WorldWideScience

Sample records for scene categories revealed

  1. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  2. Semantic memory for contextual regularities within and across scene categories: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R; Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    When encountering familiar scenes, observers can use item-specific memory to facilitate the guidance of attention to objects appearing in known locations or configurations. Here, we investigated how memory for relational contingencies that emerge across different scenes can be exploited to guide attention. Participants searched for letter targets embedded in pictures of bedrooms. In a between-subjects manipulation, targets were either always on a bed pillow or randomly positioned. When targets were systematically located within scenes, search for targets became more efficient. Importantly, this learning transferred to bedrooms without pillows, ruling out learning that is based on perceptual contingencies. Learning also transferred to living room scenes, but it did not transfer to kitchen scenes, even though both scene types contained pillows. These results suggest that statistical regularities abstracted across a range of stimuli are governed by semantic expectations regarding the presence of target-predicting local landmarks. Moreover, explicit awareness of these contingencies led to a central tendency bias in recall memory for precise target positions that is similar to the spatial category effects observed in landmark memory. These results broaden the scope of conditions under which contextual cuing operates and demonstrate how semantic memory plays a causal and independent role in the learning of associations between objects in real-world scenes.

  3. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  4. Binocular Fusion and Invariant Category Learning due to Predictive Remapping during Scanning of a Depthful Scene with Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object’s surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  5. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations. PMID:25642198

  6. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  7. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying ...

  8. Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Diedrichs, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Newly acquired declarative memory traces are believed to be reactivated during NonREM sleep to promote their hippocampo-neocortical transfer for long-term storage. Yet it remains a major challenge to unravel the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG......-coupled reactivation of brain regions representing the specific task stimuli was traced during subsequent NonREM sleep with EEG-informed fMRI. Relative to the control task, learning face-scene associations triggered a stronger combined activation of neocortical and hippocampal regions during subsequent sleep. Notably......) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in humans, we show that sleep spindles play a key role in the reactivation of memory-related neocortical representations. On separate days, participants either learned face-scene associations or performed a visuomotor control task. Spindle...

  9. Dynamics of scene representations in the human brain revealed by magnetoencephalography and deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Khosla, Aditya; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2017-01-01

    Human scene recognition is a rapid multistep process evolving over time from single scene image to spatial layout processing. We used multivariate pattern analyses on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to unravel the time course of this cortical process. Following an early signal for lower-level visual analysis of single scenes at ~100 ms, we found a marker of real-world scene size, i.e. spatial layout processing, at ~250 ms indexing neural representations robust to changes in unrelated scene properties and viewing conditions. For a quantitative model of how scene size representations may arise in the brain, we compared MEG data to a deep neural network model trained on scene classification. Representations of scene size emerged intrinsically in the model, and resolved emerging neural scene size representation. Together our data provide a first description of an electrophysiological signal for layout processing in humans, and suggest that deep neural networks are a promising framework to investigate how spatial layout representations emerge in the human brain. PMID:27039703

  10. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

  11. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: the differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J; Cleary, Anne M; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-25

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Feature diagnosticity and task context shape activity in human scene-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Gallivan, Jason P; Ferber, Susanne; Cant, Jonathan S

    2016-01-15

    Scenes are constructed from multiple visual features, yet previous research investigating scene processing has often focused on the contributions of single features in isolation. In the real world, features rarely exist independently of one another and likely converge to inform scene identity in unique ways. Here, we utilize fMRI and pattern classification techniques to examine the interactions between task context (i.e., attend to diagnostic global scene features; texture or layout) and high-level scene attributes (content and spatial boundary) to test the novel hypothesis that scene-selective cortex represents multiple visual features, the importance of which varies according to their diagnostic relevance across scene categories and task demands. Our results show for the first time that scene representations are driven by interactions between multiple visual features and high-level scene attributes. Specifically, univariate analysis of scene-selective cortex revealed that task context and feature diagnosticity shape activity differentially across scene categories. Examination using multivariate decoding methods revealed results consistent with univariate findings, but also evidence for an interaction between high-level scene attributes and diagnostic visual features within scene categories. Critically, these findings suggest visual feature representations are not distributed uniformly across scene categories but are shaped by task context and feature diagnosticity. Thus, we propose that scene-selective cortex constructs a flexible representation of the environment by integrating multiple diagnostically relevant visual features, the nature of which varies according to the particular scene being perceived and the goals of the observer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  14. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: Does a cultural difference truly exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M.; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for...

  15. What the voice reveals : Within- and between-category stereotyping on the basis of voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, SJ; Judd, CM; Blair, [No Value; Blair, I.V

    The authors report research that attempts to shift the traditional focus of visual cues to auditory cues as a basis for stereotyping. Moreover, their approach examines whether gender-signaling vocal cues lead not only to between-category but also to within-category gender stereotyping. Study 1

  16. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, le...

  17. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  18. Structural and effective connectivity reveals potential network-based influences on category-sensitive visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eFurl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.

  19. Specific neural traces for intonational discourse categories as revealed by human-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs-Comes, Joan; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Prieto, Pilar; Escera, Carles

    2012-04-01

    The neural representation of segmental and tonal phonological distinctions has been shown by means of the MMN ERP, yet this is not the case for intonational discourse contrasts. In Catalan, a rising-falling intonational sequence can be perceived as a statement or as a counterexpectational question, depending exclusively on the size of the pitch range interval of the rising movement. We tested here, using the MMN, whether such categorical distinctions elicited distinct neurophysiological patterns of activity, supporting their specific neural representation. From a behavioral identification experiment, we set the boundary between the two categories and defined four stimuli across the continuum. Although the physical distance between each pair of stimuli was kept constant, the central pair represented an across-category contrast, whereas the other pairs represented within-category contrasts. These four auditory stimuli were contrasted by pairs in three different oddball blocks. The mean amplitude of the MMN was larger for the across-category contrast, suggesting that intonational contrasts in the target language can be encoded automatically in the auditory cortex. These results are in line with recent findings in other fields of linguistics, showing that, when a boundary between categories is crossed, the MMN response is not just larger but rather includes a separate subcomponent.

  20. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Foraging through multiple target categories reveals the flexibility of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Tómas; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2018-02-01

    A key assumption in the literature on visual attention is that templates, actively maintained in visual working memory (VWM), guide visual attention. An important question therefore involves the nature and capacity of VWM. According to load theories, more than one search template can be active at the same time and capacity is determined by the total load rather than a precise number of templates. By an alternative account only one search template can be active within visual working memory at any given time, while other templates are in an accessory state - but do not affect visual selection. We addressed this question by varying the number of targets and distractors in a visual foraging task for 40 targets among 40 distractors in two ways: 1) Fixed-distractor-number, involving two distractor types while target categories varied from one to four. 2) Fixed-color-number (7), so that if the target types were two, distractors types were five, while if target number increased to three, distractor types were four (etc.). The two accounts make differing predictions. Under the single-template account, we should expect large switch costs as target types increase to two, but switch-costs should not increase much as target types increase beyond two. Load accounts predict an approximately linear increase in switch costs with increased target type number. The results were that switch costs increased roughly linearly in both conditions, in line with load accounts. The results are discussed in light of recent proposals that working memory reflects lingering neural activity at various sites that operate on the stimuli in each case and findings showing neurally silent working memory representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atypical category processing and hemispheric asymmetries in high-functioning children with autism: revealed through high-density EEG mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Ian C; Foxe, John J; McCourt, Mark E; Dumas, Kristina N; Molholm, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral evidence for an impaired ability to group objects based on similar physical or semantic properties in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been mixed. Here, we recorded brain activity from high-functioning children with ASD as they completed a visual-target detection task. We then assessed the extent to which object-based selective attention automatically generalized from targets to non-target exemplars from the same well-known object class (e.g., dogs). Our results provide clear electrophysiological evidence that children with ASD (N=17, aged 8-13 years) process the similarity between targets (e.g., a specific dog) and same-category non-targets (SCNT) (e.g., another dog) to a lesser extent than do their typically developing (TD) peers (N=21). A closer examination of the data revealed striking hemispheric asymmetries that were specific to the ASD group. These findings align with mounting evidence in the autism literature of anatomic underconnectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Years of research in individuals with TD have demonstrated that the left hemisphere (LH) is specialized toward processing local (or featural) stimulus properties and the right hemisphere (RH) toward processing global (or configural) stimulus properties. We therefore propose a model where a lack of communication between the hemispheres in ASD, combined with typical hemispheric specialization, is a root cause for impaired categorization and the oft-observed bias to process local over global stimulus properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  4. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  5. Striatal and Hippocampal Entropy and Recognition Signals in Category Learning: Simultaneous Processes Revealed by Model-Based fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Category learning is a complex phenomenon that engages multiple cognitive processes, many of which occur simultaneously and unfold dynamically over time. For example, as people encounter objects in the world, they simultaneously engage processes to determine their fit with current knowledge structures, gather new information about the objects, and…

  6. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clustering Patterns of Engagement in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): The Use of Learning Analytics to Reveal Student Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammad; Ebner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are remote courses that excel in their students' heterogeneity and quantity. Due to the peculiarity of being massiveness, the large datasets generated by MOOC platforms require advanced tools and techniques to reveal hidden patterns for purposes of enhancing learning and educational behaviors. This publication…

  8. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  9. Transcriptome analysis by GeneTrail revealed regulation of functional categories in response to alterations of iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhof Hans-Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput technologies have opened new avenues to study biological processes and pathways. The interpretation of the immense amount of data sets generated nowadays needs to be facilitated in order to enable biologists to identify complex gene networks and functional pathways. To cope with this task multiple computer-based programs have been developed. GeneTrail is a freely available online tool that screens comparative transcriptomic data for differentially regulated functional categories and biological pathways extracted from common data bases like KEGG, Gene Ontology (GO, TRANSPATH and TRANSFAC. Additionally, GeneTrail offers a feature that allows screening of individually defined biological categories that are relevant for the respective research topic. Results We have set up GeneTrail for the use of Arabidopsis thaliana. To test the functionality of this tool for plant analysis, we generated transcriptome data of root and leaf responses to Fe deficiency and the Arabidopsis metal homeostasis mutant nas4x-1. We performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA with eight meaningful pairwise comparisons of transcriptome data sets. We were able to uncover several functional pathways including metal homeostasis that were affected in our experimental situations. Representation of the differentially regulated functional categories in Venn diagrams uncovered regulatory networks at the level of whole functional pathways. Over-Representation Analysis (ORA of differentially regulated genes identified in pairwise comparisons revealed specific functional plant physiological categories as major targets upon Fe deficiency and in nas4x-1. Conclusion Here, we obtained supporting evidence, that the nas4x-1 mutant was defective in metal homeostasis. It was confirmed that nas4x-1 showed Fe deficiency in roots and signs of Fe deficiency and Fe sufficiency in leaves. Besides metal homeostasis, biotic stress, root carbohydrate, leaf

  10. Beyond scene gist: Objects guide search more than scene background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-06-01

    Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background. The degree of guidance and facilitation of each contextual cue can be related to its inherent informativeness about the target spatial location as measured by human explicit judgments about likely target locations. Our results improve the understanding of the contributions of distinct contextual scene components to search and suggest that the brain's utilization of cues to guide eye movements is linked to the cue's informativeness about the target's location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. PC Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Cosby, David; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2007-04-01

    AMRDEC has successfully tested hardware and software for Real-Time Scene Generation for IR and SAL Sensors on COTS PC based hardware and video cards. AMRDEC personnel worked with nVidia and Concurrent Computer Corporation to develop a Scene Generation system capable of frame rates of at least 120Hz while frame locked to an external source (such as a missile seeker) with no dropped frames. Latency measurements and image validation were performed using COTS and in-house developed hardware and software. Software for the Scene Generation system was developed using OpenSceneGraph.

  12. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  13. Iconic memory for the gist of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jason; Mack, Arien

    2014-11-01

    Does iconic memory contain the gist of multiple scenes? Three experiments were conducted. In the first, four scenes from different basic-level categories were briefly presented in one of two conditions: a cue or a no-cue condition. The cue condition was designed to provide an index of the contents of iconic memory of the display. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. In the second, the scenes came from the same basic-level category. We found no difference in sensitivity between the two conditions. In the third, six scenes from different basic level categories were presented in the visual periphery. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition. These results suggest that scene gist is contained in iconic memory even in the visual periphery; however, iconic representations are not sufficiently detailed to distinguish between scenes coming from the same category. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  15. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  16. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration. PMID:28723975

  17. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  18. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  19. Effects of luminance contrast and its modifications on fixation behavior during free viewing of images from different categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açik, Alper; Onat, Selim; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2009-06-01

    During viewing of natural scenes, do low-level features guide attention, and if so, does this depend on higher-level features? To answer these questions, we studied the image category dependence of low-level feature modification effects. Subjects fixated contrast-modified regions often in natural scene images, while smaller but significant effects were observed for urban scenes and faces. Surprisingly, modifications in fractal images did not influence fixations. Further analysis revealed an inverse relationship between modification effects and higher-level, phase-dependent image features. We suggest that high- and mid-level features--such as edges, symmetries, and recursive patterns--guide attention if present. However, if the scene lacks such diagnostic properties, low-level features prevail. We posit a hierarchical framework, which combines aspects of bottom-up and top-down theories and is compatible with our data.

  20. Recognition and attention guidance during contextual cueing in real-world scenes: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R; Henderson, John M

    2006-07-01

    When confronted with a previously encountered scene, what information is used to guide search to a known target? We contrasted the role of a scene's basic-level category membership with its specific arrangement of visual properties. Observers were repeatedly shown photographs of scenes that contained consistently but arbitrarily located targets, allowing target positions to be associated with scene content. Learned scenes were then unexpectedly mirror reversed, spatially translating visual features as well as the target across the display while preserving the scene's identity and concept. Mirror reversals produced a cost as the eyes initially moved toward the position in the display in which the target had previously appeared. The cost was not complete, however; when initial search failed, the eyes were quickly directed to the target's new position. These results suggest that in real-world scenes, shifts of attention are initially based on scene identity, and subsequent shifts are guided by more detailed information regarding scene and object layout.

  1. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  2. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  4. Evidence for similar patterns of neural activity elicited by picture- and word-based representations of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Federmeier, Kara D; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2017-07-15

    A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g., pictures and words evoke a similar pattern of activity, such that the patterns that separate categories in one modality transfer to the other. Prior work using this method has found support for a common code, but has two limitations: they have either only examined disparate categories (e.g. animals vs. tools) that are known to activate different brain regions, raising the possibility that the pattern separation and inferred similarity reflects only large scale differences between the categories or they have been limited to individual object representations. By using natural scene categories, we not only extend the current literature on cross-modal representations beyond objects, but also, because natural scene categories activate a common set of brain regions, we identify a more fine-grained (i.e. higher spatial resolution) common representation. Specifically, we studied picture- and word-based representations of natural scene stimuli from four different categories: beaches, cities, highways, and mountains. Participants passively viewed blocks of either phrases (e.g. "sandy beach") describing scenes or photographs from those same scene categories. To determine whether the phrases and pictures evoke a common code, we asked whether a classifier trained on one stimulus type (e.g. phrase stimuli) would transfer (i.e. cross-decode) to the other stimulus type (e.g. picture stimuli). The analysis revealed cross-decoding in the occipitotemporal, posterior parietal and

  5. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  6. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  7. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  9. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  10. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  11. The Processing Speed of Scene Categorization at Multiple Levels of Description: The Superordinate Advantage Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene categorization task. A go/no-go categorization task was evaluated with response time distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian template. A visual scene was categorized as either superordinate or basic level, and two basic-level categories forming a superordinate category were judged as either similar or dissimilar to each other. First, outdoor/ indoor groups and natural/man-made were used as superordinate categories to investigate whether the advantage could be generalized beyond the natural/man-made boundary. Second, a set of images forming a superordinate category was manipulated. We predicted that decreasing image set similarity within the superordinate-level category would work against the speed advantage. We found that basic-level categorization was faster than outdoor/indoor categorization when the outdoor category comprised dissimilar basic-level categories. Our results indicate that the superordinate-level advantage in visual scene categorization is labile across different categories and category structures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  12. Evaluating Color Descriptors for Object and Scene Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been

  13. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  14. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  15. Revealing spatio-temporal patterns of rabies spread among various categories of animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Beisembayev, Kanatzhan K; Кorennoy, Fedor I; Yessembekova, Gulzhan N; Кushubaev, Dosym B; Кadyrov, Ablaikhan S

    2016-05-31

    This study estimated the basic reproductive ratio of rabies at the population level in wild animals (foxes), farm animals (cattle, camels, horses, sheep) and what we classified as domestic animals (cats, dogs) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). It also aimed at forecasting the possible number of new outbreaks in case of emergence of the disease in new territories. We considered cases of rabies in animals in RK from 2010 to 2013, recorded by regional veterinary services. Statistically significant space-time clusters of outbreaks in three subpopulations were detected by means of Kulldorff Scan statistics. Theoretical curves were then fitted to epidemiological data within each cluster assuming exponential initial growth, which was followed up by calculation of the basic reproductive ratio R0. For farm animals, the value of R0 was 1.62 (1.11-2.26) and for wild animals 1.84 (1.08- 3.13), while it was close to 1 for domestic animals. Using the values obtained, an initial phase of possible epidemic was simulated in order to predict the expected number of secondary cases if the disease were introduced into a new area. The possible number of new cases for 20 weeks was estimated at 5 (1-16) for farm animals, 17 (1-113) for wild animals and about 1 in the category of domestic animals. These results have been used to produce set of recommendations for organising of preventive and contra-epizootic measures against rabies expected to be applied by state veterinarian services.

