-unique in a visual scene of varying size and complexity. Speakers delay speech onset if the target object is non-unique and requires disambiguation, and we argue that this reflects the cost of deciding on a high-level strategy for describing it. The eye-tracking data demonstrate that these delays increase when speakers are able to conduct an extensive early visual search, implying that when speakers scan too little of the scene early on, they may decide to begin speaking before becoming aware that their description is underspecified. Speakers' content choices reflect the visual makeup of the scene-the number of distractors present and the availability of useful landmarks. Our results highlight the complex role of visual perception in reference production, showing that speakers can make good use of complexity in ways that reflect their visual processing of the scene. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. TMS to object cortex affects both object and scene remote networks while TMS to scene cortex only affects scene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2015-12-01

    Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheological properties of wheat starch influenced by amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexation at different gelation phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadiabhari, Salomeh; Woortman, Albert; Hamer, Rob; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Amylose is able to form helical inclusion complexes with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). This complexation influences the functional and rheological properties of wheat starch; however it is well known that the formation of these complexes lead the starchy systems to a slower enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. Rheological properties of wheat starch influenced by amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexation at different gelation phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2015-01-01

    Amylose is able to form helical inclusion complexes with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). This complexation influences the functional and rheological properties of wheat starch; however it is well known that the formation of these complexes lead the starchy systems to a slower enzymatic hydrolysis.

  2. Scene perception in posterior cortical atrophy: categorization, description and fixation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Frost, Chris; Kim, Lois G; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2013-01-01

    Partial or complete Balint's syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (color and grayscale) using a categorization paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces < scenes < objects) and slower (scenes < objects < faces) than controls on all categories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for color over grayscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient's global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not). Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients' fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  3. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, C.B.A.; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control

  4. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  5. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  6. Multiwavelength Scophony Infrared Scene Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killius, Jim; Elder, Brent; Siegel, Larry; Allweiss, Michael B.

    1990-09-01

    A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) is being developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems. The Scophony IRSP is configured to be a very high frame rate laser-scanned projection system incorporating Scophony modulation. Scophony modulation offers distinct advantages over conventional flying-spot scanning, for example, longer pixel dwell times and multiple pixel projection. The Scophony IRSP serves as the image projection system in a 'hardware in the loop' therminal-phase guidance simulation. It is capable of projecting multiband, target engagement scenarios with high fidelity using Aura's proprietary software/electronic control system. The Scophony IRSP utilizes acoustooptical (AO) devices to produce the required imagery at four separate wavelengths simultaneously. The four separate scenes are then combined and projected into the imaging guidance system.

  7. Randomized Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis for Scene Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodner, Erik; Denzler, Joachim

    The concept of probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) has gained much interest as a tool for feature transformation in image categorization and scene recognition scenarios. However, a major issue of this technique is overfitting. Therefore, we propose to use an ensemble of pLSA models which are trained using random fractions of the training data. We analyze empirically the influence of the degree of randomization and the size of the ensemble on the overall classification performance of a scene recognition task. A thoughtful evaluation shows the benefits of this approach compared to a single pLSA model.

  8. Laser scophony infrared scene project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bastow, Michael

    1994-06-01

    A scophony infrared scene projector (IRSP) was developed by AURA Systems Inc. for use in evaluating thermal imaging guidance systems. The IRSP is a laser-scanned projector system incorporating scophony modulation with acousto-optical devices to produce multiband 96 X 96 image frames. A description of the system and preliminary test results with the Seeker Endo/Exo Demonstration Development breadboard interceptor are addressed.

  9. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  10. Complexities and constraints influencing learner performance in physical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores complexities and constraints affecting performance and output of physical science learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was motivated by the desire of the researcher to establish, profile and characterise the complexities and constraints reminiscence of poor performance of learners in physical science as measured through end-of-year Grade 12 (final year of high school education examination results. Twenty six schools (n=26 were purposively selected from three circuits of education (n=3. From these schools, two learners were randomly selected (n=52 for interviews. In addition, two circuit managers (n=2 were conveniently selected as part of Key Informant Interviews (KII. For the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, twelve (n=12 parents were randomly selected to form two groups of six members each. Multi-factor complexities and constraints impeding performance of learners were discovered. Intensive teacher in-service programme is recommended. Community engagement should be encouraged to educate parents on the value of involvement in the education of their children. Free access learner support structures such as Homework and Extra-lessons Assistance Centre (H&EACs should be established.

  11. Floodplain complexity and surface metrics: influences of scale and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Murray W.; Thoms, Martin C.; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of fluvial geomorphology and landscape ecology examine a single river or landscape, thus lack generality, making it difficult to develop a general understanding of the linkages between landscape patterns and larger-scale driving variables. We examined the spatial complexity of eight floodplain surfaces in widely different geographic settings and determined how patterns measured at different scales relate to different environmental drivers. Floodplain surface complexity is defined as having highly variable surface conditions that are also highly organised in space. These two components of floodplain surface complexity were measured across multiple sampling scales from LiDAR-derived DEMs. The surface character and variability of each floodplain were measured using four surface metrics; namely, standard deviation, skewness, coefficient of variation, and standard deviation of curvature from a series of moving window analyses ranging from 50 to 1000 m in radius. The spatial organisation of each floodplain surface was measured using spatial correlograms of the four surface metrics. Surface character, variability, and spatial organisation differed among the eight floodplains; and random, fragmented, highly patchy, and simple gradient spatial patterns were exhibited, depending upon the metric and window size. Differences in surface character and variability among the floodplains became statistically stronger with increasing sampling scale (window size), as did their associations with environmental variables. Sediment yield was consistently associated with differences in surface character and variability, as were flow discharge and variability at smaller sampling scales. Floodplain width was associated with differences in the spatial organization of surface conditions at smaller sampling scales, while valley slope was weakly associated with differences in spatial organisation at larger scales. A comparison of floodplain landscape patterns measured at different

  12. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES ON INNOVATION IN COMPLEX PROJECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavin, Lone; Narasimhan, Ram

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of literature on supplier-enabled-innovation in complex project-contexts. Based on literature from repetitive-manufacturing-contexts, this conceptual chapter identifies innovation-fostering-practices and develops a conceptual-framework relating them to innovation-performance. The......There is paucity of literature on supplier-enabled-innovation in complex project-contexts. Based on literature from repetitive-manufacturing-contexts, this conceptual chapter identifies innovation-fostering-practices and develops a conceptual-framework relating them to innovation......-performance. The framework suggests that new knowledge is the basis of innovation and leveraging knowledge from the supply-network is a key element along with absorptive-capacity and R&D-investment in creating new knowledge. New knowledge, however, must be exploited to create innovative new products and successfully...... commercialized. Suppliers can play an important role in ensuring successful exploitation of new knowledge. We posit that innovation-fostering-practices mediate the exploitation of new knowledge into superior innovation-performance. Thus, the proposed conceptual-framework incorporates the exploration...

  14. Seek and you shall remember: scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L H

    2014-07-11

    Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. © 2014 ARVO.

  15. Seek and you shall remember: Scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Võ, Melissa L.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. PMID:25015385

  16. Approach to the complex estimation of factors, Influencing on communication networks’ reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Nenov, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the classification of factors influencing the reliability of communication networks is given. The approach to the factors complex estimation on the basis of mechanism of petalous diagrams is offered.

  17. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  18. Theory of diffusion-influenced reactions in complex geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Galanti, Marta; Piazza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reactions involving diffusion of reactants and subsequent chemical fixation steps are generally termed "diffusion-influenced" (DI). Virtually all biochemical processes in living media can be counted among them, together with those occurring in an ever-growing number of emerging nano-technologies. The role of the environment's geometry (obstacles, compartmentalization) and distributed reactivity (competitive reactants, traps) is key in modulating the rate constants of DI reactions, and is therefore a prime design parameter. Yet, it is a formidable challenge to build a comprehensive theory able to describe the environment's "reactive geometry". Here we show that such a theory can be built by unfolding this many-body problem through addition theorems for special functions. Our method is powerful and general and allows one to study a given DI reaction occurring in arbitrary "reactive landscapes", made of multiple spherical boundaries of given size and reactivity. Importantly, ready-to-use analytical form...

  19. Imaging spectroscopy for scene analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes

  20. Finding edges in noisy scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, R.; Gilbert, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Edge detection in the presence of noise is a well-known problem. This paper examines an applications-motivated approach for solving the problem using novel techniques and presents a method developed by the authors that performs well on a large class of targets. ROC curves are used to compare this method with other well-known edge detection operators, with favorable results. A theoretical argument is presented that favors LMMSE filtering over median filtering in extremely noisy scenes. Simulated results of the research are presented.

  1. Task complexity moderates the influence of descriptions in decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Cohen, Leonardo; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Harvey, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Decisions-makers often have access to a combination of descriptive and experiential information, but limited research so far has explored decisions made using both. Three experiments explore the relationship between task complexity and the influence of descriptions. We show that in simple experience-based decision-making tasks, providing congruent descriptions has little influence on task performance in comparison to experience alone without descriptions, since learning via experience is relatively easy. In more complex tasks, which are slower and more demanding to learn experientially, descriptions have stronger influence and help participants identify their preferred choices. However, when the task gets too complex to be concisely described, the influence of descriptions is reduced hence showing a non-monotonic pattern of influence of descriptions according to task complexity. We also propose a cognitive model that incorporates descriptive information into the traditional reinforcement learning framework, with the impact of descriptions moderated by task complexity. This model fits the observed behavior better than previous models and replicates the observed non-monotonic relationship between impact of descriptions and task complexity. This research has implications for the development of effective warning labels that rely on simple descriptive information to trigger safer behavior in complex environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Stadler, Waltraud; Parkinson, Jim; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Linking observed and executable actions appears to be achieved by an action observation network (AON), comprising parietal, premotor, and occipitotemporal cortical regions of the human brain. AON engagement during action observation is thought to aid in effortless, efficient prediction of ongoing movements to support action understanding. Here, we investigate how the AON responds when observing and predicting actions we cannot readily reproduce before and after visual training. During pre- and posttraining neuroimaging sessions, participants watched gymnasts and wind-up toys moving behind an occluder and pressed a button when they expected each agent to reappear. Between scanning sessions, participants visually trained to predict when a subset of stimuli would reappear. Posttraining scanning revealed activation of inferior parietal, superior temporal, and cerebellar cortices when predicting occluded actions compared to perceiving them. Greater activity emerged when predicting untrained compared to trained sequences in occipitotemporal cortices and to a lesser degree, premotor cortices. The occipitotemporal responses when predicting untrained agents showed further specialization, with greater responses within body-processing regions when predicting gymnasts' movements and in object-selective cortex when predicting toys' movements. The results suggest that (1) select portions of the AON are recruited to predict the complex movements not easily mapped onto the observer's body and (2) greater recruitment of these AON regions supports prediction of less familiar sequences. We suggest that the findings inform both the premotor model of action prediction and the predictive coding account of AON function. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. CHANGES OF CARBOHYDRATES COMPLEX INFLUENCED BY THE STORAGE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic chemical composition of potatoes is significantly influenced by variety. The dry matter content in evaluated varieties ranged from 20.68% (variety Vivaldi to 25.12% (variety Jupiter. Even after three months of storage, the dry matter content was above 20% for all varieties. The largest decrease in dry matter was measured in variety Tomensa (0.60%. Correlation between starch content and the vegetation period was confirmed, when the lowest starch content was measured in a very early and early varieties. Levels of simple and reducing sugars during storage increased slightly in all varieties. Adora variety showed the lowest content of reducing sugars by both collections (up 0.20%, which meets the requirements for the production of chips (max. 0.25% reducing sugars. The highest values of reducing sugars showed varieties Victoria and Desire. Based on an overall assessment of carbohydrates as well as their changes during storage, varieties can be recommended for the production of food products and starch.

  4. Influence of seizures on early development in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capal, Jamie K; Bernardino-Cuesta, Beatriz; Horn, Paul S; Murray, Donna; Byars, Anna Weber; Bing, Nicole M; Kent, Bridget; Pearson, Deborah A; Sahin, Mustafa; Krueger, Darcy A

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is commonly seen in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes has been reported, but few studies have examined this relationship in a prospective, longitudinal manner. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between seizures and early development in TSC. Analysis of 130 patients ages 0-36months with TSC participating in the TSC Autism Center of Excellence Network, a large multicenter, prospective observational study evaluating biomarkers predictive of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), was performed. Infants were evaluated longitudinally with standardized evaluations, including cognitive, adaptive, and autism-specific measures. Seizure history was collected continuously throughout, including seizure type and frequency. Data were analyzed at 6, 12, 18, and 24months of age. Patients without a history of seizures performed better on all developmental assessments at all time points compared to patients with a history of seizures and exhibited normal development at 24months. Patients with a history of seizures not only performed worse, but developmental progress lagged behind the group without seizures. All patients with a history of infantile spasms performed worse on all developmental assessments at 12, 18, and 24months. Higher seizure frequency correlated with poorer outcomes on developmental testing at all time points, but particularly at 12months and beyond. Patients with higher seizure frequency during infancy continued to perform worse developmentally through 24months. A logistic model looking at the individual impact of infantile spasms, seizure frequency, and age of seizure onset as predictors of developmental delay revealed that age of seizure onset was the most important factor in determining developmental outcome. Results of this study further define the relationship between seizures and developmental outcomes in young children with TSC. Early seizure onset in infants with TSC

  5. Influence of neutrophil defects on Burkholderia cepacia complex pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Porter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a group of Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The primary patient populations infected with Bcc include individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as those with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD. While Bcc infection in CF is better characterized than in CGD, these two genetic diseases are not obviously similar and it is currently unknown if there is any commonality in host immune defects that is responsible for the susceptibility to Bcc. CF is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, resulting in manifestations in various organ systems, however the major cause of morbidity and mortality is currently due to bacterial respiratory infections. CGD, on the other hand, is a genetic disorder that is caused by defects in phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Because of the defect in CGD, phagocytes in these patients are unable to produce reactive oxygen species, which results in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Despite this significant defect in microbial clearance, the spectrum of pathogens frequently implicated in infections in CGD is relatively narrow and includes some bacterial species that are considered almost pathognomonic for this disorder. Very little is known about the cause of the specific susceptibility to Bcc over other potential pathogens more prevalent in the environment, and a better understanding of specific mechanisms required for bacterial virulence has become a high priority. This review will summarize both the current knowledge and future directions related to Bcc virulence in immunocompromised individuals with a focus on the roles of bacterial factors and neutrophil defects in pathogenesis.

  6. Scene and object vision in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E L; Gaffan, E A

    1999-02-01

    Dark Agouti rats learned to discriminate large visual displays ("scenes") in a computer-controlled Y-maze. Each scene comprised several shapes ("objects") against a contrasting background. The constant-negative paradigm was used; in each problem, one constant scene was presented on every trial together with a trial-unique variable scene, and rats were rewarded for approaching the variable scene. By varying the manner in which variables differed from the constant, we investigated what aspects of scenes and the objects comprising them were salient. In Experiment 1, rats discriminated constant scenes more easily if they contained four objects rather than six, and they showed a slight attentional bias towards the lower halves of the screens. That bias disappeared in Experiment 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that rats could discriminate scenes even if the objects that comprised them were closely matched in position, luminance, and area. Therefore, they encoded the form of individual objects. Rats perceived shapes of the same class (e.g. two ellipses) as more similar than shapes from different classes (e.g. ellipse and polygon) regardless of whether they also differed in area. This paradigm is suitable for studying the neuropsychology of perceiving spatial relationships in multi-object scenes and of identifying visual objects.

  7. AUTOMATIC POWERLINE SCENE CLASSIFICATION AND RECONSTRUCTION USING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sohn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce new methods for classifying key features (power lines, pylons, and buildings comprising utility corridor scene using airborne LiDAR data and modelling power lines in 3D object space. The proposed approach starts from PL scene segmentation using Markov Random Field (MRF, which emphasizes on the roles of spatial context of linear and planar features as in a graphical model. The MRF classifier identifies power line features from linear features extracted from given corridor scenes. The non-power line objects are then investigated in a planar space to sub-classify them into building and non-building class. Based on the classification results, precise localization of individual pylons is conducted through investigating a prior knowledge of contextual relations between power line and pylon. Once the pylon localization is accomplished, a power line span is identified, within which power lines are modelled with catenary curve models in 3D. Once a local catenary curve model is established, this initial model progressively extends to capture entire power line points by adopting model hypothesis and verification. The model parameters are adjusted using a stochastic non-linear square method for producing 3D power line models. An evaluation of the proposed approach is performed over an urban PL corridor area that includes a complex PL scene.

  8. The value of DNA material recovered from crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Hammond, Christine

    2008-07-01

    DNA material is now collected routinely from crime scenes for a wide range of offenses and its timely processing is acknowledged as a key element to its success in solving crime. An analysis of the processing of approximately 1500 samples of DNA material recovered from the property crime offenses of residential burglary, commercial burglary, and theft of motor vehicle in Northamptonshire, U.K. during 2006 identified saliva and cigarette ends as the main sources of DNA recovered (approximately 63% of samples) with blood, cellular DNA, and chewing gum accounting for the remainder. The conversion of these DNA samples into DNA profiles and then into matches with offender profiles held on the U.K. National DNA database is considered in terms of the ease with which Crime Scene Examiners can recover DNA rich samples of different sources, the location of the DNA at the crime scene, and its mobility. A logistical regression of the DNA material recovered has revealed a number of predictors, other than timeliness, that greatly influence its conversion into a DNA profile. The most significant predictor was found to be Crime Scene Examiner accreditation with offense type and DNA sample condition also being relevant. A similar logistical regression of DNA samples profiled that produced a match with an offender on the U.K. National DNA database showed no significance with any of the predictors considered.

  9. Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-06-13

    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  11. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  12. SpaceTime Environmental Image Information for Scene Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Analysis and Machine Intel. 2011;33(12):2341–2353. 31. Song Y, Luo H, Hui B, Chang Z. An improved image dehazing and enhancing method using dark...help the end user (Soldier) develop improved course of action strategies based on scene understanding ( algorithms and analysis) incorporating...environmental image information in the data measurement process will lead to 1) improved autonomous intelligent systems supporting Army missions in complex

  13. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  14. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-02-03

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  15. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  16. The visual light field in real scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Human observers’ ability to infer the light field in empty space is known as the “visual light field.” While most relevant studies were performed using images on computer screens, we investigate the visual light field in a real scene by using a novel experimental setup. A “probe” and a scene were

  17. Social dimension and complexity differentially influence brain responses during feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Gittenberger, Marianne; Lamm, Claus

    2017-10-30

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback. No effects of social dimension or complexity were found for task performance. In contrast, Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes were sensitive to both factors, with larger FRN and P300 amplitudes after social compared to non-social stimuli, and larger FRN amplitudes after complex positive than non-complex positive stimuli. P2 amplitudes were solely sensitive to feedback valence and social dimension. Subjectively, social complex stimuli were rated as more motivating than non-social complex ones. Independently of each other, social dimension and visual complexity influenced amplitude variation during performance monitoring. Social stimuli seem to be perceived as more salient, which is corroborated by P2, FRN and P300 results, as well as by subjective ratings. This could be explained due to their given relevance during every day social interactions.

  18. The inverse trans influence in a family of pentavalent uranium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Mullane, Kimberly C; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2014-07-07

    Systematic ligand variation in a structurally conserved framework of pentavalent uranium complexes of the formulas U(V)X2[N(SiMe3)2]3 (X = F, Cl, Br, N3, NCS, 2-naphthoxide) and U(V)OX[N(SiMe3)2]3(-) (X = -CCPh, -CN) allowed an investigation into the role of the inverse trans influence in pentavalent uranium complexes. The -CCPh and -CN derivatives were only stable in the presence of the trans-U═O multiple bond, implicating the inverse trans influence in stabilizing these complexes. Spectroscopic, structural, and density functional theory calculated electronic structural data are explored. Near-IR data of all complexes is presented, displaying vibronic coupling of 5f(1) electronic transitions along the primary axis. Electrochemical characterization allowed assessment of the relative donating ability of the various axial ligands in this framework. Electron paramagnetic resonance data presented display axial spectra, with hyperfine coupling along the primary axis.

  19. The Influence of Small Monovalent Cations on Neighbouring Hydrogen Bonds of Aquo-Protein Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarik, Kritsana P.; Rode, Bernd M.

    1981-12-01

    The influence of small monovalent metal ions on hydrogen bonds of aquo-protein complexes is studied on Li+/HCONH2-OH2 as an example. Using results obtained from ab initio calculations with minimal GLO basis sets, the remarkable changes in the hydrogen bond energy and charge distribution, due to metal ion complex formation, are discussed. The metal ion seems to enhance strongly the donor-acceptor interaction of the O ... H-N-C=0 hydrogen-bonded system.

  20. Real-time scene generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in

  1. Complex network structure influences processing in long-term and short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological word-forms influenced retrieval from the mental lexicon (that portion of long-term memory dedicated to language) during the on-line recognition and producti...

  2. Influence of pectinolyttic and cellulotyc enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Manuella; Robrigues, Renata Débora Pinto; Pinto, Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra; de Brito, Edy Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Cashew apple bagasse is a byproduct of cashew peduncle juice processing. Such waste is a source of carotenoids, but it is usually discarded after the juice extraction. The objective of this work was to study the influence of pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids. It was observed that maceration with the enzymatic complex Pectinex Batch AR showed a higher content of carotenoids, with an overall gain of 79 % over the control carried out without enzyme complex addition.

  3. Rheological properties of wheat starch influenced by amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexation at different gelation phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S; Woortman, A J J; Hamer, R J; Loos, K

    2015-05-20

    Amylose is able to form helical inclusion complexes with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). This complexation influences the functional and rheological properties of wheat starch; however it is well known that the formation of these complexes lead the starchy systems to a slower enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on this, to benefit from both the structuring properties of starch and also lower digestibility of the inclusion complexes, the objective of this study is the formation of amylose-LPC inclusion complexes while developing a firm network providing the desired functional properties in a starchy system. To investigate the influence of amylose-LPC complex formation at different stages of starch gelation on the viscosity behavior of wheat starch, 3% (w/w) LPC was added at three different points of the viscosity profile, obtained by rapid visco analyzer (RVA). LPC addition at all points affected the gelation behavior of wheat starch as compared with the reference. LPC addition at half-peak and peak of the viscosity profile resulted in a viscosity increase during cooling. Measuring the dynamic rheological properties of the freshly prepared gelatinized samples showed a decrease of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") in the presence of LPC. During storage, in the presence of LPC, a lower elasticity was observed which indicates a lower rate of amylose retrogradation due to complexation with LPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C

    2006-06-06

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.

  5. Object-based attention in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, George L; Shomstein, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    We are continually confronted with more visual information than we can process in a given moment. In order to interact effectively with our environment, attentional mechanisms are used to select subsets of environmental properties for enhanced processing. Previous research demonstrated that spatial regions can be selected based on either their low-level feature or high-level semantic properties. However, the efficiency with which we interact with the world suggests that there must be an additional, midlevel, factor constraining effective attentional space. The present study investigates whether object-based attentional selection is one such midlevel factor that constrains visual attention in complex, real-world scenes. Participants viewed scene images while their eye movements were recorded. During viewing, a cue appeared on an object which participants were instructed to fixate. A target then appeared either on the same object as the cue, on a different object, or floating. Participants initiated saccades faster and had shorter response times to targets presented on the same object as the fixated cue. The results strongly suggest that when attending to a location on an object, the entire object benefits perceptually. This object-based effect on the distribution of spatial attention forms a critical link between low- and high-level factors that direct attention efficiently in complex real-world scenes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  7. Scene perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: categorisation, description and fixation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Shakespeare

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (colour and greyscale using a categorisation paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces<scenesscenesscenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient’s global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not. Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients’ fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  8. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pa...... training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning....

  9. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  10. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  11. Influence of Countercation Hydration Enthalpies on the Formation of Molecular Complexes: A Thorium-Nitrate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Geng Bang; Lin, Jian; Estes, Shanna L; Skanthakumar, S; Soderholm, L

    2017-12-13

    The influence of countercations (A n+ ) in directing the composition of monomeric metal-ligand (ML) complexes that precipitate from solution are often overlooked despite the wide usage of A n+ in materials synthesis. Herein, we describe a correlation between the composition of ML complexes and A + hydration enthalpies found for two related series of thorium (Th)-nitrate molecular compounds obtained by evaporating acidic aqueous Th-nitrate solutions in the presence of A + counterions. Analyses of their chemical composition and solid-state structures demonstrate that A + not only affects the overall solid-state packing of the Th-nitrato complexes but also influences the composition of the Th-nitrato monomeric anions themselves. Trends in composition and structure are found to correlate with A + hydration enthalpies, such that the A + with smaller hydration enthalpies associate with less hydrated and more anionic Th-nitrato complexes. This perspective, broader than the general assumption of size and charge as the dominant influence of A n+ , opens a new avenue for the design and synthesis of targeted metal-ligand complexes.

  12. Influence of Herbal Complexes Containing Licorice on Potassium Levels: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooSang Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the influence of these complexes on potassium levels in a clinical setting, we investigated the influence of herbal complexes containing licorice on potassium levels. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients treated with herbal complexes containing licorice from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. We recorded the changes in the levels of potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and examined the differences between before and after herbal complexes intake using a paired t-test. In addition, we investigated the prevalence of hypokalemia among these patients and reviewed such patients. We identified 360 patients who did not show significant changes in the levels of potassium and creatinine (P=0.815, 0.289. We observed hypokalemia in 6 patients. However, in 5 patients, the hypokalemia did not appear to be related to the licorice. Thus, we could suggest that herbal complexes containing licorice do not significantly influence the potassium levels in routine clinical herbal therapies. However, we propose that follow-up examination for potassium levels is required to prevent any unpredictable side effects of administration of licorice in routine herbal medicine care.

  13. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  14. Dynamical influence: how to measure individual contributions to collective dynamics in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Konstantin; Eguiluz, Victor M; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    Identifying key players in complex networks remains a challenge affecting a great variety of research fields, from the efficient dissemination of ideas to drug target discovery in biomedical problems. The difficulty lies at several levels: how to single out the role of individual elements in such intermingled systems, or which is the best way to quantify their importance. Centrality measures aim at capturing the influence of a node from its position in a network. The key issue obviated is that the contribution of a node to the collective behaviour is not uniquely determined by the structure of the system but a result of both dynamics and network structure. Here we define dynamical influence as an explicit measure of how strongly a node's dynamical state affects collective behavior. Influence is derived analytically for dissipative processes in complex networks, directed or undirected. We show that it quantifies precisely how efficiently real systems may be driven by manipulating the state of single nodes. It ...

  15. Acoustic simulation in realistic 3D virtual scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozard, Patrick; Le Goff, Alain; Naz, Pierre; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2003-09-01

    The simulation workshop CHORALE developed in collaboration with OKTAL SE company for the French MoD is used by government services and industrial companies for weapon system validation and qualification trials in the infrared domain. The main operational reference for CHORALE is the assessment of the infrared guidance system of the Storm Shadow missile French version, called Scalp. The use of CHORALE workshop is now extended to the acoustic domain. The main objective is the simulation of the detection of moving vehicles in realistic 3D virtual scenes. This article briefly describes the acoustic model in CHORALE. The 3D scene is described by a set of polygons. Each polygon is characterized by its acoustic resistivity or its complex impedance. Sound sources are associated with moving vehicles and are characterized by their spectra and directivities. A microphone sensor is defined by its position, its frequency band and its sensitivity. The purpose of the acoustic simulation is to calculate the incoming acoustic pressure on microphone sensors. CHORALE is based on a generic ray tracing kernel. This kernel possesses original capabilities: computation time is nearly independent on the scene complexity, especially the number of polygons, databases are enhanced with precise physical data, special mechanisms of antialiasing have been developed that enable to manage very accurate details. The ray tracer takes into account the wave geometrical divergence and the atmospheric transmission. The sound wave refraction is simulated and rays cast in the 3D scene are curved according to air temperature gradient. Finally, sound diffraction by edges (hill, wall,...) is also taken into account.