  16. Setting the scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the special meeting on the breeder reactor are outlined with some reference to the special Scottish interest in the topic. Approximately 30% of the electrical energy generated in Scotland is nuclear and the special developments at Dounreay make policy decisions on the future of the commercial breeder reactor urgent. The participants review the major questions arising in arriving at such decisions. In effect an attempt is made to respond to the wish of the Secretary of State for Energy to have informed debate. To set the scene the importance of energy availability as regards to the strength of the national economy is stressed and the reasons for an increasing energy demand put forward. Examination of alternative sources of energy shows that none is definitely capable of filling the foreseen energy gap. This implies an integrated thermal/breeder reactor programme as the way to close the anticipated gap. The problems of disposal of radioactive waste and the safeguards in the handling of plutonium are outlined. Longer-term benefits, including the consumption of plutonium and naturally occurring radioactive materials, are examined. (author)

  17. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  18. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  19. A hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu He

    Full Text Available Humans can categorize objects in complex natural scenes within 100-150 ms. This amazing ability of rapid categorization has motivated many computational models. Most of these models require extensive training to obtain a decision boundary in a very high dimensional (e.g., ∼6,000 in a leading model feature space and often categorize objects in natural scenes by categorizing the context that co-occurs with objects when objects do not occupy large portions of the scenes. It is thus unclear how humans achieve rapid scene categorization.To address this issue, we developed a hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes. In this model, a natural object category is represented by a coarse hierarchical probability distribution (PD, which includes PDs of object geometry and spatial configuration of object parts. Object parts are encoded by PDs of a set of natural object structures, each of which is a concatenation of local object features. Rapid categorization is performed as statistical inference. Since the model uses a very small number (∼100 of structures for even complex object categories such as animals and cars, it requires little training and is robust in the presence of large variations within object categories and in their occurrences in natural scenes. Remarkably, we found that the model categorized animals in natural scenes and cars in street scenes with a near human-level performance. We also found that the model located animals and cars in natural scenes, thus overcoming a flaw in many other models which is to categorize objects in natural context by categorizing contextual features. These results suggest that coarse PDs of object categories based on natural object structures and statistical operations on these PDs may underlie the human ability to rapidly categorize scenes.

  20. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P N Van der Jagt

    Full Text Available Attention Restoration Theory (ART states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration.

  1. Multi- and hyperspectral scene modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2011-06-01

    This paper shows how to use a public domain raytracer POV-Ray (Persistence Of Vision Raytracer) to render multiand hyper-spectral scenes. The scripting environment allows automatic changing of the reflectance and transmittance parameters. The radiosity rendering mode allows accurate simulation of multiple-reflections between surfaces and also allows semi-transparent surfaces such as plant leaves. We show that POV-Ray computes occlusion accurately using a test scene with two blocks under a uniform sky. A complex scene representing a plant canopy is generated using a few lines of script. With appropriate rendering settings, shadows cast by leaves are rendered in many bands. Comparing single and multiple reflection renderings, the effect of multiple reflections is clearly visible and accounts for 25% of the overall apparent canopy reflectance in the near infrared.

  2. A Two-Stream Deep Fusion Framework for High-Resolution Aerial Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively. Second, two feature fusion strategies are adopted to fuse the two different types of deep convolutional features extracted by the original RGB stream and the saliency stream. Finally, we use the extreme learning machine (ELM classifier for final classification with the fused features. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is tested on four challenging datasets: UC-Merced dataset with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS dataset with 19 scene categories, AID dataset with 30 scene categories, and NWPU-RESISC45 dataset with 45 challenging scene categories. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.

  3. Scene perception in posterior cortical atrophy: categorization, description and fixation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Frost, Chris; Kim, Lois G; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2013-01-01

    Partial or complete Balint's syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (color and grayscale) using a categorization paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces < scenes < objects) and slower (scenes < objects < faces) than controls on all categories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for color over grayscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient's global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not). Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients' fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  4. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  5. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  6. Knowledge Guided Disambiguation for Large-Scale Scene Classification With Multi-Resolution CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Guo, Sheng; Huang, Weilin; Xiong, Yuanjun; Qiao, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made remarkable progress on scene recognition, partially due to these recent large-scale scene datasets, such as the Places and Places2. Scene categories are often defined by multi-level information, including local objects, global layout, and background environment, thus leading to large intra-class variations. In addition, with the increasing number of scene categories, label ambiguity has become another crucial issue in large-scale classification. This paper focuses on large-scale scene recognition and makes two major contributions to tackle these issues. First, we propose a multi-resolution CNN architecture that captures visual content and structure at multiple levels. The multi-resolution CNNs are composed of coarse resolution CNNs and fine resolution CNNs, which are complementary to each other. Second, we design two knowledge guided disambiguation techniques to deal with the problem of label ambiguity. (i) We exploit the knowledge from the confusion matrix computed on validation data to merge ambiguous classes into a super category. (ii) We utilize the knowledge of extra networks to produce a soft label for each image. Then the super categories or soft labels are employed to guide CNN training on the Places2. We conduct extensive experiments on three large-scale image datasets (ImageNet, Places, and Places2), demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, our method takes part in two major scene recognition challenges, and achieves the second place at the Places2 challenge in ILSVRC 2015, and the first place at the LSUN challenge in CVPR 2016. Finally, we directly test the learned representations on other scene benchmarks, and obtain the new state-of-the-art results on the MIT Indoor67 (86.7\\%) and SUN397 (72.0\\%). We release the code and models at~\\url{https://github.com/wanglimin/MRCNN-Scene-Recognition}.

  7. Neural Scene Segmentation by Oscillatory Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2000-01-01

    The segmentation of a visual scene into a set of coherent patterns (objects) is a fundamental aspect of perception, which underlies a variety of important tasks such as figure/ground segregation, and scene analysis...

  8. Category-specific visual responses: an intracranial study comparing gamma, beta, alpha and ERP response selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R Vidal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of neural responses to visual objects is a major topic in visual neuroscience. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have identified several regions of the occipital and temporal lobe that appear specific to faces, letter-strings, scenes, or tools. Direct electrophysiological recordings in the visual cortical areas of epileptic patients have largely confirmed this modular organization, using either single-neuron peri-stimulus time-histogram or intracerebral event-related potentials (iERP. In parallel, a new research stream has emerged using high-frequency gamma-band activity (50-150 Hz (GBR and low-frequency alpha/beta activity (8-24 Hz (ABR to map functional networks in humans. An obvious question is now whether the functional organization of the visual cortex revealed by fMRI, ERP, GBR, and ABR coincide. We used direct intracerebral recordings in 18 epileptic patients to directly compare GBR, ABR, and ERP elicited by the presentation of seven major visual object categories (faces, scenes, houses, consonants, pseudowords, tools, and animals, in relation to previous fMRI studies. Remarkably both GBR and iERP showed strong category-specificity that was in many cases sufficient to infer stimulus object category from the neural response at single-trial level. However, we also found a strong discrepancy between the selectivity of GBR, ABR, and ERP with less than 10% of spatial overlap between sites eliciting the same category-specificity. Overall, we found that selective neural responses to visual objects were broadly distributed in the brain with a prominent spatial cluster located in the posterior temporal cortex. Moreover, the different neural markers (GBR, ABR, and iERP that elicit selectivity towards specific visual object categories present little spatial overlap suggesting that the information content of each marker can uniquely characterize high-level visual information in the brain.

  9. Short report: the effect of expertise in hiking on recognition memory for mountain scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Satoru; Suzuki, Sae; Morikawa, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    The nature of an expert memory advantage that does not depend on stimulus structure or chunking was examined, using more ecologically valid stimuli in the context of a more natural activity than previously studied domains. Do expert hikers and novice hikers see and remember mountain scenes differently? In the present experiment, 18 novice hikers and 17 expert hikers were presented with 60 photographs of scenes from hiking trails. These scenes differed in the degree of functional aspects that implied some action possibilities or dangers. The recognition test revealed that the memory performance of experts was significantly superior to that of novices for scenes with highly functional aspects. The memory performance for the scenes with few functional aspects did not differ between novices and experts. These results suggest that experts pay more attention to, and thus remember better, scenes with functional meanings than do novices.

  10. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  11. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  12. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  13. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  14. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  15. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS): A Database of >800 Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rau, Elias M; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS). The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object ("critical object") being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral), while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1) Desire to own the object; (2) Approach/Avoid; (3) Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  16. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  17. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  18. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  19. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  20. Associative Processing Is Inherent in Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    How are complex visual entities such as scenes represented in the human brain? More concretely, along what visual and semantic dimensions are scenes encoded in memory? One hypothesis is that global spatial properties provide a basis for categorizing the neural response patterns arising from scenes. In contrast, non-spatial properties, such as single objects, also account for variance in neural responses. The list of critical scene dimensions has continued to grow—sometimes in a contradictory manner—coming to encompass properties such as geometric layout, big/small, crowded/sparse, and three-dimensionality. We demonstrate that these dimensions may be better understood within the more general framework of associative properties. That is, across both the perceptual and semantic domains, features of scene representations are related to one another through learned associations. Critically, the components of such associations are consistent with the dimensions that are typically invoked to account for scene understanding and its neural bases. Using fMRI, we show that non-scene stimuli displaying novel associations across identities or locations recruit putatively scene-selective regions of the human brain (the parahippocampal/lingual region, the retrosplenial complex, and the transverse occipital sulcus/occipital place area). Moreover, we find that the voxel-wise neural patterns arising from these associations are significantly correlated with the neural patterns arising from everyday scenes providing critical evidence whether the same encoding principals underlie both types of processing. These neuroimaging results provide evidence for the hypothesis that the neural representation of scenes is better understood within the broader theoretical framework of associative processing. In addition, the results demonstrate a division of labor that arises across scene-selective regions when processing associations and scenes providing better understanding of the functional

  1. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  2. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  3. Hierarchy-associated semantic-rule inference framework for classifying indoor scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Peng; Ye, Zhipeng; Tang, Xianglong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Typically, the initial task of classifying indoor scenes is challenging, because the spatial layout and decoration of a scene can vary considerably. Recent efforts at classifying object relationships commonly depend on the results of scene annotation and predefined rules, making classification inflexible. Furthermore, annotation results are easily affected by external factors. Inspired by human cognition, a scene-classification framework was proposed using the empirically based annotation (EBA) and a match-over rule-based (MRB) inference system. The semantic hierarchy of images is exploited by EBA to construct rules empirically for MRB classification. The problem of scene classification is divided into low-level annotation and high-level inference from a macro perspective. Low-level annotation involves detecting the semantic hierarchy and annotating the scene with a deformable-parts model and a bag-of-visual-words model. In high-level inference, hierarchical rules are extracted to train the decision tree for classification. The categories of testing samples are generated from the parts to the whole. Compared with traditional classification strategies, the proposed semantic hierarchy and corresponding rules reduce the effect of a variable background and improve the classification performance. The proposed framework was evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  4. Scene Integration Without Awareness: No Conclusive Evidence for Processing Scene Congruency During Continuous Flash Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Boelens, David; van Overwalle, Jaana; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-07-01

    A recent study showed that scenes with an object-background relationship that is semantically incongruent break interocular suppression faster than scenes with a semantically congruent relationship. These results implied that semantic relations between the objects and the background of a scene could be extracted in the absence of visual awareness of the stimulus. In the current study, we assessed the replicability of this finding and tried to rule out an alternative explanation dependent on low-level differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, we used a Bayesian analysis to quantify the evidence in favor of the presence or absence of a scene-congruency effect. Across three experiments, we found no convincing evidence for a scene-congruency effect or a modulation of scene congruency by scene inversion. These findings question the generalizability of previous observations and cast doubt on whether genuine semantic processing of object-background relationships in scenes can manifest during interocular suppression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  6. Literacy in the contemporary scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Kleiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the relationship between literacy and contemporaneity. I take as a point of departure for my discussion school literacy and its links with literacies in other institutions of the contemporary scene, in order to determine the relation between contemporary ends of reading and writing (in other words, the meaning of being literate in contemporary society and the practices and activities effectively realized at school in order to reach those objectives. Using various examples from teaching and learning situations, I discuss digital literacy practices and multimodal texts and multiliteracies from both printed and digital cultures. Throughout, I keep as a background for the discussion the functions and objectives of school literacy and the professional training of teachers who would like to be effective literacy agents in the contemporary world.

  7. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  9. When Does Repeated Search in Scenes Involve Memory? Looking at versus Looking for Objects in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L. -H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    One might assume that familiarity with a scene or previous encounters with objects embedded in a scene would benefit subsequent search for those items. However, in a series of experiments we show that this is not the case: When participants were asked to subsequently search for multiple objects in the same scene, search performance remained…

  10. Scene perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: categorisation, description and fixation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Shakespeare

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (colour and greyscale using a categorisation paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces<scenesscenescategories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for colour over greyscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient’s global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not. Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients’ fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  11. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  12. Stages as models of scene geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, Vladimir; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Redert, André; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-09-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently, we identify geometric scene categorization as the first step toward robust and efficient depth estimation from single images. We introduce 15 typical 3D scene geometries called stages, each with a unique depth profile, which roughly correspond to a large majority of broadcast video frames. Stage information serves as a first approximation of global depth, narrowing down the search space in depth estimation and object localization. We propose different sets of low-level features for depth estimation, and perform stage classification on two diverse data sets of television broadcasts. Classification results demonstrate that stages can often be efficiently learned from low-dimensional image representations.

  13. Binary patterns encoded convolutional neural networks for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Molinier, Matthieu; Laaksonen, Jorma

    2018-04-01

    Designing discriminative powerful texture features robust to realistic imaging conditions is a challenging computer vision problem with many applications, including material recognition and analysis of satellite or aerial imagery. In the past, most texture description approaches were based on dense orderless statistical distribution of local features. However, most recent approaches to texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The de facto practice when learning these CNN models is to use RGB patches as input with training performed on large amounts of labeled data (ImageNet). In this paper, we show that Local Binary Patterns (LBP) encoded CNN models, codenamed TEX-Nets, trained using mapped coded images with explicit LBP based texture information provide complementary information to the standard RGB deep models. Additionally, two deep architectures, namely early and late fusion, are investigated to combine the texture and color information. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate Binary Patterns encoded CNNs and different deep network fusion architectures for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification. We perform comprehensive experiments on four texture recognition datasets and four remote sensing scene classification benchmarks: UC-Merced with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS19 with 19 scene classes, RSSCN7 with 7 categories and the recently introduced large scale aerial image dataset (AID) with 30 aerial scene types. We demonstrate that TEX-Nets provide complementary information to standard RGB deep model of the same network architecture. Our late fusion TEX-Net architecture always improves the overall performance compared to the standard RGB network on both recognition problems. Furthermore, our final combination leads to consistent improvement over the state-of-the-art for remote sensing scene classification.

  14. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  15. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  16. Contextual cueing based on the semantic-category membership of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    GOUJON, A

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. In the proposed study, contextual cueing task with lexical displays was used. The semantic-category membership of the contextual words predicted the location of the t...

  17. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  18. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  19. The roles of scene gist and spatial dependency among objects in the semantic guidance of attention in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A previous study (Vision Research 51 (2011) 1192-1205) found evidence for semantic guidance of visual attention during the inspection of real-world scenes, i.e., an influence of semantic relationships among scene objects on overt shifts of attention. In particular, the results revealed an observer bias toward gaze transitions between semantically similar objects. However, this effect is not necessarily indicative of semantic processing of individual objects but may be mediated by knowledge of the scene gist, which does not require object recognition, or by known spatial dependency among objects. To examine the mechanisms underlying semantic guidance, in the present study, participants were asked to view a series of displays with the scene gist excluded and spatial dependency varied. Our results show that spatial dependency among objects seems to be sufficient to induce semantic guidance. Scene gist, on the other hand, does not seem to affect how observers use semantic information to guide attention while viewing natural scenes. Extracting semantic information mainly based on spatial dependency may be an efficient strategy of the visual system that only adds little cognitive load to the viewing task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Transsaccadic Change Blindness During Scene Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    .... The results from two experiments demonstrated a global transsaccadic change-blindness effect, suggesting that point-by-point visual representations are not functional across saccades during complex scene perception. Ahstract.

  1. Robotic Discovery of the Auditory Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, E; Schultz, A

    2007-01-01

    .... Motivated by the large negative effect of ambient noise sources on robot audition, the long-term goal is to provide awareness of the auditory scene to a robot, so that it may more effectively act...

  2. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  3. Effects of varying presentation time on long-term recognition memory for scenes: Verbatim and gist representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Moscovitch, Morris; Hockley, William E

    2017-04-01

    Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e.g., an "old" beach scene and a similar "new" beach scene; exemplar condition) or vice versa (e.g., a beach scene and a new scene from a novel category; novel condition). In Experiment 1, half of the list of scenes was presented for 1 s, whereas the other half was presented for 4 s. We found lower performance for shorter study presentation time in the exemplar test condition and similar performance for both study presentation times in the novel test condition. In Experiment 2, participants showed similar performance in an exemplar test for which the lure was of a different category but a category that was used at study. In Experiment 3, when presentation time was lowered to 500 ms, recognition accuracy was reduced in both novel and exemplar test conditions. A less detailed memorial representation of the studied scene containing more gist (i.e., meaning) than verbatim (i.e., surface or perceptual details) information is retrieved from LTM after a short compared to a long study presentation time. We conclude that our findings support fuzzy-trace theory.

  4. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  5. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  6. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  7. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  8. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  9. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  10. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  11. Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2013-12-01

    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness , a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.

  12. Scene grammar shapes the way we interact with objects, strengthens memories, and speeds search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2017-11-28

    Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.

  13. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  14. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  15. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  16. Training Small Networks for Scene Classification of Remote Sensing Images via Knowledge Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanzhou Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification, aiming to identify the land-cover categories of remotely sensed image patches, is now a fundamental task in the remote sensing image analysis field. Deep-learning-model-based algorithms are widely applied in scene classification and achieve remarkable performance, but these high-level methods are computationally expensive and time-consuming. Consequently in this paper, we introduce a knowledge distillation framework, currently a mainstream model compression method, into remote sensing scene classification to improve the performance of smaller and shallower network models. Our knowledge distillation training method makes the high-temperature softmax output of a small and shallow student model match the large and deep teacher model. In our experiments, we evaluate knowledge distillation training method for remote sensing scene classification on four public datasets: AID dataset, UCMerced dataset, NWPU-RESISC dataset, and EuroSAT dataset. Results show that our proposed training method was effective and increased overall accuracy (3% in AID experiments, 5% in UCMerced experiments, 1% in NWPU-RESISC and EuroSAT experiments for small and shallow models. We further explored the performance of the student model on small and unbalanced datasets. Our findings indicate that knowledge distillation can improve the performance of small network models on datasets with lower spatial resolution images, numerous categories, as well as fewer training samples.

  17. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  18. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  19. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  20. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  1. Modeling global scene factors in attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    Models of visual attention have focused predominantly on bottom-up approaches that ignored structured contextual and scene information. I propose a model of contextual cueing for attention guidance based on the global scene configuration. It is shown that the statistics of low-level features across the whole image can be used to prime the presence or absence of objects in the scene and to predict their location, scale, and appearance before exploring the image. In this scheme, visual context information can become available early in the visual processing chain, which allows modulation of the saliency of image regions and provides an efficient shortcut for object detection and recognition. 2003 Optical Society of America

  2. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  3. Review of infrared scene projector technology-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Ronald G.; Barnard, Kenneth J.; Burroughs, E. E.; Deep, Raymond G.; Williams, Owen M.