  16. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  17. Three interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...

  18. Unsupervised Moving Target Detection in Dynamic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    training the algorithm to learn the background parameters. The need to train such algorithms for each scene separately limits their ability to be...deployed for automatic surveillance tasks, where manual re- training of the module to operate in each new scene is not feasible. A further shortcoming in...and (b). The camera panning is such that the objects of interest, viz. the two cyclists , undergo very small motion in the image coordinates. Figure 1

  19. Scene change detection based on multimodal integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Zhou, Dongru

    2003-09-01

    Scene change detection is an essential step to automatic and content-based video indexing, retrieval and browsing. In this paper, a robust scene change detection and classification approach is presented, which analyzes audio, visual and textual sources and accounts for their inter-relations and coincidence to semantically identify and classify video scenes. Audio analysis focuses on the segmentation of audio stream into four types of semantic data such as silence, speech, music and environmental sound. Further processing on speech segments aims at locating speaker changes. Video analysis partitions visual stream into shots. Text analysis can provide a supplemental source of clues for scene classification and indexing information. We integrate the video and audio analysis results to identify video scenes and use the text information detected by the video OCR technology or derived from transcripts available to refine scene classification. Results from single source segmentation are in some cases suboptimal. By combining visual, aural features adn the accessorial text information, the scence extraction accuracy is enhanced, and more semantic segmentations are developed. Experimental results are proven to rather promising.

  20. Scene-selectivity and retinotopy in medial parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Harry Silson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral (occipital place area, OPA, ventral (parahippocampal place area, PPA, and medial (retrosplenial complex, RSC cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using fMRI, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS. While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and FFA, commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective OFA, suggesting a closer link with ventral then lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral surface, the caudal inferior parietal lobule (cIPL. However, the differential connectivity in

  1. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  2. Consecutive TMS-fMRI reveals an inverse relationship in BOLD signal between object and scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2013-12-04

    The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes (the parahippocampal place area). Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that these image categories (scenes and objects) exert an influence on each other such that scene context can facilitate object identification or that scene categorization can be impaired by the presence of a salient object, little is known about the apparent cortical interactions involved in building the conscious representation of a complete scene. It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left LO disrupts object categorization but facilitates scene categorization. Here, we show that this effect is also reflected by changes in the BOLD signal such that TMS to the left LO decreases BOLD signal at the stimulation site (LO) while viewing objects and increases BOLD signal in the left PPA when viewing scenes. This suggests that these regions, although likely not on a strict hierarchy of bottom-up coding, share functional communication likely in the form of inhibitory connections.

  3. Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

  4. Virtual simulation-based scene modeling of helicopter earthquake search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Liu, Hu; Yang, Chenguang; Wang, Ning

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of helicopter earthquake search and rescue (HESAR) oriented virtual simulation scene are summarized to guide the modeling of virtual simulation scene. Then a method of scene modeling which can satisfy the simulation requirements and simplify the modeling is proposed. The seismic influence field is first determined by inversion to get the distribution of buildings with different damage grades. And then, the division of different levels of detail (LOD) regions where the intricacy requirements of modeling are different is obtained to simplify the modeling. Besides, Unity3D is used for the three-dimensional terrain construction and scene rendering. Finally, a sample case was shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. The influence of complex material coverings on the bandwidth of antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, S.A.; Maslovski, S. I.; Sochava, A. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of material coverings on the antenna bandwidth is investigated for antennas formed by thin electric or magnetic line sources. It is shown that uniform thin layers of arbitrary passive materials (including Veselago, left-handed, or double-negative materials) cannot help to overcome the bandwidth limitations imposed by the amount of energy stored in the antenna reactive field. Alternative possibilities offered by complex composite materials in the antenna design are identified.

  6. Influence of Humic Acid Complexation with Metal Ions on Extracellular Electron Transfer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shungui; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Lu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) can act as electron shuttles and mediate biogeochemical cycles, thereby influencing the transformation of nutrients and environmental pollutants. HAs commonly complex with metals in the environment, but few studies have focused on how these metals affect the roles of HAs in extracellular electron transfer (EET). In this study, HA-metal (HA-M) complexes (HA-Fe, HA-Cu, and HA-Al) were prepared and characterized. The electron shuttle capacities of HA-M complexes were experimentally evaluated through microbial Fe(III) reduction, biocurrent generation, and microbial azoreduction. The results show that the electron shuttle capacities of HAs were enhanced after complexation with Fe but were weakened when using Cu or Al. Density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the structural geometry of the HA-M complexes and revealed the best binding sites of the HAs to metals and the varied charge transfer rate constants (k). The EET activity of the HA-M complexes were in the order HA-Fe > HA-Cu > HA-Al. These findings have important implications for biogeochemical redox processes given the ubiquitous nature of both HAs and various metals in the environment. PMID:26593782

  7. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  8. Recognition of a Virtual Scene via Simulated Prosthetic Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128 for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials. In the simple simulated prosthetic vision (SPV scene, when the resolution was increased from 32 × 32 to 48 × 48, the object recognition time decreased from 92.19 ± 6.97 to 43.05 ± 6.08 s, and the recognition accuracy increased from 51.22 ± 8.53 to 85.52 ± 4.93%. Furthermore, the number of collisions decreased from 10.00 ± 2.31 to 3.00 ± 0.68. When the resolution was increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64, the object recognition time further decreased from 43.05 ± 6.08 to 19.46 ± 3.71 s, the recognition accuracy increased from 85.52 ± 4.93 to 96.89 ± 2.06%, and the number of collisions decreased from 3.00 ± 0.68 to 1.00 ± 0.29. In complex scenes, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 115.00 ± 23.02 to 68.25 ± 17.23 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 65.69 ± 9.61 to 80.42 ± 7.70% when the resolution increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64. When the resolution increased from 64 × 64 to 128 × 128, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 68.25 ± 17.23 to 44.88 ± 9.94 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 80.42 ± 7.71 to 85.69 ± 7.39%. Therefore, one can conclude that there are correlations between pathfinding and recognition. When the resolution increased, the time required for

  9. Growth and Development of Dentofacial Complex influenced by Genetic and Environmental Factors using Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjusha, K K; Jyothindrakumar, K; Nishad, A; Manoj, K Madhav

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of genetic and environmental factors on dentofacial complex using monozygotic twins. The study sample was made of 21 pairs of monozygotic twins (14 female pairs and seven male pairs) between 10 and 25 years. Pretreatment lateral cephalo-grams were used which were traced and digitized, and various landmarks to determine the anteroposterior and vertical proportions were marked. Samples were divided into two groups. The correlation between groups was found by calculating Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients. The range of the correlation coefficient was from 0.705 to 0.952. Gonial angle showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.952), while saddle angle showed the lowest correlation coefficient (0.705). The growth and development of craniofacial complex is under mutifactorial control. However, genetic influences do tend to play a dominant role. By studying identical twins, we can study about the interaction of the environment with the genes and how it affects the growth and development of the body in general and dentofacial complex in particular. By utilizing twin studies, we can identify whether a particular trait, disease, or disorder is influenced more strongly by genetics or by the environment. Success of orthodontic treatment depends on a proper diagnosis of the problem including its etiological factors. Genetic studies let the orthodontists to understand the effects of genetic and environmental factors in the growth and development of dentofacial complex better and allows to prevent or treat malocclusions and skeletal anomalies in better ways.

  10. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  11. MEASURING THE INFLUENCE OF TASK COMPLEXITY ON HUMAN ERROR PROBABILITY: AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PODOFILLINI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A key input for the assessment of Human Error Probabilities (HEPs with Human Reliability Analysis (HRA methods is the evaluation of the factors influencing the human performance (often referred to as Performance Shaping Factors, PSFs. In general, the definition of these factors and the supporting guidance are such that their evaluation involves significant subjectivity. This affects the repeatability of HRA results as well as the collection of HRA data for model construction and verification. In this context, the present paper considers the TAsk COMplexity (TACOM measure, developed by one of the authors to quantify the complexity of procedure-guided tasks (by the operating crew of nuclear power plants in emergency situations, and evaluates its use to represent (objectively and quantitatively task complexity issues relevant to HRA methods. In particular, TACOM scores are calculated for five Human Failure Events (HFEs for which empirical evidence on the HEPs (albeit with large uncertainty and influencing factors are available – from the International HRA Empirical Study. The empirical evaluation has shown promising results. The TACOM score increases as the empirical HEP of the selected HFEs increases. Except for one case, TACOM scores are well distinguished if related to different difficulty categories (e.g., “easy” vs. “somewhat difficult”, while values corresponding to tasks within the same category are very close. Despite some important limitations related to the small number of HFEs investigated and the large uncertainty in their HEPs, this paper presents one of few attempts to empirically study the effect of a performance shaping factor on the human error probability. This type of study is important to enhance the empirical basis of HRA methods, to make sure that 1 the definitions of the PSFs cover the influences important for HRA (i.e., influencing the error probability, and 2 the quantitative relationships among PSFs and error

  12. Deconstructing visual scenes in cortex: gradients of object and spatial layout information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2013-04-01

    Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity.

  13. The influence of expertise and of physical complexity on visual short-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiming; Zimmer, Hubert D; Fu, Xiaolan

    2011-04-01

    We investigated whether the expertise of a perceiver and the physical complexity of a stimulus influence consolidation of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a S1-S2 (Stimulus 1-Stimulus 2) change detection task. Consolidation is assumed to make transient perceptual representations in VSTM more durable, and it is investigated by postexposure of a mask shortly after offset of the perceived stimulus (S1; 17 to 483 ms). We presented colours, Chinese characters, pseudocharacters, and novel symbols to novices (Germans) or experts of Chinese language (Chinese readers). Physical complexity was manipulated by the number of strokes. Unfamiliar material was remembered worse than familiar material (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). For novices the absolute VSTM performance was better for physically simple than for complex material, whereas for experts the complexity did not matter-Chinese readers memorized Chinese characters (Experiment 3). Articulatory suppression did not change these effects (Experiment 2). We always observed a strong effect of SOA, but this effect was influenced neither by physical complexity nor by expertise; only the length of the interstimulus interval between S1 and the mask was relevant. This was observed even with short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 100 ms (Experiment 2) and in comparing colours and characters (Experiment 5). However, masks impaired memory if they were presented at the locations of the to-be-memorized items, but not beside them-that is, interference was location-based (Experiment 6). We explain the effect of SOA by the assumption that it takes time to stop encoding of information presented at item locations with the offset of S1. The increasing resistance against interference by irrelevant material appears as consolidation of S1.

  14. Probing the time course of head-motion cues integration during auditory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hirohito M; Toshima, Iwaki; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Kashino, Makio

    2014-01-01

    The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and rate their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues), we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved.

  15. Probing the time course of head-motion cues integration during auditory scene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito M. Kondo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and report their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues, we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved.

  16. Accelerative and decelerative effects of hedonic valence and emotional arousal during visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual processing of natural scene pictures is enhanced when the scene conveys emotional content. Such "motivated attention" to pleasant and unpleasant pictures has been shown to improve identification accuracy in non-speeded behavioural tasks. An open question is whether emotional content also modulates the speed of visual scene processing. In the present studies we show that unpleasant content reliably slowed two-choice categorization of pictures, irrespective of physical image properties, perceptual complexity, and categorization instructions. Conversely, pleasant content did not slow or even accelerated choice reactions, relative to neutral scenes. As indicated by lateralized readiness potentials, these effects occurred at cognitive processing rather than motor preparation/execution stages. Specifically, analysis of event-related potentials showed a prolongation of early scene discrimination for stimuli perceived as emotionally arousing, regardless of valence, and reflected in delayed peaks of the N1 component. In contrast, the timing of other processing steps, reflected in the P2 and late positive potential components and presumably related to post-discriminatory processes such as stimulus-response mapping, appeared to be determined by hedonic valence, with more pleasant scenes eliciting faster processing. Consistent with this model, varying arousal (low/high) within the emotional categories mediated the effects of valence on choice reaction speed. Functionally, arousal may prolong stimulus analysis in order to prevent erroneous and potentially harmful decisions. Pleasantness may act as a safety signal allowing rapid initiation of overt responses.

  17. Scene grammar shapes the way we interact with objects, strengthens memories, and speeds search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2017-11-28

    Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.

  18. Identification at the crime scene: The sooner, the better? The interpretation of rapid identification information by CSIs at the crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J

    2017-07-01

    New technologies will allow Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs) in the near future to analyse traces at the crime scene and receive identification information while still conducting the investigation. These developments could have considerable effects on the way an investigation is conducted. CSIs may start reasoning based on possible database-matches which could influence scenario formation (i.e. the construction of narratives that explain the observed traces) during very early phases of the investigation. The goal of this study is to gain more insight into the influence of the rapid identification information on the reconstruction of the crime and the evaluation of traces by addressing two questions, namely 1) is scenario formation influenced from the moment that ID information is provided and 2) do database matches influence the evaluation of traces and the reconstruction of the crime. We asked 48 CSIs from England to investigate a potential murder crime scene on a computer. Our findings show that the interpretation of the crime scene by CSIs is affected by the moment identification information is provided. This information has a higher influence on scenario formation when provided after an initial scenario has been formed. Also, CSIs seem to attach great value to traces that produce matches with databases and hence yield a name of a known person. Similar traces that did not provide matches were considered less important. We question whether this kind of selective attention is desirable as it may cause ignorance of other relevant information at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does gravity matter? Effects of semantic and syntactic inconsistencies on the allocation of attention during scene perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Melissa L-H; Henderson, John M

    2009-03-27

    It has been shown that attention and eye movements during scene perception are preferentially allocated to semantically inconsistent objects compared to their consistent controls. However, there has been a dispute over how early during scene viewing such inconsistencies are detected. In the study presented here, we introduced syntactic object-scene inconsistencies (i.e., floating objects) in addition to semantic inconsistencies to investigate the degree to which they attract attention during scene viewing. In Experiment 1 participants viewed scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory task, while in Experiment 2 participants were instructed to search for target objects. In neither experiment were we able to find evidence for extrafoveal detection of either type of inconsistency. However, upon fixation both semantically and syntactically inconsistent objects led to increased object processing as seen in elevated gaze durations and number of fixations. Interestingly, the semantic inconsistency effect was diminished for floating objects, which suggests an interaction of semantic and syntactic scene processing. This study is the first to provide evidence for the influence of syntactic in addition to semantic object-scene inconsistencies on eye movement behavior during real-world scene viewing.

  20. Influence of DNA-dye complex stability on separation resolution in microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Roger C; Joffe, Aaron M

    2012-03-01

    Different markers have been used to label DNA for sample detection in gel electrophoresis. Intercalating dyes, (e.g., YOYO) have been widely used to label DNA for sample detection, because they do not require the use of radioisotopes, covalent attachment or enzyme reactions. The labeling of DNA fragments can be achieved by simply mixing solutions of the intercalating dye and DNA sample. However, the separation quality of DNA labeled with intercalating dyes is greatly influenced by the buffer used, which affects the DNA-dye complex stability. In this study, we investigated the effects of DNA-dye complex stability on separation resolution of dsDNA migrating in a photopolymerized polyacrylamide gel by measuring mobility and dispersion coefficients on a microfluidic chip and comparing predicted separation resolution under different dye and buffer conditions. We found that a buffer containing tetrapentylammonium (NPe(4)(+)) yielded better separation resolution than the frequently used TBE buffer on our microchip electrophoresis system.

  1. Factors influencing Complexity in Financial Report preparation - Evidence from the Banking Sector in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mutiso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current developments in the business environment as well as in the accountancy profession have significantly affected the way the financial reports are prepared. This study sought to assess the factors influencing complexity of preparing financial reports in the banking sector in Kenya. The objectives included assessing whether disclosures, adoption of International financial Reporting Standard, regulations and lack of competence by the preparers have contributed to the complexity of preparing financial statements. Using a descriptive study design, data was collected from ten banks registered in the Nairobi Capital Market. The study found out that the identified variables positively contributed to complications in the preparation of financial reports. Management interference, lack of guidance on interpretations and frequent updates of the standards were identified as the main challenges in preparing financial reports. Several recommendations were given to help simplify the process of preparing financial statements.

  2. PT (II AND PD (II COMPLEXES INFLUENCE ON SPHEROIDS GROWTH OF BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bilyuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to examine the changes in multi-cellular tumor spheroid growth, adhesion properties and gamma-glutamintranspeptidasic activity in model systems of human breast cancer multicellular spheroid MCF-7 under the influence of Pt(ІІ and Pd(ІІ π-complexes with allyl-containing thioureas. Comparing with cisplatin, Pt(II and Pd(II complexes reduce gamma-glutamintranspeptidasic activity, increase adhesive properties in model system of solid tumor and inhibit the multicellular spheroids’ growth. All changes prove the importance of further investigation and analysis of these compounds as potential analogues of anticancer drugs that possibly do not cause resistance and reduce the level of metastasis in breast cancer.

  3. Influence of the Investor's Behavior on the Complexity of the Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atman, A. P. F.; Gonçalves, Bruna Amin

    2012-04-01

    One of the pillars of the finance theory is the efficient-market hypothesis, which is used to analyze the stock market. However, in recent years, this hypothesis has been questioned by a number of studies showing evidence of unusual behaviors in the returns of financial assets ("anomalies") caused by behavioral aspects of the economic agents. Therefore, it is time to initiate a debate about the efficient-market hypothesis and the "behavioral finances." We here introduce a cellular automaton model to study the stock market complexity, considering different behaviors of the economical agents. From the analysis of the stationary standard of investment observed in the simulations and the Hurst exponents obtained for the term series of stock index, we draw conclusions concerning the complexity of the model compared to real markets. We also investigate which conditions of the investors are able to influence the efficient market hypothesis statements.

  4. INFLUENCE OF RIBOSOMAL COMPLEX ON THE STATE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT STENOSING LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Orlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of ribosomal-proteoglycan complex (Ribomunyl on respiratory system in treatment and rehabilitation of 40 children with recurrent stenosing laryngotracheitis developed on the basis of respiratory viral infections was studied. Inclusion of this drug into complex of treatment and rehabilitation resulted in normalization of lungs’ ventilation and threshold sensitivity of airways, decreasing of common IgE and nitric oxide in these patients. The effect means significant decrease of persistent infectious-allergic inflammation. Treatment with this drug resulted in prolongation of remission in increase of children’s quality of life. Key words: children, recurrent stenosing laryngotracheitis, hypersensitivity of airways, Rybomunyl, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:36-41

  5. Major histocompatibility complex-controlled protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are peptide specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Kjellén, P; Olsson, T

    1997-01-01

    The myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and its associated T cell cytokine profile are influenced by the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC). There is an allele-specific protective influence of the MHC class I region, whereas...... the MHC class II region display either disease-protective or -promoting effects. To investigate if the MHC-associated protection is dependent on certain combinations of MBP peptide and MHC molecules, we have now used another peptide (MBP 89-101). A broader and different set of rat MHC alleles were......-101 peptide, except in LEW.1N (RT1 pi) rats which were relatively resistant. Only this strain responded with additional Th2-like and transforming growth factor-beta responses to the peptide in vitro. In vivo depletion of CD8+ cells aggravated the disease in this strain. We conclude that both MHC...

  6. Three-dimensional scene encryption and display based on computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dezhao; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-10

    An optical encryption and display method for a three-dimensional (3D) scene is proposed based on computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using a single phase-only spatial light modulator. The 3D scene is encoded as one complex Fourier CGH. The Fourier CGH is then decomposed into two phase-only CGHs with random distributions by the vector stochastic decomposition algorithm. Two CGHs are interleaved as one final phase-only CGH for optical encryption and reconstruction. The proposed method can support high-level nonlinear optical 3D scene security and complex amplitude modulation of the optical field. The exclusive phase key offers strong resistances of decryption attacks. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the novel method.

  7. MTF characteristics of a Scophony scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildwachter, Eric F.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    1991-09-01

    The Scophony scene projector has been examined in detail. Modulation transfer function was measured and found to be significantly lower than expected. The discrepancy is shown to be due to variation in the Bragg angle with input frequency. Experimental data is compared with calculated performance.

  8. 3-D Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    navigate along interstate routes at speeds in excess of 110 mph, and the inclusion of the first down line in televised football games [28]. These...roughly 2000 feet above the target based on the Sadr City scene dimensions and scaling fac - tors. Images were rendered at a resolution of 1000×1000 as

  9. Vocational Guidance Requests within the International Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the…

  10. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  11. Parafoveal Semantic Processing of Emotional Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Lang, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether emotional pictorial stimuli are especially likely to be processed in parafoveal vision. Pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented parafoveally (2.1[degrees] or 2.5[degrees] of visual angle from a central fixation point) for 150-3,000 ms, followed by an immediate recognition test (500-ms delay).…

  12. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  13. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  14. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  15. A graph theoretic approach to scene matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1991-08-01

    The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.

  16. 3D scanning and imaging for quick documentation of crime and accident scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Sala, R.; Scaioni, M.; Cattaneo, C.; Gibelli, D.; Giussani, A.; Poppa, P.; Roncoroni, F.; Vandone, A.

    2012-06-01

    Fast documentation of complex scenes where accidents or crimes occurred is fundamental not to lose information for post-event analyses and lesson learning. Today 3D terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry offer instruments capable of achieving this task. The former allows the fast geometric reconstruction of complex scenes through dense point clouds. Different kinds of instruments can be used according to the size of the area to survey and to the required level of details. The latter can be used for both geometric reconstruction and for photo-realistic texturing of laser scans. While photogrammetry better focuses on small details, laser scanning gives out a more comprehensive view of geometry of whole crime/accident scene. Both techniques can be used for recording a scene just after a crime or a disaster occurred, before the area is cleared out to recover regular activities. Visualization of results through an easy-to-use 3D environment is another import issue to offer useful data to investigators. Here two experiences of crime scene documentation are proposed.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF ENCODING FUNCTION COMPLEXITY ON DISTRIBUTION OF ERROR MASKING PROBABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Levina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Error detection codes are mechanisms that enable robust delivery of data in unreliable communication channels and devices. Unreliable channels and devices are error-prone objects. Respectively, error detection codes allow detecting such errors. There are two classes of error detecting codes - classical codes and security-oriented codes. The classical codes have high percentage of detected errors; however, they have a high probability to miss an error in algebraic manipulation. In order, security-oriented codes are codes with a small Hamming distance and high protection to algebraic manipulation. The probability of error masking is a fundamental parameter of security-oriented codes. A detailed study of this parameter allows analyzing the behavior of the error-correcting code in the case of error injection in the encoding device. In order, the complexity of the encoding function plays an important role in the security-oriented codes. Encoding functions with less computational complexity and a low probability of masking are the best protection of encoding device against malicious acts. This paper investigates the influence of encoding function complexity on the error masking probability distribution. It will be shownthat the more complex encoding function reduces the maximum of error masking probability. It is also shown in the paper that increasing of the function complexity changes the error masking probability distribution. In particular, increasing of computational complexity decreases the difference between the maximum and average value of the error masking probability. Our resultshave shown that functions with greater complexity have smoothed maximums of error masking probability, which significantly complicates the analysis of error-correcting code by attacker. As a result, in case of complex encoding function the probability of the algebraic manipulation is reduced. The paper discusses an approach how to measure the error masking

  18. Memory for temporally dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ryan; Homa, Donald; Ellis, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Recognition memory was investigated for individual frames extracted from temporally continuous, visually rich film segments of 5-15 min. Participants viewed a short clip from a film in either a coherent or a jumbled order, followed by a recognition test of studied frames. Foils came either from an earlier or a later part of the film (Experiment 1) or from deleted segments selected from random cuts of varying duration (0.5 to 30 s) within the film itself (Experiment 2). When the foils came from an earlier or later part of the film (Experiment 1), recognition was excellent, with the hit rate far exceeding the false-alarm rate (.78 vs. 18). In Experiment 2, recognition was far worse, with the hit rate (.76) exceeding the false-alarm rate only for foils drawn from the longest cuts (15 and 30 s) and matching the false-alarm rate for the 5 s segments. When the foils were drawn from the briefest cuts (0.5 and 1.0 s), the false-alarm rate exceeded the hit rate. Unexpectedly, jumbling had no effect on recognition in either experiment. These results are consistent with the view that memory for complex visually temporal events is excellent, with the integrity unperturbed by disruption of the global structure of the visual stream. Disruption of memory was observed only when foils were drawn from embedded segments of duration less than 5 s, an outcome consistent with the view that memory at these shortest durations are consolidated with expectations drawn from the previous stream.

  19. The influence of carboxilate, phosphinate and seleninate groups on luminescent properties of lanthanides complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Jorge H.S.K.; Formiga, André L.B.; Sigoli, Fernando A., E-mail: fsigoli@iqm.unicamp.br

    2014-10-15

    The lanthanides(III) complexes [Ln(bza){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]·mH{sub 2}O, [Ln(ppa){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]·mH{sub 2}O and [Ln(abse){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]·mH{sub 2}O where Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} were synthesized using sodium benzoate (Nabza), sodium phenylseleninate (Naabse) and sodium phenylphosphinate (Nappa) in order to verify the influence on coordination modes and the luminescence parameters when the carbon is exchanged by phosphorus or selenium in those ligands. The complexes' stoichiometries were determined by lanthanide(III) titration, microanalysis and TGA. The coordination modes were determined as bidentate bridging and chelate by the FT-IR. The triplet state energies of the ligands were obtained by two different approaches giving a difference of about ∼2000 cm{sup −1} between them. The [Eu(abse){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)] complex shows the higher degree of covalence which was verified by the centroid of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} transition (17,248 cm{sup −1}). On the other hand the [Ln(abse){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]·mH{sub 2}O complexes have an inefficient antenna effect verified by the low values of absolute emission quantum yields. The [Ln(ppa){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]·mH{sub 2}O complexes have higher emission decay lifetime values among the complexes which is a result of the ability of this ligand to form coordination polymers avoiding water molecules in the first coordination sphere. The [Eu(ppa){sub 3}] complex has the highest point symmetry around europium(III) among the synthesized complexes, followed by the [Eu(bza){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3/2(H{sub 2}O) and [Eu(abse){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)] complexes where europium(III) show similar point symmetries. As one may expect, the triplet state energy position would change the transfer and/or back energy transfer rates from ligand to metal. The calculation of these rates show that the back energy transfer rates are more affected than the transfer ones by

  20. Visual reproduction test in normal elderly: Influence of schooling and visual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tests of visual reproduction are used to assess visual memory. However, when the test is based on geometrical elements results could be influenced by schooling. Objective: To evaluate the influence of different schooling levels on performance of a visual reproduction task. Methods: A sample of 253 individuals (66 male and 187 female, aged 60 to 92 years were evaluated on a visual reproduction task comprising three geometric pictures of increasing complexity. Each individual was shown a picture for 8 to10 seconds and a drawing of it was then immediately elicited. Four groups were defined according to the following schooling levels: illiterate, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 8 years and over 8 years. Individual performance was measured by summing the items correctly reproduced for the three pictures. Results: A significant difference for age was found between the illiterate and other three schooling groups. The reproduction of picture one was better reproduced than pictures 2 and 3 for all schooling levels (p<0.001. Pictures 2 and 3 did not differ among the schooling levels. Picture reproduction among the schooling levels showed that the group with over 8 years of schooling performed better on pictures 1 and 2 (p<0.001 but not on picture 3. Conclusion: Individuals aged 60 years or older, with 8 years' schooling or less, showed a reduced capacity to reproduce geometric pictures of a high degree of complexity. Clinical evaluations that use geometrical tests could be misinterpreted when not controlled for schooling level.