    1994-07-01

    The importance of testing IR imagers and missile seekers with realistic IR scenes warrants a review of the current technologies used in dynamic infrared scene projection. These technologies include resistive arrays, deformable mirror arrays, mirror membrane devices, liquid crystal light valves, laser writers, laser diode arrays, and CRTs. Other methods include frustrated total internal reflection, thermoelectric devices, galvanic cells, Bly cells, and vanadium dioxide. A description of each technology is presented along with a discussion of their relative benefits and disadvantages. The current state of each methodology is also summarized. Finally, the methods are compared and contrasted in terms of their performance parameters.

  4. The development of brain systems associated with successful memory retrieval of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen, Noa; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Schuil, Karen D I; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-07-18

    Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful memory retrieval of scenes in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8-21 via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recognition memory improved with age, specifically for accurate identification of studied scenes (hits). Successful retrieval (correct old-new decisions for studied vs unstudied scenes) was associated with activations in frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. Activations associated with successful retrieval increased with age in left parietal cortex (BA7), bilateral prefrontal, and bilateral caudate regions. In contrast, activations associated with successful retrieval did not change with age in the MTL. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that there were, however, age-relate changes in differential connectivity for successful retrieval between MTL and prefrontal regions. These results suggest that neocortical regions related to attentional or strategic control show the greatest developmental changes for memory retrieval of scenes. Furthermore, these results suggest that functional interactions between MTL and prefrontal regions during memory retrieval also develop into young adulthood. The developmental increase of memory-related activations in frontal and parietal regions for retrieval of scenes and the absence of such an increase in MTL regions parallels what has been observed for memory encoding of scenes.

  5. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Koenig-Robert

    Full Text Available Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging, a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  6. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  7. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  8. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  9. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models

  11. From Theatre Improvisation To Video Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Friis, Preben

    2018-01-01

    At Sygehus Lillebaelt, a Danish hospital, there has been a focus for several years on patient communi- cation. This paper reflects on a course focusing on engaging with the patient’s existential themes in particular the negotiations around the creation of video scenes. In the initial workshops, w...

  12. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  13. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.; Ghebreab, S.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Scholte, H.S.

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the

  14. Attention Switching during Scene Perception: How Goals Influence the Time Course of Eye Movements across Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…

  15. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  16. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  17. Interactive Procedural Modelling of Coherent Waterfall Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Emilien , Arnaud; Poulin , Pierre; Cani , Marie-Paule; Vimont , Ulysse

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Combining procedural generation and user control is a fundamental challenge for the interactive design of natural scenery. This is particularly true for modelling complex waterfall scenes where, in addition to taking charge of geometric details, an ideal tool should also provide a user with the freedom to shape the running streams and falls, while automatically maintaining physical plausibility in terms of flow network, embedding into the terrain, and visual aspects of...

  18. Where and when Do Objects Become Scenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye G. Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenes can be understood with extraordinary speed and facility, not merely as an inventory of individual objects but in the coding of the relations among them. These relations, which can be readily described by prepositions or gerunds (e.g., a hand holding a pen, allows the explicit representation of complex structures. Where in the brain are inter-object relations specified? In a series of fMRI experiments, we show that pairs of objects shown as interacting elicit greater activity in LOC than when the objects are depicted side-by-side (e.g., a hand beside a pen. Other visual areas, PPA, IPS, and DLPFC, did not show this sensitivity to scene relations, rendering it unlikely that the relations were computed in these regions. Using EEG and TMS, we further show that LOC's sensitivity to object interactions arises around 170ms post stimulus onset and that disruption of normal LOC activity—but not IPS activity—is detrimental to the behavioral sensitivity of inter-object relations. Insofar as LOC is the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture, our results provide strong evidence that scene-like relations are achieved simultaneously with the perception of object shape and not inferred at some stage following object identification.

  19. A Virtual Environments Editor for Driving Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Mourant

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to enable the rapid creation of three-dimensional virtual driving environments. We designed and implemented a high-level scene editor that allows a user to construct a driving environment by pasting icons that represent 1 road segments, 2 road signs, 3 trees and 4 buildings. These icons represent two- and three-dimensional objects that have been predesigned. Icons can be placed in the scene at specific locations (x, y, and z coordinates. The editor includes the capability of a user to "drive" a vehicle using a computer mouse for steering, accelerating and braking. At any time during the process of building a virtual environment, a user may switch to "Run Mode" and inspect the three-dimensional scene by "driving" through it using the mouse. Adjustments and additions can be made to the virtual environment by going back to "Build Mode". Once a user is satisfied with the threedimensional virtual environment, it can be saved in a file. The file can used with Java3D software that enables the traversing of three-dimensional environments. The process of building virtual environments from predesigned icons can be applied to many other application areas. It will enable novice computer users to rapidly construct and use three-dimensional virtual environments.

  20. Gay and Lesbian Scene in Metelkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Velikonja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.

  1. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  2. Visual properties and memorising scenes: Effects of image-space sparseness and uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavský, Jiří; Děchtěrenko, Filip

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that humans have a remarkable capacity to memorise a large number of scenes. The research on memorability has shown that memory performance can be predicted by the content of an image. We explored how remembering an image is affected by the image properties within the context of the reference set, including the extent to which it is different from its neighbours (image-space sparseness) and if it belongs to the same category as its neighbours (uniformity). We used a reference set of 2,048 scenes (64 categories), evaluated pairwise scene similarity using deep features from a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN), and calculated the image-space sparseness and uniformity for each image. We ran three memory experiments, varying the memory workload with experiment length and colour/greyscale presentation. We measured the sensitivity and criterion value changes as a function of image-space sparseness and uniformity. Across all three experiments, we found separate effects of 1) sparseness on memory sensitivity, and 2) uniformity on the recognition criterion. People better remembered (and correctly rejected) images that were more separated from others. People tended to make more false alarms and fewer miss errors in images from categorically uniform portions of the image-space. We propose that both image-space properties affect human decisions when recognising images. Additionally, we found that colour presentation did not yield better memory performance over grayscale images.

  3. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this ability by examining how attention affects electrophysiological markers of scene perception. In two electro-encephalography (EEG) experiments, human subjects categorized real-world scenes as manmade or natural (full attention condition) or performed tasks on unrelated stimuli in the center or periphery of the scenes (reduced attention conditions). Scene processing was examined in two ways: traditional trial averaging was used to assess the presence of a categorical manmade/natural distinction in event-related potentials, whereas single-trial analyses assessed whether EEG activity was modulated by scene statistics that are diagnostic of naturalness of individual scenes. The results indicated that evoked activity up to 250 ms was unaffected by reduced attention, showing intact categorical differences between manmade and natural scenes and strong modulations of single-trial activity by scene statistics in all conditions. Thus initial processing of both categorical and individual scene information remained intact with reduced attention. Importantly, however, attention did have profound effects on later evoked activity; full attention on the scene resulted in prolonged manmade/natural differences, increased neural sensitivity to scene statistics, and enhanced scene memory. These results show that initial processing of real-world scene information is intact with diminished attention but that the depth of processing of this information does depend on attention. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The singular nature of auditory and visual scene analysis in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fan; Shirama, Aya; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2017-02-19

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often have difficulty acquiring relevant auditory and visual information in daily environments, despite not being diagnosed as hearing impaired or having low vision. Resent psychophysical and neurophysiological studies have shown that autistic individuals have highly specific individual differences at various levels of information processing, including feature extraction, automatic grouping and top-down modulation in auditory and visual scene analysis. Comparison of the characteristics of scene analysis between auditory and visual modalities reveals some essential commonalities, which could provide clues about the underlying neural mechanisms. Further progress in this line of research may suggest effective methods for diagnosing and supporting autistic individuals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. How children remember neutral and emotional pictures: boundary extension in children's scene memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Ingrid; Merckelbach, Harald; Houben, Katrijn; Vandyck, Inne

    2004-01-01

    Boundary extension is the tendency to remember more of a scene than was actually shown. The dominant interpretation of this memory illusion is that it originates from schemata that people construct when viewing a scene. Evidence of boundary extension has been obtained primarily with adult participants who remember neutral pictures. The current study addressed the developmental stability of this phenomenon. Therefore, we investigated whether children aged 10-12 years display boundary extension for neutral pictures. Moreover, we examined emotional scene memory. Eighty-seven children drew pictures from memory after they had seen either neutral or emotional pictures. Both their neutral and emotional drawings revealed boundary extension. Apparently, the schema construction that underlies boundary extension is a robust and ubiquitous process.

  6. Object-graphs for context-aware visual category discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Grauman, Kristen

    2012-02-01

    How can knowing about some categories help us to discover new ones in unlabeled images? Unsupervised visual category discovery is useful to mine for recurring objects without human supervision, but existing methods assume no prior information and thus tend to perform poorly for cluttered scenes with multiple objects. We propose to leverage knowledge about previously learned categories to enable more accurate discovery, and address challenges in estimating their familiarity in unsegmented, unlabeled images. We introduce two variants of a novel object-graph descriptor to encode the 2D and 3D spatial layout of object-level co-occurrence patterns relative to an unfamiliar region and show that by using them to model the interaction between an image’s known and unknown objects, we can better detect new visual categories. Rather than mine for all categories from scratch, our method identifies new objects while drawing on useful cues from familiar ones. We evaluate our approach on several benchmark data sets and demonstrate clear improvements in discovery over conventional purely appearance-based baselines.

  7. Three-dimensional model-based object recognition and segmentation in cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Ajmal S; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Owens, Robyn

    2006-10-01

    Viewpoint independent recognition of free-form objects and their segmentation in the presence of clutter and occlusions is a challenging task. We present a novel 3D model-based algorithm which performs this task automatically and efficiently. A 3D model of an object is automatically constructed offline from its multiple unordered range images (views). These views are converted into multidimensional table representations (which we refer to as tensors). Correspondences are automatically established between these views by simultaneously matching the tensors of a view with those of the remaining views using a hash table-based voting scheme. This results in a graph of relative transformations used to register the views before they are integrated into a seamless 3D model. These models and their tensor representations constitute the model library. During online recognition, a tensor from the scene is simultaneously matched with those in the library by casting votes. Similarity measures are calculated for the model tensors which receive the most votes. The model with the highest similarity is transformed to the scene and, if it aligns accurately with an object in the scene, that object is declared as recognized and is segmented. This process is repeated until the scene is completely segmented. Experiments were performed on real and synthetic data comprised of 55 models and 610 scenes and an overall recognition rate of 95 percent was achieved. Comparison with the spin images revealed that our algorithm is superior in terms of recognition rate and efficiency.

  8. Adaptive attunement of selective covert attention to evolutionary-relevant emotional visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Gutiérrez-García, Aída; Capafons, Juan; Calvo, Manuel G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing. Sex of observers and specific emotional scene content (e.g., male-to-female-aggression, families and babies, etc.) interactively modulated covert attention, depending on adaptive priorities and goals for each sex, both for pleasant and unpleasant content. The attentional system exhibits domain-specific and sex-specific biases and attunements, probably rooted in evolutionary pressures to enhance reproductive and protective success. Emotional cues selectively capture covert attention based on their bio-social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The elephant in the room: Inconsistency in scene viewing and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Sara; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2017-10-01

    We examined the extent to which semantic informativeness, consistency with expectations and perceptual salience contribute to object prioritization in scene viewing and representation. In scene viewing (Experiments 1-2), semantic guidance overshadowed perceptual guidance in determining fixation order, with the greatest prioritization for objects that were diagnostic of the scene's depicted event. Perceptual properties affected selection of consistent objects (regardless of their informativeness) but not of inconsistent objects. Semantic and perceptual properties also interacted in influencing foveal inspection, as inconsistent objects were fixated longer than low but not high salience diagnostic objects. While not studied in direct competition with each other (each studied in competition with diagnostic objects), we found that inconsistent objects were fixated earlier and for longer than consistent but marginally informative objects. In change detection (Experiment 3), perceptual guidance overshadowed semantic guidance, promoting detection of highly salient changes. A residual advantage for diagnosticity over inconsistency emerged only when selection prioritization could not be based on low-level features. Overall these findings show that semantic inconsistency is not prioritized within a scene when competing with other relevant information that is essential to scene understanding and respects observers' expectations. Moreover, they reveal that the relative dominance of semantic or perceptual properties during selection depends on ongoing task requirements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  11. Cortical networks dynamically emerge with the interplay of slow and fast oscillations for memory of a natural scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2015-05-01

    Neural oscillations are crucial for revealing dynamic cortical networks and for serving as a possible mechanism of inter-cortical communication, especially in association with mnemonic function. The interplay of the slow and fast oscillations might dynamically coordinate the mnemonic cortical circuits to rehearse stored items during working memory retention. We recorded simultaneous EEG-fMRI during a working memory task involving a natural scene to verify whether the cortical networks emerge with the neural oscillations for memory of the natural scene. The slow EEG power was enhanced in association with the better accuracy of working memory retention, and accompanied cortical activities in the mnemonic circuits for the natural scene. Fast oscillation showed a phase-amplitude coupling to the slow oscillation, and its power was tightly coupled with the cortical activities for representing the visual images of natural scenes. The mnemonic cortical circuit with the slow neural oscillations would rehearse the distributed natural scene representations with the fast oscillation for working memory retention. The coincidence of the natural scene representations could be obtained by the slow oscillation phase to create a coherent whole of the natural scene in the working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  13. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  14. 'Working behind the scenes'. An ethical view of mental health nursing and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Cathrine; Kvig, Erling I; Brinchmann, Beate; Brinchmann, Berit S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and reflect upon mental health nursing and first-episode psychosis. Seven multidisciplinary focus group interviews were conducted, and data analysis was influenced by a grounded theory approach. The core category was found to be a process named 'working behind the scenes'. It is presented along with three subcategories: 'keeping the patient in mind', 'invisible care' and 'invisible network contact'. Findings are illuminated with the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and paternalism. Nursing care is dynamic, and clinical work moves along continuums between autonomy and paternalism and between ethical reflective and non-reflective practice. 'Working behind the scenes' is considered to be in a paternalistic area, containing an ethical reflection. Treating and caring for individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis demands an ethical awareness and great vigilance by nurses. The study is a contribution to reflection upon everyday nursing practice, and the conclusion concerns the importance of making invisible work visible.

  15. Color Independent Components Based SIFT Descriptors for Object/Scene Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dan-Ni; Han, Xian-Hua; Ruan, Xiang; Chen, Yen-Wei

    In this paper, we present a novel color independent components based SIFT descriptor (termed CIC-SIFT) for object/scene classification. We first learn an efficient color transformation matrix based on independent component analysis (ICA), which is adaptive to each category in a database. The ICA-based color transformation can enhance contrast between the objects and the background in an image. Then we compute CIC-SIFT descriptors over all three transformed color independent components. Since the ICA-based color transformation can boost the objects and suppress the background, the proposed CIC-SIFT can extract more effective and discriminative local features for object/scene classification. The comparison is performed among seven SIFT descriptors, and the experimental classification results show that our proposed CIC-SIFT is superior to other conventional SIFT descriptors.

  16. Emergency patients receiving anaesthesiologist-based pre-hospital treatment and subsequently released at the scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, S G; Sørensen, L P; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Odense, Denmark consists of a rapid response car, manned with an anaesthesiologist and an emergency medical technician. Eleven per cent of the patients are released at the scene following treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate which...... investigated. In each patient, diagnosis as well as any renewed contact with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit or the hospital within 24 h was registered. RESULTS: ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED NINE: patients were released at the scene. Diagnoses within the category 'examination and investigation' [International...... with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit within 24 h. Of the 143 victims of traffic accidents, 19 (13%) required renewed contact with the emergency department and one required admission to hospital (0.7%). Of all 1609 patients, four died within 24 h of contact (0.2%). CONCLUSION: Patients treated and released...

  17. Attention, awareness, and the perception of auditory scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Snyder

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory perception and cognition entails both low-level and high-level processes, which are likely to interact with each other to create our rich conscious experience of soundscapes. Recent research that we review has revealed numerous influences of high-level factors, such as attention, intention, and prior experience, on conscious auditory perception. And recently, studies have shown that auditory scene analysis tasks can exhibit multistability in a manner very similar to ambiguous visual stimuli, presenting a unique opportunity to study neural correlates of auditory awareness and the extent to which mechanisms of perception are shared across sensory modalities. Research has also led to a growing number of techniques through which auditory perception can be manipulated and even completely suppressed. Such findings have important consequences for our understanding of the mechanisms of perception and also should allow scientists to precisely distinguish the influences of different higher-level influences.

  18. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  19. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Popular music scenes and aging bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Andy

    2018-06-01

    During the last two decades there has been increasing interest in the phenomenon of the aging popular music audience (Bennett & Hodkinson, 2012). Although the specter of the aging fan is by no means new, the notion of, for example, the aging rocker or the aging punk has attracted significant sociological attention, not least of all because of what this says about the shifting socio-cultural significance of rock and punk and similar genres - which at the time of their emergence were inextricably tied to youth and vociferously marketed as "youth musics". As such, initial interpretations of aging music fans tended to paint a somewhat negative picture, suggesting a sense in which such fans were cultural misfits (Ross, 1994). In more recent times, however, work informed by cultural aging perspectives has begun to consider how so-called "youth cultural" identities may in fact provide the basis of more stable and evolving identities over the life course (Bennett, 2013). Starting from this position, the purpose of this article is to critically examine how aging members of popular music scenes might be recast as a salient example of the more pluralistic fashion in which aging is anticipated, managed and articulated in contemporary social settings. The article then branches out to consider two ways that aging members of music scenes continue their scene involvement. The first focuses on evolving a series of discourses that legitimately position them as aging bodies in cultural spaces that also continue to be inhabited by significant numbers of people in their teens, twenties and thirties. The second sees aging fans taking advantage of new opportunities for consuming live music including winery concerts and dinner and show events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  2. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    in the way that the certain actions and events which have taken place have left a variety of marks and traces which may be read and interpreted. Traces of blood, nails, hair constitutes (DNA)codes which can be decrypted and deciphered, in the same way as traces of gun powder, bullet holes, physical damage...... and interpretation. During her investigation the detective's ability to make logical reasoning and deductive thinking as well as to make use of her imagination is crucial to how the crime scene is first deconstructed and then reconstructed as a setting for the story (that is the actions of crime). By decoding...