  1. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  2. Influence of β - cyclodextrin complexation on lovastatin release from osmotic pump tablets (OPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehramizi A.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An extended-release osmotic dosage form was designed and the effect of β-cyclodextrin (BCD inclusion complexation on the solubility of lovastatin in aqueous media was investigated. The lovastatin BCD solid systems were prepared by kneading method. The elementary osmotic pumps (EOPs were prepared with lovastatin BCD complex with cellulose acetate (CA and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The effect of the BCD molar ratio on enhancement of lovastatin dissolution rate and the influences of various parameters (e.g. drug –BCD ratio, molecular weight and amount of PVP, coating weight gain on drug release profiles were investigated. The solubility and dissolution rates of lovastatin were significantly increased by using inclusion complexation. It was found that PVP K90 was a suitable hydrophilic polymer with thickening effect and had profoundly positive effect on drug release. The present results confirmed that dissolution rate of lovastatin BCD were greatly enhanced and this system has suitable solubility behavior in EOP tablet formulations.

  3. The influence of negative mood on heart rate complexity measures and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbele, Ralf; Koschke, Mandy; Schulz, Steffen; Wagner, Gerd; Yeragani, Shravya; Ramachandraiah, Chaitra T; Voss, Andreas; Yeragani, Vikram K; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Decreased cardiac vagal function is linked with increased cardiac mortality and depression is associated with decreased heart rate variability. We have previously shown that the Mood Induction Procedure (MIP) in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity during pain perception. To study the effect of negative emotion on heart rate variability and complexity measures as well as on baroreceptor sensitivity, as these parameters reflect cardiac autonomic function. We studied 20 healthy female controls before and after neutral MIP and 20 healthy female subjects before and after negative MIP. We investigated measures of valence of mood, heart rate variability and complexity and the baroreceptor sensitivity index. While there was a significant difference in the valence of mood between the neutral and the negative effect condition, there were no significant differences in any of the heart rate or baroreceptor sensitivity measures between the two groups. Our findings did not show any significant influence of acute negative MIP on heart rate variability and complexity measures and baroreceptor sensitivity, even though depressive disorder and stress are associated with decreased heart rate variability. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical depression and anxiety and the increased risk for cardiac mortality. In contrast to the presented results here, we have previously shown that MIP in healthy subjects alters pain perception and thalamic activity.

  4. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  5. Modeling complex genetic and environmental influences on comorbid bipolar disorder with tobacco use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Alex S

    2010-01-01

    to improve our understanding of complex disease etiology. We illustrate the development and testing of hypotheses for a comorbidity predisposed by both genetic and environmental influences. Consistent with our hypothesis, the selected network models multiple interacting genetic influences on comorbid BD with TUD, as well as the environmental influence of nicotine. This network nominates candidate genes for validation and drug testing, and we offer a panel of SNPs prioritized for follow-up.

  6. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  7. Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Based Perceptual and Neural Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2004-01-01

    .... This fundamental process of auditory perception is called auditory scene analysis. of particular importance in auditory scene analysis is the separation of speech from interfering sounds, or speech segregation...

  8. Relaxation with Immersive Natural Scenes Presented Using Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Mayer, Michael D; Fellows, Abigail M; Cowan, Devin R; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) can provide exposure to nature for those living in isolated confined environments. We evaluated VR-presented natural settings for reducing stress and improving mood. There were 18 participants (9 men, 9 women), ages 32 ± 12 yr, who viewed three 15-min 360° scenes (an indoor control, rural Ireland, and remote beaches). Subjects were mentally stressed with arithmetic before scenes. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate variability measured psycho-physiological arousal. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the 15-question Modified Reality Judgment and Presence Questionnaire (MRJPQ) measured mood and scene quality. Reductions in EDA from baseline were greater at the end of the natural scenes compared to the control scene (-0.59, -0.52, and 0.32 μS, respectively). The natural scenes reduced negative affect from baseline ( 1.2 and 1.1 points), but the control scene did not ( 0.4 points). MRJPQ scores for the control scene were lower than both natural scenes (4.9, 6.7, and 6.5 points, respectively). Within the two natural scenes, the preferred scene reduced negative affect ( 2.4 points) more than the second choice scene ( 1.8 points) and scored higher on the MRJPQ (6.8 vs. 6.4 points). Natural scene VR provided relaxation both objectively and subjectively, and scene preference had a significant effect on mood and perception of scene quality. VR may enable relaxation for people living in isolated confined environments, particularly when matched to personal preferences.Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):520526.

  9. Influence of competition and age on tree growth in structurally complex old-growth forests in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomas Aakala; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing tree growth in structurally complex forests remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the influence of competition on Pinus resinosa (n = 224) and Pinus strobus (n = 90) growth in four old-growth stands in Minnesota, using mixed effects models. A subset of trees, with...

  10. Influence of complex impurity centres on radiation damage in wide-gap metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lushchik, A., E-mail: aleksandr.lushchik@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Lushchik, Ch. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Popov, A.I. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Schwartz, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shablonin, E.; Vasil’chenko, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-05-01

    Different mechanisms of radiation damage of wide-gap metal oxides as well as a dual influence of impurity ions on the efficiency of radiation damage have been considered on the example of binary ionic MgO and complex ionic–covalent Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystals. Particular emphasis has been placed on irradiation with ∼2 GeV heavy ions ({sup 197}Au, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 238}U, fluence of 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) providing extremely high density of electronic excitations within ion tracks. Besides knock-out mechanism for Frenkel pair formation, the additional mechanism through the collapse of mobile discrete breathers at certain lattice places (e.g., complex impurity centres) leads to the creation of complex defects that involve a large number of host atoms. The experimental manifestations of the radiation creation of intrinsic and impurity antisite defects (Lu|{sub Al} or Ce|{sub Al} – a heavy ion in a wrong cation site) have been detected in LuAG and LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} single crystals. Light doping of LuAG causes a small enhancement of radiation resistance, while pair impurity centres (for instance, Ce|{sub Lu}–Ce|{sub Al} or Cr{sup 3+}–Cr{sup 3+} in MgO) are formed with a rise of impurity concentration. These complex impurity centres as well as radiation-induced intrinsic antisite defects (Lu|{sub Al} strongly interacting with Lu in a regular site) tentatively serve as the places for breathers collapse, thus decreasing the material resistance against dense irradiation.

  11. Reversible rearrangements of Cu(II) cage complexes: solvent and anion influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Font, Helena; Gallego, Carlos; Martínez, Manuel; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2012-11-19

    The macrobicyclic mixed donor cage ligand AMME-N3S3sar (1-methyl-8-amino-3,13,16-trithia-6,10,19-triazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane) is capable of binding to Cu(II) as either a hexadentate (N3S3) or tetradentate (N2S2) ligand. The "Cu-in" (hexadentate)/"Cu-out" (tetradendate) equilibrium for the {Cu(AMME-N3S3sar)}(2+) units is strongly influenced by both solvent (DMSO, MeCN, and water) and halide ions (Br(-) and Cl(-)). We have established a crucial role of the solvent in these processes through the formation of intermediate solvato complexes, which are substituted by incoming halide ions triggering a final isomerization reaction. Surprisingly, for reactions carried out in the usually strongly coordinating solvent water, the completely encapsulated N3S3-bound "Cu-in" form is dominant. Furthermore, the small amounts of the "Cu-out" form present in equilibrated DMSO or MeCN solutions revert entirely to the "Cu-in" form in aqueous media, thus preventing reaction with halide anions which otherwise lead to partial or even complete decomposition of the complex. From the kinetic, electrochemical, and EPR results, the existence of an outer-sphere H-bonded network of water molecules interacting with the complex inhibits egress of the Cu(II) ion from the cage ligand. This is extremely relevant in view of outer sphere interactions present in strongly hydrogen bonding solvents and their effects on Cu(II) complexation.

  12. The degree of microbiome complexity influences the epithelial response to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Henry V

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human microflora is known to be extremely complex, yet most pathogenesis research is conducted in mono-species models of infection. Consequently, it remains unclear whether the level of complexity of a host's indigenous flora can affect the virulence potential of pathogenic species. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the colonization by commensal species affects a host cell's response to pathogenic species beyond the direct physical saturation of surface receptors, the sequestration of nutrients, the modulation of the physico-chemical environment in the oral cavity, or the production of bacteriocins. Using oral epithelial cells as a model, we hypothesized that the virulence of pathogenic species may vary depending on the complexity of the flora that interacts with host cells. Results This is the first report that determines the global epithelial transcriptional response to co-culture with defined complex microbiota. In our model, human immortalized gingival keratinocytes (HIGK were infected with mono- and mixed cultures of commensal and pathogenic species. The global transcriptional response of infected cells was validated and confirmed phenotypically. In our model, commensal species were able to modulate the expression of host genes with a broad diversity of physiological functions and antagonize the effect of pathogenic species at the cellular level. Unexpectedly, the inhibitory effect of commensal species was not correlated with its ability to inhibit adhesion or invasion by pathogenic species. Conclusion Studying the global transcriptome of epithelial cells to single and complex microbial challenges offers clues towards a better understanding of how bacteria-bacteria interactions and bacteria-host interactions impact the overall host response. This work provides evidence that the degree of complexity of a mixed microbiota does influence the transcriptional response to infection of host epithelial cells, and

  13. The reality of multiple casualty triage: putting triage theory into practice at the scene of multiple casualty vehicular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, P; Zeitz, K; Ranse, J; Wren, H; Elliott, R; Driscoll, K

    2008-04-01

    The project investigated the experiences of ambulance paramedics in applying the principles and protocols of prehospital multiple casualty triage at the scene of motor vehicle accidents. Key objectives included investigation of the situational cues and other contextual factors influencing triage practice and the development of recommendations for the future education of ambulance paramedics. A triangulated approach was used incorporating demographic data, the use of focus groups and in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was undertaken following the well established practices of human science research. The research describes an extended and broadened triage process returning to a more authentic definition of triage as the practice of sorting of casualties to determine priority. The findings highlight the need to consider triage as an extended and complex process that incorporates evidence based physiological cues to assist decision making and the management of the process of triage from call out to conclusion including assessment of contextual and situational variables.

  14. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2015-04-14

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.

  15. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  16. The scene and the unseen: Manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: Image manipulation for change blindness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-01-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention...

  17. PRACE resources to study extreme natural events: the SCENE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Elisabetta; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting severe storms and floods is one of the main challenges of 21th century. Floods are the most dangerous meteorological hazard in the Mediterranean basins due to both the number of people affected and to the relatively high frequency by which human activities and goods suffer damages and losses. The numerical simulations of extreme events which happen over small basins as the Mediterranean ones are need a very fine-resolution in space and time and as a consequence considerable memory and computational power are required. Since the resources provided by the PRACE project represent the solution for satisfying such requirements, the Super Computing of Extreme Natural Events (SCENE) project has been proposed. SCENE aims to provide an advanced understanding of the intrinsic predictability of severe precipitation processes and the associated predictive ability of high-resolution meteorological models with a special focus on flash flood-producing storms in regions of complex orography (e.g. Mediterranean area) through the assessment of the role of both the convective and microphysical processes. The meteorological model considered in the project is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. Thus, among all the parameterizations available in the WRF model, the WRF Single-Moment 6-Class Scheme and the Thompson microphysics scheme will be adopted for the numerical simulations in combination with three different approaches for the treatment of the convective processes, that is the use of explicit method, Betts-Miller-Janjic Scheme and Kain-Fritsch. As for flash-flood producing storms, the project considers the recent sequence of extreme events occurred in the north-western portion of the Mediterranean sea; some of these events are the so-called critical cases of the DRIHM project (www.drihm.eu), i.e. selected severe

  18. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  19. The influence of coarse woody debris in the development of hydromorphic complexity within recently deglaciated streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, M. J.; Hill, D. F.; Maddock, I.; Milner, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The natural accumulation of logs, branches and other woody vegetation into the stream environment (coarse woody debris (CWD) accumulations) from adjacent stream banks plays an important role in altering the physical and ecological behaviour of rivers. CWD is often used as a tool in restoration projects to create or enhance instream habitat for biota. Research focussing on the influence of CWD characteristics on the three-dimensional flow structure surrounding accumulations, and quantification of the resultant changes in hydraulic and geomorphic composition is generally lacking. Rapid glacial recession within Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska has created the unique opportunity to study the development of a number of watersheds representing 200 years of development and varying degrees of CWD recruitment. Watershed age is related to its distance from the glacier termini, and thus temporal changes in habitat development can be studied on the basis of spatial differences. Size, position and dam properties of debris structures were mapped in order to monitor the long-term movement and formation of debris dams and associated geomorphic and ecological response. The influence of CWD characteristics on the development of geomorphic diversity and hydraulic variability were assessed using detailed habitat mapping and hydraulic assessment using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at a number of transects upstream, downstream and adjacent to woody debris structures. Debris characteristics were found to alter across the watersheds as a result of adjacent terrestrial floodplain development and the subsequent introduction of woody debris into the riverine environment as a result of bank erosion. Results showed that riparian vegetation must be of a sufficient stage of development to elicit significant change in the geomorphic and hydraulic composition of the stream. Increased habitat heterogeneity within older watersheds was linked to the presence of complex debris structures

  20. Static Scene Statistical Non-Uniformity Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Error NUC Non-Uniformity Correction RMSE Root Mean Squared Error RSD Relative Standard Deviation S3NUC Static Scene Statistical Non-Uniformity...Deviation ( RSD ) which normalizes the standard deviation, σ, to the mean estimated value, µ using the equation RS D = σ µ × 100. The RSD plot of the gain...estimates is shown in Figure 4.1(b). The RSD plot shows that after a sample size of approximately 10, the different photocount values and the inclusion

  1. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio; Barbara Siemiątkowska

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic infere...

  2. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  3. The influence of the physical environment on simulations of complex aquatic ecosystem dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Fenjuan

    hydrodynamics. To test the hypothesis that the physical environment may induce strong influence on ecosystem processes, we applied and compared PCLake applications, with the same standard ecosystem model parameterization, for three different physical environment representations of the same volume of water body...... or no hydrodynamic representation, in particular for ecosystem models where higher trophic levels, such as fish, are included. On the other hand, physically resolved hydrodynamic models often include none or only simple representations of ecosystem dynamics. To overcome this discrepancy in complexity between...... the ecosystem representation and the physical environment, we implemented PCLake within FABM, a Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models. The framework readily enables dynamic coupling of the ecosystem processed in PCLake with a selection of physical environment representations ranging from 0D to 3D...

  4. The Fisher Kernel Coding Framework for High Spatial Resolution Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution (HSR image scene classification is aimed at bridging the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts, which is a challenging task due to the complex distribution of ground objects in HSR images. Scene classification based on the bag-of-visual-words (BOVW model is one of the most successful ways to acquire the high-level semantic concepts. However, the BOVW model assigns local low-level features to their closest visual words in the “visual vocabulary” (the codebook obtained by k-means clustering, which discards too many useful details of the low-level features in HSR images. In this paper, a feature coding method under the Fisher kernel (FK coding framework is introduced to extend the BOVW model by characterizing the low-level features with a gradient vector instead of the count statistics in the BOVW model, which results in a significant decrease in the codebook size and an acceleration of the codebook learning process. By considering the differences in the distributions of the ground objects in different regions of the images, local FK (LFK is proposed for the HSR image scene classification method. The experimental results show that the proposed scene classification methods under the FK coding framework can greatly reduce the computational cost, and can obtain a better scene classification accuracy than the methods based on the traditional BOVW model.

  5. Real-time mid-wavelength infrared scene rendering with a feasible BRDF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jianqi; Chen, Yang; Huang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Practically modeling and rendering the surface-leaving radiance of large-scale scenes in mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) is an important feature of Battlefield Environment Simulation (BES). Since radiation transfer in realistic scenes is complex, it is difficult to develop real-time simulations directly from first principle. Nevertheless, it is crucial to minimize distortions in the rendering of virtual scenes. This paper proposes a feasible bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model to deal with a large-scale scene in the MWIR band. Our BRDF model is spectrally dependent and evolved from previous BRDFs, and meets both Helmholtz reciprocity and energy conservation. We employ our BRDF model to calculate the direct solar and sky contributions. Both of them are added to the surface thermal emission in order to give the surface-leaving radiance. Atmospheric path radiance and transmission are pre-calculated to speed up the programming for rendering large scale scenes. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons with MWIR field data are made to assess the render results of our proposed method.

  6. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  7. Representation of visual scenes by local neuronal populations in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn M Kampa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How are visual scenes encoded in local neural networks of visual cortex? In rodents, visual cortex lacks a columnar organization so that processing of diverse features from a spot in visual space could be performed locally by populations of neighboring neurons. To examine how complex visual scenes are represented by local microcircuits in mouse visual cortex we measured visually-evoked responses of layer 2/3 neuronal populations using 3D two-photon calcium imaging. Both natural and artificial movie scenes (10-s duration evoked distributed and sparsely organized responses in local populations of 70 to 150 neurons within the sampled volumes. About 50% of neurons showed calcium transients during visual scene presentation, of which about half displayed reliable temporal activation patterns. The majority of the reliably responding neurons were activated primarily by one of the four visual scenes applied. Consequently, single neurons performed poorly in decoding, which visual scene had been presented. In contrast, high levels of decoding performance (>80% were reached when considering population responses, requiring about 80 randomly picked cells or 20 reliable responders. Furthermore, reliable responding neurons tended to have neighbors sharing the same stimulus preference. Because of this local redundancy, it was beneficial for efficient scene decoding to read out activity from spatially distributed rather than locally clustered neurons. Our results suggest a population code in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, where the visual environment is dynamically represented in the activation of distinct functional sub-networks.

  8. Biodiversity and Complexity Influence Seagrass Functioning: A Comparative-Experimental Approach Across the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ecosystems are mediated by interactions between resource supply, consumer pressure, and community composition, with the balance shifting along environmental gradients. Comparative-experimental approaches, including observational and experimental networks, are a promising way forward to organizing this complexity into predictive models and to quantify the role of biodiversity on ocean processes. Through the Zostera Experimental Network we utilize this approach to study the community ecology of eelgrass (Zostera marina), the most widespread marine plant and foundation of important but threatened coastal ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. In 2014, parallel field surveys and experiments were conducted at 50 field sites to measure correlations between mesograzer species diversity, eelgrass genetic diversity, predation pressure, and seagrass dynamics. Biodiversity was positively correlated with plant and grazer biomass across sites. Predation pressure in these systems decreased with grazer biomass and latitude. In subsequent experiments in 2015, habitat complexity influenced the grazer community. These results suggest that the impacts of biodiversity loss on ecosystems will be of comparable magnitude to those of other global change factors and should be accounted for in relevant monitoring and restoration activities.

  9. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  10. Spectroscopy and dynamics of methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate: the influence of isotopic substitution and water complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Tan, Eric M M; de Groot, Mattijs; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2011-03-14

    High-resolution Resonance Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) excitation spectra of jet-cooled methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate, methyl-4-OD-cinnamate, and of their water clusters have been recorded. Whereas water complexation leads to significant linewidth narrowing, isotopic substitution does for all practical purposes not influence the excited-state dynamics. In this light, we evaluate two previously proposed decay channels of the photoexcited ππ* state involving the dissociative πσ* state (analogous to phenol) and involving the optically dark nπ* state (as concluded for para-coumaric acid). To come to an unambiguous interpretation of the REMPI studies, it has been necessary to determine ionization thresholds. For methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate and its water cluster values of 8.078 and 7.636 eV have been found. Apart from the electronic excitation studies, IR absorption studies have been performed as well. These studies provide important vibrational markers for the assignment of the various conformations that are present under molecular beam conditions, and offer a direct measure of the influence of hydrogen bonding on the properties of the hydroxyl group.

  11. Influence of trabecular microstructure and cortical index on the complexity of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; Diederichs, Gerd; Tami, Andrea; Theopold, Jan; Josten, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Poor bone quality increases the susceptibility to fractures of the proximal humerus. It is unclear whether local trabecular and cortical measures influence the severity of fracture patterns. The goal of this study was to assess parameters of trabecular and cortical bone properties and to compare these parameters with the severity of fractures and biomechanical testing. Twenty patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures planned for osteosynthesis were included. Fractures were classified as either 2-part fractures or complex fractures. Bone after core drilling was harvested during surgery from the humeral head in each patient. Twenty bone cores obtained from nonpaired cadaver humeral heads served as nonfractured controls. Micro-CT (μCT) was performed and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (CD), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. The cortical index (CI) was determined from AP plain films. Biomechanical testing was done after μCT scanning by axially loading until failure, and ultimate strength and E modulus were recorded. BV/TV, BMD and CD showed moderate to strong correlations with biomechanical testing (r = 0.45-0.76, all p fracture groups and controls regarding μCT and biomechanical parameters. CI was not significantly different between the 2-part and complex fracture groups. In our study population local trabecular bone structure and cortical index could not predict the severity of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Complex fractures do not necessarily imply lower bone quality compared to simple fractures.

  12. Consequences of complex environments: Temperature and energy intake interact to influence growth and metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Jodrey, Alicia D; Luoma, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    The field of comparative physiology has a rich history of elegantly examining the effects of individual environmental factors on performance traits linked to fitness (e.g., thermal performance curves for locomotion). However, animals live in complex environments wherein multiple environmental factors co-vary. Thus, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of temperature and energy intake on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the context of shifts in complex environments. Unlike previous studies that imposed constant or fluctuating temperature regimes, we manipulated the availability of preferred thermal microclimates (control vs. relatively warm regimes) for eight weeks and allowed snakes to behaviorally thermoregulate among microclimates. By also controlling for energy intake, we demonstrate an interactive effect of temperature and energy on growth-relevant temperature shifts had no effect on snakes' growth when energy intake was low and a positive effect on growth when energy intake was high. Thus, acclimation to relatively warm thermal options can result in increased rates of growth when food is abundant in a taxon in which body size confers fitness advantages. Temperature and energy also interactively influenced metabolic rate-snakes in the warmer temperature regime exhibited reduced metabolic rate (O2 consumption rate at 25 °C and 30 °C) if they had relatively high energy intake. Although we advocate for continued investigation into the effects of complex environments on other traits, our results indicate that warming may actually benefit important life history traits in some taxa and that metabolic shifts may underlie thermal acclimation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Object detection in natural scenes: Independent effects of spatial and category-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-04-01

    Humans are remarkably efficient in detecting highly familiar object categories in natural scenes, with evidence suggesting that such object detection can be performed in the (near) absence of attention. Here we systematically explored the influences of both spatial attention and category-based attention on the accuracy of object detection in natural scenes. Manipulating both types of attention additionally allowed for addressing how these factors interact: whether the requirement for spatial attention depends on the extent to which observers are prepared to detect a specific object category-that is, on category-based attention. The results showed that the detection of targets from one category (animals or vehicles) was better than the detection of targets from two categories (animals and vehicles), demonstrating the beneficial effect of category-based attention. This effect did not depend on the semantic congruency of the target object and the background scene, indicating that observers attended to visual features diagnostic of the foreground target objects from the cued category. Importantly, in three experiments the detection of objects in scenes presented in the periphery was significantly impaired when observers simultaneously performed an attentionally demanding task at fixation, showing that spatial attention affects natural scene perception. In all experiments, the effects of category-based attention and spatial attention on object detection performance were additive rather than interactive. Finally, neither spatial nor category-based attention influenced metacognitive ability for object detection performance. These findings demonstrate that efficient object detection in natural scenes is independently facilitated by spatial and category-based attention.

  14. Effects of Scene Properties and Emotional Valence on Brain Activations: A Fixation-Related fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kuniecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition. The fMRI data were analyzed using a novel fixation-based event-related (FIBER method, which allows the tracking of brain activity linked to individual fixations. The results revealed that fixating an emotional object was linked to greater deactivation in the right lingual gyrus than fixating the background of an emotional image, while no difference between object and background was found for neutral images. We suggest that deactivation in the lingual gyrus might be linked to inhibition of saccade execution. This was supported by fixation duration results, which showed that in the negative condition, fixations falling on the object were longer than those falling on the background. Furthermore, increase in the image clarity was correlated with fixation-related activity within the lateral occipital complex, the structure linked to object recognition. This correlation was significantly stronger for negative images, presumably due to greater deployment of attention towards emotional objects. Our eye-tracking results are in line with these observations, showing that the chance of fixating an object rose faster for negative images over neutral ones as the level of noise decreased. Overall, our study demonstrated that emotional value of an image changes the way that low and high-level scene properties affect the characteristics of

  15. Scene Recognition for Indoor Localization Using a Multi-Sensor Fusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyun; Chen, Ruizhi; Li, Deren; Chen, Yujin; Guo, Guangyi; Cao, Zhipeng; Pan, Yuanjin

    2017-12-08

    After decades of research, there is still no solution for indoor localization like the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) solution for outdoor environments. The major reasons for this phenomenon are the complex spatial topology and RF transmission environment. To deal with these problems, an indoor scene constrained method for localization is proposed in this paper, which is inspired by the visual cognition ability of the human brain and the progress in the computer vision field regarding high-level image understanding. Furthermore, a multi-sensor fusion method is implemented on a commercial smartphone including cameras, WiFi and inertial sensors. Compared to former research, the camera on a smartphone is used to "see" which scene the user is in. With this information, a particle filter algorithm constrained by scene information is adopted to determine the final location. For indoor scene recognition, we take advantage of deep learning that has been proven to be highly effective in the computer vision community. For particle filter, both WiFi and magnetic field signals are used to update the weights of particles. Similar to other fingerprinting localization methods, there are two stages in the proposed system, offline training and online localization. In the offline stage, an indoor scene model is trained by Caffe (one of the most popular open source frameworks for deep learning) and a fingerprint database is constructed by user trajectories in different scenes. To reduce the volume requirement of training data for deep learning, a fine-tuned method is adopted for model training. In the online stage, a camera in a smartphone is used to recognize the initial scene. Then a particle filter algorithm is used to fuse the sensor data and determine the final location. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, an Android client and a web server are implemented. The Android client is used to collect data and locate a user. The web server is developed for

  16. Scene Recognition for Indoor Localization Using a Multi-Sensor Fusion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After decades of research, there is still no solution for indoor localization like the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System solution for outdoor environments. The major reasons for this phenomenon are the complex spatial topology and RF transmission environment. To deal with these problems, an indoor scene constrained method for localization is proposed in this paper, which is inspired by the visual cognition ability of the human brain and the progress in the computer vision field regarding high-level image understanding. Furthermore, a multi-sensor fusion method is implemented on a commercial smartphone including cameras, WiFi and inertial sensors. Compared to former research, the camera on a smartphone is used to “see” which scene the user is in. With this information, a particle filter algorithm constrained by scene information is adopted to determine the final location. For indoor scene recognition, we take advantage of deep learning that has been proven to be highly effective in the computer vision community. For particle filter, both WiFi and magnetic field signals are used to update the weights of particles. Similar to other fingerprinting localization methods, there are two stages in the proposed system, offline training and online localization. In the offline stage, an indoor scene model is trained by Caffe (one of the most popular open source frameworks for deep learning and a fingerprint database is constructed by user trajectories in different scenes. To reduce the volume requirement of training data for deep learning, a fine-tuned method is adopted for model training. In the online stage, a camera in a smartphone is used to recognize the initial scene. Then a particle filter algorithm is used to fuse the sensor data and determine the final location. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, an Android client and a web server are implemented. The Android client is used to collect data and locate a user. The web

  17. The influence of a lake-wetland complex on catchment nutrient flux and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; McGlynn, B. L.; Kalinin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes and wetlands within stream networks can substantially alter the timing, magnitude, and form of nutrient export to downstream receiving bodies. These linked systems have the capacity to alter water chemistry and buffer downstream export of nutrients through combined physical, chemical, and biological processes. In many mountainous catchments wetlands are located at the inlet of lakes, thus forming lake-wetland complexes. In this study we investigated the influence an in network lake-wetland complex exerted on the timing, magnitude, and form of carbon and nitrogen export from the Bull Trout Lake Watershed (11.4 km2) located in the Sawtooth Mountains of central Idaho, USA. We: 1) injected conservative tracer to determine lake residence times; and 2) sampled the lake inflow, outflow, and six sites across the lake on hourly to bi-weekly intervals over 5 months (May - September) to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics of injected tracers and catchment nutrient fluxes. Lake sampling sites were each sampled at six depths to capture all strata of the lake. Injected tracer had a median travel time of one week and a modal travel time of four days. Additionally, longer residence times were observed in deeper (>8 m) regions of the lake. We observed that nitrate (NO3-N) was the dominant form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) at the lake inflow whereas ammonium (NH4-N) became the dominant component at the lake outflow. Specifically, NO3-N accounted for 62% of DIN at the inflow and NH4-N comprised 58% percent of DIN at the lake outflow 600 m downstream. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprised the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) at both the lake inflow and outflow, and within the lake accounting for 92% of the seasonal TDN flux. There was a positive net export of NH4-N, DON, TDN, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a negative net flux of NO3-N from the inlet to the outlet of the lake-wetland complex. Additionally, we observed high concentrations of

  18. Il sipario strappato. Scene di teatro nel cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutual interferences between cinema and theatre constitute a complex and fascinating aspect of modern aesthetics, in view of the richness of theoretical and artistic implications and the continuous tension typical of works vulnerable to contamination and hybrid forms. Within such a vast field, this essay proposes some demarcations by focusing on the camera style of three filmmakers (Pasolini, Cronenberg, Martone, who, in different ways, translate theatrical scenes and paradigms onto the screen. In the cinematic narratives of these authors, quotation assumes a peculiar prominence because it does not restrict itself to a mere reproduction of cues and voices, but forces the spectator’s gaze to follow original paths, and thus amplifies the spectrum of the visible.