  3. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  4. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  5. IR characteristic simulation of city scenes based on radiosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xixian; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Yu, Xiyu

    2013-09-01

    Reliable modeling for thermal infrared (IR) signatures of real-world city scenes is required for signature management of civil and military platforms. Traditional modeling methods generally assume that scene objects are individual entities during the physical processes occurring in infrared range. However, in reality, the physical scene involves convective and conductive interactions between objects as well as the radiations interactions between objects. A method based on radiosity model describes these complex effects. It has been developed to enable an accurate simulation for the radiance distribution of the city scenes. Firstly, the physical processes affecting the IR characteristic of city scenes were described. Secondly, heat balance equations were formed on the basis of combining the atmospheric conditions, shadow maps and the geometry of scene. Finally, finite difference method was used to calculate the kinetic temperature of object surface. A radiosity model was introduced to describe the scattering effect of radiation between surface elements in the scene. By the synthesis of objects radiance distribution in infrared range, we could obtain the IR characteristic of scene. Real infrared images and model predictions were shown and compared. The results demonstrate that this method can realistically simulate the IR characteristic of city scenes. It effectively displays the infrared shadow effects and the radiation interactions between objects in city scenes.

  6. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  7. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  8. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  9. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W; Gajewski, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and directional locations of objects in 2-D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues can be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This article describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. We verified the system's ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds.

  10. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  11. Individual differences in the spontaneous recruitment of brain regions supporting mental state understanding when viewing natural social scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-12-01

    People are able to rapidly infer complex personality traits and mental states even from the most minimal person information. Research has shown that when observers view a natural scene containing people, they spend a disproportionate amount of their time looking at the social features (e.g., faces, bodies). Does this preference for social features merely reflect the biological salience of these features or are observers spontaneously attempting to make sense of complex social dynamics? Using functional neuroimaging, we investigated neural responses to social and nonsocial visual scenes in a large sample of participants (n = 48) who varied on an individual difference measure assessing empathy and mentalizing (i.e., empathizing). Compared with other scene categories, viewing natural social scenes activated regions associated with social cognition (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporal poles). Moreover, activity in these regions during social scene viewing was strongly correlated with individual differences in empathizing. These findings offer neural evidence that observers spontaneously engage in social cognition when viewing complex social material but that the degree to which people do so is mediated by individual differences in trait empathizing.

  12. Functional Organization of the Parahippocampal Cortex: Dissociable Roles for Context Representations and the Perception of Visual Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Mattingley, Jason B

    2016-02-24

    The human parahippocampal cortex has been ascribed central roles in both visuospatial and mnemonic processes. More specifically, evidence suggests that the parahippocampal cortex subserves both the perceptual analysis of scene layouts as well as the retrieval of associative contextual memories. It remains unclear, however, whether these two functional roles can be dissociated within the parahippocampal cortex anatomically. Here, we provide evidence for a dissociation between neural activation patterns associated with visuospatial analysis of scenes and contextual mnemonic processing along the parahippocampal longitudinal axis. We used fMRI to measure parahippocampal responses while participants engaged in a task that required them to judge the contextual relatedness of scene and object pairs, which were presented either as words or pictures. Results from combined factorial and conjunction analyses indicated that the posterior section of parahippocampal cortex is driven predominantly by judgments associated with pictorial scene analysis, whereas its anterior section is more active during contextual judgments regardless of stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture). Activation maxima associated with visuospatial and mnemonic processes were spatially segregated, providing support for the existence of functionally distinct subregions along the parahippocampal longitudinal axis and suggesting that, in humans, the parahippocampal cortex serves as a functional interface between perception and memory systems. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362536-07$15.00/0.

  13. Classification of Mls Point Clouds in Urban Scenes Using Detrended Geometric Features from Supervoxel-Based Local Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Xu, Y.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we propose a classification method designed for the labeling of MLS point clouds, with detrended geometric features extracted from the points of the supervoxel-based local context. To achieve the analysis of complex 3D urban scenes, acquired points of the scene should be tagged with individual labels of different classes. Thus, assigning a unique label to the points of an object that belong to the same category plays an essential role in the entire 3D scene analysis workflow. Although plenty of studies in this field have been reported, this work is still a challenging task. Specifically, in this work: 1) A novel geometric feature extraction method, detrending the redundant and in-salient information in the local context, is proposed, which is proved to be effective for extracting local geometric features from the 3D scene. 2) Instead of using individual point as basic element, the supervoxel-based local context is designed to encapsulate geometric characteristics of points, providing a flexible and robust solution for feature extraction. 3) Experiments using complex urban scene with manually labeled ground truth are conducted, and the performance of proposed method with respect to different methods is analyzed. With the testing dataset, we have obtained a result of 0.92 for overall accuracy for assigning eight semantic classes.

  14. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.

  15. A hierarchical inferential method for indoor scene classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jingzhe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor scene classification forms a basis for scene interaction for service robots. The task is challenging because the layout and decoration of a scene vary considerably. Previous studies on knowledge-based methods commonly ignore the importance of visual attributes when constructing the knowledge base. These shortcomings restrict the performance of classification. The structure of a semantic hierarchy was proposed to describe similarities of different parts of scenes in a fine-grained way. Besides the commonly used semantic features, visual attributes were also introduced to construct the knowledge base. Inspired by the processes of human cognition and the characteristics of indoor scenes, we proposed an inferential framework based on the Markov logic network. The framework is evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  16. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  17. A statistical model for radar images of agricultural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Stiles, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The presently derived and validated statistical model for radar images containing many different homogeneous fields predicts the probability density functions of radar images of entire agricultural scenes, thereby allowing histograms of large scenes composed of a variety of crops to be described. Seasat-A SAR images of agricultural scenes are accurately predicted by the model on the basis of three assumptions: each field has the same SNR, all target classes cover approximately the same area, and the true reflectivity characterizing each individual target class is a uniformly distributed random variable. The model is expected to be useful in the design of data processing algorithms and for scene analysis using radar images.

  18. Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto; Trestianu, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that women might be more reactive than men to viewing painful stimuli (vicarious response to pain), and therefore more empathic [Han, S., Fan, Y., & Mao, L. (2008). Gender difference in empathy for pain: An electrophysiological investigation. Brain Research, 1196, 85-93]. We investigated whether the two sexes differed in their cerebral responses to affective pictures portraying humans in different positive or negative contexts compared to natural or urban scenarios. 440 IAPS slides were presented to 24 Italian students (12 women and 12 men). Half the pictures displayed humans while the remaining scenes lacked visible persons. ERPs were recorded from 128 electrodes and swLORETA (standardized weighted Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source reconstruction was performed. Occipital P115 was greater in response to persons than to scenes and was affected by the emotional valence of the human pictures. This suggests that processing of biologically relevant stimuli is prioritized. Orbitofrontal N2 was greater in response to positive than negative human pictures in women but not in men, and not to scenes. A late positivity (LP) to suffering humans far exceeded the response to negative scenes in women but not in men. In both sexes, the contrast suffering-minus-happy humans revealed a difference in the activation of the occipito/temporal, right occipital (BA19), bilateral parahippocampal, left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) and left amygdala. However, increased right amygdala and right frontal area activities were observed only in women. The humans-minus-scenes contrast revealed a difference in the activation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in men, and of the left inferior parietal (BA40), left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA38) and right cingulate (BA31) in women (270-290 ms). These data indicate a sex-related difference in the brain response to humans, possibly supporting human empathy.

  19. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  20. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  1. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  2. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  3. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  4. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  5. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  6. Being There: (Re)Making the Assessment Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2011-01-01

    I use Burkean analysis to show how neoliberalism undermines faculty assessment expertise and underwrites testing industry expertise in the current assessment scene. Contending that we cannot extricate ourselves from our limited agency in this scene until we abandon the familiar "stakeholder" theory of power, I propose a rewriting of the…

  7. The Influence of Color on the Perception of Scene Gist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…

  8. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, George A.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I.; Sherman, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4–6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the “functional set size” of items that could possibly be the target. PMID:21671156

  9. SAMPEG: a scene-adaptive parallel MPEG-2 software encoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.; Mache, N.; With, de P.H.N.; Girod, B.; Bouman, C.A.; Steinbach, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a fully software-based MPEG-2 encoder architecture, which uses scene-change detection to optimize the Group-of-Picture (GOP) structure for the actual video sequence. This feature enables easy, lossless edit cuts at scene-change positions and it also improves overall picture

  10. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  11. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  12. Selective scene perception deficits in a case of topographical disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Lowe, Matthew X; Pishdadian, Sara; Rivest, Josée; Cant, Jonathan S; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-07-01

    Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene. Compared to healthy controls, LH demonstrates perceptual impairments when attending to the configuration of a scene, but not when attending to its surface properties, such as the pattern of the walls or whether the ground is sand or grass. In contrast, when focusing on objects instead of scenes, LH demonstrates intact perception of both geometric and surface properties. This study demonstrates that in a case of TD and landmark agnosia, the perceptual impairments are selective to the layout of scenes, providing insight into the mechanism of landmark agnosia and scene-selective perceptual processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The neural bases of spatial frequency processing during scene perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Louise; Ramanoël, Stephen; Peyrin, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories on visual perception agree that scenes are processed in terms of spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) carry coarse information whereas high spatial frequencies (HSF) carry fine details of the scene. However, how and where spatial frequencies are processed within the brain remain unresolved questions. The present review addresses these issues and aims to identify the cerebral regions differentially involved in low and high spatial frequency processing, and to clarify their attributes during scene perception. Results from a number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that spatial frequency processing is lateralized in both hemispheres, with the right and left hemispheres predominantly involved in the categorization of LSF and HSF scenes, respectively. There is also evidence that spatial frequency processing is retinotopically mapped in the visual cortex. HSF scenes (as opposed to LSF) activate occipital areas in relation to foveal representations, while categorization of LSF scenes (as opposed to HSF) activates occipital areas in relation to more peripheral representations. Concomitantly, a number of studies have demonstrated that LSF information may reach high-order areas rapidly, allowing an initial coarse parsing of the visual scene, which could then be sent back through feedback into the occipito-temporal cortex to guide finer HSF-based analysis. Finally, the review addresses spatial frequency processing within scene-selective regions areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. PMID:24847226

  14. 47 CFR 80.1127 - On-scene communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1127 On-scene communications. (a) On-scene communications...

  15. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  16. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Alvarez, George A; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I; Sherman, Ashley M

    2011-08-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4-6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the "functional set size" of items that could possibly be the target.

  17. Cognitive organization of roadway scenes : an empirical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes six studies investigating the cognitive organization of roadway scenes. These scenes were represented by still photographs taken on a number of roads outside of built-up areas. Seventy-eight drivers, stratified by age and sex to simulate the Dutch driving population,

  18. Superpixel-Based Feature for Aerial Image Scene Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Image scene recognition is a core technology for many aerial remote sensing applications. Different landforms are inputted as different scenes in aerial imaging, and all landform information is regarded as valuable for aerial image scene recognition. However, the conventional features of the Bag-of-Words model are designed using local points or other related information and thus are unable to fully describe landform areas. This limitation cannot be ignored when the aim is to ensure accurate aerial scene recognition. A novel superpixel-based feature is proposed in this study to characterize aerial image scenes. Then, based on the proposed feature, a scene recognition method of the Bag-of-Words model for aerial imaging is designed. The proposed superpixel-based feature that utilizes landform information establishes top-task superpixel extraction of landforms to bottom-task expression of feature vectors. This characterization technique comprises the following steps: simple linear iterative clustering based superpixel segmentation, adaptive filter bank construction, Lie group-based feature quantification, and visual saliency model-based feature weighting. Experiments of image scene recognition are carried out using real image data captured by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The recognition accuracy of the proposed superpixel-based feature is 95.1%, which is higher than those of scene recognition algorithms based on other local features.

  19. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  20. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  1. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodi-Gharaie, Javad; Khorrami, Anahita; Joudi, Mitra; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes. Thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral - neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test. With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group, while they were looking at pleasant - neutral and unpleasant - pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant - neutral pairs (P<0.01). Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  2. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  3. Transferring Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning efficient image representations is at the core of the scene classification task of remote sensing imagery. The existing methods for solving the scene classification task, based on either feature coding approaches with low-level hand-engineered features or unsupervised feature learning, can only generate mid-level image features with limited representative ability, which essentially prevents them from achieving better performance. Recently, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs, which are hierarchical architectures trained on large-scale datasets, have shown astounding performance in object recognition and detection. However, it is still not clear how to use these deep convolutional neural networks for high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS scene classification. In this paper, we investigate how to transfer features from these successfully pre-trained CNNs for HRRS scene classification. We propose two scenarios for generating image features via extracting CNN features from different layers. In the first scenario, the activation vectors extracted from fully-connected layers are regarded as the final image features; in the second scenario, we extract dense features from the last convolutional layer at multiple scales and then encode the dense features into global image features through commonly used feature coding approaches. Extensive experiments on two public scene classification datasets demonstrate that the image features obtained by the two proposed scenarios, even with a simple linear classifier, can result in remarkable performance and improve the state-of-the-art by a significant margin. The results reveal that the features from pre-trained CNNs generalize well to HRRS datasets and are more expressive than the low- and mid-level features. Moreover, we tentatively combine features extracted from different CNN models for better performance.

  4. COGNITIVE-COMMUNICATIVE PERSONALITY CATEGORY IN THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynay Sagingalievna Zhubaeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the character of anthropocentricity of grammatical categories in their meaning and functioning. Materials and methods. According to the research objectives and goals, the methods used were as follows: the descriptive method, general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, cognitive analysis, method of experiment, contextual analysis, structural-semantic analysis, transformation technique, comparative analysis. Results. For the first time in the Kazakh linguistics the substantial aspect of grammatical categories is characterized being a result of both conceptualization and categorization processes. Based on generalization and the comparative analysis of nature and forms of the human factor reflection in the Kazakh grammatical categories there has been revealed the national-cultural specific character of grammatical categories. Practical implications. The research materials can be used in theoretical courses onf grammar and linguistics, as well as in the development of special courses on cognitive linguistics, cognitive grammar, etc.

  5. Characteristics of color memory for natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Uchikawa, Keiji; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    To study the characteristics of color memory for natural images, a memory-identification task was performed with differing color contrasts; three of the contrasts were defined by chromatic and luminance components of the image, and the others were defined with respect to the categorical colors. After observing a series of pictures successively, subjects identified the pictures using a confidence rating. Detection of increased contrasts tended to be harder than detection of decreased contrasts, suggesting that the chromaticness of pictures is enhanced in memory. Detecting changes within each color category was more difficult than across the categories. A multiple mechanism that processes color differences and categorical colors is briefly considered. 2002 Optical Society of America

  6. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  8. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  9. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  10. The mere exposure effect with scene stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    八木 , 善彦

    2016-01-01

     The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increasesubsequent affective preference for those stimuli. It has been indicated that with specific stimulus-category(i.e., paintings, matrices, and photographs of scene), repeated exposure has little or oppositeeffect on affective ratings. In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to explore theeffect of stimulus-category on the mere exposure effects. Photographs of young woman’s(Experiment1)a...

  11. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  12. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  13. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  14. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  15. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  16. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  17. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  18. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  19. Graphics processing unit (GPU) real-time infrared scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.

    2007-04-01

    VIRSuite, the GPU-based suite of software tools developed at DSTO for real-time infrared scene generation, is described. The tools include the painting of scene objects with radiometrically-associated colours, translucent object generation, polar plot validation and versatile scene generation. Special features include radiometric scaling within the GPU and the presence of zoom anti-aliasing at the core of VIRSuite. Extension of the zoom anti-aliasing construct to cover target embedding and the treatment of translucent objects is described.

  20. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  1. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  2. AR goggles make crime scene investigation a desk job

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Jacob; NORTHFIELD, Dean

    2012-01-01

    CRIME scene investigators could one day help solve murders without leaving the office. A pair of augmented reality glasses could allow local police to virtually tag objects in a crime scene, and build a clean record of the scene in 3D video before evidence is removed for processing.\\ud The system, being developed by Oytun Akman and colleagues at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, consists of a head-mounted display receiving 3D video from a pair of attached cameras controll...

  3. The functional consequences of social distraction: Attention and memory for complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brianna Ruth; Patai, Eva Zita; Duta, Mihaela; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long proposed that social stimuli attract visual attention even when task irrelevant, but the consequences of this privileged status for memory are unknown. To address this, we combined computational approaches, eye-tracking methodology, and individual-differences measures. Participants searched for targets in scenes containing social or non-social distractors equated for low-level visual salience. Subsequent memory precision for target locations was tested. Individual differences in autistic traits and social anxiety were also measured. Eye-tracking revealed significantly more attentional capture to social compared to non-social distractors. Critically, memory precision for target locations was poorer for social scenes. This effect was moderated by social anxiety, with anxious individuals remembering target locations better under conditions of social distraction. These findings shed further light onto the privileged attentional status of social stimuli and its functional consequences on memory across individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Simultanagnosia and scene agnosia induced by right posterior cerebral artery infarction: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Muramatsu, Tomoko; Sato, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiromi; Miura, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia. Further, he could morphologically perceive both familiar and new scenes, but could not identify them, representing so-called scene agnosia. We report this case because simultanagnosia associated with a right occipital lobe lesion is rare.

  5. Unsupervised semantic indoor scene classification for robot vision based on context of features using Gist and HSV-SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madokoro, H.; Yamanashi, A.; Sato, K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised scene classification method for actualizing semantic recognition of indoor scenes. Background and foreground features are respectively extracted using Gist and color scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) as feature representations based on context. We used hue, saturation, and value SIFT (HSV-SIFT) because of its simple algorithm with low calculation costs. Our method creates bags of features for voting visual words created from both feature descriptors to a two-dimensional histogram. Moreover, our method generates labels as candidates of categories for time-series images while maintaining stability and plasticity together. Automatic labeling of category maps can be realized using labels created using adaptive resonance theory (ART) as teaching signals for counter propagation networks (CPNs). We evaluated our method for semantic scene classification using KTH's image database for robot localization (KTH-IDOL), which is popularly used for robot localization and navigation. The mean classification accuracies of Gist, gray SIFT, one class support vector machines (OC-SVM), position-invariant robust features (PIRF), and our method are, respectively, 39.7, 58.0, 56.0, 63.6, and 79.4%. The result of our method is 15.8% higher than that of PIRF. Moreover, we applied our method for fine classification using our original mobile robot. We obtained mean classification accuracy of 83.2% for six zones.