  19. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  20. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, W

    2007-07-01

    database used in Swiss radioactive waste disposal projects. Within the scope of this TDB project I reviewed extensively thermodynamic data for Th, Pd, Al, and solubility and metal complexation of silicates, the review considering not only U, Np, Pu, Am, Tc, Ni, Se and Zr, but also the major constituents of ground and surface waters, i.e. H, Na, K, Mg and Ca. The decision to evaluate the organic ligands oxalate, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) and {alpha}-isosaccharinate (isa) was based on two aspects, namely the importance of the ligands in radioactive waste problems, and the availability of experimental data. (ii) In many case studies involving inorganic and simple organic ligands a serious lack of reliable thermodynamic data is encountered. There, a new modeling approach to estimate the effects of these missing data was applied. This so called 'backdoor approach' begins with the question: 'What total concentration of a ligand is necessary to significantly influence the speciation, and hence the solubility, of a given trace metal?' Radioactive waste contains substantial amounts of ion-exchange resins from decontamination procedures. Degradation of these organic waste forms by radiolysis in a repository is a source of concern in radioactive waste management. Radiolytic degradation experiments with strong acidic ion exchange resins resulted in the formation of the complexing ligands oxalate and ligand X, whose structure could not be identified. In the case of anion exchange resins, ammonia and methylamines were detected. I assessed the influence of these ligands on radionuclide speciation in groundwater and cement pore water of a repository using the 'backdoor approach'. Prussian Blue, Fe{sup III}{sub 4} [Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, and structurally related transition metal compounds like Ni{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] are used as cesium ion exchangers in decontamination procedures of liquid radioactive waste. The used ion exchangers

  1. Performativity and Genesis of the Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fernandes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the recognition of the tension between reality and fiction in contemporary theatre, generally defined as theatre of the real, we intend to make an intersection of this phenomenon with the theoretical field of performativity, which focuses on the work in process, dynamic transformation and experience. The intention is to associate the theory of performativity to observations about the latest work of Theatre Vertigo, directed by Antonio Araujo, Bom Retiro 958 metros. The use of genetic ways to approach theatre will serve as a motto to interpret some aspects of the creative process and the scene.

  2. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  3. The gay bashing scene chez Proust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T

    1993-01-01

    This essay presents a contemporary translation of and brief commentary on the gay bashing scene found in Marcel Proust's A la Recherche du Temps perdu: Le Côté de Guermantes, Tome I. The paper notes that Proust argues in this passage for the acceptance of homosexuality for two main reasons: because gay bashing won't eradicate it; and because gayness is the simple, direct movement of a being toward perceived beauty. The paper suggests that Proust reveals his own gayness (and that of his protagonist) by employing the latter argument in defense of homosexuality whereas, throughout the novel, he presents heterosexual attraction as an immensely indirect, artistically manufactured construct.

  4. Habitat complexity influences fine scale hydrological processes and the incidence of stormwater runoff in managed urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hahs, Amy Kristin; Livesley, Stephen John

    2015-08-15

    Urban ecosystems have traditionally been considered to be pervious features of our cities. Their hydrological properties have largely been investigated at the landscape scale and in comparison with other urban land use types. However, hydrological properties can vary at smaller scales depending upon changes in soil, surface litter and vegetation components. Management practices can directly and indirectly affect each of these components and the overall habitat complexity, ultimately affecting hydrological processes. This study aims to investigate the influence that habitat components and habitat complexity have upon key hydrological processes and the implications for urban habitat management. Using a network of urban parks and remnant nature reserves in Melbourne, Australia, replicate plots representing three types of habitat complexity were established: low-complexity parks, high-complexity parks, and high-complexity remnants. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity in low-complexity parks was an order of magnitude lower than that measured in the more complex habitat types, due to fewer soil macropores. Conversely, soil water holding capacity in low-complexity parks was significantly higher compared to the two more complex habitat types. Low-complexity parks would generate runoff during modest precipitation events, whereas high-complexity parks and remnants would be able to absorb the vast majority of rainfall events without generating runoff. Litter layers on the soil surface would absorb most of precipitation events in high-complexity parks and high-complexity remnants. To minimize the incidence of stormwater runoff from urban ecosystems, land managers could incrementally increase the complexity of habitat patches, by increasing canopy density and volume, preserving surface litter and maintaining soil macropore structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE COMPLEX CHEMICAL ADDITIVE CONTAINING THE STRUCTURED CARBON NANOMATERIAL ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Sheyda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on influence of domestic complex chemical additive containing structured carbon nanomaterial and characterized by a combination effect (curing acceleration and plasticizing on cement and cement stone properties. The purpose of the investigations, on the one hand, has been to confirm efficacy of УКД-1additive from the perspective for increasing the rate of gain, strength growth of cement concrete and additive influence on setting time with the purpose to preserve molding properties of concrete mixes in time, and on the other hand, that is to assess “mechanism” of the УКД-1 additive action in the cement concrete. The research results have revealed regularities in changes due to the additive of water requirements and time period of the cement setting. The reqularities are considered as a pre-requisite for relevant changes in molding properties of the concrete mixes. The paper also experimentally substantiates the possibility to decrease temperature of cement concrete heating with the УДК-1 additive. It has been done with the purpose to save energy resources under production conditions. In addition to this the paper proves the efficiency of the additive which is expressed in strength increase of cement stone up to 20–40 % in the rated age (28 days that is considered as a basis for strength growth of cement concrete. The paper confirms a hypothesis on physical nature of this phenomenon because the X-ray phase analysis method has shown that there are no changes in morphology of portland cement hydration products under the action of the additive agent containing a structured carbon nanomaterial. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations on УКД-1 additive efficiency have been proved by industrial approbation while fabricating precast concrete products and construction of monolithic structures under plant industrial conditions (Minsk, SS “Stroyprogress” JSC MAPID and on

  6. Stable uranium(VI) methyl and acetylide complexes and the elucidation of an inverse trans influence ligand series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-09-04

    Thermally stable uranium(VI)-methyl and -acetylide complexes: U(VI)OR[N(SiMe3)2]3 R = -CH3, -C≡CPh were prepared in which coordination of the hydrocarbyl group is directed trans to the uranium-oxo multiple bond. The stability of the uranium-carbon bond is attributed to an inverse trans influence. The hydrocarbyl complexes show greater ITI stabilization than that of structurally related U(VI)OX[N(SiMe3)2]3 (X = F(-), Cl(-), Br(-)) complexes, demonstrated both experimentally and computationally. An inverse trans influence ligand series is presented, developed from a union of theoretical and experimental results and based on correlations between the extent of cis-destabilization, the complexes stabilities toward electrochemical reduction, the thermodynamic driving forces for U═O bond formation, and the calculated destabilization of axial σ* and π* antibonding interactions.

  7. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: An fMRI study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients’ scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. PMID:24231038

  8. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ueda

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention, whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention. Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  9. Fast Binary Coding for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification of high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery is an important task in the intelligent processing of remote sensing images and has attracted much attention in recent years. Although the existing scene classification methods, e.g., the bag-of-words (BOW model and its variants, can achieve acceptable performance, these approaches strongly rely on the extraction of local features and the complicated coding strategy, which are usually time consuming and demand much expert effort. In this paper, we propose a fast binary coding (FBC method, to effectively generate efficient discriminative scene representations of HRRS images. The main idea is inspired by the unsupervised feature learning technique and the binary feature descriptions. More precisely, equipped with the unsupervised feature learning technique, we first learn a set of optimal “filters” from large quantities of randomly-sampled image patches and then obtain feature maps by convolving the image scene with the learned filters. After binarizing the feature maps, we perform a simple hashing step to convert the binary-valued feature map to the integer-valued feature map. Finally, statistical histograms computed on the integer-valued feature map are used as global feature representations of the scenes of HRRS images, similar to the conventional BOW model. The analysis of the algorithm complexity and experiments on HRRS image datasets demonstrate that, in contrast with existing scene classification approaches, the proposed FBC has much faster computational speed and achieves comparable classification performance. In addition, we also propose two extensions to FBC, i.e., the spatial co-occurrence matrix and different visual saliency maps, for further improving its final classification accuracy.

  10. Influence of charge ratio of liposome/DNA complexes on their size after extrusion and transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Šantak, Maja; Halassy, Beata; Forcic, Dubravko; Tomašić, Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of liposome/DNA complexes influence transfection efficiency and affect each other in a very intricate way. The result of this is discrepancies in conclusions drawn about the individual influence of each one. Aiming to elucidate the influence of liposome/DNA charge ratio and size on transfection efficiency and on each other, we used liposome/DNA complexes with charge ratio (+/-) in the range of 1-50 and extruded through membranes of 400, 200, and 100 nm. Plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein was used to measure transfection efficiency by flow cytometry. Sizes of liposome/DNA complexes were measured by dynamic light scattering. Liposome size was reduced after extrusion but this was mainly driven by the charge ratio and not by the size of the membrane pores. Reduction of complex size at each charge ratio positively correlated with transfection efficiency. When the size of the complexes was approximately constant, increasing the charge ratio was found to promote transfection efficiency. Cationic lipid N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl)N,N,N trimethylammonium chloride was used for modulation of positive charge and a cytotoxicity test showed that increasing its amount increases cytotoxicity. It can be concluded that charge ratio dictates the size of the complex whereas overall size reduction and higher charge ratios promote transfection efficiency in vitro.

  11. Goal-side selection in soccer penalty kicking when viewing natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeigelt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the influence of goalkeeper displacement on goal-side selection in soccer penalty kicking. Facing a penalty situation, participants viewed photo-realistic images of a goalkeeper and a soccer goal. In the action selection task, they were asked to kick to the greater goal side, and in the perception task, they indicated the position of the goalkeeper on the goal line. To this end, the goalkeeper was depicted in a regular goalkeeping posture, standing either in the exact middle of the goal or being displaced at different distances to the left or right of the goal’s center. Results showed that the goalkeeper’s position on the goal line systematically affected goal-side selection, even when participants were not mindful of the displacement. These findings provide further support for the notion that the implicit processing of the stimulus layout in natural scenes can effect action selection in complex environments, such in soccer penalty shooting.

  12. Recognition and Memory for Briefly Presented Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13 ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500 ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1 s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory. PMID:22371707

  13. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.

  14. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  15. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  16. Places: A 10 million Image Database for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bolei; Lapedriza, Agata; Khosla, Aditya; Oliva, Aude; Torralba, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    The rise of multi-million-item dataset initiatives has enabled data-hungry machine learning algorithms to reach near-human semantic classification performance at tasks such as visual object and scene recognition. Here we describe the Places Database, a repository of 10 million scene photographs, labeled with scene semantic categories, comprising a large and diverse list of the types of environments encountered in the world. Using the state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), we provide scene classification CNNs (Places-CNNs) as baselines, that significantly outperform the previous approaches. Visualization of the CNNs trained on Places shows that object detectors emerge as an intermediate representation of scene classification. With its high-coverage and high-diversity of exemplars, the Places Database along with the Places-CNNs offer a novel resource to guide future progress on scene recognition problems.

  17. The influence of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict on EEG omega complexity in Panum's limiting case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayun; Jia, Huibin; Yu, Dongchuan

    2017-12-06

    Using behavioral measures and ERP technique, researchers discovered at least two factors could influence the final perception of depth in Panum's limiting case, which are the vertical disparity gradient and the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. Although certain ERP components have been proved to be sensitive to the different levels of these two factors, some methodological limitations existed in this technique. In this study, we proposed that the omega complexity of EEG signal may serve as an important supplement of the traditional ERP technique. We found that the trials with lower vertical gradient disparity has lower omega complexity (i.e., higher global functional connectivity) of the occipital region, especially that of the right-occipital hemisphere. Moreover, for occipital omega complexity, the trials with low cue conflict have significantly larger omega complexity than those with medium and high cue conflict. It is also found that the electrodes located in the middle-line of occipital region (i.e., POz and Oz) are more crucial to the impact of different levels of cue conflict on omega complexity than the other electrodes located in the left- and right-occipital hemisphere. These evidences demonstrated that the EEG omega complexity could reflect distinct neural activities evoked by Panum's limiting case configurations with different levels of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict. Besides, the influence of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict on spatial omega complexity may be regional-dependent.

  18. Influence of the nucleobase on the physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudio S.; Demicheli, Cynthia, E-mail: demichel@netuno.lcc.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Iara C.M. da; Melo, Maria N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Monte Neto, Rubens L.; Frezard, Frederic [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    The influence of the nucleobase (uracyl, U; cytosine, C; adenine, A; guanine, G) on the physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes has been investigated. The 1:1 Sb-U and Sb-C complexes were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stability constant and the apparent association and dissociation rate constants of 1:1 Sb{sup V}-U, Sb{sup V}-C and Sb{sup V}-A complexes were determined. Although Sb{sup V} most probably binds via oxygen atoms to the same 2' and 3' positions in the different nucleosides, the ribose conformational changes and the physicochemical characteristics of the complex depend on the nucleobase. The nucleobase had a strong influence on the cytotoxicity against macrophages and the antileishmanial activity of the Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes. The Sb{sup V}-purine complexes were more cytotoxic and more effective against Leishmania chagasi than the Sb{sup V}-pyrimidine complexes, supporting the model that the interaction of Sb{sup V} with purine nucleosides may mediate the antileishmanial activity of pentavalent antimonial drugs. (author)

  19. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  20. Influence of scene structure and content on visual search strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Tatiana A; Luković, Mirko; Herrmann, Hans J; Andrade, José S

    2017-07-01

    When searching for a target within an image, our brain can adopt different strategies, but which one does it choose? This question can be answered by tracking the motion of the eye while it executes the task. Following many individuals performing various search tasks, we distinguish between two competing strategies. Motivated by these findings, we introduce a model that captures the interplay of the search strategies and allows us to create artificial eye-tracking trajectories, which could be compared with the experimental ones. Identifying the model parameters allows us to quantify the strategy employed in terms of ensemble averages, characterizing each experimental cohort. In this way, we can discern with high sensitivity the relation between the visual landscape and the average strategy, disclosing how small variations in the image induce changes in the strategy. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Six scenes which influence the reader throughout the narrative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... ... the narrative and what it tells of the narrative plan. .... the high priest Onias III. A second .... narrative has already established that Onias III is closely linked to the .... supernatural works (Dn 2:47; 3:28–29; 4:37; 6:25–27).3 This.

  2. Influence of Microclimate on Semi-Arid Montane Conifer Forest Sapflux Velocity in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, K. R.; Barnard, D. M.; Barnard, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    Microclimate variation in complex terrain is key to our understanding of large-scale climate change effects on montane ecosystems. Modern climate models forecast that semi-arid montane ecosystems in the western United States are to experience increases in temperature, number of extreme drought events, and decreases in annual snowpack, all of which will potentially influence ecosystem water, carbon, and energy balances. In this study, we developed response curves that describe the relationships between stem sapflux velocity, air temperature (Tair), incoming solar radiation (SWin), soil temperature (Tsoil), and soil moisture content (VWC) in sites of Pinus contorta and Pinus ponderosa distributed along an elevation and aspect gradient in the montane zone of the Central Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA. Among sites we found sapflux velocity to be significantly correlated with all four environmental factors (p < 0.05), but most strongly with SWin and Tair. The response of sapflux velocity to SWin was logarithmic, whereas the response to Tair indicated a peak sapflux velocity at a site-specific temperature that declined with increasing Tair. Sapflux velocity also increased with increasing VWC, but decreased with increasing Tsoil. At south-facing sites, the initial increase in the logarithmic response curve for SWin leveled off at 150-250 W m-2, whereas for north-facing sites it leveled off at 50-125 W m-2. While the differences in the SWin response between aspects could be due to species physiological differences, the highest elevation south-facing P. contorta site behaved similarly to the south-facing P. ponderosa, suggesting that environmental drivers may dominate the response. In response to Tair, peak sapflux velocity occurred at 12-13 degrees C at all sites except the mid-slope north-facing P. contorta site, which also had the lowest Tsoil. The responses of stem sapflux velocity to climate drivers indicate that forest transpiration is regulated by microclimate

  3. Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other

  4. Complex formation of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) anthocyanins during freeze-drying and its influence on their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Padmanabhan, Priya; Corredig, Milena; Subramanian, Jayasankar; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2015-03-25

    Biological activity of polyphenols is influenced by their uptake and is highly influenced by their interactions with the food matrix. This study evaluated the complex formation of blueberry polyphenols with fruit matrixes such as pectin and cellulose and their effect on the biological and antiproliferative properties of human colon cell lines HT-29 and CRL 1790. Free or complexed polyphenols were isolated by dialyzing aqueous or methanolic blueberry homogenates. Seven phenolic compounds and thirteen anthocyanins were identified in blueberry extracts. Blueberry extracts showed varying degrees of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, as well as α-glucosidase activity. Fruit matrix containing cellulose and pectin, or purified polygalacturonic acid and cellulose, did not retain polyphenols and showed very low antioxidant or antiproliferative activities. These findings suggest that interactions between polyphenols and the food matrix may be more complex than a simple association and may play an important role in the bioefficacy of blueberry polyphenols.

  5. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  6. Influence of topology in the evolution of coordination in complex networks under information diffusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathna, Dharshana; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Harré, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the topological structure of social systems on the evolution of coordination in them. We simulate a coordination game ("Stag-hunt") on four well-known classes of complex networks commonly used to model social systems, namely scale-free, small-world, random and hierarchical-modular, as well as on the well-mixed model. Our particular focus is on understanding the impact of information diffusion on coordination, and how this impact varies according to the topology of the social system. We demonstrate that while time-lags and noise in the information about relative payoffs affect the emergence of coordination in all social systems, some topologies are markedly more resilient than others to these effects. We also show that, while non-coordination may be a better strategy in a society where people do not have information about the payoffs of others, coordination will quickly emerge as the better strategy when people get this information about others, even with noise and time lags. Societies with the so-called small-world structure are most conducive to the emergence of coordination, despite limitations in information propagation, while societies with scale-free topologies are most sensitive to noise and time-lags in information diffusion. Surprisingly, in all topologies, it is not the highest connected people (hubs), but the slightly less connected people (provincial hubs) who first adopt coordination. Our findings confirm that the evolution of coordination in social systems depends heavily on the underlying social network structure.

  7. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Codron

    Full Text Available Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record, in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora. Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods, in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey

  8. Ecological Interactions in Dinosaur Communities: Influences of Small Offspring and Complex Ontogenetic Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs’ successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  9. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  10. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  11. Review network for scene text recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuohao; Han, Anqi; Chen, Xu; Yin, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing text in images captured in the wild is a fundamental preprocessing task for many computer vision and machine learning applications and has gained significant attention in recent years. This paper proposes an end-to-end trainable deep review neural network for scene text recognition, which is a combination of feature extraction, feature reviewing, feature attention, and sequence recognition. Our model can generate the predicted text without any segmentation or grouping algorithm. Because the attention model in the feature attention stage lacks global modeling ability, a review network is applied to extract the global context of sequence data in the feature reviewing stage. We perform rigorous experiments across a number of standard benchmarks, including IIIT5K, SVT, ICDAR03, and ICDAR13 datasets. Experimental results show that our model is comparable to or outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.

  12. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  13. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic inference using Dempster-Shafer theory, which makes it possible to handle observations that have different degrees and kinds of uncertainty. The system has been implemented and tested in a real indoor environment, showing the benefits of the proposed approach.

  14. Algorithms for Graph Rigidity and Scene Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jordán, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    We investigate algorithmic questions and structural problems concerning graph families defined by `edge-counts'. Motivated by recent developments in the unique realization problem of graphs, we give an efficient algorithm to compute the rigid, redundantly rigid, M-connected, and globally rigid...... components of a graph. Our algorithm is based on (and also extends and simplifies) the idea of Hendrickson and Jacobs, as it uses orientations as the main algorithmic tool. We also consider families of bipartite graphs which occur in parallel drawings and scene analysis. We verify a conjecture of Whiteley...... by showing that 2d-connected bipartite graphs are d-tight. We give a new algorithm for finding a maximal d-sharp subgraph. We also answer a question of Imai and show that finding a maximum size d-sharp subgraph is NP-hard....

  15. [A doctor's action within possible crime scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowizdraniuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Every doctor regardless of specialization in his practice may meet the need to provide assistance to victims of crime-related action. In this article there were disscused the issues of informing the investigative authorities about the crime, ensuring the safety of themselves and the environment at the scene. It also shows the specific elements of necessary procedures and practice to deal with the victims designed to securing any evidence present of potential or committed crime in proper manner. Special attention has been given to medical operation and other, necessary in case of certain criminal groups, among the latter we need to underline: actions against sexual freedom and decency, bodily integrity, life and well-being of human, and specially homicide, infanticide and suicide.

  16. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  17. The Influence of the Position of the Double Bond and Ring Size on the Stability of Hydrogen Bonded Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shumin; Tang, Shanshan; Tsona, Narcisse T; Du, Lin

    2017-09-12

    To study the influence of the position of the double bond and ring size on the stability of hydrogen bonded complexes, the 1:1 complexes formed between 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and three heterocyclic compounds including 2,3-dihydrofuran (2,3-DHF), 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5-DHF) and 3,4-dihydropyran (3,4-DHP) were investigated systematically. The formation of hydrogen bonded TFE-2,3-DHF, TFE-2,5-DHF and TFE-3,4-DHP complexes were identified by gas phase FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature, and the OH-stretching fundamental transition of TFE was red shifted upon complexation. The competition between the O atom and π-electrons bonding sites within the complexes was studied, and the O-H···π type hydrogen bond was found to be less stable than the O-H···O in all three cases. The observed red shifts of the OH-stretching fundamental transitions in the complexes were attributed to the formation of O-H···O hydrogen bond. Equilibrium constants of the complexation reactions were determined from measured and calculated OH-stretching fundamental intensities. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results reveal that the hydrogen bond strengths in the complexes follow the sequence: TFE-2,5-DHF > TFE-2,3-DHF ≈ TFE-3,4-DHP, thus the position of the double bond exerts significantly larger influence than ring size on the stability of the selected hydrogen bonded complexes.

  18. Combined Saliency with Multi-Convolutional Neural Network for High Resolution Remote Sensing Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Xiaofei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scene information existing in high resolution remote sensing images is important for image interpretation and understanding of the real world. Traditional scene classification methods often use middle and low-level artificial features, but high resolution images have rich information and complex scene configuration, which need high-level feature to express. A joint saliency and multi-convolutional neural network method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we obtain meaningful patches that include dominant image information by saliency sampling. Secondly, these patches will be set as a sample input to the convolutional neural network for training, obtain feature expression on different levels. Finally, we embed the multi-layer features into the support vector machine (SVM for image classification. Experiments using two high resolution image scene data show that saliency sampling can effectively get the main target, weaken the impact of other unrelated targets, and reduce data redundancy; convolutional neural network can automatically learn the high-level feature, compared to existing methods, the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy.

  19. The influence of argument-structure complexity on the use of auxiliary verbs by children with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, B G; Leonard, L B

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of argument-structure complexity on the omission of auxiliary be verbs in a group of children with specific language impairment (SLI). These children were compared to a group of younger, normally developing children matched for mean length of utterance (MLU) and a group of children matched for chronological age (CA). Using a story-completion task, the children (N = 30) were required to produce sentences of varying length and argument-structure complexity. The results of the study indicated that the children with SLI omitted more auxiliary forms than either the MLU or CA controls. In addition, both the children with SLI and the MLU controls were more likely to omit the auxiliary forms when attempting sentences with greater argument-structure complexity. These results suggest that argument-structure complexity may be a contributing factor to children's omissions of grammatical morphemes.

  20. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  1. On-scene crisis intervention: psychological guidelines and communication strategies for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Effective emergency mental health intervention for victims of crime, natural disaster or terrorism begins the moment the first responders arrive. This article describes a range of on-scene crisis intervention options, including verbal communication, body language, behavioral strategies, and interpersonal style. The correct intervention in the first few moments and hours of a crisis can profoundly influence the recovery course of victims and survivors of catastrophic events.

  2. Mixing the medicine: the unintended consequence of amphetamine control on the Northern soul scene

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the influences leading to the introduction of amphetamine controls in Britain, this article focuses upon the consequences of the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act 1964, and subsequent legislation. These laws had a major impact upon earlier Mod and later Northern Soul Scene subcultures in Britain, because both held amphetamine use as a central component of their recreational activities. The paper aims to provide greater understanding of the way criminalisation of amphetamines impacted...

  3. Informational factors in identifying environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Robert; Gygi, Brian; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic

    2009-12-01

    In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a composite background scene created by playing different background scenes to the different ears. The side of presentation, time of onset, and number of target sounds were varied across trials to increase the uncertainty for the participant. Half the sounds were contextually congruent with the background sound (i.e., consistent with the meaningful real-world sound environment represented in the auditory scene) and half were incongruent. The presence of a single competing background scene decreased identification accuracy, suggesting an informational masking effect. In tandem, there was a contextual pop-out effect, with contextually incongruent sounds identified more accurately. However, when targets were incongruent with the real-world context of the background scene, informational masking was reduced. Acoustic analyses suggested that this contextual pop-out effect was driven by a mixture of perceptual differences between the target and background, as well as by higher-level cognitive factors. These findings indicate that identification of environmental sounds in naturalistic backgrounds is an active process that requires integrating perceptual, attentional, and cognitive resources.