  6. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  7. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  8. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  9. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  10. Long-Term Memory for Context-Specific Category Information at Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Pamela J.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    The ability of six-month-old infants to remember a functional category acquired in a specific context was assessed in three experiments. Findings revealed that at six months, information about the place where categories are constructed is prerequisite for retrieval of a category concept from long-term memory. (GLR)

  11. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  12. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Scene Categorization in Alzheimer's Disease: A Saccadic Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Lenoble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We investigated the performance in scene categorization of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using a saccadic choice task. Method: 24 patients with mild AD, 28 age-matched controls and 26 young people participated in the study. The participants were presented pairs of coloured photographs and were asked to make a saccadic eye movement to the picture corresponding to the target scene (natural vs. urban, indoor vs. outdoor. Results: The patients' performance did not differ from chance for natural scenes. Differences between young and older controls and patients with AD were found in accuracy but not saccadic latency. Conclusions: The results are interpreted in terms of cerebral reorganization in the prefrontal and temporo-occipital cortex of patients with AD, but also in terms of impaired processing of visual global properties of scenes.

  14. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  15. Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3-D scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A general mathematical framework for simulating processes in heterogeneous 3-D scenes is presented. Specifically, a model was designed and coded for application to radiative transfers in vegetative scenes. The model is unique in that it predicts (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy, (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene, and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. The model was shown to follow known physical principles of radiative transfer. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional reflectance data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. However, the model can be greatly improved by incorporating more sophisticated and realistic anisotropic scattering algorithms

  16. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    computer using a single graphics processing unit (GPU). To the best of our knowledge, an implementation of the open-source Python -based AlexNet CNN on...1. Introduction Neurons in the brain enable us to understand scenes by assessing the spatial, temporal, and feature relations of objects in the...effort to use computer neural networks to augment human neural intelligence to improve our scene understanding (Krizhevsky et al. 2012; Zhou et al

  18. STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D

  19. Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kyranides, Melina N; Georgiou, Giorgos; Petridou, Maria; Colins, Olivier F; Tuvblad, Catherine; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. 3D Traffic Scene Understanding From Movable Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Andreas; Lauer, Martin; Wojek, Christian; Stiller, Christoph; Urtasun, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic generative model for multi-object traffic scene understanding from movable platforms which reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the location and orientation of objects in the scene. In particular, the scene topology, geometry, and traffic activities are inferred from short video sequences. Inspired by the impressive driving capabilities of humans, our model does not rely on GPS, lidar, or map knowledge. Instead, it takes advantage of a diverse set of visual cues in the form of vehicle tracklets, vanishing points, semantic scene labels, scene flow, and occupancy grids. For each of these cues, we propose likelihood functions that are integrated into a probabilistic generative model. We learn all model parameters from training data using contrastive divergence. Experiments conducted on videos of 113 representative intersections show that our approach successfully infers the correct layout in a variety of very challenging scenarios. To evaluate the importance of each feature cue, experiments using different feature combinations are conducted. Furthermore, we show how by employing context derived from the proposed method we are able to improve over the state-of-the-art in terms of object detection and object orientation estimation in challenging and cluttered urban environments.

  1. Presentation of 3D Scenes Through Video Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Andrea; Ganovelli, Fabio; Corsini, Massimiliano; Scopigno, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Using synthetic videos to present a 3D scene is a common requirement for architects, designers, engineers or Cultural Heritage professionals however it is usually time consuming and, in order to obtain high quality results, the support of a film maker/computer animation expert is necessary. We introduce an alternative approach that takes the 3D scene of interest and an example video as input, and automatically produces a video of the input scene that resembles the given video example. In other words, our algorithm allows the user to "replicate" an existing video, on a different 3D scene. We build on the intuition that a video sequence of a static environment is strongly characterized by its optical flow, or, in other words, that two videos are similar if their optical flows are similar. We therefore recast the problem as producing a video of the input scene whose optical flow is similar to the optical flow of the input video. Our intuition is supported by a user-study specifically designed to verify this statement. We have successfully tested our approach on several scenes and input videos, some of which are reported in the accompanying material of this paper.

  2. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Giuseffi, Karl; Sievert, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Variation in political ideology has been linked to differences in attention to and processing of emotional stimuli, with stronger responses to negative versus positive stimuli (negativity bias) the more politically conservative one is. As memory is enhanced by attention, such findings predict that memory for negative versus positive stimuli should similarly be enhanced the more conservative one is. The present study tests this prediction by having participants study 120 positive, negative, and neutral scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory test. On the memory test, the same 120 scenes were presented along with 120 new scenes and participants were to respond whether a scene was old or new. Results on the memory test showed that negative scenes were more likely to be remembered than positive scenes, though, this was true only for political conservatives. That is, a larger negativity bias was found the more conservative one was. The effect was sizeable, explaining 45% of the variance across subjects in the effect of emotion. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between political ideology and asymmetries in emotion processing extend to memory and, furthermore, suggest that exploring the extent to which subject variation in interactions among emotion, attention, and memory is predicted by conservatism may provide new insights into theories of political ideology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  4. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Attention switching during scene perception: how goals influence the time course of eye movements across advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-06-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a free-viewing condition, and a scene-learning goal (ad memorization), a scene-evaluation goal (ad appreciation), a target-learning goal (product learning), or a target-evaluation goal (product evaluation). The model reflects how attention switches between two states--local and global--expressed in saccades of shorter and longer amplitude on a spatial grid with 48 cells overlaid on the ads. During the 5- to 6-s duration of self-controlled exposure to ads in the magazine context, attention predominantly started in the local state and ended in the global state, and rapidly switched about 5 times between states. The duration of the local attention state was much longer than the duration of the global state. Goals affected the frequency of switching between attention states and the duration of the local, but not of the global, state. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralanova, Evelina; Haralanov, Svetlozar; Beraldi, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2012-02-01

    From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally non-salient (neutral) compared to emotionally salient (negative) social stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Thirty male inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia psychosis and 30 demographically matched healthy controls rated their level of SEA in response to neutral and negative social scenes from the International Affective Picture System and the Munich Affective Picture System. Schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls had an increased overall SEA level. This relatively higher SEA was evoked only by the neutral but not by the negative social scenes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first designed to directly demonstrate subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia. This finding might explain previous clinical and experimental data and could be viewed as the missing link between the primary neurobiological and secondary psychological mechanisms of paranoid psychotic-symptom formation. Furthermore, despite being very short and easy to perform, the task we used appeared to be sensitive enough to reveal emotional dysregulation, in terms of emotional disinhibition/hyperactivation in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Thus, it could have further research and clinical applications, including as a neurobehavioral probe for imaging studies.

  8. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gilles Mathieu

    Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  9. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional relationships between the hippocampus and dorsomedial striatum in learning a visual scene-based memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.

  11. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  12. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory.

  13. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  14. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  15. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  16. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  17. Changing scenes: memory for naturalistic events following change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Sundström, Anna

    2004-11-01

    Research on scene perception indicates that viewers often fail to detect large changes to scene regions when these changes occur during a visual disruption such as a saccade or a movie cut. In two experiments, we examined whether this relative inability to detect changes would produce systematic biases in event memory. In Experiment 1, participants decided whether two successively presented images were the same or different, followed by a memory task, in which they recalled the content of the viewed scene. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a short video, in which an actor carried out a series of daily activities, and central scenes' attributes were changed during a movie cut. A high degree of change blindness was observed in both experiments, and these effects were related to scene complexity (Experiment 1) and level of retrieval support (Experiment 2). Most important, participants reported the changed, rather than the initial, event attributes following a failure in change detection. These findings suggest that attentional limitations during encoding contribute to biases in episodic memory.

  18. Integration of heterogeneous features for remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Xingnan; Ning, Chen; Shi, Aiye; Lv, Guofang

    2018-01-01

    Scene classification is one of the most important issues in remote sensing (RS) image processing. We find that features from different channels (shape, spectral, texture, etc.), levels (low-level and middle-level), or perspectives (local and global) could provide various properties for RS images, and then propose a heterogeneous feature framework to extract and integrate heterogeneous features with different types for RS scene classification. The proposed method is composed of three modules (1) heterogeneous features extraction, where three heterogeneous feature types, called DS-SURF-LLC, mean-Std-LLC, and MS-CLBP, are calculated, (2) heterogeneous features fusion, where the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is utilized to integrate the heterogeneous features, and (3) an MKL support vector machine classifier for RS scene classification. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on three challenging benchmark datasets (a 6-class dataset, a 12-class dataset, and a 21-class dataset), and the experimental results show that the proposed method leads to good classification performance. It produces good informative features to describe the RS image scenes. Moreover, the integration of heterogeneous features outperforms some state-of-the-art features on RS scene classification tasks.

  19. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes.Method: thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test.Results: With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group ,while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01.Conclusion: based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  1. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  2. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  3. Narrative Collage of Image Collections by Scene Graph Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Yi, Miao; Feng, Hui; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Chunxia

    2017-10-04

    Narrative collage is an interesting image editing art to summarize the main theme or storyline behind an image collection. We present a novel method to generate narrative images with plausible semantic scene structures. To achieve this goal, we introduce a layer graph and a scene graph to represent relative depth order and semantic relationship between image objects, respectively. We firstly cluster the input image collection to select representative images, and then extract a group of semantic salient objects from each representative image. Both Layer graphs and scene graphs are constructed and combined according to our specific rules for reorganizing the extracted objects in every image. We design an energy model to appropriately locate every object on the final canvas. Experiment results show that our method can produce competitive narrative collage result and works well on a wide range of image collections.

  4. Gordon Craig's Scene Project: a history open to revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a review of Gordon Craig’s Scene project, an invention patented in 1910 and developed until 1922. Craig himself kept an ambiguous position whether it was an unfulfilled project or not. His son and biographer Edward Craig sustained that Craig’s original aims were never achieved because of technical limitation, and most of the scholars who examined the matter followed this position. Departing from the actual screen models saved in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Craig’s original notebooks, and a short film from 1963, I defend that the patented project and the essay published in 1923 mean, indeed, the materialisation of the dreamed device of the thousand scenes in one scene

  5. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  6. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Real-time maritime scene simulation for ladar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios; Swierkowski, Leszek; Williams, Owen M.

    2011-06-01

    Continuing interest exists in the development of cost-effective synthetic environments for testing Laser Detection and Ranging (ladar) sensors. In this paper we describe a PC-based system for real-time ladar scene simulation of ships and small boats in a dynamic maritime environment. In particular, we describe the techniques employed to generate range imagery accompanied by passive radiance imagery. Our ladar scene generation system is an evolutionary extension of the VIRSuite infrared scene simulation program and includes all previous features such as ocean wave simulation, the physically-realistic representation of boat and ship dynamics, wake generation and simulation of whitecaps, spray, wake trails and foam. A terrain simulation extension is also under development. In this paper we outline the development, capabilities and limitations of the VIRSuite extensions.

  8. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  10. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Farias

    Full Text Available Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  11. Multiple vehicle routing and dispatching to an emergency scene

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; A Haghani

    1984-01-01

    A model of the distribution of arrival time at the scene of an emergency for the first of many vehicles is developed for the case in which travel times on the links of the network are normally distributed and the path travel times of different vehicles are correlated. The model suggests that the probability that the first vehicle arrives at the scene within a given time may be increased by reducing the path time correlations, even if doing so necessitates increasing the mean path travel time ...

  12. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  13. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  14. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  15. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  16. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    Using a continuous listening task, we evaluated the coupling between the listener's cortical activity and the temporal envelopes of different sounds in a multitalker auditory scene using magnetoencephalography and corticovocal coherence analysis. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded from 20 right-handed healthy adult humans who listened to five different recorded stories (attended speech streams), one without any multitalker background (No noise) and four mixed with a "cocktail party" multitalker background noise at four signal-to-noise ratios (5, 0, -5, and -10 dB) to produce speech-in-noise mixtures, here referred to as Global scene. Coherence analysis revealed that the modulations of the attended speech stream, presented without multitalker background, were coupled at ∼0.5 Hz to the activity of both superior temporal gyri, whereas the modulations at 4-8 Hz were coupled to the activity of the right supratemporal auditory cortex. In cocktail party conditions, with the multitalker background noise, the coupling was at both frequencies stronger for the attended speech stream than for the unattended Multitalker background. The coupling strengths decreased as the Multitalker background increased. During the cocktail party conditions, the ∼0.5 Hz coupling became left-hemisphere dominant, compared with bilateral coupling without the multitalker background, whereas the 4-8 Hz coupling remained right-hemisphere lateralized in both conditions. The brain activity was not coupled to the multitalker background or to its individual talkers. The results highlight the key role of listener's left superior temporal gyri in extracting the slow ∼0.5 Hz modulations, likely reflecting the attended speech stream within a multitalker auditory scene. When people listen to one person in a "cocktail party," their auditory cortex mainly follows the attended speech stream rather than the entire auditory scene. However, how the brain extracts the attended speech stream from the whole

  17. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  18. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  19. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  20. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  1. Non-uniform crosstalk reduction for dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2007-01-01

    Stereo displays suffer from crosstalk, an effect that reduces or even inhibits the viewer's ability to correctly perceive depth. Previous work on software crosstalk reduction focussed on the preprocessing of static scenes which are viewed from a fixed viewpoint. However, in virtual environments

  2. Range and intensity vision for rock-scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, SG

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  3. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  4. Words Matter: Scene Text for Image Classification and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and

  5. Significance of perceptually relevant image decolorization for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Divakaran, Govind; Soman, Kutti Padanyl

    2017-11-01

    Color images contain luminance and chrominance components representing the intensity and color information, respectively. The objective of this paper is to show the significance of incorporating chrominance information to the task of scene classification. An improved color-to-grayscale image conversion algorithm that effectively incorporates chrominance information is proposed using the color-to-gray structure similarity index and singular value decomposition to improve the perceptual quality of the converted grayscale images. The experimental results based on an image quality assessment for image decolorization and its success rate (using the Cadik and COLOR250 datasets) show that the proposed image decolorization technique performs better than eight existing benchmark algorithms for image decolorization. In the second part of the paper, the effectiveness of incorporating the chrominance component for scene classification tasks is demonstrated using a deep belief network-based image classification system developed using dense scale-invariant feature transforms. The amount of chrominance information incorporated into the proposed image decolorization technique is confirmed with the improvement to the overall scene classification accuracy. Moreover, the overall scene classification performance improved by combining the models obtained using the proposed method and conventional decolorization methods.

  6. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  7. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  8. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  9. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  10. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  11. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

  12. Cultural heritage and history in the European metal scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an

  13. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Learning object-to-class kernels for scene classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhen, Xiantong; Shao, Ling

    2014-08-01

    High-level image representations have drawn increasing attention in visual recognition, e.g., scene classification, since the invention of the object bank. The object bank represents an image as a response map of a large number of pretrained object detectors and has achieved superior performance for visual recognition. In this paper, based on the object bank representation, we propose the object-to-class (O2C) distances to model scene images. In particular, four variants of O2C distances are presented, and with the O2C distances, we can represent the images using the object bank by lower-dimensional but more discriminative spaces, called distance spaces, which are spanned by the O2C distances. Due to the explicit computation of O2C distances based on the object bank, the obtained representations can possess more semantic meanings. To combine the discriminant ability of the O2C distances to all scene classes, we further propose to kernalize the distance representation for the final classification. We have conducted extensive experiments on four benchmark data sets, UIUC-Sports, Scene-15, MIT Indoor, and Caltech-101, which demonstrate that the proposed approaches can significantly improve the original object bank approach and achieve the state-of-the-art performance.

  15. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  16. Characteristics of nontrauma scene flights for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Margaret G; Fletcher, Erica N; Werman, Howard; McKenzie, Lara B

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of air medical transport for patients with medical, rather than traumatic, emergencies. This study describes the practices of air transport programs, with respect to nontrauma scene responses, in several areas throughout the United States and Canada. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted of all nontrauma scene flights from 2008 and 2009. Flight information and patient demographic data were collected from 5 air transport programs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine indications for transport, Glasgow Coma Scale Scores, and loaded miles traveled. A total of 1,785 nontrauma scene flights were evaluated. The percentage of scene flights contributed by nontraumatic emergencies varied between programs, ranging from 0% to 44.3%. The most common indication for transport was cardiac, nonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (22.9%). Cardiac arrest was the indication for transport in 2.5% of flights. One air transport program reported a high percentage (49.4) of neurologic, stroke, flights. The use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies varied considerably between various air transport programs and regions. More research is needed to evaluate which nontraumatic emergencies benefit from air transport. National guidelines regarding the use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Act, scene, agency: The drama of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of a novel research paradigm in order to describe practice and behaviour within the context of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) departments. Using a thematic analysis of patient and radiographer transcripts, a social model of the interactions that can occur is constructed from a theatrical perspective. A review of the social scientific literature was undertaken to identify the main concepts associated with this paradigm. Results: Radiographers and patients fitted into the roles and categories, as described by the original philosophers. Behaviour and ritual were seen to be markedly different in the presence of the patient as opposed to being in the control room. The deliberate 'acting out' of roles was also revealed in order to maintain self-identity and professional image. Patients provided an insightful account of their experiences and demonstrated some sophisticated coping strategies during the scanning procedure. Conclusion: The use of this alternative qualitative method revealed some very interesting, complex rituals and behaviour patterns amongst the sample of radiographers and their patients

  18. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  19. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  20. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Change detection in urban and rural driving scenes: Effects of target type and safety relevance on change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Jeans, Rhiannon

    2017-03-01

    The ability to detect changes is crucial for safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that drivers often experience change blindness, which refers to failed or delayed change detection. The current study explored how susceptibility to change blindness varies as a function of the driving environment, type of object changed, and safety relevance of the change. Twenty-six fully-licenced drivers completed a driving-related change detection task. Changes occurred to seven target objects (road signs, cars, motorcycles, traffic lights, pedestrians, animals, or roadside trees) across two environments (urban or rural). The contextual safety relevance of the change was systematically manipulated within each object category, ranging from high safety relevance (i.e., requiring a response by the driver) to low safety relevance (i.e., requiring no response). When viewing rural scenes, compared with urban scenes, participants were significantly faster and more accurate at detecting changes, and were less susceptible to "looked-but-failed-to-see" errors. Interestingly, safety relevance of the change differentially affected performance in urban and rural environments. In urban scenes, participants were more efficient at detecting changes with higher safety relevance, whereas in rural scenes the effect of safety relevance has marginal to no effect on change detection. Finally, even after accounting for safety relevance, change blindness varied significantly between target types. Overall the results suggest that drivers are less susceptible to change blindness for objects that are likely to change or move (e.g., traffic lights vs. road signs), and for moving objects that pose greater danger (e.g., wild animals vs. pedestrians). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticipatory scene representation in preschool children's recall and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an analysis of spatial errors in drawings which are open to alternative explanations (e.g. drawing ability). Experiment 1 replicated and extended prior drawing results with 4-5-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 2, a new, forced-choice immediate recognition memory test was implemented with the same children. On each trial, a card (photograph of a simple scene) was immediately replaced by a test card (identical view and either a closer or more wide-angle view) and participants indicated which one matched the original view. Error patterns supported boundary extension; identical photographs were more frequently rejected when the closer view was the original view, than vice versa. This asymmetry was not attributable to a selection bias (guessing tasks; Experiments 3-5). In Experiment 4, working memory load was increased by presenting more expansive views of more complex scenes. Again, children exhibited boundary extension, but now adults did not, unless stimulus duration was reduced to 5 s (limiting time to implement strategies; Experiment 5). We propose that like adults, children interpret photographs as views of places in the world; they extrapolate the anticipated continuation of the scene beyond the view and misattribute it to having been seen. Developmental differences in source attribution decision processes provide an explanation for the age-related differences observed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. SCENES OF HAPPINESS IN THE NOVELS OF DOSTOEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Osipovna Mazel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents Dostoyevsky to readers as an author praising happiness and felicity. Having lived through deep sorrows he acquired insight into another dimension of life. Like a longing pathfinder, he states the unfeigned grace of life. “Life is a gift, life is mercy, and any minute may be the age of happiness”, – this is the essence of his great novels. People are not lonesome on Earth; they are bound by invisible threads. A loner may not succeed. One heart or one consciousness attracts another one like a magnet, as if claiming: thou art... Christ, with his Love and his Sacrifice, the greatest miracle on the Earth. It is impossible to be aware of Christ’s existence and not to be joyful. Dostoyevsky reveals one of the main principles of life: when you love someone and sacrifice yourself to this person you satisfy your aspiration for a beau ideal and feel like in heavens. In this article the author analyzes selected scenes of happiness in Dostoevsky’s novels: Arkady’s and his sister Liza’s admiration for the sacrifice of their father Versilov; Alyosha and Grushen’ka, saving each other instead of committing sins and transgressing moral standards; Alyosha’s dream about the Christ’s first miracle in Cana of Galilee; Stavrogin’s dream of the Golden Age of the blessed mankind... In Dostoyevsky’s tragic novel The Possessed (The Devils, or Demons a reader faces an image of love – mutual, sacrificial, fulfilling, and blithe. There is probably nothing similar in the history of the world literature. One can eminently feel the interconnectedness of Dostoevsky’s heroes with another, higher world that penetrates into every aspect of their lives. All of his creatures are illumed by the light of other worlds. It is clear that there cannot be darkness, despair, or hopelessness in Dostoevsky’s works, because even in the hell full of demons there is a place for righteous people, luminous (as Nikolai Berdyaev called them and

  4. Construction and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Disaster Scenes within Mobile Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because mobile virtual reality (VR is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users from feeling dizzy, such visualizations require a high scene-rendering frame rate. However, the existing related visualization work cannot provide a sufficient solution for this purpose. This study focuses on the construction and optimization of a 3D disaster scene in order to satisfy the high frame-rate requirements for the rendering of 3D disaster scenes in mobile VR. First, the design of a plugin-free browser/server (B/S architecture for 3D disaster scene construction and visualization based in mobile VR is presented. Second, certain key technologies for scene optimization are discussed, including diverse modes of scene data representation, representation optimization of mobile scenes, and adaptive scheduling of mobile scenes. By means of these technologies, smartphones with various performance levels can achieve higher scene-rendering frame rates and improved visual quality. Finally, using a flood disaster as an example, a plugin-free prototype system was developed, and experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that a 3D disaster scene constructed via the methods addressed in this study has a sufficiently high scene-rendering frame rate to satisfy the requirements for rendering a 3D disaster scene in mobile VR.

  5. Sensory substitution: the spatial updating of auditory scenes ‘mimics’ the spatial updating of visual scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille ePasqualotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or ‘soundscapes’. Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition. Additionally, with sensory substitution we could study the performance of participants actively exploring the environment through audition, rather than passively localising sound sources. Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgement of relative direction task (JRD was used to determine how this scene was represented. This task consists of imagining being in a given location, oriented in a given direction, and pointing towards the required image. Before performing the JRD task, participants explored a map that provided allocentric information about the scene. Although spatial exploration was egocentric, surprisingly we found that performance in the JRD task was better for allocentric perspectives. This suggests that the egocentric representation of the scene was updated. This result is in line with previous studies using visual and somatosensory scenes, thus supporting the notion that different sensory modalities produce equivalent spatial representation(s. Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices.

  6. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  7. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  8. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  9. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  10. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  11. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  12. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  13. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  14. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  15. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  16. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Crabb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could

  17. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, David P; Smith, Nicholas D; Rauscher, Franziska G; Chisholm, Catharine M; Barbur, John L; Edgar, David F; Garway-Heath, David F

    2010-03-16

    Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT). The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers). Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis). On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%). Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could provide useful information about the definition of the visual field component required for

  18. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  19. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  20. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  1. Technicolor/INRIA team at the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection Task

    OpenAIRE

    Penet , Cédric; Demarty , Claire-Hélène; Gravier , Guillaume; Gros , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the work done at Technicolor and INRIA regarding the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection task, which aims at detecting violent scenes in movies. We participated in both the objective and the subjective subtasks.

  2. 3D Aware Correction and Completion of Depth Maps in Piecewise Planar Scenes

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Lahoud, Jean; Asmar, Daniel; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    RGB-D sensors are popular in the computer vision community, especially for problems of scene understanding, semantic scene labeling, and segmentation. However, most of these methods depend on reliable input depth measurements, while discarding

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  4. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, A.P.N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that

  5. Separate and simultaneous adjustment of light qualities in a real scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers

  6. Guidance of Attention to Objects and Locations by Long-Term Memory of Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W.; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2008-01-01

    Four flicker change-detection experiments demonstrate that scene-specific long-term memory guides attention to both behaviorally relevant locations and objects within a familiar scene. Participants performed an initial block of change-detection trials, detecting the addition of an object to a natural scene. After a 30-min delay, participants…

  7. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  8. Visual search for changes in scenes creates long-term, incidental memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Igor S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2018-05-01

    Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment. Next, they performed a change detection task, usually looking for the same change as in the study period. Scene recognition memory was found to be similar in all experiments, regardless of the study task. In Experiment 1, more difficult change detection produced better scene memory. Experiments 2 and 3 supported a "depth-of-processing" account for the effects of initial search and change detection on incidental memory for scenes. Of most interest, change detection was faster during the test phase than during the study phase, even when the observer had no explicit memory of having found that change previously. This result was replicated in two of our three change detection experiments. We conclude that scenes can be encoded incidentally as well as explicitly and that changes in those scenes can leave measurable traces even if they are not explicitly recalled.

  9. Defining spatial relations in a specific ontology for automated scene creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Contraş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach of building an ontology for automatic scene generation. Every scene contains various elements (backgrounds, characters, objects which are spatially interrelated. The article focuses on these spatial and temporal relationships of the elements constituting a scene.

  10. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  11. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  13. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  14. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  15. Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

  16. Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background In typical development, the unfolding of social and communicative skills hinges upon the ability to allocate and sustain attention towards people, a skill present moments after birth. Deficits in social attention have been well documented in autism, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods In order to parse the factors that are responsible for limited social attention in toddlers with autism, we manipulated the context in which a person appeared in their visual field with regard to the presence of salient social (child-directed speech and eye contact) and nonsocial (distractor toys) cues for attention. Participants included 13- to 25-month-old toddlers with autism (AUT; n=54), developmental delay (DD; n=22), and typical development (TD; n=48). Their visual responses were recorded with an eye-tracker. Results In conditions devoid of eye contact and speech, the distribution of attention between key features of the social scene in toddlers with autism was comparable to that in DD and TD controls. However, when explicit dyadic cues were introduced, toddlers with autism showed decreased attention to the entire scene and, when they looked at the scene, they spent less time looking at the speaker’s face and monitoring her lip movements than the control groups. In toddlers with autism, decreased time spent exploring the entire scene was associated with increased symptom severity and lower nonverbal functioning; atypical language profiles were associated with decreased monitoring of the speaker’s face and her mouth. Conclusions While in certain contexts toddlers with autism attend to people and objects in a typical manner, they show decreased attentional response to dyadic cues for attention. Given that mechanisms supporting responsivity to dyadic cues are present shortly after birth and are highly consequential for development of social cognition and communication, these findings have important implications for the understanding of the

  17. Overt attention in natural scenes: objects dominate features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Josef; Thrun, Michael; Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Whether overt attention in natural scenes is guided by object content or by low-level stimulus features has become a matter of intense debate. Experimental evidence seemed to indicate that once object locations in a scene are known, salience models provide little extra explanatory power. This approach has recently been criticized for using inadequate models of early salience; and indeed, state-of-the-art salience models outperform trivial object-based models that assume a uniform distribution of fixations on objects. Here we propose to use object-based models that take a preferred viewing location (PVL) close to the centre of objects into account. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that, when including this comparably subtle modification, object-based models again are at par with state-of-the-art salience models in predicting fixations in natural scenes. One possible interpretation of these results is that objects rather than early salience dominate attentional guidance. In this view, early-salience models predict fixations through the correlation of their features with object locations. To test this hypothesis directly, in two additional experiments we reduced low-level salience in image areas of high object content. For these modified stimuli, the object-based model predicted fixations significantly better than early salience. This finding held in an object-naming task (experiment 2) and a free-viewing task (experiment 3). These results provide further evidence for object-based fixation selection--and by inference object-based attentional guidance--in natural scenes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  19. TESSITURA OF A CREATIVE PROCESS: AUTOBIOGRAPHY ON SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This text presents weavings of a way to make the arts scene using the autobiographical support the creative process. Thus, we elucidate some of these weavings process while legitimizing the production of knowledge through artistic praxis, of sensitive experience. Introducing the concept of autobiography in analogy to the artistic and sequentially present the possibility of a laboratory setting amalgamated into reality/fiction. Keywords: creative process; autobiography; body.

  20. The Japanese Amateur Textual Production Scene: Activities and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro David Hernández Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Animation, manga (Japanese comic books, and video games are some of the most popular media in Japan. The huge community of fans and amateur creators that concentrate twice a year at the massive event called Comic Market is one expression of this popularity. In this paper I focus on the Japanese culture of amateur manga, anime or other derivative texts, and present analysis of the way in which members relate to media texts and other members, in order to reveal two different orientations towards action within this culture: one that centers on individual activities, and the other on collective participation. To do this, I focus first on the Japanese amateur culture that is often called dōjin culture to find two basic perspectives. One regards this culture as forming communities or based on social interaction, and the other denies commonality in the relationships between members and stresses individual drive. Then, I focus on a similar distinction that shapes the main discourses concerning Japanese subculture and otaku, both categories within which dōjin culture can be categorized. Here I pay particular attention to two different orientations towards the value of media texts, which provide a reference for understanding the aforementioned opposition between commonality and individuality. In my conclusions, I suggest that this amateur culture can be regarded as an institution of textual appropriation, shaped by two orientations: activities and participation. 

  1. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  2. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  3. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  4. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  5. The Anthropo-scene: A guide for the perplexed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    The scientific proposal that the Earth has entered a new epoch as a result of human activities - the Anthropocene - has catalysed a flurry of intellectual activity. I introduce and review the rich, inchoate and multi-disciplinary diversity of this Anthropo-scene. I identify five ways in which the concept of the Anthropocene has been mobilized: scientific question, intellectual zeitgeist, ideological provocation, new ontologies and science fiction. This typology offers an analytical framework for parsing this diversity, for understanding the interactions between different ways of thinking in the Anthropo-scene, and thus for comprehending elements of its particular and peculiar sociabilities. Here I deploy this framework to situate Earth Systems Science within the Anthropo-scene, exploring both the status afforded science in discussions of this new epoch, and the various ways in which the other means of engaging with the concept come to shape the conduct, content and politics of this scientific enquiry. In conclusion the paper reflects on the potential of the Anthropocene for new modes of academic praxis.

  6. Oxytocin increases amygdala reactivity to threatening scenes in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Gamer, Matthias; Berger, Christoph; Grossmann, Annette; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Domes, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is well known for its profound effects on social behavior, which appear to be mediated by an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity in the context of social stimuli. In humans, OT decreases amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in males, but enhances amygdala reactivity to similar faces in females, suggesting sex-specific differences in OT-dependent threat-processing. To further explore whether OT generally enhances amygdala-dependent threat-processing in females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a randomized within-subject crossover design to measure amygdala activity in response to threatening and non-threatening scenes in 14 females following intranasal administration of OT or placebo. Participants' eye movements were recorded to investigate whether an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity is accompanied by enhanced exploration of salient scene features. Although OT had no effect on participants' gazing behavior, it increased amygdala reactivity to scenes depicting social and non-social threat. In females, OT may, thus, enhance the detection of threatening stimuli in the environment, potentially by interacting with gonadal steroids, such as progesterone and estrogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss rate and the inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing decision support systems (DSS aiming to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endoluminal scene, targeting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCNs. We perform a comparative study to show that FCNs significantly outperform, without any further postprocessing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.

  8. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  9. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  10. Acquaintance Rape: Applying Crime Scene Analysis to the Prediction of Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Hanson, R Karl; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to enhance the assessment and predictive accuracy of risk assessments for sexual offenders by utilizing detailed crime scene analysis (CSA). CSA was conducted on a sample of 247 male acquaintance rapists from Berlin (Germany) using a nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) Behavioral Thematic Analysis (BTA) approach. The age of the offenders at the time of the index offense ranged from 14 to 64 years (M = 32.3; SD = 11.4). The BTA procedure revealed three behavioral themes of hostility, criminality, and pseudo-intimacy, consistent with previous CSA research on stranger rape. The construct validity of the three themes was demonstrated through correlational analyses with known sexual offending measures and criminal histories. The themes of hostility and pseudo-intimacy were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. In addition, the pseudo-intimacy theme led to a significant increase in the incremental validity of the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment instrument for the prediction of sexual recidivism. The results indicate the potential utility and validity of crime scene behaviors in the applied risk assessment of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  12. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  13. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  14. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  15. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  16. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  17. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  18. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  19. Smoking scenes in popular Japanese serial television dramas: descriptive analysis during the same 3-month period in two consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2006-06-01

    Japanese serial television dramas are becoming very popular overseas, particularly in other Asian countries. Exposure to smoking scenes in movies and television dramas has been known to trigger initiation of habitual smoking in young people. Smoking scenes in Japanese dramas may affect the smoking behavior of many young Asians. We examined smoking scenes and smoking-related items in serial television dramas targeting young audiences in Japan during the same season in two consecutive years. Fourteen television dramas targeting the young audience broadcast between July and September in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed. A total of 136 h 42 min of television programs were divided into unit scenes of 3 min (a total of 2734 unit scenes). All the unit scenes were reviewed for smoking scenes and smoking-related items. Of the 2734 3-min unit scenes, 205 (7.5%) were actual smoking scenes and 387 (14.2%) depicted smoking environments with the presence of smoking-related items, such as ash trays. In 185 unit scenes (90.2% of total smoking scenes), actors were shown smoking. Actresses were less frequently shown smoking (9.8% of total smoking scenes). Smoking characters in dramas were in the 20-49 age group in 193 unit scenes (94.1% of total smoking scenes). In 96 unit scenes (46.8% of total smoking scenes), at least one non-smoker was present in the smoking scenes. The smoking locations were mainly indoors, including offices, restaurants and homes (122 unit scenes, 59.6%). The most common smoking-related items shown were ash trays (in 45.5% of smoking-item-related scenes) and cigarettes (in 30.2% of smoking-item-related scenes). Only 3 unit scenes (0.1 % of all scenes) promoted smoking prohibition. This was a descriptive study to examine the nature of smoking scenes observed in Japanese television dramas from a public health perspective.

  20. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  1. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  2. Standoff alpha radiation detection for hot cell imaging and crime scene investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Thomas; Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Nicholl, Adrian; Hrnecek, Erich; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the remote detection of alpha contamination in a nuclear facility. Alpha-active material in a shielded nuclear radiation containment chamber has been localized by optical means. Furthermore, sources of radiation danger have been identified in a staged crime scene setting. For this purpose, an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera was used to capture photons generated by alpha-induced air scintillation (radioluminescence). The detected radioluminescence was superimposed with a regular photograph to reveal the origin of the light and thereby the alpha radioactive material. The experimental results show that standoff detection of alpha contamination is a viable tool in radiation threat detection. Furthermore, the radioluminescence spectrum in the air is spectrally analyzed. Possibilities of camera-based alpha threat detection under various background lighting conditions are discussed.

  3. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  4. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  6. Eye guidance during real-world scene search: The role color plays in central and peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Malcolm, George L

    2016-01-01

    The visual system utilizes environmental features to direct gaze efficiently when locating objects. While previous research has isolated various features' contributions to gaze guidance, these studies generally used sparse displays and did not investigate how features facilitated search as a function of their location on the visual field. The current study investigated how features across the visual field--particularly color--facilitate gaze guidance during real-world search. A gaze-contingent window followed participants' eye movements, restricting color information to specified regions. Scene images were presented in full color, with color in the periphery and gray in central vision or gray in the periphery and color in central vision, or in grayscale. Color conditions were crossed with a search cue manipulation, with the target cued either with a word label or an exact picture. Search times increased as color information in the scene decreased. A gaze-data based decomposition of search time revealed color-mediated effects on specific subprocesses of search. Color in peripheral vision facilitated target localization, whereas color in central vision facilitated target verification. Picture cues facilitated search, with the effects of cue specificity and scene color combining additively. When available, the visual system utilizes the environment's color information to facilitate different real-world visual search behaviors based on the location within the visual field.

  7. Navigating the auditory scene: an expert role for the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Stewart, Lauren; Lyness, C Rebecca; Moore, Brian C J; Capleton, Brian; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-08-29

    Over a typical career piano tuners spend tens of thousands of hours exploring a specialized acoustic environment. Tuning requires accurate perception and adjustment of beats in two-note chords that serve as a navigational device to move between points in previously learned acoustic scenes. It is a two-stage process that depends on the following: first, selective listening to beats within frequency windows, and, second, the subsequent use of those beats to navigate through a complex soundscape. The neuroanatomical substrates underlying brain specialization for such fundamental organization of sound scenes are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that professional piano tuners are significantly better than controls matched for age and musical ability on a psychophysical task simulating active listening to beats within frequency windows that is based on amplitude modulation rate discrimination. Tuners show a categorical increase in gray matter volume in the right frontal operculum and right superior temporal lobe. Tuners also show a striking enhancement of gray matter volume in the anterior hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, and an increase in white matter volume in the posterior hippocampus as a function of years of tuning experience. The relationship with gray matter volume is sensitive to years of tuning experience and starting age but not actual age or level of musicality. Our findings support a role for a core set of regions in the hippocampus and superior temporal cortex in skilled exploration of complex sound scenes in which precise sound "templates" are encoded and consolidated into memory over time in an experience-dependent manner.