  4. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  5. CRISP: A Computational Model of Fixation Durations in Scene Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Smith, Tim J.; Engbert, Ralf; Henderson, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Eye-movement control during scene viewing can be represented as a series of individual decisions about where and when to move the eyes. While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations.…

  6. Toward seamless multiview scene analysis from satellite to street level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene

  7. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyin Lei; Yue Zhang; Guiying Wu; Zhihua Wang; Xianhua Cai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex...

  8. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2014-01-01

    .... Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables...

  9. Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the

  10. Spatial patterns in herbivory on a coral reef are influenced by structural complexity but not by algal traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vergés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patterns of herbivory can alter the spatial structure of ecosystems, with important consequences for ecosystem functions and biodiversity. While the factors that drive spatial patterns in herbivory in terrestrial systems are well established, comparatively less is known about what influences the distribution of herbivory in coral reefs. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption in a cross-section of Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia. We used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches to assess the influence of multiple macroalgal traits and structural complexity in establishing the observed spatial patterns in macroalgal herbivory, and to identify potential feedback mechanisms between herbivory and macroalgal nutritional quality. Spatial patterns in macroalgal consumption were best explained by differences in structural complexity among habitats. The biomass of herbivorous fish, and rates of herbivory were always greater in the structurally-complex coral-dominated outer reef and reef flat habitats, which were also characterised by high biomass of herbivorous fish, low cover and biomass of macroalgae and the presence of unpalatable algae species. Macroalgal consumption decreased to undetectable levels within 75 m of structurally-complex reef habitat, and algae were most abundant in the structurally-simple lagoon habitats, which were also characterised by the presence of the most palatable algae species. In contrast to terrestrial ecosystems, herbivory patterns were not influenced by the distribution, productivity or nutritional quality of resources (macroalgae, and we found no evidence of a positive feedback between macroalgal consumption and the nitrogen content of algae. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of seascape-scale patterns in structural complexity in determining spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption by fish. Given the importance of

  11. Combined Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Neprilysin Positively Influences Complex Mitochondrial Adaptations in Progressive Experimental Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grois

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system and neprilysin (RAS-/NEP-inhibitors proved to be extraordinarily beneficial in systolic heart failure. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that impaired mitochondrial pathways are causatively involved in progressive left ventricular (LV dysfunction. Consequently, we aimed to assess whether RAS-/NEP-inhibition can attenuate mitochondrial adaptations in experimental heart failure (HF.By progressive right ventricular pacing, distinct HF stages were induced in 15 rabbits, and 6 animals served as controls (CTRL. Six animals with manifest HF (CHF were treated with the RAS-/NEP-inhibitor omapatrilat. Echocardiographic studies and invasive blood pressure measurements were undertaken during HF progression. Mitochondria were isolated from LV tissue, respectively, and further worked up for proteomic analysis using the SWATH technique. Enzymatic activities of citrate synthase and the electron transfer chain (ETC complexes I, II, and IV were assessed. Ultrastructural analyses were performed by transmission electron microscopy. During progression to overt HF, intricate expression changes were mainly detected for proteins belonging to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glucose and fat metabolism, and the ETC complexes, even though ETC complex I, II, or IV enzymatic activities were not significantly influenced. Treatment with a RAS-/NEP-inhibitor then reversed some maladaptive metabolic adaptations, positively influenced the decline of citrate synthase activity, and altered the composition of each respiratory chain complex, even though this was again not accompanied by altered ETC complex enzymatic activities. Finally, ultrastructural evidence pointed to a reduction of autophagolytic and degenerative processes with omapatrilat-treatment.This study describes complex adaptations of the mitochondrial proteome in experimental tachycardia-induced heart failure and shows that a combined RAS-/NEP-inhibition can beneficially

  12. Indoor scene classification of robot vision based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Qi, Yuxiao; Li, Shipeng

    2016-07-01

    For intelligent service robots, indoor scene classification is an important issue. To overcome the weak real-time performance of conventional algorithms, a new method based on Cloud computing is proposed for global image features in indoor scene classification. With MapReduce method, global PHOG feature of indoor scene image is extracted in parallel. And, feature eigenvector is used to train the decision classifier through SVM concurrently. Then, the indoor scene is validly classified by decision classifier. To verify the algorithm performance, we carried out an experiment with 350 typical indoor scene images from MIT LabelMe image library. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can attain better real-time performance. Generally, it is 1.4 2.1 times faster than traditional classification methods which rely on single computation, while keeping stable classification correct rate as 70%.

  13. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  14. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  15. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  16. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2017-04-20

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  17. Influence of second sphere hydrogen bonding interaction on a manganese(II)-aquo complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghachtouli, Sanae; Guillot, Régis; Dorlet, Pierre; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Aukauloo, Ally

    2012-02-14

    We have developed a pentadentate N(4)O ligand scaffold with a benzimidazole group placed in a rigid fashion to develop hydrogen bonding interaction with the ligand in the sixth position. The mononuclear Mn(II) complex with a water molecule was isolated and characterized. We discuss the role of the outer sphere ligand in stabilising a Mn(II)-aquo complex.

  18. Investigating Differences in Teacher Practices through a Complexity Theory Lens: The Influence of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan D.; Dismuke, Sherry

    2018-01-01

    How to prepare teachers to be effective in our nations' classrooms seems to get increasingly complex, yet the links between teacher education and teachers' eventual practices are little understood. Using complexity theory as a theoretical framework, this mixed-methods study investigated writing teacher practices of 23 elementary teachers. Twelve…

  19. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  20. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  1. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients' scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. One high performance technology of infrared scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.

  3. Understanding Teaching, Motivation and External Influences in Student Engagement: How Can Complexity Thinking Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and quality teaching influence how well students engage in learning in post-compulsory education. This is the finding from research into factors contributing to student engagement. Indeed, a recent funded study investigating how learning environments influence student engagement in diverse tertiary settings in Aotearoa New Zealand found…

  4. Transfection efficiency influenced by aggregation of DNA/polyethylenimine max/magnetic nanoparticle complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Satoshi, E-mail: ota-satoshi-gw@ynu.ac.jp; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Tomitaka, Asahi [University of Washington, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Yamada, Tsutomu [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Kami, Daisuke [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Cardiac Supports (Japan); Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takemura, Yasushi [Yokohama National University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Gene delivery using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is known as magnetofection and is an efficient non-viral gene delivery system. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (primary diameter = 29 nm) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (primary diameter = 20-30 nm) coated with deacylated linear polyethylenimine (PEI max) were prepared and conjugated with DNA. The dependency of transfection efficiency on the weight of MNPs, viability of HeLa cells, and size of DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes was evaluated. Transfection efficiency initially increased with the weight of the complexes; however, it decreased with further increase in weight. In contrast, cell viability increased with further increase in weight. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the decline in transfection efficiency at higher weights was not attributable to cytotoxicity of DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes. The DNA/PEI max/MNP complexes aggregated because of DNA binding and pH interaction with the medium. Aggregation depending on the weight of MNPs was confirmed. The number of complexes was estimated from the size distribution. In addition, the dependency of the transfection efficiency on aggregation was assessed with respect to cellular endocytic pathways using the complexes. The complexes were internalized through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which was a size-dependent pathway. This study reveals that decreased transfection efficiency was associated with the extent of aggregation, which was induced by high weight of MNPs.

  5. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eMolodtsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behaviour are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behaviour is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behaviour arise if behaviour is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behaviour, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behaviour of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behaviour can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network.

  6. S-Adenosylmethionine conformations in solution and in protein complexes: Conformational influences of the sulfonium group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, George D.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Bock, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    calculations. Nuclear Overhauser effect measurements and computational results for AdoMet indicate a predominantly anti conformation about the glycosidic bond with a variety of conformations about the methionyl C-alpha-C-beta and C-beta-C-gamma bonds. An AdoMet conformation in which the positively charged....... In 20 reported structures of AdoMet-protein complexes, both anti and syn glycosidic torsional angles are found. The methionyl group typically adopts an extended conformation in complexes with enzymes that transfer the methyl group from the sulfonium center, but is more folded in complexes with proteins...

  7. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  8. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Anomaly detection and localization in crowded scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixin; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The detection and localization of anomalous behaviors in crowded scenes is considered, and a joint detector of temporal and spatial anomalies is proposed. The proposed detector is based on a video representation that accounts for both appearance and dynamics, using a set of mixture of dynamic textures models. These models are used to implement 1) a center-surround discriminant saliency detector that produces spatial saliency scores, and 2) a model of normal behavior that is learned from training data and produces temporal saliency scores. Spatial and temporal anomaly maps are then defined at multiple spatial scales, by considering the scores of these operators at progressively larger regions of support. The multiscale scores act as potentials of a conditional random field that guarantees global consistency of the anomaly judgments. A data set of densely crowded pedestrian walkways is introduced and used to evaluate the proposed anomaly detector. Experiments on this and other data sets show that the latter achieves state-of-the-art anomaly detection results.

  10. Geographic Data Bases Supporting Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.

    1980-12-01

    Recent activity in synthetic reference scene generation from geographic data bases has lead to new and expanding production responsibilities for the mapping community. It has also spawned a new and growing population of geographic data base users. Optimum utilization of this data requires an understanding of the natural and cultural patterns represented as well as knowledge of the conventions and specifications which guide data base preparation. Prudence dictates effective mechanisms for data base inspection by the user. Appropriate implementation of data display procedures can provide this capability while also supporting routine analysis of data base content. This paper first illustrates a set of convenient mechanisms for the display of the elevation and planimetric components of geographic data files. Then, a new USAETL program in Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation Research (CAPIR) is introduced. The CAPIR program will explore issues of direct data entry to create geographic data bases from stereo aerial photography. CAPIR also provides a technique for displaying geographic data base contents in corresponding three-dimensional photo models. This capability, termed superposition, will impact on the critical tasks of data validation, revision and intensification which are essential for effective management of geographic files.

  11. Medical Monitoring During Firefighter Incident Scene Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David A; Haigh, Craig A; Haller, Jeannie M; Smith, Denise L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate aspects of medical monitoring, including medical complaints, vital signs at entry, and vital sign recovery, in firefighters during rehabilitation following operational firefighting duties. Incident scene rehabilitation logs obtained over a 5-year span that included 53 incidents, approximately 40 fire departments, and more than 530 firefighters were reviewed. Only 13 of 694 cases involved a firefighter reporting a medical complaint. In most cases, vital signs were similar between firefighters who registered a complaint and those who did not. On average, heart rate was 104 ± 23 beats·min(-1), systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 17 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81 ± 12 mmHg, and respiratory rate was 19 ± 3 breaths·min(-1) upon entry into rehabilitation. At least two measurements of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate were obtained for 365, 383, 376, and 160 cases, respectively. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and respiratory rate decreased significantly (p firefighters recovered from the physiological stress of firefighting without any medical complaint or symptoms. Furthermore, vital signs were within fire service suggested guidelines for release within 10 or 20 minutes of rehabilitation. The data suggested that vital signs of firefighters with medical symptoms were not significantly different from vital signs of firefighters who had an unremarkable recovery.

  12. Structural complexity of macroalgae influences epifaunal assemblages associated with native and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Habitat structure is a primary factor determining the organism distribution. Here, two native and one invasive macroalgal species, apparently different in morphology, were sampled to examine the effects of habitat complexity on the abundance (N), taxon richness (S) and structure of their associated epifaunal assemblages by means of univariate and multivariate techniques. Dry weight and fractal measures were used as proxies of habitat quantity and habitat architecture respectively. Results revealed significant differences in the complexity and in N, S and the structure of epifaunal assemblages among macroalgae and significant correlations between complexity and epifauna. Results suggested that, beside the effect of habitat quantity, the habitat architecture also seems to play a significant role in shaping epifaunal assemblages. Complexity of the studied invasive macroalga significantly differed from that of native species and hosted also different assemblages. Therefore, our findings suggest that invasive macroalgae, if structurally different from native species, induce changes in the associated epifauna. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Task Complexity Demands Influence the Learners’ Perception of Task Difficulty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sanajou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of cognitive task complexity on EFL learners’ perception of task difficulty. Learners’ perception of task difficulty is measured by a five-item task difficulty questionnaire (as in Robinson, 2001a. The participants were 76 intermediate learners which were divided into two groups. One group performed a simple task (single task and the other group performed a complex task (dual task. Having performed the tasks, the participants completed the task difficulty questionnaire. In order to see how the participants evaluated task difficulty, their ratings for each question of the questionnaire in the simple and complex tasks was compared using Mann-Whitney U. The results indicate that the complex task significantly affected learners’ perception of task difficulty in three items of difficulty, stress and interest. The results of task difficulty studies can help language educators in designing and employing more effective language teaching materials.

  14. Influence of novel gallium complexes on the homeostasis of some biochemical and hematological parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gârban, Gabriela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Ioniţă, Hortensia; Gârban, Zeno; Hădărugă, Nicoleta-Gabriela; Ghibu, George-Daniel; Baltă, Cornel; Simiz, Florin-Dan; Mitar, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect possible homeostasis changes in some biochemical and hematological parameters after the administration of gallium (Ga) complexes C (24) and C (85) on an experimental animal model (Wistar strain rats). In order to observe chronobiological aspects, a morning (m) and an evening (e) animal series were constituted. Further on, each series were divided into three groups: control (C), experimental I (EI), and experimental II (EII). Both Ga complexes were solubilized in a carrier solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, water, and ethanol. Animals of the C groups received the carrier solution by intraperitoneal injection, those from the EI groups received the solubilized C(24) gallium complex, and those of the EII groups received the solubilized C(85) gallium complex. At the end of the experiment, blood and tissue samples were taken and the following parameters were determined: serum concentration of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen), hematological parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelets), and the kidney tissue concentration of three essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn). With the exception of uric acid, the results revealed increased concentrations of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds both in the morning and in the evening experimental groups. Hematological data showed increased levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and leukocytes and decreased platelet levels in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the morning (EI-m) group; increased levels of leukocytes and decreased levels of the other parameters in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the evening (EI-e) group; and increased levels of all hematological parameters in the experimental groups receiving the C(85) gallium complex in the morning (EII-m) group and in the evening (EII-e) group. Decreased kidney tissue concentrations of metals were found in all

  15. INFLUENCE OF ENALAPRIL, DIGOXIN, ATENOLOL AND DILTIAZEM ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF COMPLEX METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Usanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study influence of enalapril, digoxin, atenolol and diltiazem on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection in experimental disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism.Material and methods. White nonlinear mice were used for modeling of the complex metabolic disorders by alloxan and cholesterol infusion. Evaluation of acute drug toxicity and indicators of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection was performed. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, malondialdehyde concentration were evaluated.Results. Toxicity of digoxin, diltiazem, atenolol in complex metabolic disorders was increased, and toxicity of enalapril was unchanged. Enalapril had antioxidant effect. Atenolol had prooxidative effect in myocardium and kidneys, and diltiazem - in kidneys.Conclusion. Enalapril showed antioxidant effect and decreased concentration of secondary products of lipid peroxidation in renal tissue. It may be considered as the first line drug in complex metabolic disorders.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ENALAPRIL, DIGOXIN, ATENOLOL AND DILTIAZEM ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF COMPLEX METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Usanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study influence of enalapril, digoxin, atenolol and diltiazem on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection in experimental disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism.Material and methods. White nonlinear mice were used for modeling of the complex metabolic disorders by alloxan and cholesterol infusion. Evaluation of acute drug toxicity and indicators of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection was performed. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, malondialdehyde concentration were evaluated.Results. Toxicity of digoxin, diltiazem, atenolol in complex metabolic disorders was increased, and toxicity of enalapril was unchanged. Enalapril had antioxidant effect. Atenolol had prooxidative effect in myocardium and kidneys, and diltiazem - in kidneys.Conclusion. Enalapril showed antioxidant effect and decreased concentration of secondary products of lipid peroxidation in renal tissue. It may be considered as the first line drug in complex metabolic disorders.

  17. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  18. Complex ecologies in educational transitions: factors influencing the educational attitudes of vocational students in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, L.

    2010-01-01

    School-related attitudes affect students' persistence (Bers&Smith, 1991, Finn, 1993, Tinto, 1993). Various factors have a role in shaping students' educational attitudes, including personal background characteristics and prior school experiences. We assessed factors influencing the educational

  19. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  20. Object Extraction from Architecture Scenes through 3D Local Scanned Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NING, X.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning becomes a standard way for acquiring 3D data of complex outdoor objects. The processing of huge number of points and recognition of different objects inside become a new challenge, especially in the case where objects are included. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to classify objects through an analysis on shape information of the point cloud data. The scanned scene is constructed using k Nearest Neighboring (k-NN, and then similarity measurement between points is defined to cluster points with similar primitive shapes. Moreover, we introduce a combined geometrical criterion to refine the over-segmented results. To achieve more detail information, a residual based segmentation is adopted to refine the segmentation of architectural objects into more parts with different shape properties. Experimental results demonstrate that this approach can be used as a robust way to extract different objects in the scenes.

  1. Detection of Street Light Poles in Road Scenes from Mobile LIDAR Mapping Data for its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Nahr, S.; Saadatseresht, M.; Talebi, J.

    2017-09-01

    Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.

  2. STAC: a comprehensive sensor fusion model for scene characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Zsolt; Wagner, Alan R.; Kennedy, Chris; Zutty, Jason; Tuell, Grady

    2015-05-01

    We are interested in data fusion strategies for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Advances in theory, algorithms, and computational power have made it possible to extract rich semantic information from a wide variety of sensors, but these advances have raised new challenges in fusing the data. For example, in developing fusion algorithms for moving target identification (MTI) applications, what is the best way to combine image data having different temporal frequencies, and how should we introduce contextual information acquired from monitoring cell phones or from human intelligence? In addressing these questions we have found that existing data fusion models do not readily facilitate comparison of fusion algorithms performing such complex information extraction, so we developed a new model that does. Here, we present the Spatial, Temporal, Algorithm, and Cognition (STAC) model. STAC allows for describing the progression of multi-sensor raw data through increasing levels of abstraction, and provides a way to easily compare fusion strategies. It provides for unambiguous description of how multi-sensor data are combined, the computational algorithms being used, and how scene understanding is ultimately achieved. In this paper, we describe and illustrate the STAC model, and compare it to other existing models.

  3. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  4. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  5. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.

    2017-05-01

    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  6. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dillier

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes “clean speech,” “speech in noise,” “noise,” and “music.” A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class “speech in noise.” Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  7. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  8. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated.

  9. Influence of Ethanol as a Co-Solvent in Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexation: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyarattanakalin, Kanokthip; Viernstein, Helmut; Wolschann, Peter; Lawtrakul, Luckhana

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the dynamics and host-guest interactions of the inclusion complexes between a potent anti-HIV agent, UC781, and three different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) including βCD, 2,6-dimethyl-βCD (MβCD), and 2-hydroxypropyl-βCD (HPβCD) in aqueous solution with ethanol (EtOH) as a co-solvent. The MD simulation results revealed that EtOH as the co-solvent and the type of cyclodextrin affected the inclusion complex formation. From this study, UC781/MβCD provided the most stable inclusion complex. The competition for the cavity of βCD between UC781 and EtOH and the ensuing occupation of βCD cavities by EtOH resulted in a weaker interaction between βCD and UC781. In HPβCD, a supramolecular complex of UC781-HPβCD-EtOH was formed. The EtOH could easily fill the residual void space of the interior of unoccupied HPβCD due to the movement of UC781. In MβCD, the strong hydrogen bond interactions between the UC781 amide group and the secondary hydroxyl groups of MβCD significantly stabilized the inclusion complex in the presence of EtOH.

  10. General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, A H; O'Donnell, M Brook; Hone, A; Hart, E; Hughes, T E; Smith, R N; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge. Diversity makes substantial contributions to the performance of complex adaptive systems. It enhances the robustness of the process, allowing multiple responses to external stimuli as well as internal changes. From diversity comes variation in outcome and the possibility of major change; outliers in the distribution enhance the tipping points. The development of the dentition is a valuable, accessible model with extensive and reliable databases for investigating the role of complex adaptive systems in craniofacial and general development. The general characteristics of such systems are seen during tooth development: self-organization; bottom-up emergence; multitasking; self-adaptation; variation; tipping points; critical phases; and robustness. Dental findings are compatible with the Random Network Model, the Threshold Model and also with the Scale Free Network Model which has a Power Law distribution. In addition, dental development shows the characteristics of Modularity and Clustering to form Hierarchical Networks. The interactions between the genes (nodes) demonstrate Small World phenomena, Subgraph Motifs and Gene Regulatory Networks. Genetic mechanisms are involved in the creation and evolution of variation during development. The genetic factors interact with epigenetic and environmental factors at the molecular level and form complex networks within the cells. From these interactions emerge the higher level tissues, tooth germs and mineralized teeth. Approaching development in this way allows investigation of why there can be variations in phenotypes from identical genotypes; the phenotype is the outcome

  11. Hydroxide-bridged dicopper complexes: the influence of secondary coordination sphere on structure and catecholase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Deepak; Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-04-05

    Amide-based ligands (H2L(1-6)) with assorted functional groups appended to them have been used for the synthesis of dicopper(ii) complexes 1-6 having a Cu(μ-OH)Cu core. The crystal structures of 1-6 show that while every Cu(ii) ion is ligated within the N3 pincer cavity of a potentially multidentate ligand, two Cu(ii) centers are bridged by a hydroxide group. Notably, the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core is encased within the secondary coordination sphere intricately created by the appended groups. While complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the presence of an H-bond acceptor in the proximity of the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core, complexes 3 and 4 display the occurrence of both the H-bond donor as well as H-bond acceptor groups in the vicinity of the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core. In contrast, complexes 5 and 6 present modified secondary coordination spheres around the Cu(μ-OH)Cu core with limited H-bonding interacting groups in 5 and no such groups in 6. We show that the extent of H-bonding by the appended groups modulates not only the Cu-OH bond distance, Cu(μ-OH)Cu angle and Cu-Cu separation but also the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) redox potential. All six complexes were utilized for their ability to oxidize 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol, and the catecholase activity results have been correlated to the secondary coordination sphere created by the appended groups in all six complexes.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE POLYVITAMINIC COMPLEX INTAKE ON THE VITAMIN PROVISION OF THE KINDERGARTNERS

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Kodentsova; O.A. Vrzhesinskaya; A.A. Sokol'nikov

    2007-01-01

    The researchers examined how well the children aged between 3–5 years old were provided with с, В1, В2, В6 and РР vitamins both before and after 3 months of taking in two forms of the polyvitaminic complex (syrup and pastilles). The examination was performed on the basis of the renal excretion of the ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, 4cpiridoxyl acid and 1cmetylnicotinamide. The polyvitaminic complex intake led to increase of excretion of all the examined vitamins apart from the ascorbic a...

  13. Large area scene selection interface (LASSI): Methodology of selecting landsat imagery for The Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, S.; Masek, J.G.; Headley, R.M.K.; Gasch, J.; Arvidson, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorec-tified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004 to 2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat-7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm’s sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  14. Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI). Methodology of Selecting Landsat Imagery for the Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  15. SCENE CLASSFICATION BASED ON THE SEMANTIC-FEATURE FUSION FULLY SPARSE TOPIC MODEL FOR HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Topic modeling has been an increasingly mature method to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level features and high-level semantic information. However, with more and more high spatial resolution (HSR images to deal with, conventional probabilistic topic model (PTM usually presents the images with a dense semantic representation. This consumes more time and requires more storage space. In addition, due to the complex spectral and spatial information, a combination of multiple complementary features is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the performance for HSR image scene classification. But it should be noticed that how the distinct features are fused to fully describe the challenging HSR images, which is a critical factor for scene classification. In this paper, a semantic-feature fusion fully sparse topic model (SFF-FSTM is proposed for HSR imagery scene classification. In SFF-FSTM, three heterogeneous features – the mean and standard deviation based spectral feature, wavelet based texture feature, and dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT based structural feature are effectively fused at the latent semantic level. The combination of multiple semantic-feature fusion strategy and sparse based FSTM is able to provide adequate feature representations, and can achieve comparable performance with limited training samples. Experimental results on the UC Merced dataset and Google dataset of SIRI-WHU demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of scene classification compared with other scene classification methods for HSR imagery.

  16. Scene Classfication Based on the Semantic-Feature Fusion Fully Sparse Topic Model for High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiqi; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Topic modeling has been an increasingly mature method to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level features and high-level semantic information. However, with more and more high spatial resolution (HSR) images to deal with, conventional probabilistic topic model (PTM) usually presents the images with a dense semantic representation. This consumes more time and requires more storage space. In addition, due to the complex spectral and spatial information, a combination of multiple complementary features is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the performance for HSR image scene classification. But it should be noticed that how the distinct features are fused to fully describe the challenging HSR images, which is a critical factor for scene classification. In this paper, a semantic-feature fusion fully sparse topic model (SFF-FSTM) is proposed for HSR imagery scene classification. In SFF-FSTM, three heterogeneous features - the mean and standard deviation based spectral feature, wavelet based texture feature, and dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) based structural feature are effectively fused at the latent semantic level. The combination of multiple semantic-feature fusion strategy and sparse based FSTM is able to provide adequate feature representations, and can achieve comparable performance with limited training samples. Experimental results on the UC Merced dataset and Google dataset of SIRI-WHU demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of scene classification compared with other scene classification methods for HSR imagery.

  17. The role of scene type and priming in the processing and selection of a spatial frame of reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eJohannsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection and processing of a spatial frame of reference (FOR in interpreting verbal scene descriptions is of great interest to psycholinguistics. In this study, we focus on the choice between the relative and the intrinsic FOR, addressing two questions: a does the presence or absence of a background in the scene influence the selection of a FOR, and b what is the effect of a previously selected FOR on the subsequent processing of a different FOR. Our results show that if a scene includes a realistic background, this will make the selection of the relative FOR more likely. We attribute this effect to the facilitation of mental simulation, which enhances the relation between the viewer and the objects. With respect to the response accuracy, we found both a higher (due to FOR priming and a lower accuracy (due to different FOR, while for the response latencies, we only found a delay effect.

  18. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  19. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXATION IN THE COPPER UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual knowledge about food and the environment underlines the fact that agricultural and environmental sciences must solve various problems regarding copper uptake from soil to plants and its bioaccumulation, being important issues for copper concentration in crops and also for phytoremediation of polluted soils. We studied the relation between the form in which copper is applied to soil and the consequential copper bioavailability, uptake and translocation, using as examples simple and complex copper compounds. The copper concentration in basil plants harvested from soils treated with copper compounds and the calculated values of transfer coefficient, translocation factor, bioaccumulation factor, and uptake coefficient demonstrated that the ionic copper (from simple salts is not necessarily easier to uptake than complex ions, but is easier translocated in plants, while the copper given as complex ions is most likely to be retained by roots. The results indicated that the involvement of copper complexes in agricultural treatments is a solution for soils phytoremediation, concerning the phytostabilization technology.

  1. Spectroscopy and dynamics of methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate: the influence of isotopic substitution and water complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Tan, E.M.M.; de Groot, M.; Buma, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution Resonance Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) excitation spectra of jet-cooled methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate, methyl-4-OD-cinnamate, and of their water clusters have been recorded. Whereas water complexation leads to significant linewidth

  2. The influence of molecular complexity on expanding flows of ideal and dense gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, J.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation about the effect of the complexity of a fluid molecule on the fluid dynamic quantities sound speed, velocity, and Mach number in isentropic expansions. Ideal-gas and dense-gas expansions are analyzed, using the polytropic ideal gas and Van der Waals thermodynamic

  3. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE POLYVITAMINIC COMPLEX INTAKE ON THE VITAMIN PROVISION OF THE KINDERGARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Kodentsova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers examined how well the children aged between 3–5 years old were provided with с, В1, В2, В6 and РР vitamins both before and after 3 months of taking in two forms of the polyvitaminic complex (syrup and pastilles. The examination was performed on the basis of the renal excretion of the ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, 4cpiridoxyl acid and 1cmetylnicotinamide. The polyvitaminic complex intake led to increase of excretion of all the examined vitamins apart from the ascorbic acid, warned about the deterioration of provision with с and в6 vitamins and some what improved children's provision with В1, В2 and РР vitamins. However, the intake of this complex in the applied doses didn't ensure complete normalization of the vitamin status indices among all the examined children, which indicates the necessity to apply it in bigger doses, as the manufacturing firm recommends to.Key words: vitamins, polyvitamin, polyvitaminic complexes, hourly renal excretion, children.

  5. Influence of Context on the Production of Complex Sentences by Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harriet B.; Moses, Nelson; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify types of complex-sentence meanings (i.e., "content") produced in selected elicitation contexts by typically developing children within 3 different age groups. The research was motivated by the need for additional evidence-based assessments and interventions for children with language disorders. Method:…

  6. The Complexity in Defining Leadership: How Gifted Students' Backgrounds Influence Their Understanding of Effective Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shawon; Sakuma, Satoe; DeVol, Purva

    2015-01-01

    There is no universally accepted definition of what it means to be an effective leader. Individuals understand leadership differently based on their own identities and lived experiences. The purpose of this investigation is to determine how one's ethnicity, class, and gender identities influence their understanding of effective leadership,…

  7. The influence of amylose-LPC complex formation on the susceptibility of wheat starch to amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in the development of slowly digestible starch (SDS). The influence of LPC, on the enzymatic degradation of diluted 9% wheat starch suspensions (w/w) was investigated, using an in vitro digestion method. Wheat starch

  8. The influence of amylose-LPC complex formation on the susceptibility of wheat starch to amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadiabhari, Salomeh; Woortman, A. J. J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M.; Hamer, R. J.; Loos, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in the development of slowly digestible starch (SOS). The influence of LPC, on the enzymatic degradation of diluted 9% wheat starch suspensions (w/w) was investigated, using an in vitro digestion method. Wheat starch

  9. Influence of multi-microphone signal enhancement algorithms on auditory movement detection in acoustically complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbeck, Micha; Hartog, Laura; Grimm, Giso

    The influence of hearing aid (HA) signal processing on the perception of spatially dynamic sounds has not been systematically investigated so far. Previously, we observed that for elderly hearing-impaired (EHI) listeners concurrent distractor sounds impaired the detectability of left-right source...

  10. Mapping a Complex System: What Influences Teacher Learning during Initial Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Fiona; Haigh, Mavis; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Grudnoff, Lexie; Ludlow, Larry; Hill, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing body of knowledge about what content, processes and arrangements for learning may result in more effective initial teacher education, there remains a problem with the variability of outcomes from teacher education programmes. This paper reports on a multi-perspective exploration of what influences learning to teach in valued ways…

  11. Influence of multi-microphone signal enhancement algorithms on auditory movement detection in acoustically complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbeck, Micha; Hartog, Laura; Grimm, Giso

    2017-01-01

    The influence of hearing aid (HA) signal processing on the perception of spatially dynamic sounds has not been systematically investigated so far. Previously, we observed that interfering sounds impaired the detectability of left-right source movements and reverberation that of near-far source mo...

  12. Earth Virtual-Environment Immersive Scene Display System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise...

  13. Big visual data analysis scene classification and geometric labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Kuo, C -C Jay

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an overview of traditional big visual data analysis approaches and provides state-of-the-art solutions for several scene comprehension problems, indoor/outdoor classification, outdoor scene classification, and outdoor scene layout estimation. It is illustrated with numerous natural and synthetic color images, and extensive statistical analysis is provided to help readers visualize big visual data distribution and the associated problems. Although there has been some research on big visual data analysis, little work has been published on big image data distribution analysis using the modern statistical approach described in this book. By presenting a complete methodology on big visual data analysis with three illustrative scene comprehension problems, it provides a generic framework that can be applied to other big visual data analysis tasks.

  14. Emergent nested systems a theory of understanding and influencing complex systems as well as case studies in urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walloth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...

  15. Influence of artifact removal on rare species recovery in natural complex communities using high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Zhan

    Full Text Available Large-scale high-throughput sequencing techniques are rapidly becoming popular methods to profile complex communities and have generated deep insights into community biodiversity. However, several technical problems, especially sequencing artifacts such as nucleotide calling errors, could artificially inflate biodiversity estimates. Sequence filtering for artifact removal is a conventional method for deleting error-prone sequences from high-throughput sequencing data. As rare species represented by low-abundance sequences in datasets may be sensitive to artifact removal process, the influence of artifact removal on rare species recovery has not been well evaluated in natural complex communities. Here we employed both internal (reliable operational taxonomic units selected from communities themselves and external (indicator species spiked into communities references to evaluate the influence of artifact removal on rare species recovery using 454 pyrosequencing of complex plankton communities collected from both freshwater and marine habitats. Multiple analyses revealed three clear patterns: 1 rare species were eliminated during sequence filtering process at all tested filtering stringencies, 2 more rare taxa were eliminated as filtering stringencies increased, and 3 elimination of rare species intensified as biomass of a species in a community was reduced. Our results suggest that cautions be applied when processing high-throughput sequencing data, especially for rare taxa detection for conservation of species at risk and for rapid response programs targeting non-indigenous species. Establishment of both internal and external references proposed here provides a practical strategy to evaluate artifact removal process.

  16. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the...

  18. Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lingua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.

  19. EigenScape: A Database of Spatial Acoustic Scene Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ciufo Green

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classification of acoustic scenes and events is an emerging area of research in the field of machine listening. Most of the research conducted so far uses spectral features extracted from monaural or stereophonic audio rather than spatial features extracted from multichannel recordings. This is partly due to the lack thus far of a substantial body of spatial recordings of acoustic scenes. This paper formally introduces EigenScape, a new database of fourth-order Ambisonic recordings of eight different acoustic scene classes. The potential applications of a spatial machine listening system are discussed before detailed information on the recording process and dataset are provided. A baseline spatial classification system using directional audio coding (DirAC techniques is detailed and results from this classifier are presented. The classifier is shown to give good overall scene classification accuracy across the dataset, with 7 of 8 scenes being classified with an accuracy of greater than 60% with an 11% improvement in overall accuracy compared to use of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC features. Further analysis of the results shows potential improvements to the classifier. It is concluded that the results validate the new database and show that spatial features can characterise acoustic scenes and as such are worthy of further investigation.

  20. Separating reflective and fluorescent components for dynamic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangyang; Miao, Changlong; Zhang, Yongbing; Lin, Xing; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-12-01

    Separating reflective and fluorescent components by hyperspectral (HS) imaging is significant in many applications. This paper designs an imaging system, where both HS reflective images and HS fluorescent images could be obtained from the same scene, even scenes within moving objects. The system consists of a high-frequency-spectra light source and a spatially-spectrally encoded camera. During the capture phase, the light source illuminates the scene with two high-frequency lighting patterns complemented in the spectral domain by turns, then encoded camera captures a image pair accordingly. During the reconstruction phase, sparsity of the natural reflective and fluorescent HS images is utilized to recover reflective and fluorescent spectra from encoded image pair. Benefited from double-shot imaging system, dynamic scene could also be handled. The method is tested in various datasets(including synthetic and real data), and the results demonstrate that the system could achieve high-resolution hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence recovery with high-accuracy for dynamic scenes, which can be applied for spectral relighting of real scenes.

  1. Cdc5 influences phosphorylation of Net1 and disassembly of the RENT complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Azzam, Ramzi; Chen, Susan L; Huddleston, Michael J; Baskerville, Christopher; Charbonneau, Harry; Annan, Roland S; Carr, Steve A; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2002-04-17

    In S. cerevisiae, the mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins, including the Polo-like protein kinase Cdc5 and the protein phosphatase Cdc14, are required for exit from mitosis. In pre-anaphase cells, Cdc14 is sequestered to the nucleolus by Net1 as a part of the RENT complex. When cells are primed to exit mitosis, the RENT complex is disassembled and Cdc14 is released from the nucleolus. Here, we show that Cdc5 is necessary to free nucleolar Cdc14 in late mitosis, that elevated Cdc5 activity provokes ectopic release of Cdc14 in pre-anaphase cells, and that the phosphorylation state of Net1 is regulated by Cdc5 during anaphase. Furthermore, recombinant Cdc5 and Xenopus Polo-like kinase can disassemble the RENT complex in vitro by phosphorylating Net1 and thereby reducing its affinity for Cdc14. Surprisingly, although RENT complexes containing Net1 mutants (Net1(7m) and Net1(19m') lacking sites phosphorylated by Cdc5 in vitro are refractory to disassembly by Polo-like kinases in vitro, net1(7m) and net1(19m') cells grow normally and exhibit only minor defects in releasing Cdc14 during anaphase. However, net1(19m') cells exhibit a synergistic growth defect when combined with mutations in CDC5 or DBF2 (another MEN gene). We propose that although Cdc5 potentially disassembles RENT by directly phosphorylating Net1, Cdc5 mediates exit from mitosis primarily by phosphorylating other targets. Our study suggests that Cdc5/Polo is unusually promiscuous and highlights the need to validate Cdc5/Polo in vitro phosphorylation sites by direct in vivo mapping experiments.

  2. Shannon entropy of brain functional complex networks under the influence of the psychedelic Ayahuasca

    OpenAIRE

    Viol, A.; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Onias, Heloisa; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The entropic brain hypothesis holds that the key facts concerning psychedelics are partially explained in terms of increased entropy of the brain?s functional connectivity. Ayahuasca is a psychedelic beverage of Amazonian indigenous origin with legal status in Brazil in religious and scientific settings. In this context, we use tools and concepts from the theory of complex networks to analyze resting state fMRI data of the brains of human subjects under two distinct conditions: (i) under ordi...

  3. The influence of the Complexity of Attachment in Adult & Higher Education Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The attachment theory of John Bowlby has had an enduring impact on our understanding of child development. But these ideas are a neglected and forgotten discourse in the education of adults. In this paper secure and insecure attachments, internal attachment models, and the impact of attachment for adult higher education learning are explored. This paper seeks to contextualise the complexity that attachment experience adds to the teaching/learning mix and suggests how facilitators of education...

  4. The influence of climatic niche preferences on the population genetic structure of a mistletoe species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; González, Clementina; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables. Pairwise genetic differentiation was associated with environmental and host preferences, independent of geography. However, environmental predictors appeared to be more important than host preferences to explain genetic structure, supporting the hypothesis that the occurrence of the parasite is largely determined by its own climatic niche and, to a lesser degree, by host specificity. Genetic structure is significant within this mistletoe species complex, but the processes associated with this structure appear to be more complex than previously thought. Although host specificity was not supported as the major determinant of population differentiation, we consider this to be part of a more comprehensive ecological model of mistletoe host-race formation that incorporates the effects of climatic niche evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. System Integration and Its Influence on the Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thurston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the interactions between child and parents psychosocial factors and team integration variables that may explain improvements in physical dimensions of the PEDS QL quality of life of children with complex needs after 2 years. Methods. In this 2-year study, parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child was aged 0–19 years, had physical limitations, resided in either Simcoe County or the Region of York, Ontario, and there were multiple other family needs. Regression analysis used to explore associations and interactions; n=110. Results. A child's physical quality of life was affected by interacting factors including child's behavior, parenting, and integrated care. Statistically significant interactions between team integration, processes of care, and child/parent variables highlight the complexity of the rehabilitation approach in real-life situations. Conclusions. Rehabilitation providers working with children with complex needs and their families should also address child and parent problematic behaviors. When this was the case in high integrated teams, the child's physical quality of life improved after two years.

  6. Influences on the implementation of TQM in health care organizations: professional bureaucracies, ownership and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, T; Preston, A

    2001-01-01

    TQM is introduced into many organisations in an attempt to improve productivity and quality. There are a number of organisational variables that have been recognised as influencing the success of TQM implementation including leadership, teamwork, and suppliers. This paper presents findings of a study of the implementation of TQM in Australian health care organisations. Structural factors were observed to affect the progress of TQM. Professional bureaucracies were less successful than machine bureaucracies. Private organisations were more successful than their public counterparts.

  7. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... was reflected in the sensitivity of the cells to extracellular calcium, since inhibition of the release could be counteracted by increasing the extracellular concentration of calcium....

  8. A spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier for very high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bei; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Land-use classification of very high spatial resolution remote sensing (VHSR) imagery is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of remote sensing image processing. However, the land-use classification is hard to be addressed by the land-cover classification techniques, due to the complexity of the land-use scenes. Scene classification is considered to be one of the expected ways to address the land-use classification issue. The commonly used scene classification methods of VHSR imagery are all derived from the computer vision community that mainly deal with terrestrial image recognition. Differing from terrestrial images, VHSR images are taken by looking down with airborne and spaceborne sensors, which leads to the distinct light conditions and spatial configuration of land cover in VHSR imagery. Considering the distinct characteristics, two questions should be answered: (1) Which type or combination of information is suitable for the VHSR imagery scene classification? (2) Which scene classification algorithm is best for VHSR imagery? In this paper, an efficient spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier (SSBFC) is proposed to combine the spectral and structural information of VHSR imagery. SSBFC utilizes the first- and second-order statistics (the mean and standard deviation values, MeanStd) as the statistical spectral descriptor for the spectral information of the VHSR imagery, and uses dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) as the structural feature descriptor. From the experimental results, the spectral information works better than the structural information, while the combination of the spectral and structural information is better than any single type of information. Taking the characteristic of the spatial configuration into consideration, SSBFC uses the whole image scene as the scope of the pooling operator, instead of the scope generated by a spatial pyramid (SP) commonly used in terrestrial image classification. The experimental

  9. Where’s Wally: The influence of visual salience on referring expression generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Daniel Francis Clarke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Referring expression generation (REG presents the converse problem to visualsearch: Given a scene and a specified target, how does one generate adescription which would allow somebody else to quickly and accurately locatethe target? Previous work in psycholinguistics and natural language processingthat has addressed this question identifies only a limited role for vision inthis task. That previous work, which relies largely on simple scenes, tends totreat vision as a pre-process for extracting feature categories that arerelevant to disambiguation. However, the visual search literature suggeststhat some descriptions are better than others at enabling listeners to searchefficiently within complex stimuli. This paper presents the results of a studytesting whether speakers are sensitive to visual features that allow them tocompose such `good' descriptions. Our results show that visual properties(salience, clutter, area, and distance influence REG for targets embedded inimages from the *Where's Wally?* books, which are an order of magnitudemore complex than traditional stimuli. Referring expressions for large salienttargets are shorter than those for smaller and less salient targets, and targets within highly cluttered scenes are described using more words.We also find that speakers are more likely to mention non-target landmarks thatare large, salient, and in close proximity to the target. These findingsidentfy a key role for visual salience in language production decisions and highlight the importance of scene complexity for REG.

  10. Programmable personality interface for the dynamic infrared scene generator (IRSG2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Mobley, Scott B.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Braselton, William J.

    1998-07-01

    As scene generator platforms begin to rely specifically on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, the need for high speed programmable personality interfaces (PPIs) are required for interfacing to Infrared (IR) flight computer/processors and complex IR projectors in the hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation facilities. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost effective PPIs to interface to COTS scene generators. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC) researchers have developed such a PPI to reside between the AMCOM MRDEC IR Scene Generator (IRSG) and either a missile flight computer or the dynamic Laser Diode Array Projector (LDAP). AMCOM MRDEC has developed several PPIs for the first and second generation IRSGs (IRSG1 and IRSG2), which are based on Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx and Onyx2 computers with Reality Engine 2 (RE2) and Infinite Reality (IR/IR2) graphics engines. This paper provides an overview of PPIs designed, integrated, tested, and verified at AMCOM MRDEC, specifically the IRSG2's PPI.

  11. The influence of B-complex vitamins upon the prolongation of prothrombin time by acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catazaro, Jonathan R; Brecher, Arthur S

    2013-07-01

    Alcoholism plays a major role in the insufficient utilization or deficiency of the vitamin B-complex molecules, and the pathologies resulting therefrom. Thiamine, pyridoxamine, and folic acid, each contain primary amine functional groups, whereas nicotinamide and vitamin B12 contain amide groups, each of which are potential reactants with acetaldehyde (AcH), the primary intermediate in the metabolism of ethanol. In this current study, it is reported that prothrombin time (PT), which is prolonged in a fraction of the alcoholic population, can be modified (in the laboratory) when several B-complex vitamins and AcH are added successively to human plasma or are premixed prior to the addition to plasma. Particularly, thiamine, pyridoxamine, and folic acid, at 0.01 mol/l, when added successively with 44.7 mmol/l AcH to plasma, or when premixed prior to addition to plasma, produced a marked reduction in the anticoagulant effect of AcH. Nicotinamide had no effect on PT nor did mixtures with AcH effect PT. However, NAD, which contains a primary amine in its AMP moiety, reacted with AcH, lowering the latter's anticoagulant activity upon addition to plasma. Vitamin B12 did not affect PT. Interestingly, successive mixtures of vitamin B12 and AcH to plasma resulted in a small but statistically significant increase (P≤0.05) in the anticoagulant effect of AcH, whereas premixtures had no statistically significant effect (P>0.05). The decrease in anticoagulant activity of AcH in the presence of B-complex vitamins and NAD suggests that the primary amines in these molecules may form Schiff bases with AcH, thereby lowering both the free AcH concentration as well as the ability of the free vitamins/coenzymes to partake in essential physiological reactions.

  12. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut

    2013-12-10

    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  13. Influence of ring size on the strength of carbon bonding complexes between anions and perfluorocycloalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Frontera, Antonio

    2014-09-28

    In this paper we combine high level theoretical calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP) with Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) analysis to demonstrate the importance of carbon bonding in cyclobutane rings. The higher ability of four-membered rings to interact with electron rich molecules is rationalized using several computational tools, including molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, energetic and geometric features of the complexes and "atoms in molecules" analysis. We have found that the solid state architectures of several X-ray structures, retrieved from the CSD searches, strongly support the theoretical calculations. In particular, carbon bonding interactions are quite common in nitro-substituted cubanes.

  14. Influence of oxygen-vacancy complex /A center/ on piezoresistance of n-type silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Loggins, C. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in both magnitude and temperature dependence of the piezoresistance of electron-irradiated n-type silicon, induced by the latter's oxygen-vacancy complex (A center), are shown to be due to the fact that the presence of the A center causes the total conduction-band electron concentration to change with an applied stress. This change in electron concentration leads to an additional piezoresistance contribution that is expected to be important in certain many-valley semiconductors. This offers the possibility of tailoring the thermal variations of semiconductor mechanical sensors to more desirable values over limited temperature ranges.

  15. A distributed code for colour in natural scenes derived from centre-surround filtered cone signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Johannes Kellner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for colour. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in colour space. Here we investigated how the nonlinear spatiochromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of colour signals. Cone signals were derived from hyperspectral images of natural scenes and pre-processed by centre-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in colour space, similar to the population code of colour in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatiochromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.

  16. A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian J; Wachtler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.

  17. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  18. Influence of foundation model complexity on the design loads for offshore WTG on jacket foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Melchior; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders

    The present work investigates the influence of using different ways of interfacing wind turbine model and foundation on loads in the combined structure. In the design procedure for offshore wind turbines it is common that foundation and wind turbine design loads are obtained in two sequential steps...... to obtain the design loads for the foundation. The dynamic interaction between the wind turbine and foundation is left out in that procedure. Herein, three different design methodologies are applied to the same offshore wind turbine with identical turbulent wind (18 m/s) and irregular waves (Hs=6 m/Tp=10 s...

  19. The influence of ligand conformation on the thermal spin transitions in iron(III) saltrien complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Ruth; Barrett, Simon A; Kilner, Colin A; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2008-06-28

    We report the syntheses of six new salts of the iron(III) complexes of four hexadentate Schiff bases of the saltrien-type derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-diazaoctane and 2 equiv. of the appropriate salicylaldehyde derivative. Three of these new compounds undergo gradual spin-transitions centred between 155-204 K in the solid state, that proceed to 35-50% completeness. One of the other compounds remains high-spin on cooling, another is low-spin, while the last undergoes spin-crossover centred above room temperature. This spin-state variability is typical of solid compounds of this type. As an aid to understanding this behaviour, the crystal structures and magnetochemistry of the known spin-crossover salts [Fe(saltrien)]PF6, [Fe(saltrien)]ClO4 and [Fe(saltrien)]BPh4 have also been reexamined. The structural chemistry of all three salts was found to differ significantly from what has been previously reported. Correlation of the crystal structures and magnetic behaviour of the compounds in this and previous work suggests that the disposition of the two ligand phenoxy groups plays an important role in determining whether high-spin [Fe(saltrien)]+ complexes can undergo thermal spin-transitions.

  20. The influence of HLB on the encapsulation of oils by complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabisková, M; Valásková, J

    1998-01-01

    Microcapsules are used for the formulation of drug controlled release and drug targeting dosage forms. Encapsulated hydrophobic drugs are often applied as their solutions in plant oils. The uptake of the oils in the complex coacervate microcapsules can be improved by the addition of surfactants. In this study, soybean, olive and peanut oils were chosen as the representatives of plant oils. The well characterized complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia has been used to produce the microcapsules. The amount of encapsulated oil has been determined gravimetrically. The encapsulation of the oils was high (75-80%). When the surfactants with HLB values from 1.8 to 6.7 were used, the amount of encapsulated oil was high (65-85%). A significant decrease of the oil content in the microcapsules was found when Tween 61 with HLB = 9.6 had been added into the mixture. No oil was found inside the microcapsules from the coacervate emulsion mixture containing Tween 81 (HLB = 10) and Tween 80 (HLB = 15), respectively. The results of the experiment confirm the dependence of hydrophobic substance encapsulation on the HLB published recently for Squalan.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE INFLUENCE ON THE THERMAL FORMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Cottin, H. [LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Université Paris Diderot (UPD), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Labex ESEP, Paris (France); Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T., E-mail: vvinogradoff@mnhn.fr [PIIM, Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires, Université Aix-Marseille, UMR CNRS 7345, Marseille (France)

    2015-08-20

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Influence of pH and heat treatment on β-lactolobulin-oleic acid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria SIMION (CIUCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns of food technologists is to produce healthier products with specific functionalities. The potential use of β-lactoglobulin as a supplement for new functional products is encouraging due to its nutritional and functional characteristics. The aim of this work was to obtain β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complexes at different pH values (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 and to test their stability at different temperatures (25-85°C such as to allow identifying their potential use in a variety of food products. The complexes were characterized through different fluorescence spectroscopy based techniques: phase diagram, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, along with fluorescence quenching experiments. Results showed the presence of more than two structurally distinct species with intermediates as induced by thermal treatment. The heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70°C caused an increase in both intrinsic and ANS fluorescence intensity. Acrylamide quenching showed no significant differences between the values of Stern-Volmer constants as function of temperature for pH 5.0, suggesting that no significant changes occurred in the Trp microenvironments. Quenching experiments with KI lead to decreases in Stern-Volmer constants in the temperature range 25-70°C, suggesting protein folding, whereas at higher temperatures a small increase was observed suggesting unfolding and an increased accessibility of the fluorophore to the quencher for all pH values.

  3. Gestalt-like constraints produce veridical (Euclidean) percepts of 3D indoor scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, TaeKyu; Li, Yunfeng; Sawada, Tadamasa; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2016-09-01

    This study, which was influenced a lot by Gestalt ideas, extends our prior work on the role of a priori constraints in the veridical perception of 3D shapes to the perception of 3D scenes. Our experiments tested how human subjects perceive the layout of a naturally-illuminated indoor scene that contains common symmetrical 3D objects standing on a horizontal floor. In one task, the subject was asked to draw a top view of a scene that was viewed either monocularly or binocularly. The top views the subjects reconstructed were configured accurately except for their overall size. These size errors varied from trial to trial, and were shown most-likely to result from the presence of a response bias. There was little, if any, evidence of systematic distortions of the subjects' perceived visual space, the kind of distortions that have been reported in numerous experiments run under very unnatural conditions. This shown, we proceeded to use Foley's (Vision Research 12 (1972) 323-332) isosceles right triangle experiment to test the intrinsic geometry of visual space directly. This was done with natural viewing, with the impoverished viewing conditions Foley had used, as well as with a number of intermediate viewing conditions. Our subjects produced very accurate triangles when the viewing conditions were natural, but their performance deteriorated systematically as the viewing conditions were progressively impoverished. Their perception of visual space became more compressed as their natural visual environment was degraded. Once this was shown, we developed a computational model that emulated the most salient features of our psychophysical results. We concluded that human observers see 3D scenes veridically when they view natural 3D objects within natural 3D environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.

  5. On Influence of Neutrals on Dust Particle Charging in Complex Plasmas in the Presence of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    Effects associated with neutral component of complex (dusty) ionospheric plasmas which affect dust particle charging are studied. Microscopic ion currents on dust particles with taking into account ion-neutral interaction are presented. Calculations are performed both for the case of negative charges of dust particles, when the influence of Solar radiation on dust particle charging processes is negligible, and for the case of positive charges which is realized in the presence of sufficiently intensive UV or X-ray radiation. We also carry out investigation of the electron heating due to the photoelectric effect. We show that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral component of the plasma. As result, we determine altitudes where the influence of the neutral plasma component on dust particle charging processes as well as the electron heating effect are significant and should be taken into account under consideration of the ionospheric complex plasmas. In particular, we show that the effects considered could be important for the description of noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and some other physical phenomena associated with dust particles in the ionosphere.

  6. Influence of complex surface vibrations on the fusion of [sup 58]Ni+[sup 60]Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; Napoli, D.R.; Petrache, C.; Spolaore, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Zhang, H.Q. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Mueller, L.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Soramel, F. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionle di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Padova, I-35131, Padova (Italy)); Rowley, N. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom) Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom))

    1995-02-06

    Fusion-evaporation cross sections for [sup 58]Ni+[sup 60]Ni have been measured with high accuracy in the energy range around the Coulomb barrier. The data yield an experimental distribution of fusion barriers'' around 13 MeV wide, which displays structure characteristic of strong phonon couplings with two large well resolved'' peaks, and a smaller peak at lower energies, which is essential for fitting the low-energy cross section. This is obtained only when the target and projectile double-phonon excitations are taken into account. This is the first time that such complex surface vibrations have been identified in a fusion experiment.