  8. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  9. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  10. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    simulated. The selected series range from more colourful and para-psychological based methods of investigation in series such as The Profiler and Medium to more realistic practises such as those found in series like Unit One and CSI. This analysis will be broadened by applying knowledge about how real...... scenes in order to reconstruct how the actual crime may have taken place. The profiling expert of the investigation team places herself in the role of the criminal, trying to gain insight into the criminal's psychology, way of thinking and reasoning and so on (like detective Lacour does in the Danish TV...

  11. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various scenes of shame, raising the questions of what shame discloses about the self and how this self-disclosure takes place. Thereby, the common idea that shame discloses the self’s debasement will be challenged. The dramatic dialectics of showing and hiding display a much...... reflected, the self’s active reflections on its shame are to be taken into account. As examples from Milan Kundera, Shakespeare’s King Lear, a line from Kingsley Amis, a speech by Vaclav Havel and Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments indicate, self-(re)presentation in the public and the private sphere...

  12. Estimating the number of people in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the number of people in crowded scenes without using explicit object segmentation or tracking. The proposed method consists of three steps as follows: (1) extracting space-time interest points using eigenvalues of the local spatio-temporal gradient matrix, (2) generating crowd regions based on space-time interest points, and (3) estimating the crowd density based on the multiple regression. In experimental results, the efficiency and robustness of our proposed method are demonstrated by using PETS 2009 dataset.

  13. Dynamic thermal signature prediction for real-time scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.; Swierkowski, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    At DSTO, a real-time scene generation framework, VIRSuite, has been developed in recent years, within which trials data are predominantly used for modelling the radiometric properties of the simulated objects. Since in many cases the data are insufficient, a physics-based simulator capable of predicting the infrared signatures of objects and their backgrounds has been developed as a new VIRSuite module. It includes transient heat conduction within the materials, and boundary conditions that take into account the heat fluxes due to solar radiation, wind convection and radiative transfer. In this paper, an overview is presented, covering both the steady-state and transient performance.

  14. Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wedel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot

  15. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  16. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  17. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  18. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  19. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  20. An approach for brain-controlled prostheses based on Scene Graph Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Hanzhe; Zhang, Liming; Lu, Zhufeng; Chen, Jiangcheng

    2018-08-01

    Brain control technology can restore communication between the brain and a prosthesis, and choosing a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm to evoke electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an essential step for developing this technology. In this paper, the Scene Graph paradigm used for controlling prostheses was proposed; this paradigm is based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) regarding the Scene Graph of a subject's intention. A mathematic model was built to predict SSVEPs evoked by the proposed paradigm and a sinusoidal stimulation method was used to present the Scene Graph stimulus to elicit SSVEPs from subjects. Then, a 2-degree of freedom (2-DOF) brain-controlled prosthesis system was constructed to validate the performance of the Scene Graph-SSVEP (SG-SSVEP)-based BCI. The classification of SG-SSVEPs was detected via the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) approach. To assess the efficiency of proposed BCI system, the performances of traditional SSVEP-BCI system were compared. Experimental results from six subjects suggested that the proposed system effectively enhanced the SSVEP responses, decreased the degradation of SSVEP strength and reduced the visual fatigue in comparison with the traditional SSVEP-BCI system. The average signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SG-SSVEP was 6.31 ± 2.64 dB, versus 3.38 ± 0.78 dB of traditional-SSVEP. In addition, the proposed system achieved good performances in prosthesis control. The average accuracy was 94.58% ± 7.05%, and the corresponding high information transfer rate (IRT) was 19.55 ± 3.07 bit/min. The experimental results revealed that the SG-SSVEP based BCI system achieves the good performance and improved the stability relative to the conventional approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gail M; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2013-07-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the cueing of spatial attention by repeated spatial context. Previous studies have demonstrated distinctive properties of contextual cueing by background scenes and by an array of search items. Whereas scene-based contextual cueing reflects explicit learning of the scene-target association, array-based contextual cueing is supported primarily by implicit learning. In this study, we investigated the interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing. Participants searched for a target that was predicted by both the background scene and the locations of distractor items. We tested three possible patterns of interaction: (1) The scene and the array could be learned independently, in which case cueing should be expressed even when only one cue was preserved; (2) the scene and array could be learned jointly, in which case cueing should occur only when both cues were preserved; (3) overshadowing might occur, in which case learning of the stronger cue should preclude learning of the weaker cue. In several experiments, we manipulated the nature of the contextual cues present during training and testing. We also tested explicit awareness of scenes, scene-target associations, and arrays. The results supported the overshadowing account: Specifically, scene-based contextual cueing precluded array-based contextual cueing when both were predictive of the location of a search target. We suggest that explicit, endogenous cues dominate over implicit cues in guiding spatial attention.

  2. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  3. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  4. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  5. A dose-dependent relationship between exposure to a street-based drug scene and health-related harms among people who use injection drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Zhang, Ruth; Buxton, Jane; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    While the community impacts of drug-related street disorder have been well described, lesser attention has been given to the potential health and social implications of drug scene exposure on street-involved people who use illicit drugs. Therefore, we sought to assess the impacts of exposure to a street-based drug scene among injection drug users (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Data were derived from a prospective cohort study known as the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Four categories of drug scene exposure were defined based on the numbers of hours spent on the street each day. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with varying levels of drug scene exposure (2-6, 6-15, over 15 hours) during the period of December 2005 to March 2009. Among our sample of 1,486 IDU, at baseline, a total of 314 (21%) fit the criteria for high drug scene exposure (>15 hours per day). In multivariate GEE analysis, factors significantly and independently associated with high exposure included: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 9.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.36-14.20); daily crack use (AOR = 2.70; 95% CI, 2.07-3.52); encounters with police (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.75); and being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.49; 95 % CI, 1.14-1.95). Regular employment (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and engagement with addiction treatment (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.75) were negatively associated with high exposure. Our findings indicate that drug scene exposure is associated with markers of vulnerability and higher intensity addiction. Intensity of drug scene exposure was associated with indicators of vulnerability to harm in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings highlight opportunities for policy interventions to address exposure to street disorder in the areas of employment, housing, and addiction treatment.

  6. Orbital prefrontal cortex is required for object-in-place scene memory but not performance of a strategy implementation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David; Kyriazis, Diana A; Mitchell, Anna S

    2007-10-17

    The orbital prefrontal cortex is thought to be involved in behavioral flexibility in primates, and human neuroimaging studies have identified orbital prefrontal activation during episodic memory encoding. The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether deficits in strategy implementation and episodic memory that occur after ablation of the entire prefrontal cortex can be ascribed to damage to the orbital prefrontal cortex. Rhesus monkeys were preoperatively trained on two behavioral tasks, the performance of both of which is severely impaired by the disconnection of frontal cortex from inferotemporal cortex. In the strategy implementation task, monkeys were required to learn about two categories of objects, each associated with a different strategy that had to be performed to obtain food reward. The different strategies had to be applied flexibly to optimize the rate of reward delivery. In the scene memory task, monkeys learned 20 new object-in-place discrimination problems in each session. Monkeys were tested on both tasks before and after bilateral ablation of orbital prefrontal cortex. These lesions impaired new scene learning but had no effect on strategy implementation. This finding supports a role for the orbital prefrontal cortex in memory but places limits on the involvement of orbital prefrontal cortex in the representation and implementation of behavioral goals and strategies.

  7. A hybrid multiview stereo algorithm for modeling urban scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Keriven, Renaud; Brédif, Mathieu; Vu, Hoang-Hiep

    2013-01-01

    We present an original multiview stereo reconstruction algorithm which allows the 3D-modeling of urban scenes as a combination of meshes and geometric primitives. The method provides a compact model while preserving details: Irregular elements such as statues and ornaments are described by meshes, whereas regular structures such as columns and walls are described by primitives (planes, spheres, cylinders, cones, and tori). We adopt a two-step strategy consisting first in segmenting the initial meshbased surface using a multilabel Markov Random Field-based model and second in sampling primitive and mesh components simultaneously on the obtained partition by a Jump-Diffusion process. The quality of a reconstruction is measured by a multi-object energy model which takes into account both photo-consistency and semantic considerations (i.e., geometry and shape layout). The segmentation and sampling steps are embedded into an iterative refinement procedure which provides an increasingly accurate hybrid representation. Experimental results on complex urban structures and large scenes are presented and compared to state-of-the-art multiview stereo meshing algorithms.

  8. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  9. Collaborating Filtering Community Image Recommendation System Based on Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of smart city, the development of intelligent mobile terminal and wireless network, the traditional text information service no longer meet the needs of the community residents, community image service appeared as a new media service. “There are pictures of the truth” has become a community residents to understand and master the new dynamic community, image information service has become a new information service. However, there are two major problems in image information service. Firstly, the underlying eigenvalues extracted by current image feature extraction techniques are difficult for users to understand, and there is a semantic gap between the image content itself and the user’s understanding; secondly, in community life of the image data increasing quickly, it is difficult to find their own interested image data. Aiming at the two problems, this paper proposes a unified image semantic scene model to express the image content. On this basis, a collaborative filtering recommendation model of fusion scene semantics is proposed. In the recommendation model, a comprehensiveness and accuracy user interest model is proposed to improve the recommendation quality. The results of the present study have achieved good results in the pilot cities of Wenzhou and Yan'an, and it is applied normally.

  10. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  11. People detection in crowded scenes using active contour models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pedestrians in real-world scenes is a daunting task, especially in crowded situations. Our experience over the last years has shown that active shape models (ASM) can contribute significantly to a robust pedestrian detection system. The paper starts with an overview of shape model approaches, it then explains our approach which builds on top of Eigenshape models which have been trained using real-world data. These models are placed over candidate regions and matched to image gradients using a scoring function which integrates i) point distribution, ii) local gradient orientations iii) local image gradient strengths. A matching and shape model update process is iteratively applied in order to fit the flexible models to the local image content. The weights of the scoring function have a significant impact on the ASM performance. We analyze different settings of scoring weights for gradient magnitude, relative orientation differences, distance between model and gradient in an experiment which uses real-world data. Although for only one pedestrian model in an image computation time is low, the number of necessary processing cycles which is needed to track many people in crowded scenes can become the bottleneck in a real-time application. We describe the measures which have been taken in order to improve the speed of the ASM implementation and make it real-time capable.

  12. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  13. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  14. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  15. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  16. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  17. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  18. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  19. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  20. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  1. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  2. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  4. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  5. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  7. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  8. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  9. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  10. Semi-automatic scene generation using the Digital Anatomist Foundational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B A; Rosse, C; Brinkley, J F

    1999-01-01

    A recent survey shows that a major impediment to more widespread use of computers in anatomy education is the inability to directly manipulate 3-D models, and to relate these to corresponding textual information. In the University of Washington Digital Anatomist Project we have developed a prototype Web-based scene generation program that combines the symbolic Foundational Model of Anatomy with 3-D models. A Web user can browse the Foundational Model (FM), then click to request that a 3-D scene be created of an object and its parts or branches. The scene is rendered by a graphics server, and a snapshot is sent to the Web client. The user can then manipulate the scene, adding new structures, deleting structures, rotating the scene, zooming, and saving the scene as a VRML file. Applications such as this, when fully realized with fast rendering and more anatomical content, have the potential to significantly change the way computers are used in anatomy education.

  11. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content......Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  12. Relationship between Childhood Meal Scenes at Home Remembered by University Students and their Current Personality

    OpenAIRE

    恩村, 咲希; Onmura, Saki

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between childhood meal scenes at home that are remembered by university students and their current personality. The meal scenes are analyzed in terms of companions, conversation content, conversation frequency, atmosphere, and consideration of meals. The scale of the conversation content in childhood meal scenes was prepared on the basis of the results of a preliminary survey. The result showed that a relationship was found between personality traits and c...

  13. Adaptive attunement of selective covert attention to evolutionary-relevant emotional visual scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Martín, Andrés (UNIR); Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Capafons, Juan; Calvo, Manuel G

    2017-01-01

    We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional neutral images appeared peripherally with perceptual stimulus differences controlled while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emo...

  14. Angular difference feature extraction for urban scene classification using ZY-3 multi-angle high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Huijun; Gong, Jianya

    2018-01-01

    Spaceborne multi-angle images with a high-resolution are capable of simultaneously providing spatial details and three-dimensional (3D) information to support detailed and accurate classification of complex urban scenes. In recent years, satellite-derived digital surface models (DSMs) have been increasingly utilized to provide height information to complement spectral properties for urban classification. However, in such a way, the multi-angle information is not effectively exploited, which is mainly due to the errors and difficulties of the multi-view image matching and the inaccuracy of the generated DSM over complex and dense urban scenes. Therefore, it is still a challenging task to effectively exploit the available angular information from high-resolution multi-angle images. In this paper, we investigate the potential for classifying urban scenes based on local angular properties characterized from high-resolution ZY-3 multi-view images. Specifically, three categories of angular difference features (ADFs) are proposed to describe the angular information at three levels (i.e., pixel, feature, and label levels): (1) ADF-pixel: the angular information is directly extrapolated by pixel comparison between the multi-angle images; (2) ADF-feature: the angular differences are described in the feature domains by comparing the differences between the multi-angle spatial features (e.g., morphological attribute profiles (APs)). (3) ADF-label: label-level angular features are proposed based on a group of urban primitives (e.g., buildings and shadows), in order to describe the specific angular information related to the types of primitive classes. In addition, we utilize spatial-contextual information to refine the multi-level ADF features using superpixel segmentation, for the purpose of alleviating the effects of salt-and-pepper noise and representing the main angular characteristics within a local area. The experiments on ZY-3 multi-angle images confirm that the proposed

  15. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  16. Accumulating and remembering the details of neutral and emotional natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to our rich sensory experience with complex scenes in everyday life, the capacity of visual working memory is thought to be quite limited. Here our memory has been examined for the details of naturalistic scenes as a function of display duration, emotional valence of the scene, and delay before test. Individual differences in working memory and long-term memory for pictorial scenes were examined in experiment 1. The accumulation of memory for emotional scenes and the retention of these details in long-term memory were investigated in experiment 2. Although there were large individual differences in performance, memory for scene details generally exceeded the traditional working memory limit within a few seconds. Information about positive scenes was learned most quickly, while negative scenes showed the worst memory for details. The overall pattern of results was consistent with the idea that both short-term and long-term representations are mixed together in a medium-term 'online' memory for scenes.

  17. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  18. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  19. Various categories of changes in the inducement of change blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Šikl, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2013), s. 83-94 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : change blindness * scene perception * flicker paradigm * attention allocation * attention Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2013

  20. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  1. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  2. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  3. Symbiont modulates expression of specific gene categories in Angomonas deanei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Loureiro Penha

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids are parasites that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants. Most are non-pathogenic and some harbor a symbiotic bacterium. Endosymbiosis is part of the evolutionary process of vital cell functions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Angomonas deanei is an example of a symbiont-containing trypanosomatid. In this paper, we sought to investigate how symbionts influence host cells by characterising and comparing the transcriptomes of the symbiont-containing A. deanei (wild type and the symbiont-free aposymbiotic strains. The comparison revealed that the presence of the symbiont modulates several differentially expressed genes. Empirical analysis of differential gene expression showed that 216 of the 7625 modulated genes were significantly changed. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the largest categories of genes that downregulated in the absence of the symbiont were those involved in oxidation-reduction process, ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport and glycolysis. In contrast, among the upregulated gene categories were those involved in proteolysis, microtubule-based movement, and cellular metabolic process. Our results provide valuable information for dissecting the mechanism of endosymbiosis in A. deanei.

  4. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valnea Žauhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II and III according to Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961. The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar.

  5. ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT ON NEAR DROWNING AT THE SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gd. Harry Kurnia Prawedana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a popular tourist destination which has potential for drowning cases. Therefore, required knowledge of adult basic life support to be able to deal with such cases in the field. Basic life support in an act to maintain airway and assist breathing and circulation without the use of tools other than simple breathing aids. The most important factor that determines the outcome of drowning event is the duration and severity of hypoxia induced. The management of near drowning at the scene include the rescue of victim from the water, rescue breathing, chest compression, cleaning the vomit substances which allowing blockage of the airway, prevent loss of body heat, and transport the victim to nearest emergency department for evaluation and monitoring.

  6. Behinds the scenes of GS: a DSO like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone.   As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...

  7. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Adaptive and Selective Time Averaging of Auditory Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; McDermott, Josh H.

    2018-01-01

    longer than previously reported integration times in the auditory system. Integration also showed signs of being restricted to sound elements attributed to a common source. The results suggest an integration process that depends on stimulus characteristics, integrating over longer extents when......To overcome variability, estimate scene characteristics, and compress sensory input, perceptual systems pool data into statistical summaries. Despite growing evidence for statistical representations in perception, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. One example...... it benefits statistical estimation of variable signals and selectively integrating stimulus components likely to have a common cause in the world. Our methodology could be naturally extended to examine statistical representations of other types of sensory signals. Sound texture perception is thought...

  9. Multiscale deep features learning for land-use scene recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baohua; Li, Shijin; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    The features extracted from deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their promise as generic descriptors for land-use scene recognition. However, most of the work directly adopts the deep features for the classification of remote sensing images, and does not encode the deep features for improving their discriminative power, which can affect the performance of deep feature representations. To address this issue, we propose an effective framework, LASC-CNN, obtained by locality-constrained affine subspace coding (LASC) pooling of a CNN filter bank. LASC-CNN obtains more discriminative deep features than directly extracted from CNNs. Furthermore, LASC-CNN builds on the top convolutional layers of CNNs, which can incorporate multiscale information and regions of arbitrary resolution and sizes. Our experiments have been conducted using two widely used remote sensing image databases, and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the performance when compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  11. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  12. "Undoing" (or Symbolic Reversal) at Homicide Crime Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria; Schlesinger, Louis B; Leon, Maria; Holdren, Samantha

    2018-03-01

    A closed case file review of a nonrandom national sample of 975 homicides disclosed 11 cases (1.13%) of undoing, wherein offenders engaged in crime scene behavior that has been considered an attempt to symbolically reverse the murder. The frequency of the various methods of undoing involved the use of blankets to cover the victim's body (55%), positioning the body (55%), use of a bed or couch (42%), washing the body (36%), using pillows (36%), as well as removing clothing and adding other types of adornments (27%). Ten of the 11 offenders were male, and one was female; all 12 victims were female. Ten of the 12 victims were family members or relationship intimates. These findings are consistent with prior reports which concluded that the motivation for undoing behavior is an attempt to compensate for guilt or remorse for having committed the homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  14. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  15. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  16. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  17. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  18. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  19. Heterogeneity in Perceptual Category Learning by High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMercado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally-based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by high functioning children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children’s performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  20. Heterogeneity in perceptual category learning by high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Dovgopoly, Alexander; Lopata, Christopher J; Toomey, Jennifer A; Thomeer, Marcus L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that high functioning (HF) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by HF children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children's performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  1. Distributional learning aids linguistic category formation in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica; Owen VAN Horne, Amanda; Farmer, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if typically developing children could form grammatical categories from distributional information alone. Twenty-seven children aged six to nine listened to an artificial grammar which contained strategic gaps in its distribution. At test, we compared how children rated novel sentences that fit the grammar to sentences that were ungrammatical. Sentences could be distinguished only through the formation of categories of words with shared distributional properties. Children's ratings revealed that they could discriminate grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. These data lend support to the hypothesis that distributional learning is a potential mechanism for learning grammatical categories in a first language.