  7. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asubay, Sezai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Ocak, Yusuf Selim [Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey); Tombak, Ahmet, E-mail: tahmet@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Batman University, Batman (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy{sub 2}PNHCH{sub 2}-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}O)(η{sup 6}-p-cymene)Cl{sub 2}] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  8. Ligand influence on the formation of P/Se semiconductor materials from metal-organic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Arunkumar; Nguyen, Chinh Q; Waters, John; Malik, Mohammad A; O'Brien, Paul; Raftery, James; Helliwell, Madeleine

    2008-09-07

    The complexes [Ni{(SeP(i)Pr(2))(2)N}(2)] (2), [Ni(Se(2)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (), and [Co(Se(2)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (4) were synthesised and the X-ray single crystal structures of (1) and (2) were determined. Thin films of nickel selenide, cobalt selenide and cobalt phosphide have been deposited by the chemical vapour deposition method using imidodiselenophosphinato-nickel(ii) (1), -cobalt(ii) [Co{(SeP(i)Pr(2))(2)N}(2)] (3), diselenophosphinato-nickel(ii) (2), -cobalt(ii) (4) and diselenocarbamato-nickel(ii) [Ni(Se(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (5), and -cobalt(iii) [Co(Se(2)CNEt(2))(3)] (6) precursors.

  9. Shannon entropy of brain functional complex networks under the influence of the psychedelic Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viol, A; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Onias, Heloisa; de Araujo, Draulio B; Viswanathan, G M

    2017-08-07

    The entropic brain hypothesis holds that the key facts concerning psychedelics are partially explained in terms of increased entropy of the brain's functional connectivity. Ayahuasca is a psychedelic beverage of Amazonian indigenous origin with legal status in Brazil in religious and scientific settings. In this context, we use tools and concepts from the theory of complex networks to analyze resting state fMRI data of the brains of human subjects under two distinct conditions: (i) under ordinary waking state and (ii) in an altered state of consciousness induced by ingestion of Ayahuasca. We report an increase in the Shannon entropy of the degree distribution of the networks subsequent to Ayahuasca ingestion. We also find increased local and decreased global network integration. Our results are broadly consistent with the entropic brain hypothesis. Finally, we discuss our findings in the context of descriptions of "mind-expansion" frequently seen in self-reports of users of psychedelic drugs.

  10. Influence of Poroelasticity on the 3D Seismic Response of Complex Geological Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke Frank

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastic wave propagation in 3D poroelastic geological media with localized heterogeneities, such as an elastic inclusion and a canyon is investigated to visualize the modification of local site responses under consideration of water saturated geomaterial. The extended computational environment herein developed is a direct Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM, based on the frequency-dependent fundamental solution of the governing equation in poro-visco elastodynamics. Bardet’s model is introduced in the analysis as the computationally efficient viscoelastic isomorphism to Biot’s equations of dynamic poroelasticity, thus replacing the two-phase material by a complex valued single-phase one. The potential of Bardet’s analogue is illustrated for low frequency vibrations and all simulation results demonstrate the dependency of wave field developed along the free surface on the properties of the soil material.

  11. Influence of Poroelasticity on the 3D Seismic Response of Complex Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Frank; Dineva, Petia; Fontara, Ioanna-Kleoniki

    2017-06-01

    Elastic wave propagation in 3D poroelastic geological media with localized heterogeneities, such as an elastic inclusion and a canyon is investigated to visualize the modification of local site responses under consideration of water saturated geomaterial. The extended computational environment herein developed is a direct Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM), based on the frequency-dependent fundamental solution of the governing equation in poro-visco elastodynamics. Bardet's model is introduced in the analysis as the computationally efficient viscoelastic isomorphism to Biot's equations of dynamic poroelasticity, thus replacing the two-phase material by a complex valued single-phase one. The potential of Bardet's analogue is illustrated for low frequency vibrations and all simulation results demonstrate the dependency of wave field developed along the free surface on the properties of the soil material.

  12. An Interfacial Complex in ZnO and Its Influence on Charge Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan M.; Domingos, Helder S.; Bristowe, Paul D.; Hellsing, Bo

    2003-10-01

    The segregation of native defects and Bi impurities to a high-angle grain boundary in ZnO is studied by first-principles calculations. It is found that the presence of BiZn increases the concentration of native defects of acceptor type in the grain boundary. This leads to the formation of a BiZn+VZn+Oi interfacial complex under O-rich conditions and exhibits a localized acceptor state. This state, which is different from that of the isolated impurity, gives the grain boundary p-type character and when embedded between n-type ZnO grains is consistent with the double Schottky barrier model for Bi-doped ZnO varistors.

  13. Simulation of complex fracture networks influenced by natural fractures in shale gas reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jinzhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When hydraulic fractures intersect with natural fractures, the geometry and complexity of a fracture network are determined by the initiation and propagation pattern which is affected by a number of factors. Based on the fracture mechanics, the criterion for initiation and propagation of a fracture was introduced to analyze the tendency of a propagating angle and factors affecting propagating pressure. On this basis, a mathematic model with a complex fracture network was established to investigate how the fracture network form changes with different parameters, including rock mechanics, in-situ stress distribution, fracture properties, and frac treatment parameters. The solving process of this model was accelerated by classifying the calculation nodes on the extending direction of the fracture by equal pressure gradients, and solving the geometrical parameters prior to the iteration fitting flow distribution. With the initiation and propagation criterion as the bases for the propagation of branch fractures, this method decreased the iteration times through eliminating the fitting of the fracture length in conventional 3D fracture simulation. The simulation results indicated that the formation with abundant natural fractures and smaller in-situ stress difference is sufficient conditions for fracture network development. If the pressure in the hydraulic fractures can be kept at a high level by temporary sealing or diversion, the branch fractures will propagate further with minor curvature radius, thus enlarging the reservoir stimulation area. The simulated shape of fracture network can be well matched with the field microseismic mapping in data point range and distribution density, validating the accuracy of this model.

  14. Complexing agents and pH influence on chemical durability of type I moulded glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-06-16

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents presence in aqueous solution have the main role (1). Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue with glass particles appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed (2,3). The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on the borosilicate glass chemical durability. Hydrolytic attack was performed in small volume 23 ml type I glass containers autoclaved according to EP or USP for 1 hour at 121°C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature and the unfavourable surface/volume ratio. 0,048 M or 0.024 M (moles/liter) solutions of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ± 0,05 units at fixed values 5,5-6,6-7-7,4-8-9 by LiOH diluted solution. Since silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by ICPAES. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions, of moulded glass, soda lime type II and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by SEM was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  15. Measurement-based aerosol forcing calculations: The influence of model complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wendisch

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ground-based microphysical and chemical aerosol measurements a simple 'two-layer-single-wavelength' and a complex 'multiple-layer-multiple-wavelength' radiative transfer model are used to calculate the local solar radiative forcing of black carbon (BC and (NH42SO4 (ammonium sulfate particles and mixtures (external and internal of both materials. The focal points of our approach are (a that the radiative forcing calculations are based on detailed aerosol measurements with special emphasis of particle absorption, and (b the results of the radiative forcing calculations with two different types of models (with regards to model complexity are compared using identical input data. The sensitivity of the radiative forcing due to key input parameters (type of particle mixture, particle growth due to humidity, surface albedo, solar zenith angle, boundary layer height is investigated. It is shown that the model results for external particle mixtures (wet and dry only slightly differ from those of the corresponding internal mixture. This conclusion is valid for the results of both model types and for both surface albedo scenarios considered (grass and snow. Furthermore, it is concluded that the results of the two model types approximately agree if it is assumed that the aerosol particles are composed of pure BC. As soon as a mainly scattering substance is included alone or in (internal or external mixture with BC, the differences between the radiative forcings of both models become significant. This discrepancy results from neglecting multiple scattering effects in the simple radiative transfer model.

  16. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Rodríguez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Methods Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts’ exposure to the parasite’s dispersive stages. Results Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm than large molecrabs (<15 mm. Independently of seagull density, large molecrabs carried significantly more parasites than small molecrabs. The analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. Conclusions These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation—a characteristic of indirect host

  17. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Valdivia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence) and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts' exposure to the parasite's dispersive stages. Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm) than large molecrabs (parasites than small molecrabs. The analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation-a characteristic of indirect host-parasite interactions-and subsequent increasing mortality rates over ontogeny underpin size-dependent host-parasite dynamics.

  18. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  19. Influence of Copper Oxidation State on the Bonding and Electronic Structure of Cobalt-Copper Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhart, Reed J.; Carlson, Rebecca K.; Clouston, Laura J.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Bill, Eckhard; Gagliardi, Laura; Lu, Connie C. (UC); (UMM); (MXPL)

    2016-03-04

    Heterobimetallic complexes that pair cobalt and copper were synthesized and characterized by a suite of physical methods, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray anomalous scattering, cyclic voltammetry, magnetometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and quantum chemical methods. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) reagents were independently added to a Co(II) metalloligand to provide (py3tren)CoCuCl (1-Cl) and (py3tren)CoCu(CH3CN) (2-CH3CN), respectively, where py3tren is the triply deprotonated form of N,N,N-tris(2-(2-pyridylamino)ethyl)amine. Complex 2-CH3CN can lose the acetonitrile ligand to generate a coordination polymer consistent with the formula “(py3tren)CoCu” (2). One-electron chemical oxidation of 2-CH3CN with AgOTf generated (py3tren)CoCuOTf (1-OTf). The Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple for 1-OTf and 2-CH3CN is reversible at -0.56 and -0.33 V vs Fc+/Fc, respectively. The copper oxidation state impacts the electronic structure of the heterobimetallic core, as well as the nature of the Co–Cu interaction. Quantum chemical calculations showed modest electron delocalization in the (CoCu)+4 state via a Co–Cu σ bond that is weakened by partial population of the Co–Cu σ antibonding orbital. By contrast, no covalent Co–Cu bonding is predicted for the (CoCu)+3 analogue, and the d-electrons are fully localized at individual metals.

  20. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  1. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    -time rendering of arbitrary dynamic environments and for interactive preview of feature animations. Through DRM we simulate two diffuse reflections of light, but can also, in combination with traditional real-time methods for specular reflections, simulate more complex light paths. DRM is a GPU-based method...

  2. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  3. HDR video synthesis for vision systems in dynamic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopovska, Ivana; Jovanov, Ljubomir; Goossens, Bart; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) image generation from a number of differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images has been extensively explored in the past few decades, and as a result of these efforts a large number of HDR synthesis methods have been proposed. Since HDR images are synthesized by combining well-exposed regions of the input images, one of the main challenges is dealing with camera or object motion. In this paper we propose a method for the synthesis of HDR video from a single camera using multiple, differently exposed video frames, with circularly alternating exposure times. One of the potential applications of the system is in driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles, involving significant camera and object movement, non- uniform and temporally varying illumination, and the requirement of real-time performance. To achieve these goals simultaneously, we propose a HDR synthesis approach based on weighted averaging of aligned radiance maps. The computational complexity of high-quality optical flow methods for motion compensation is still pro- hibitively high for real-time applications. Instead, we rely on more efficient global projective transformations to solve camera movement, while moving objects are detected by thresholding the differences between the trans- formed and brightness adapted images in the set. To attain temporal consistency of the camera motion in the consecutive HDR frames, the parameters of the perspective transformation are stabilized over time by means of computationally efficient temporal filtering. We evaluated our results on several reference HDR videos, on synthetic scenes, and using 14-bit raw images taken with a standard camera.

  4. Influence of Proton Acceptors on the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reaction Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Tyrosine Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, J Christian; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2017-11-22

    A polypyridyl ruthenium complex with fluorinated bipyridine ligands and a covalently bound tyrosine moiety was synthesized, and its photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactivity in acetonitrile was investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. Using flash-quench methodology with methyl viologen as an oxidative quencher, a Ru 3+ species is generated that is capable of initiating the intramolecular PCET oxidation of the tyrosine moiety. Using a series of substituted pyridine bases, the reaction kinetics were found to vary as a function of proton acceptor concentration and identity, with no significant H/D kinetic isotope effect. Through analysis of the kinetics traces and comparison to a control complex without the tyrosine moiety, PCET reactivity was found to proceed through an equilibrium electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET-PT) pathway in which irreversible deprotonation of the tyrosine radical cation shifts the ET equilibrium, conferring a base dependence on the reaction. Comprehensive kinetics modeling allowed for deconvolution of complex kinetics and determination of rate constants for each elementary step. Across the five pyridine bases explored, spanning a range of 4.2 pK a units, a linear free-energy relationship was found for the proton transfer rate constant with a slope of 0.32. These findings highlight the influence that proton transfer driving force exerts on PCET reaction kinetics.

  5. Complexing Agents and pH Influence on Chemical Durability of Type I Molded Glass Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents present in aqueous solution have the main role. Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue causing glass particles' appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed. The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on borosilicate glass chemical durability.Hydrolytic attack was performed in small-volume 23 mL type I glass containers autoclaved according to the European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopeia for 1 h at 121 °C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature, and the unfavorable surface/volume ratio. Solutions of 0.048 M or 0.024 M (M/L) of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), together with sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ±0.05 units at fixed values 5.5, 6.6, 7, 7.4, 8, and 9 by LiOH diluted solution.Because silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions of molded glass, soda lime type II glass, and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid.LAY ABSTRACT: Glass, like every packaging material, can have some usage limits, mainly in basic pH solutions. The issue of glass surface degradation particles that appear in vials (delamination) has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. To

  6. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  7. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  8. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyper-spectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyper-spectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyper-spectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyper-spectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyper-spectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyper-spectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyper-spectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  9. The influences on radar-based rainfall estimation due to complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Cristian; Stefan, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    One of the concerns regarding radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is the level of reliability of radar data, on which the forecaster should trust when he must issue warnings regarding weather phenomena that might put human lives and good in danger. The aim of the current study is to evaluate, by objective means, the difference between radar estimated and gauge measured precipitation over an area with complex terrain. Radar data supplied for the study comes from an S-band, single polarization, Doppler weather system, Weather Surveillance Radar 98 Doppler (WSR-98D), that is located in center part of Romania. Gage measurements are supplied by a net of 27 weather stations, located within the coverage area of the radar. The approach consists in a few steps. In the first one the field of reflectivity data is converted into rain rate, using the radar's native Z-R relationship, and the rain rate field is then transformed into rain accumulation over certain time intervals. In the next step were investigated the differences between radar and gauge rainfall accumulations by using four objective functions: mean bias between radar estimations and ground measurements, root mean square factor, and Spearman and Pearson correlations. The results shows that the differences and the correlations between radar-based accumulations and rain gauge amounts have rather local significance than general relevance over the studied area.

  10. Passive Immunotherapy for Retroviral Disease: Influence of Major Histocompatibility Complex Type and T-Cell Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Brooks, Diane M.; Chesebro, Bruce

    1995-11-01

    Administration of virus-specific antibodies is known to be an effective early treatment for some viral infections. Such immunotherapy probably acts by antibody-mediated neutralization of viral infectivity and is often thought to function independently of T-cell-mediated immune responses. In the present experiments, we studied passive antibody therapy using Friend murine leukemia virus complex as a model for an immunosuppressive retroviral disease in adult mice. The results showed that antibody therapy could induce recovery from a well-established retroviral infection. However, the success of therapy was dependent on the presence of both CD4^+ and CD8^+ T lymphocytes. Thus, cell-mediated responses were required for recovery from infection even in the presence of therapeutic levels of antibody. The major histocompatibility type of the mice was also an important factor determining the relative success of antibody therapy in this system, but it was less critical for low-dose than for high-dose infections. Our results imply that limited T-cell responsiveness as dictated by major histocompatibility genes and/or stage of disease may have contributed to previous immunotherapy failures in AIDS patients. Possible strategies to improve the efficacy of future therapies are discussed.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON TEXT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM NATURAL SCENE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit V. Manjaly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Text Information Extraction (TIE process, the text regions are localized and extracted from the images. It is an active research problem in computer vision applications. Diversity in text is due to the differences in size, style, orientation, alignment of text, low image contrast and complex backgrounds. The semantic information provided by an image can be used in different applications such as content based image retrieval, sign board identification etc. Text information extraction comprises of text image classification, text detection, localization, segmentation, enhancement and recognition. This paper contains a quick review on various text localization methods for localizing texts from natural scene images.

  12. Surgical scene generation for virtual reality-based training in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Harders, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Provides an extensive overview of related work in the three different directions of scene generation and introduces specific solutions in detailIdeal reference for any reader involved in generating training scenarios, as well as in VR-based training in generalDiscusses theoeretically unlimited automatic generation of healthy anatomy within natural variability allowing tedious and time-intensive manual segmentation to be avoidedPresents high-quality synthesis of new textures based on samples and automatic mapping to complex geometries enabling the drawing and mapping of textures to 3D models to

  13. Assessment of the influence of amylose-LPC complexation on the extent of wheat starch digestibility by size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadiabhari, Salomeh; Woortman, A. J. J.; Hamer, R. J.; Loos, K.

    2013-01-01

    Amylose forms inclusion complexes with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), that decrease the susceptibility of amylose to amylase degradation. This study on the influence of complexation on starch susceptibility to amylase explains the nature of this protective effect. Wheat starch suspensions (9% w/w)

  14. Zeolite-supported metal complexes of rhodium and of ruthenium: a general synthesis method influenced by molecular sieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Isao; Chen, Cong-Yan; Gates, Bruce C

    2010-09-28

    A general method for synthesis of supported metal complexes having a high degree of uniformity is presented, whereby organometallic precursors incorporating acetylacetonate (C(5)H(7)O(2)(-), acac) ligands react with zeolites incorporating OH groups near Al sites. The method is illustrated by the reactions of Rh(acac)(CO)(2) and of cis-Ru(acac)(2)(eta(2)-C(2)H(4))(2) with zeolites slurried in n-pentane at room temperature. The zeolites were H-Beta, H-SSZ-42, H-Mordenite, and HZSM-5. Infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of the zeolites incorporating rhodium complexes indicate the formation of Rh(CO)(2)(+) bonded near Al sites; similar results have been reported for the formation of zeolite-supported Rh(eta(2)-C(2)H(4))(2)(+) from Rh(acac)(eta(2)-C(2)H(4))(2). IR spectra of the supported rhodium gem-dicarbonyls include sharp, well-resolved nu(CO) bands, demonstrating that the sites surrounding each metal complex are nearly equivalent. The frequencies of the nu(CO) bands show how the composition of the zeolite influences the bonding of the supported species, demonstrating subtle differences in the roles of the zeolite as ligands. When the zeolite has pore openings larger than the critical diameter of the precursor organometallic compound, the latter undergoes facile transport into the interior of the zeolite, so that a uniform distribution of the supported species results, but when the precursors barely fit through the zeolite apertures, the mass transport resistance is significant and the supported metal complexes are concentrated near the pore mouths.

  15. Artificial factors influencing groundwater flows in the industrial complexes at the coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Kue-Young; Woo, Nam C.

    2015-04-01

    Underground structures of the industrial complexes constructed along the coastal areas are vulnerable to the chemical degradations by the sea-water intrusion. Thus it is important to understand how the groundwater system has been altered after the facility construction. Based on the analysis of the groundwater fluctuations in the monitoring wells, the study area was divided into two sections, the rainfall impact areas and the tidal impact areas. Tidal impact section shows the hydraulic diffusivity(T /S, m2d-1) ranging from 9.6×102 to 4.6×104, with the minimum and maximum values for PZ-8 and PZ-5 affected by the underground structure and the excavation-backfill materials, respectively. Then, the storage coefficient was estimated from the hydraulic diffusivity using the results of single-well pumping tests. Transmissivities(T) ranged from 1.4×10 to 4.7×102 m2d-1, and the storage coefficients(S) from 0.002 to 0.052. The highest and the lowest transmissivities of PZ-5 and PZ-6 appeared to reflect the hydraulic property of backfill materials used for construction. Therefore, for hydrogeological characterization of the coastal region with large-scale constructions, field data from various tests should be carefully analyzed considering the impact and the interference of the construction activities, including the distance between underground structures and the monitoring wells, the array of structures, locations and depths of excavation and backfill, hydraulic property of backfill material, etc. Key word : hydrogeological characterization, coastal area, construction activity, tidal method, hydraulic diffusivity

  16. The influence of infertility treatment on the prognosis of endometrial cancer and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Mari; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Osuga, Yutaka; Minaguchi, Takeo; Kawana, Kei; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro

    2013-02-01

    Many patients with endometrial cancer have no children when diagnosed, and thus are reluctant to undergo hysterectomy, hoping to preserve their fertility. Their requirement is met, at least partially, with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate that brings good response rate in the treatment of endometrial cancer in the early stage and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia (EC/ACEH). Actually, a number of successful pregnancies after the conservative treatment have been reported. To conceive, many of them need infertility treatment because of ovulation disorders which might have induced the cancer with unopposed estrogens. However, on the other side, hyperestrogenic status caused by ovulation induction or controlled ovarian stimulation might promote the progression and the recurrence of the disease. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of infertility treatment after conservative therapy for EC/ACEH, to confirm the significance of fertility-sparing therapy. The patients with EC/ACEH who achieved complete response after high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate were eligible for this retrospective study. Characteristics of the patients, whether they underwent infertility treatment, conceived, or relapsed, and the interval from complete response to conception or recurrence were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical outcomes of 36 patients were investigated. Twenty-six of them desired to conceive soon after complete response. All of them underwent infertility treatment, and 16 women delivered healthy babies. Kaplan-Meyer curve and log-rank test analysis revealed that women who achieved live birth had a significantly lower risk of recurrence than those without live birth. There was not a significant difference between the patients with and without infertility treatment. Use of ovulation induction drugs after conservative treatment of endometrial cancer did not increase the recurrence of the disease. Moreover, resulting pregnancy seems to have an

  17. Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIb polymorphism influences gut microbiota composition and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Caporaso, J Gregory; Lauber, Chris; Knight, Rob; Stutz, William E

    2014-10-01

    Animals harbour diverse communities of symbiotic bacteria, which differ dramatically among host individuals. This heterogeneity poses an immunological challenge: distinguishing between mutualistic and pathogenic members of diverse and host-specific microbial communities. We propose that Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC) genotypes contribute to recognition and regulation of gut microbes, and thus, MHC polymorphism contributes to microbial variation among hosts. Here, we show that MHC IIb polymorphism is associated with among-individual variation in gut microbiota within a single wild vertebrate population of a small fish, the threespine stickleback. We sampled stickleback from Cedar Lake, on Vancouver Island, and used next-generation sequencing to genotype the sticklebacks' gut microbiota (16S sequencing) and their MHC class IIb exon 2 sequences. The presence of certain MHC motifs was associated with altered relative abundance (increase or decrease) of some microbial Families. The effect sizes are modest and entail a minority of microbial taxa, but these results represent the first indication that MHC genotype may affect gut microbiota composition in natural populations (MHC-microbe associations have also been found in a few studies of lab mice). Surprisingly, these MHC effects were frequently sex-dependent. Finally, hosts with more diverse MHC motifs had less diverse gut microbiota. One implication is that MHC might influence the efficacy of therapeutic strategies to treat dysbiosis-associated disease, including the outcome of microbial transplants between healthy and diseased patients. We also speculate that macroparasite-driven selection on MHC has the potential to indirectly alter the host gut microbiota, and vice versa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, J. Ashley; Odijk, Daan; Honing, Henkjan; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat, the beat is more difficult to find. However, it is unclear whether accents occurring off the beat alter beat perception similarly to missing accents on the beat. Moreover, no one has examined whether intensity accents influence beat perception more or less strongly than temporal accents, nor how musical expertise affects sensitivity to each type of accent. In two experiments, we obtained ratings of difficulty in finding the beat in rhythms with either temporal or intensity accents, and which varied in the number of accents on the beat as well as the number of accents off the beat. In both experiments, the occurrence of accents on the beat facilitated beat detection more in musical experts than in musical novices. In addition, the number of accents on the beat affected beat finding more in rhythms with temporal accents than in rhythms with intensity accents. The effect of accents off the beat was much weaker than the effect of accents on the beat and appeared to depend on musical expertise, as well as on the number of accents on the beat: when many accents on the beat are missing, beat perception is quite difficult, and adding accents off the beat may not reduce beat perception further. Overall, the different types of accents were processed qualitatively differently, depending on musical expertise. Therefore, these findings indicate the importance of designing ecologically valid stimuli when testing beat perception in musical novices, who may need different types of accent information than musical experts to be able to find a beat. Furthermore, our findings stress the importance of carefully designing rhythms for social and clinical applications of beat perception, as

  19. Bicycles, Airplanes and Peter Pans: Flying Scenes in Steven Spielberg's Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Audissino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Steven Spielberg's cinema the flight is a recurring theme. Flying scenes can be sorted into two classes: those involving a realistic flight – by aircraft – and those involving a magical flight – by supernatural powers. The realistic flight is influenced by the war stories of Spielberg's father – a radio man in U.S. Air-force during WWII – and it is featured in such films as Empire of the Sun (1987, Always (1989, and 1941 (1979. The magical flight is influenced by James M. Barries' character Peter Pan (Peter and Wendy, 1911, which is quoted directly in E.T. the Extraterrestrial (1982 and, above all, in Hook (1991, which is a sequel to Barrie's story. These two types of flying scenes are analysed as to their meanings, compared to the models that influenced them, and surveyed as to their evolution across Spielberg's films. A central case study is the episode The Mission from Amazing Stories (1985, in which the realistic and the magical flights overlap.

  20. Surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Huseyin; Doerschner, Katja; Snyder, Jacqueline L; Maloney, Laurence T

    2006-01-01

    Researchers studying surface color perception have typically used stimuli that consist of a small number of matte patches (real or simulated) embedded in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight (a "Mondrian," Land & McCann, 1971). Reliable estimation of the color of a matte surface is a difficult if not impossible computational problem in such limited scenes (Maloney, 1999). In more realistic, three-dimensional scenes the difficulty of the problem increases, in part, because the effective illumination incident on the surface (the light field) now depends on surface orientation and location. We review recent work in multiple laboratories that examines (1) the degree to which the human visual system discounts the light field in judging matte surface lightness and color and (2) what illuminant cues the visual system uses in estimating the flow of light in a scene.

  1. Adaptively Combining Local with Global Information for Natural Scenes Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Yang, Xu

    This paper proposes the Extended Bag-of-Visterms (EBOV) to represent semantic scenes. In previous methods, most representations are bag-of-visterms (BOV), where visterms referred to the quantized local texture information. Our new representation is built by introducing global texture information to extend standard bag-of-visterms. In particular we apply the adaptive weight to fuse the local and global information together in order to provide a better visterm representation. Given these representations, scene classification can be performed by pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model. The experiment results show that the appropriate use of global information improves the performance of scene classification, as compared with BOV representation that only takes the local information into account.

  2. A Grouped Threshold Approach for Scene Identification in AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Trepte, Qing

    1999-01-01

    The authors propose a grouped threshold method for scene identification in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imagery that may contain clouds, fire, smoke, or snow. The philosophy of the approach is to build modules that contain groups of spectral threshold tests that are applied concurrently, not sequentially, to each pixel in an image. The purpose of each group of tests is to identify uniquely a specific class in the image, such as smoke. A strength of this approach is that insight into the limits used in the threshold tests may be gained through the use of radiative transfer theory. Methodology and examples are provided for two different scenes, one containing clouds, forest fires, and smoke; and the other containing clouds over snow in the central United States. For both scenes, a limited amount of supporting information is provided by surface observers.

  3. Color appearance and color rendering of HDR scenes: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro; McCann, John J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all the objects from each direction. This produced a low-dynamicrange (LDR) image of the 3-D Mondrian scene. Second, in order to make a high-dynamic range (HDR) image of the same objects, we used a directional 150W spotlight and an array of WLEDs assembled in a flashlight. The scenes were significant as each contained exactly the same three-dimensional painted colour blocks that were arranged in the same position in the still life. The blocks comprised 6 hue colours and 5 tones from white to black. Participants from the CREATE project were asked to consider the change in the appearance of a selection of colours according to lightness, hue, and chroma, and to rate how the change in illumination affected appearance. We measured the light coming to the eye from still-life surfaces with a colorimeter (Yxy). We captured the scene radiance using multiple exposures with a number of different cameras. We have begun a programme of digital image processing of these scene capture methods. This multi-disciplinary programme continues until 2010, so this paper is an interim report on the initial phases and a description of the ongoing project.

  4. Behind the Scenes of Differentiated Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the formal and informal practices of two champions of opting out, the United Kingdom and Denmark, in the area of Justice and Home Affairs. On the surface, both countries have chosen to avoid further integration within this policy area to safeguard national autonomy. Foreign...... policy experts have argued that national reservations lead to the loss of influence and possibly second-class membership, and legal scholars describe substantial opt-outs as a 'hijacking' of the acquis communautaire. This article demonstrates that opting out does not necessarily imply that member states...

  5. Design of the multiwavelength Scophony infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Korniski, Ronald J.; Richwine, Robert A.

    1993-11-01

    An all acousto-optic infrared scene projector (IRSP) has been developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility located at Elgin AFB, Florida. The IRSP is a laser source based projector incorporating Scophony illumination and scanning methods to produce 96 X 96 pixel multi-wavelength images at very high frame rates (400 Hz). The IRSP is composed of five functionally similar optical trains, four of which are fed with a different `color' infrared laser. The separate scenes from each optical train are then combined and projected simultaneously into the imaging guidance system.

  6. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  7. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self......-discovery and Odysseus’ happy homecoming. The book offers a reconstruction of the conventions of the genre and argues that it is one of the most recurrent and significant literary forms in the Gospel. When portraying Jesus as the divine stranger from heaven, the Gospel employs and transforms the formal and ideological...

  8. The influence of complex compost on the aggregate composition and water and air properties of an ordinary chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyuchenko, I. S.; Antonenko, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of complex compost composed of the waste products of the agriculture (semi-rotted cattle manure and plant residues) and chemical industries (phosphogypsum) on the agrophysical properties of an ordinary chernozem (Haplic Chernozem) was studied in the western Ciscaucasian region. In the field experiment, the compost was applied to the plow layer (0-20 cm) in 2007. In five years, the content of agronomically valuable aggregates increased by 7-9%, and their water stability became higher. This resulted in a better aggregation of the plow layer; its bulk density decreased by about 0.1 g/cm3 in comparison with the control plot treated with mineral fertilizers according to traditional technology. The water and air properties of the soil were optimized, which was seen from an increase in the field and total water capacity, total porosity, and soil water storage.

  9. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eHanif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  10. Does Tree Architectural Complexity Influence the Accuracy of Wood Volume Estimates of Single Young Trees by Terrestrial Laser Scanning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Hess

    2015-10-01

    expected. In contrast, the accuracy of branch volume estimates was strongly influenced by tree architectural complexity, though not in a simple way. Because underestimations originated from different sources, the accuracy of branch volume estimates cannot be directly derived from the degree of architectural complexity. These results imply that the voxel-based bounding box method provides highly accurate total tree and trunk volume estimates, whereas further research is needed to improve branch volume estimation for young trees of different architectural types.

  11. The influence of exogenous peptide on beta2-microglobulin exchange in the HLA complex: analysis in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C L; Ruprai, A K; Solache, A; Lowdell, M; Price, C P; Cohen, S B; Parham, P; Madrigal, J A; Newman, D J

    1998-07-01

    We used an optical biosensor to determine the relative binding affinity of peptides to purified HLA class I molecules. In this assay we monitor beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) exchange within the HLA-A2 molecule, whereby native beta2m in the complex is replaced by beta2m immobilized at the surface of the biosensor. Quantitative kinetic measurements permit us to obtain association rate (kass), dissociation rate (kdiss) and affinity constants (KA) for the beta2m exchange reaction, alone, (control) and in the presence of exogenous peptide. We tested a panel of six peptides which had been designed and synthesized with an HLA-A2 binding motif, and had also been tested by the T2-cell binding assay, along with control peptides. The biosensor results demonstrate that exogenous peptide influences the dynamics of beta2m exchange in a sequence-specific manner. Five of six peptides increased the association rate, decreased the dissociation rate, and significantly increased the affinity (KA=1. 55-1.88x10(9) M-1) of HLA-A2 for immobilized beta2m compared with the control (KA =1.14+/-0.04x10(9)M-1), demonstrating stabilization of the complex. One peptide was unable to stabilize the complex, as also shown in the T2 binding assay. However, analysis of peptide sequences demonstrated that the HLA-A2 secondary motif as well as primary motif residues are required for HLA-A2 stabilization. Further experiments demonstrated that beta2m exchange alone cannot stabilize the HLA class I complex at the cell surface until a peptide of sufficient binding affinity is bound. Hence kinetics equal to or below the control values in our biosensor assay probably represent an unstable complex in vivo. Unlike other methods described for the analysis of peptide stabilization, this approach is significantly faster, provides full kinetic analysis, and is simpler, since it requires no labeling of peptides. Furthermore, this may have important implications in the assessment of peptide vaccines.

  12. The influence of venous blood flow on the retinal ganglion cell complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the influence of venous blood flow on the ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma.Methods: 74 patients were included in the research. 59 eyes and 62 eyes were diagnosed with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma respectively. The mean age was 56.5±10.5 years. 22 (12 female and 10 male healthy individuals constituted the control group. The ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were evaluated with the help of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100 OCT, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA. Ocular blood flow was measured by Color Doppler Imaging (multifunctional VOLUSON 730 ProSystem. The statistical analysis included correlation between GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Results: The results showed a statistically significant reduction of venous blood flow velocity in both glaucoma groups compared to the control group. No difference in venous blood flow parameters between two glaucoma groups was found, except resistance index, which was higher in perimetric group in comparison to preperimetric group. A correlation was also obtained between venous blood flow parameters and GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Conclusion: Early GCC damage in glaucoma might occur due to venous blood flow reduction. This fact may be of great value in understanding glaucoma pathogenesis and search for novel treatment options.

  13. An evaluation of factors influencing pore pressure in accretionary complexes: Implications for taper angle and wedge mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    At many subduction zones, accretionary complexes form as sediment is off-scraped from the subducting plate. Mechanical models that treat accretionary complexes as critically tapered wedges of sediment demonstrate that pore pressure controls their taper angle by modifying basal and internal shear strength. Here, we combine a numerical model of groundwater flow with critical taper theory to quantify the effects of sediment and de??collement permeability, sediment thickness, sediment partitioning between accretion and underthrusting, and plate convergence rate on steady state pore pressure. Our results show that pore pressure in accretionary wedges can be viewed as a dynamically maintained response to factors which drive pore pressure (source terms) and those that limit flow (permeability and drainage path length). We find that sediment permeability and incoming sediment thickness are the most important factors, whereas fault permeability and the partitioning of sediment have a small effect. For our base case model scenario, as sediment permeability is increased, pore pressure decreases from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic values and allows stable taper angles to increase from ??? 2.5?? to 8??-12.5??. With increased sediment thickness in our models (from 100 to 8000 m), increased pore pressure drives a decrease in stable taper angle from 8.4??-12.5?? to 15?? to influence the strength of the crust in a wide range of geologic settings. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  15. Young Women's use of a microbicide surrogate: the complex influence of relationship characteristics and perceived male partners' evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Zimet, Gregory D; Reece, Michael; Graham, Cynthia A; Murray, Maresa

    2010-06-01

    Currently in clinical trials, vaginal microbicides are proposed as a female-initiated method of sexually transmitted infection prevention. Much of microbicide acceptability research has been conducted outside of the United States and frequently without consideration of the social interaction between sex partners, ignoring the complex gender and power structures often inherent in young women's (heterosexual) relationships. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to build on existing microbicide research by exploring the role of male partners and relationship characteristics on young women's use of a microbicide surrogate, an inert vaginal moisturizer (VM), in a large city in the United States. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 young women (18-23 years old; 85% African American; 47.5% mothers) following use of the VM during coital events for a 4 week period. Overall, the results indicated that relationship dynamics and perceptions of male partners influenced VM evaluation. These two factors suggest that relationship context will need to be considered in the promotion of vaginal microbicides. The findings offer insights into how future acceptability and use of microbicides will be influenced by gendered power dynamics. The results also underscore the importance of incorporating men into microbicide promotion efforts while encouraging a dialogue that focuses attention on power inequities that can exist in heterosexual relationships. Detailed understanding of these issues is essential for successful microbicide acceptability, social marketing, education, and use.

  16. Characterization of modified high-amylose maize starch-α-naphthol complexes and their influence on rheological properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-05-01

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with diverse small molecules. Modified starch has different and unique properties compared with its native counterpart. In this study, chemically/enzymatically modified high-amylose maize starches were used to make inclusion complexes with α-naphthol, and the physical properties of complexes and their influences on the rheology of wheat starch were characterized. The results showed that modification of starch had little influence on the wide angle X-ray diffraction pattern of complex (eightfold single helix), but did so on the complexation index and precipitation yield. Inclusion complexes with chemically modified starch showed a lower range of thermostability and recrystallization temperatures. Addition of complex considerably influenced the rheological properties of wheat starch, and the effect was dependent on the type of modified starch used. It may be concluded that starch inclusion complexes, with a range of properties and potential food applications, may be feasibly prepared by using diverse modified high-amylose maize starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the Influence of the Aromaticity on the Anticancer and Antivascular Activities of Organoplatinum(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Ana; Pérez, Sergio A; Rothemund, Matthias; Rodríguez, Venancio; Schobert, Rainer; Janiak, Christoph; Ruiz, José

    2017-04-24

    A series of new organometallic PtII complexes of the type [Pt(C^N)Cl(DMSO)] (C^N=N,N-dimethyl-1-(2-aryl)methanamine-κ2 C2,N; aryl=phenyl 2 a, biphenyl 2 b, p-terphenyl 2 c, naphthyl 2 d, anthracenyl 2 e, or pyrenyl 2 f) have been synthesized to explore the influence of the aromaticity on their anticancer activity. The best performers, 2 b and d, are more active than cisplatin (CDDP) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells A2780, with 2 d having a higher selectivity factor than CDDP in all the tested cell lines. In addition, all the new compounds overcome the acquired resistance in A2780cisR cells and interestingly, show low micromolar IC50 values towards the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the highly metastatic 518A2 melanoma cells. This study shows that the hydrophobicity, accumulation into cells, and metal levels on nuclear DNA for the complexes are consistent with their cytotoxicity. Complexes 2 b and d induce apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner and suppress the intracellular ROS generation without modifying the mitochondria membrane potential. In addition, 2 a-f effectively inhibit angiogenesis in the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 at sub-cytotoxic concentrations and 2 b and d show in vivo antivascular effects on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized SPF-eggs (SPF=specific-pathogen-free). Inhibition of tubulin polymerization and degeneration of cytoskeleton organization in 518A2 melanoma cells are presented as a preliminary mechanism of its antimetastatic activity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of (calcium-)uranyl-carbonate complexation on U(VI) sorption on Ca- and Na-bentonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshyn, A; Azeroual, M; Reeck, T; Houben, G; Riebe, B; Bunnenberg, C

    2009-07-01

    The influence of uranyl-carbonate and calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexations on the kinetics of U(VI) (approximately 3.4 x 10(-3) mol L(-1)) sorption from NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 solutions on Na- and Ca-bentonites at circumneutral ambient conditions was investigated. Complexation of U(VI) in Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) aqueous species, dominating the U(VI) speciation in Ca(NO3)2 solution, reduces its adsorption on bentonite by a factor of 2-3 in comparison with that in (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- species, dominating in NaNO3 solution, within the studied period of time (21 days). As a result of the dissolution of accessory calcite, Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) can be formed in the initially Ca-free solution in contact with either Na- or Ca-bentonite. U(VI) adsorption on Na-bentonite is a factor of approximately 2 higher than that on Ca-bentonite for solutions with the Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) complex dominating aqueous U(VI) speciation. This favors use of Na-bentonite over that of Ca-bentonite in final disposal of radioactive waste. Furthermore, the observed strong correlation between U(VI) adsorption and Mg release as a result of montmorillonite dissolution indicates in agreement with previous findings that under the applied conditions U(VI) is adsorbed on the edge surface of montmorillonite, which is a major mineral phase of the studied clays.

  19. Measuring streetscape complexity based on the statistics of local contrast and spatial frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Streetscapes are basic urban elements which play a major role in the livability of a city. The visual complexity of streetscapes is known to influence how people behave in such built spaces. However, how and which characteristics of a visual scene influence our perception of complexity have yet to be fully understood. This study proposes a method to evaluate the complexity perceived in streetscapes based on the statistics of local contrast and spatial frequency. Here, 74 streetscape images from four cities, including daytime and nighttime scenes, were ranked for complexity by 40 participants. Image processing was then used to locally segment contrast and spatial frequency in the streetscapes. The statistics of these characteristics were extracted and later combined to form a single objective measure. The direct use of statistics revealed structural or morphological patterns in streetscapes related to the perception of complexity. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional measures of visual complexity, the proposed objective measure exhibits a higher correlation with the opinion of the participants. Also, the performance of this method is more robust regarding different time scenarios.

  20. Cultural animation and economic vitality: identifying the links and regeneration potential through the lens of the urban street scene

    OpenAIRE

    Pugalis, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Culture, space and economy are intermeshed in complex ways. This paper reports on findings from a larger empirical research project commissioned to investigate the symbiotic relationship between culturally animated urban street scenes and economic vitality. Grounded in empirical qualitative research focussing on recent place quality enhancement schemes in the North East of England, the central aim of this paper is to make the case that everyday cultural activity and economically vibrant place...

  1. Do reference surfaces influence exocentric pointing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doumen, M. J A; Kappers, A. M L; Koenderink, Jan J.

    All elements of the visual field are known to influence the perception of the egocentric distances of objects. Not only the ground surface of a scene, but also the surface at the back or other objects in the scene can affect an observer's egocentric distance estimation of an object. We tested

  2. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  3. Understanding road scenes using visual cues and GPS information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Lumbreras, F.; Lopez, A.M.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding road scenes is important in computer vision with different applications to improve road safety (e.g., advanced driver assistance systems) and to develop autonomous driving systems (e.g., Google driver-less vehicle). Current vision-based approaches rely on the robust combination of

  4. Words Matter: Scene Text for Image Classification and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and

  5. Toward Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Kowdle, Adarsh; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-07-01

    Scene understanding includes many related subtasks, such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection, etc. Each of these subtasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many of them. These classifiers operate on the same raw image and provide correlated outputs. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that jointly optimizes all the subtasks while requiring only a "black box" interface to the original classifier for each subtask. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about which error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the subtasks in the domain of scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling, and saliency detection. Our method also improves performance in two robotic applications: an object-grasping robot and an object-finding robot.

  6. Dynamic scene stitching driven by visual cognition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  7. Dynamic Scene Stitching Driven by Visual Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hui Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.

  8. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  9. Cultural heritage and history in the European metal scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an

  10. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-05

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect.

  11. Towards Unsupervised Familiar Scene Recognition in Egocentric Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talavera Martínez, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an upsurge of interest in using lifelogging devices. Such devices generate huge amounts of image data; consequently, the need for automatic methods for analyzing and summarizing these data is drastically increasing. We present a new method for familiar scene recognition in

  12. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  13. Fuzzy emotional semantic analysis and automated annotation of scene images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP) neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  14. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  15. Logical unit and scene detection: a comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersohn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.

  16. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  17. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  18. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due ...... if a detected object shows a pattern of movement consistent with predefined rules. The method is tested on a number of video sequences and a substantial reduction in the number of false alarms is demonstrated.......This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...... to e.g. movement of thicket and changes in illumination. To reduce the number of false alarms a Track Before Detect (TBD) approach is suggested. In this TBD implementation all objects detected in the background subtraction process are followed over a number of frames. An alarm is given only...

  19. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  20. Range and intensity vision for rock-scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, SG

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  1. 3-D Scene Generation On A Shared Memory Parallel Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. F.

    1987-06-01

    Realistic 3-D scene generation is now a possibility for many applications. One barrier to increased use of this technique is the large amount of computer processing time needed to render a scene. With the advent of parallel processors that barrier may be overcome if efficient parallel scene generation algorithms can be developed. In general, this has not been true because of restrictions imposed by non-shared memory and limited processor interconnect architectures. In addition, vector processors do not efficiently support the adaptive nature of many of the algorithms. A new parallel computer, the NYU Ultracomputer, has been developed which features a shared memory with a combining network. The com-bining network permits simultaneous reads and writes to the same memory location using a new instruction the Fetch and_Op. These memory references are resolved in the memory access network and result in particularly efficient shared data structures. Basic elements of this architecture are also being used in the design of the gigaflop range RP3 at IBM. Some algorithms typical of image synthesis are explored in the paper and a class of equivalent queue based algorithms are developed. These algorithms are particularly well suited to the Ultra-computer class processor and hold the promise for many new applications of realistic scene generation.

  2. Scene Context Dependency of Pattern Constancy of Time Series Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental element of future generic pattern recognition technology is the ability to extract similar patterns for the same scene despite wide ranging extraneous variables, including lighting, turbidity, sensor exposure variations, and signal noise. In the process of demonstrating pattern constancy of this kind for retinex/visual servo (RVS) image enhancement processing, we found that the pattern constancy performance depended somewhat on scene content. Most notably, the scene topography and, in particular, the scale and extent of the topography in an image, affects the pattern constancy the most. This paper will explore these effects in more depth and present experimental data from several time series tests. These results further quantify the impact of topography on pattern constancy. Despite this residual inconstancy, the results of overall pattern constancy testing support the idea that RVS image processing can be a universal front-end for generic visual pattern recognition. While the effects on pattern constancy were significant, the RVS processing still does achieve a high degree of pattern constancy over a wide spectrum of scene content diversity, and wide ranging extraneousness variations in lighting, turbidity, and sensor exposure.

  3. A hybrid method of natural scene text detection using MSERs masks in HSV space color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Houssem; Ben Halima, Mohamed; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    Text detection in natural scenes holds great importance in the field of research and still remains a challenge and an important task because of size, various fonts, line orientation, different illumination conditions, weak characters and complex backgrounds in image. The contribution of our proposed method is to filtering out complex backgrounds by combining three strategies. These are enhancing the edge candidate detection in HSV space color, then using MSER candidate detection to get different masks applied in HSV space color as well as gray color. After that, we opt for the Stroke Width Transform (SWT) and heuristic filtering. Such strategies are followed so as to maximize the capacity of zones text pixels candidates and distinguish between text boxes and the rest of the image. The non-text components are filtered by classifying the characters candidates based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Finally we apply boundary box localization after a stage of word grouping where false positives are eliminated by geometrical properties of text blocks. The proposed method has been evaluated on ICDAR 2013 scene text detection competition dataset and the encouraging experiments results demonstrate the robustness of our method.

  4. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas

    2011-12-05

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  5. The Influence of Business Environmental Dynamism, Complexity and Munificence on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Oduor Okeyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to examine how business environment affects small and medium enterprises. The paper is motivated by the important contributions small and medium enterprises have in many countries, especially Kenya towards job creation, poverty reduction and economic development. Literature however argues that effectiveness of the contributions is conditioned by the state of business environmental factors such as politics, economy, socio-culture, technology, ecology and laws/regulations. Dynamism, complexity and munificence of these factors are therefore vital to achievement of organizational objectives and overall performance. Even so, a review of literature reveals contradictory views regarding the effect of these factors on performance of organizations. Furthermore, studies focusing on these factors in the Kenyan context, particularly with regard to their effect on performance of small and medium firms, are scarce. This article bridges this gap based on a study focusing on 800 manufacturing organizations in Nairobi – Kenya. A sample of 150 enterprises was selected through stratification by business sector followed by simple random sampling. The research design was cross sectional survey where data was collected using a structured questionnaire over a period of one month at the end of which 95 organizations responded giving a response rate of 64%. Reliability and validity of the instrument were determined through Cronbach’s alpha tests and expert reviews. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to determine normality through descriptive statistics and study hypotheses tested using inferential statistics. The study established that business environment had an overall impact on organizational performance. Specifically, dynamism, complexity and munificence each had a direct influence on the enterprises in the study. Furthermore the combined effect on performance was found to be greater than that of dynamism and

  6. Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum): influence of structural complexity, competitive interactions and presence of a predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Herein I compare the relative importance of preference for structurally complex habitat against avoidance of competitors and predators in two benthic fishes common in the Gulf of Mexico. The code goby Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg and clown goby Microgobius gulosus (Girard) are common, ecologically similar fishes found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. In Florida Bay, these fishes exhibit habitat partitioning: G. robustum is most abundant in seagrass-dominated areas while M. gulosus is most abundant in sparsely vegetated habitats. In a small-scale field survey, I documented the microhabitat use of these species where their distributions overlap. In a series of laboratory experiments, I presented each species with structured (artificial seagrass) versus nonstructured (bare sand) habitats and measured their frequency of choosing either habitat type. I then examined the use of structured versus nonstructured habitats when the two species were placed together in a mixed group. Finally, I placed a predator (Opsanus beta) in the experimental aquaria to determine how its presence influenced habitat selection. In the field, G. robustum was more abundant in seagrass and M. gulosus was more abundant in bare mud. In the laboratory, both species selected grass over sand in allopatry. However, in sympatry, M. gulosus occupied sand more often when paired with G. robustum than when alone. G. robustum appears to directly influence the habitat choice of M. gulosus: It seems that M. gulosus is pushed out of the structured habitat that is the preferred habitat of G. robustum. Thus, competition appears to modify the habitat selection of these species when they occur in sympatry. Additionally, the presence of the toadfish was a sufficient stimulus to provoke both M. gulosus and G. robustum to increase their selection for sand (compared to single-species treatments). Distribution patterns of M. gulosus and G. robustum

  7. Adolescent Characters and Alcohol Use Scenes in Brazilian Movies, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structured assessment of 193 scenes depicting substance use from a convenience sample of 50 Brazilian movies was performed. Logistic regression and analysis of variance or multivariate analysis of variance models were employed to test for two different types of outcome regarding alcohol appearance: The mean length of alcohol scenes in seconds and the prevalence of alcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescent characters was associated with a higher prevalence of alcohol use scenes compared to nonalcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescents was also associated with a higher than average length of alcohol use scenes compared to the nonalcohol use scenes. Alcohol use was negatively associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs use. However, when the use of cannabis, cocaine, or other drugs was present in the alcohol use scenes, a higher average length was found. This may mean that most vulnerable group may see drinking as a more attractive option leading to higher alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available includes revisiting the scenes with a GPS receiver to record their coordinates. This quality assurance highlights discrepancies between the crime scenes described in case dockets and those the suspect pointed out, allowing the investigators to link...

  9. CLINICAL, HISTOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE PULP-DENTIN COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giuroiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assesssing – by clinical, histological and radiological investigations – the influence of some external factors on the pulp-dentin complex, and at providing a causal interpretation of the structural changes observed. Materials and methods. Clinical and radiological exams were performed on 65 old patients with ages between 60-75, and also on 40 young patients with ages between 20-35, presenting different dental-periodontal pathologies. The pulp-dentin complex was submitted to a morphopathological examination, to highlight the structural changes observed at microscopic level. Fragments of dental pulp were imersed in a 4% formaldehyde solution with phosphate buffer 0.1 M., pH 7.2, for 12 -14 hours, at a temperature of 4ºC, and 3-5 µm thick slices were prepared. The slices were coloured with hematoxylin-eosine (HE, by the trichromic technique – Masson. Photographies were taken with a Zeiss microscope, with Kodak 200 ASA. Results. Significant differences were observed, between the two groups of patients, as to the external factors that produce structural changes on pulp-dentin organ. In the group of young patients dental caries and coronal fillings prevailed, while the group of old patients was mostly associated with atrition and chronic marginal periodontitis. Out of the 40 young patients, 30 presented chronic dental caries (75%, while, among the 65 old patients, only 24 presented dental caries (36.9%. The percentages of coronary fillings between the two study groups were close, which could be considered as one of the causes producing changes in the pulp-dentin organ, following aggresive preparation of cavities, the action of materials used for the protection of pulp-dentin complex or of the materials used for coronry fillings. Conclusions. Dental pulp has a remarkable ability to counteract the action of harmful factors, producing a mineral barrier and stimulating the reparatory processes. Changes in the endodontic

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Visual Attention to Human Figures in Photographs: Potential Considerations for the Design of Aided AAC Visual Scene Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with complex communication needs may benefit from visual aided augmentative and alternative communication systems. In visual scene displays (VSDs), language concepts are embedded into a photograph of a naturalistic event. Humans play a central role in communication development and might be important elements in VSDs.…

  11. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sorieul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood.

  12. Bronchial Mucus as a Complex Fluid: Molecular Interactions and Influence of Nanostructured Particles on Rheological and Transport Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odziomek Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a rheological properties and (b mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method. First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.

  13. The nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit regulates the polygalacturonases expression negatively and influences the pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Guo, Min; Xu, Dafeng; Chen, Fangxin; Zhang, Huajian; Pan, Yuemin; Li, Maomao; Gao, Zhimou

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant-pathogenic fungus that infects more than 400 species of plants. In this study the nascent polypeptide-associated complex α subunit gene of S. sclerotiorum (SsNACα; accession No. XP_001593856.1) was cloned and characterized. The relative transcript expression of SsNACα at different morphological stages of asexual development of S. sclerotiorum were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). RNAi-mediated gene silencing was successful for SsNACα, and the mutated strains exhibited less than 15% of the relative expression of SsNACα were obtained and used for studying the biological functions of the gene. A delay in sclerotial maturation for S. sclerotiorum was observed in the SsNACα mutants. The significant elevations for both the activities of pectin-degrading enzymes and the expression of polygalacturonase genes also were associated with the mutated strains, indicating that SsNACα could negatively influence polygalacturonases expression and modulate the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. What do We Learn by Semantic Scene Understanding for Remote Sensing imagery in CNN framework?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haifeng; Peng, Jian; Tao, Chao; Chen, Jie; Deng, Min

    2017-01-01

    Recently, deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) achieved increasingly remarkable success and rapidly developed in the field of natural image recognition. Compared with the natural image, the scale of remote sensing image is larger and the scene and the object it represents are more macroscopic. This study inquires whether remote sensing scene and natural scene recognitions differ and raises the following questions: What are the key factors in remote sensing scene recognition? Is the DCNN r...

  15. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  16. Ritual Scenes in the Iliad: Rote, Hallowed, or Encrypted as Ancient Art?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Kitts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral poetic and ritual theory, this article proposes that ritual scenes in Homer’s Iliad reflect unique compositional constraints beyond those found in other kinds of typical scenes. The focus is on oath-sacrifices and commensal sacrifices. Both ritual scene types exhibit strong identifying features, although they differ in their formal particulars and cultural implications. It is argued that both sorts of sacrificial scenes preserve especially ancient ritual patterns that may have parallels in Anatolian texts.

  17. Modelling a crime scene in 3D and adding thermal information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Veerman, H.E.T.; Mark, W. van der

    2009-01-01

    Once a crime has been perpetrated, forensic traces will only be persevered in the crime scene for a limited time frame. It is therefore necessary to record a crime scene meticulously. Usually, photographs and/or videos are taken at the scene to document it, so that later on one will know the exact

  18. Separate and simultaneous adjustment of light qualities in a real scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers

  19. Visual search of traffic scenes : on the effect of location expectations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present study investigates top-down governed visual selection in natural traffic scenes. The subjects had to search for a target object (for example, a traffic sign, or other road users) which was embedded in a natural traffic scene. Given a particular prototypical scene, the target was located

  20. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…