  2. Distinct contributions of functional and deep neural network features to representational similarity of scenes in human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris Ia; Greene, Michelle R; Baldassano, Christopher; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M; Baker, Chris I

    2018-03-07

    Inherent correlations between visual and semantic features in real-world scenes make it difficult to determine how different scene properties contribute to neural representations. Here, we assessed the contributions of multiple properties to scene representation by partitioning the variance explained in human behavioral and brain measurements by three feature models whose inter-correlations were minimized a priori through stimulus preselection. Behavioral assessments of scene similarity reflected unique contributions from a functional feature model indicating potential actions in scenes as well as high-level visual features from a deep neural network (DNN). In contrast, similarity of cortical responses in scene-selective areas was uniquely explained by mid- and high-level DNN features only, while an object label model did not contribute uniquely to either domain. The striking dissociation between functional and DNN features in their contribution to behavioral and brain representations of scenes indicates that scene-selective cortex represents only a subset of behaviorally relevant scene information.

  3. Automatic processing of semantic relations in fMRI: neural activation during semantic priming of taxonomic and thematic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Olga; Weis, Susanne; Zellagui, Nadia; Huber, Walter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2008-07-07

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical or taxonomic categories (animals, tools). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categorization, i.e. categories held together by external relations, a unifying scene or event (car and garage). The goal of this study was to compare the neural correlates of these categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. We used fMRI to examine neural correlates of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 200 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task. Four experimental conditions were compared: thematically related words (car-garage); taxonomically related (car-bus); unrelated (car-spoon); non-word trials (car-derf). We found faster reaction times for related than for unrelated prime-target pairs for both thematic and taxonomic categories. However, the size of the thematic priming effect was greater than that of the taxonomic. The imaging data showed signal changes for the taxonomic priming effects in the right precuneus, postcentral gyrus, middle frontal and superior frontal gyri and thematic priming effects in the right middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate. The contrast of neural priming effects showed larger signal changes in the right precuneus associated with the taxonomic but not with thematic priming response. We suggest that the greater involvement of precuneus in the processing of taxonomic relations indicates their reduced salience in the knowledge structure compared to more prominent thematic relations.

  4. Relative risk of probabilistic category learning deficits in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Thomas W.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Egan, Michael F.; Apud, Jose A.; Meeter, Martijn; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Background While patients with schizophrenia display an overall probabilistic category learning performance deficit, the extent to which this deficit occurs in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia is unknown. There are also discrepant findings regarding probabilistic category learning acquisition rate and performance in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A probabilistic category learning test was administered to 108 patients with schizophrenia, 82 unaffected siblings, and 121 healthy participants. Results Patients with schizophrenia displayed significant differences from their unaffected siblings and healthy participants with respect to probabilistic category learning acquisition rates. Although siblings on the whole failed to differ from healthy participants on strategy and quantitative indices of overall performance and learning acquisition, application of a revised learning criterion enabling classification into good and poor learners based on individual learning curves revealed significant differences between percentages of sibling and healthy poor learners: healthy (13.2%), siblings (34.1%), patients (48.1%), yielding a moderate relative risk. Conclusions These results clarify previous discrepant findings pertaining to probabilistic category learning acquisition rate in schizophrenia and provide the first evidence for the relative risk of probabilistic category learning abnormalities in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia, supporting genetic underpinnings of probabilistic category learning deficits in schizophrenia. These findings also raise questions regarding the contribution of antipsychotic medication to the probabilistic category learning deficit in schizophrenia. The distinction between good and poor learning may be used to inform genetic studies designed to detect schizophrenia risk alleles. PMID:20172502

  5. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming: sharpening current density localization by PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maess, Burkhard; Friederici, Angela D; Damian, Markus; Meyer, Antje S; Levelt, Willem J M

    2002-04-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures out of a sequence of items from the same semantic category than from different categories. Participants named pictures blockwise either in the context of same- or mixed-category items while the brain response was registered using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Fifteen out of 20 participants showed longer response latencies in the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition. Event-related MEG signals for the participants demonstrating the interference effect were submitted to a current source density (CSD) analysis. As a new approach, a principal component analysis was applied to decompose the grand average CSD distribution into spatial subcomponents (factors). The spatial factor indicating left temporal activity revealed significantly different activation for the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition in the time window between 150 and 225 msec post picture onset. These findings indicate a major involvement of the left temporal cortex in the semantic interference effect. As this effect has been shown to take place at the level of lexical selection, the data suggest that the left temporal cortex supports processes of lexical retrieval during production.

  6. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  7. [Perception of objects and scenes in age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T H C; Boucart, M

    2012-01-01

    Vision related quality of life questionnaires suggest that patients with AMD exhibit difficulties in finding objects and in mobility. In the natural environment, objects seldom appear in isolation. They appear in a spatial context which may obscure them in part or place obstacles in the patient's path. Furthermore, the luminance of a natural scene varies as a function of the hour of the day and the light source, which can alter perception. This study aims to evaluate recognition of objects and natural scenes by patients with AMD, by using photographs of such scenes. Studies demonstrate that AMD patients are able to categorize scenes as nature scenes or urban scenes and to discriminate indoor from outdoor scenes with a high degree of precision. They detect objects better in isolation, in color, or against a white background than in their natural contexts. These patients encounter more difficulties than normally sighted individuals in detecting objects in a low-contrast, black-and-white scene. These results may have implications for rehabilitation, for layout of texts and magazines for the reading-impaired and for the rearrangement of the spatial environment of older AMD patients in order to facilitate mobility, finding objects and reducing the risk of falls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-06-13

    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A semi-interactive panorama based 3D reconstruction framework for indoor scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.; Worring, M.; Bui, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-interactive method for 3D reconstruction specialized for indoor scenes which combines computer vision techniques with efficient interaction. We use panoramas, popularly used for visualization of indoor scenes, but clearly not able to show depth, for their great field of view, as

  10. The ART of CSI: An augmented reality tool (ART) to annotate crime scenes in forensic investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Houben, M.; Amerongen, P. van; Haar, F. ter; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this

  11. The Interplay of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Guiding Repeated Search in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitive to think that previous exposure or interaction with an environment should make it easier to search through it and, no doubt, this is true in many real-world situations. However, in a recent study, we demonstrated that previous exposure to a scene does not necessarily speed search within that scene. For instance, when observers…

  12. Automating the construction of scene classifiers for content-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a

  13. Panoramic Search: The Interaction of Memory and Vision in Search through a Familiar Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Aude; Wolfe, Jeremy M. Arsenio, Helga C.

    2004-01-01

    How do observers search through familiar scenes? A novel panoramic search method is used to study the interaction of memory and vision in natural search behavior. In panoramic search, observers see part of an unchanging scene larger than their current field of view. A target object can be visible, present in the display but hidden from view, or…

  14. Anticipatory Scene Representation in Preschool Children's Recall and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an…

  15. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  16. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 3. Mad Scenes: A Warning against Overwhelming Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.

  17. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  18. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  19. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  20. The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Ruud; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly…

  1. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  2. Eye Movements when Looking at Unusual/Weird Scenes: Are There Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Castelhano, Monica S.; Yang, Jinmian

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences in the prioritization of information (background or foreground). The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how…

  3. Face, Body, and Center of Gravity Mediate Person Detection in Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…

  4. Making a scene: exploring the dimensions of place through Dutch popular music, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over

  5. Visual search in scenes involves selective and non-selective pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Vo, Melissa L-H; Evans, Karla K; Greene, Michelle R

    2010-01-01

    How do we find objects in scenes? For decades, visual search models have been built on experiments in which observers search for targets, presented among distractor items, isolated and randomly arranged on blank backgrounds. Are these models relevant to search in continuous scenes? This paper argues that the mechanisms that govern artificial, laboratory search tasks do play a role in visual search in scenes. However, scene-based information is used to guide search in ways that had no place in earlier models. Search in scenes may be best explained by a dual-path model: A “selective” path in which candidate objects must be individually selected for recognition and a “non-selective” path in which information can be extracted from global / statistical information. PMID:21227734

  6. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  7. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  8. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  9. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  10. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  11. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  12. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  13. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  14. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  15. Improving Scene Classifications with Combined Active/Passive Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Rodier, S.; Vaughan, M.; McGill, M.

    The uncertainties in cloud and aerosol physical properties derived from passive instruments such as MODIS are not insignificant And the uncertainty increases when the optical depths decrease Lidar observations do much better for the thin clouds and aerosols Unfortunately space-based lidar measurements such as the one onboard CALIPSO satellites are limited to nadir view only and thus have limited spatial coverage To produce climatologically meaningful thin cloud and aerosol data products it is necessary to combine the spatial coverage of MODIS with the highly sensitive CALIPSO lidar measurements Can we improving the quality of cloud and aerosol remote sensing data products by extending the knowledge about thin clouds and aerosols learned from CALIPSO-type of lidar measurements to a larger portion of the off-nadir MODIS-like multi-spectral pixels To answer the question we studied the collocated Cloud Physics Lidar CPL with Modis-Airborne-Simulation MAS observations and established an effective data fusion technique that will be applied in the combined CALIPSO MODIS cloud aerosol product algorithms This technique performs k-mean and Kohonen self-organized map cluster analysis on the entire swath of MAS data as well as on the combined CPL MAS data at the nadir track Interestingly the clusters generated from the two approaches are almost identical It indicates that the MAS multi-spectral data may have already captured most of the cloud and aerosol scene types such as cloud ice water phase multi-layer information aerosols

  16. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  17. Saliency predicts change detection in pictures of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that the visual system encodes the salience of objects in the visual field in an explicit two-dimensional map that guides visual selective attention. Experiments were conducted to determine whether salience measurements applied to regions of pictures of outdoor scenes could predict the detection of changes in those regions. To obtain a quantitative measure of change detection, observers located changes in pairs of colour pictures presented across an interstimulus interval (ISI). Salience measurements were then obtained from different observers for image change regions using three independent methods, and all were positively correlated with change detection. Factor analysis extracted a single saliency factor that accounted for 62% of the variance contained in the four measures. Finally, estimates of the magnitude of the image change in each picture pair were obtained, using nine separate visual filters representing low-level vision features (luminance, colour, spatial frequency, orientation, edge density). None of the feature outputs was significantly associated with change detection or saliency. On the other hand it was shown that high-level (structural) properties of the changed region were related to saliency and to change detection: objects were more salient than shadows and more detectable when changed.

  18. Effects of mild cognitive impairment on emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, J D; Dimsdale-Zucker, H R; Flannery, S; Budson, A E; Kensinger, E A

    2017-02-01

    Young and older adults experience benefits in attention and memory for emotional compared to neutral information, but this memory benefit is greatly diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about whether this impairment arises early or late in the time course between healthy aging and AD. This study compared memory for positive, negative, and neutral items with neutral backgrounds between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults. We also used a divided attention condition in older adults as a possible model for the deficits observed in MCI patients. Results showed a similar pattern of selective memory for emotional items while forgetting their backgrounds in older adults and MCI patients, but MCI patients had poorer memory overall. Dividing attention during encoding disproportionately reduced memory for backgrounds (versus items) relative to a full attention condition. Participants performing in the lower half on the divided attention task qualitatively and quantitatively mirrored the results in MCI patients. Exploratory analyses comparing lower- and higher-performing MCI patients showed that only higher-performing MCI patients had the characteristic scene memory pattern observed in healthy older adults. Together, these results suggest that the effects of emotion on memory are relatively well preserved for patients with MCI, although emotional memory patterns may start to be altered once memory deficits become more pronounced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocfentanil overdose fatality in the recreational drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Vera; Cordonnier, Jan; De Leeuw, Marc; Cirimele, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Quantitation of ocfentanil in biological samples was performed using a target analysis based on liquid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In the femoral blood taken at the external body examination, the following concentrations were measured: ocfentanil 15.3μg/L, acetaminophen 45mg/L and caffeine 0.23mg/L. Tissues sampled at autopsy were analyzed to study the distribution of ocfentanil. The comprehensive systematic toxicological analysis on the post-mortem blood and tissue samples was negative for other compounds. Based on circumstantial evidence, autopsy findings and the results of the toxicological analysis, the medical examiner concluded that the cause of death was an acute intoxication with ocfentanil. The manner of death was assumed to be accidental after snorting the powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  1. Sleep Promotes Lasting Changes in Selective Memory for Emotional Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica ePayne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24hr post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24hr Sleep First group had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16hr post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24hr Wake First group. However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24hr Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12hr delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  2. Sleep promotes lasting changes in selective memory for emotional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Chambers, Alexis M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24 h post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24 h Sleep First group) had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16 h post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24 h Wake First group). However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24 h Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12 h delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  3. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  4. Napping and the Selective Consolidation of Negative Aspects of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Wamsley, Erin; Spreng, R. Nathan; Alger, Sara; Gibler, Kyle; Schacter, Daniel L.; Stickgold, Robert

    2018-01-01

    After information is encoded into memory, it undergoes an offline period of consolidation that occurs optimally during sleep. The consolidation process not only solidifies memories, but also selectively preserves aspects of experience that are emotionally salient and relevant for future use. Here, we provide evidence that an afternoon nap is sufficient to trigger preferential memory for emotional information contained in complex scenes. Selective memory for negative emotional information was enhanced after a nap compared to wakefulness in two control conditions designed to carefully address interference and time-of-day confounds. Although prior evidence has connected negative emotional memory formation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep physiology, we found that non-REM delta activity and the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) in the nap were robustly related to the selective consolidation of negative information. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation benefits associated with napping and nighttime sleep are not always the same. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence that the magnitude of the emotional memory benefit conferred by sleep is equivalent following a nap and a full night of sleep, suggesting that selective emotional remembering can be economically achieved by taking a nap. PMID:25706830

  5. Optimising crime scene temperature collection for forensic entomology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Ines M J; Hart, Andrew J; Martín-Vega, Daniel; Hall, Martin J R

    2017-01-01

    The value of minimum post-mortem interval (minPMI) estimations in suspicious death investigations from insect evidence using temperature modelling is indisputable. In order to investigate the reliability of the collected temperature data used for modelling minPMI, it is necessary to study the effects of data logger location on the accuracy and precision of measurements. Digital data logging devices are the most commonly used temperature measuring devices in forensic entomology, however, the relationship between ambient temperatures (measured by loggers) and body temperatures has been little studied. The placement of loggers in this study in three locations (two outdoors, one indoors) had measurable effects when compared with actual body temperature measurements (simulated with pig heads), some more significant than others depending on season, exposure to the environment and logger location. Overall, the study demonstrated the complexity of the question of optimal logger placement at a crime scene and the potential impact of inaccurate temperature data on minPMI estimations, showing the importance of further research in this area and development of a standard protocol. Initial recommendations are provided for data logger placement (within a Stevenson Screen where practical), situations to avoid (e.g. placement of logger in front of windows when measuring indoor temperatures), and a baseline for further research into producing standard guidelines for logger placement, to increase the accuracy of minPMI estimations and, thereby, the reliability of forensic entomology evidence in court. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  7. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  8. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.

    2017-05-01

    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  9. Depth estimation of complex geometry scenes from light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lipeng; Wang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    The surface camera (SCam) of light fields gathers angular sample rays passing through a 3D point. The consistency of SCams is evaluated to estimate the depth map of scene. But the consistency is affected by several limitations such as occlusions or non-Lambertian surfaces. To solve those limitations, the SCam is partitioned into two segments that one of them could satisfy the consistency constraint. The segmentation pattern of SCam is highly related to the texture of spatial patch, so we enforce a mask matching to describe the shape correlation between segments of SCam and spatial patch. To further address the ambiguity in textureless region, a global method with pixel-wise plane label is presented. Plane label inference at each pixel can recover not only depth value but also local geometry structure, that is suitable for light fields with sub-pixel disparities and continuous view variation. Our method is evaluated on public light field datasets and outperforms the state-of-the-art.

  10. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  11. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  12. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  13. Behavioral evidence for differences in social and non-social category learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eGamond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait… or non-social (tall, thin. Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission.

  14. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  15. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  16. Stakeholders analysis on criteria for protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z.; Abdullah, S. A.; Nor, S. Md.

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of protected areas has always been associated with a strategy to conserve biodiversity. A well-managed protected areas not only protect the ecosystem and threatened species but also provides benefits to the public. These indeed require sound management practices through the application of protected areas management categories which can be is seen as tools for planning, establishment and administration of protected areas as well as to regulate the activities in the protected areas. However, in Peninsular Malaysia the implementation of the protected areas management categories was carried out based on the ‘ad-hoc’ basis without realising the important of the criteria based on the local values. Thus, an investigation has been sought to establish the criteria used in application to the protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes revealed the significant of social, environment and economic criteria in establishing the protected area management categories in Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Attribute conjunctions and the part configuration advantage in object category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, J; Hummel, J E

    1996-07-01

    Five experiments demonstrated that in object category learning people are particularly sensitive to conjunctions of part shapes and relative locations. Participants learned categories defined by a part's shape and color (part-color conjunctions) or by a part's shape and its location relative to another part (part-location conjunctions). The statistical properties of the categories were identical across these conditions, as were the salience of color and relative location. Participants were better at classifying objects defined by part-location conjunctions than objects defined by part-color conjunctions. Subsequent experiments revealed that this effect was not due to the specific color manipulation or the role of location per se. These results suggest that the shape bias in object categorization is at least partly due to sensitivity to part-location conjunctions and suggest a new processing constraint on category learning.

  18. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  19. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  20. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices