Tenenbaum, J. M.; Barrow, H. G.; Weyl, S. A.
Cooperative (man-machine) scene analysis techniques were developed whereby humans can provide a computer with guidance when completely automated processing is infeasible. An interactive approach promises significant near-term payoffs in analyzing various types of high volume satellite imagery, as well as vehicle-based imagery used in robot planetary exploration. This report summarizes the work accomplished over the duration of the project and describes in detail three major accomplishments: (1) the interactive design of texture classifiers; (2) a new approach for integrating the segmentation and interpretation phases of scene analysis; and (3) the application of interactive scene analysis techniques to cartography.
This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes
example, 3D movies . The change of demand results in an attention for smooth visual quality of the reconstructed scene. In this case, visual quality of the...Vergauwen, and L. Van Gool, “Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images,” ISPRS Journal Of Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing, vol. 55
Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie
that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish......, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve...
Michael S Lewicki
Full Text Available The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to a number of important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated. Despite this progress, there are also critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying analysis comprising four essential properties: 1 the ability to solve ill-posed problems, 2 the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, 3 efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and 4 the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress towards behavioral goals.
.... This fundamental process of auditory perception is called auditory scene analysis. of particular importance in auditory scene analysis is the separation of speech from interfering sounds, or speech segregation...
Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew R
Our auditory system is constantly faced with the task of decomposing the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ears into perceptually independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sound sources. This decomposition, termed auditory scene analysis, is critical for both survival and communication, and is thought to underlie both speech and music perception. The neural underpinnings of auditory scene analysis have been studied utilizing invasive experiments with animal models as well as non-invasive (MEG, EEG, and fMRI) and invasive (intracranial EEG) studies conducted with human listeners. The present article reviews human neurophysiological research investigating the neural basis of auditory scene analysis, with emphasis on two classical paradigms termed streaming and informational masking. Other paradigms - such as the continuity illusion, mistuned harmonics, and multi-speaker environments - are briefly addressed thereafter. We conclude by discussing the emerging evidence for the role of auditory cortex in remapping incoming acoustic signals into a perceptual representation of auditory streams, which are then available for selective attention and further conscious processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sussman, Elyse S.
Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..
Berg, Alex Rune; Jordán, Tibor
We investigate algorithmic questions and structural problems concerning graph families defined by `edge-counts'. Motivated by recent developments in the unique realization problem of graphs, we give an efficient algorithm to compute the rigid, redundantly rigid, M-connected, and globally rigid...... components of a graph. Our algorithm is based on (and also extends and simplifies) the idea of Hendrickson and Jacobs, as it uses orientations as the main algorithmic tool. We also consider families of bipartite graphs which occur in parallel drawings and scene analysis. We verify a conjecture of Whiteley...... by showing that 2d-connected bipartite graphs are d-tight. We give a new algorithm for finding a maximal d-sharp subgraph. We also answer a question of Imai and show that finding a maximum size d-sharp subgraph is NP-hard....
Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy
In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene
Chen, Chen; Kuo, C -C Jay
This book offers an overview of traditional big visual data analysis approaches and provides state-of-the-art solutions for several scene comprehension problems, indoor/outdoor classification, outdoor scene classification, and outdoor scene layout estimation. It is illustrated with numerous natural and synthetic color images, and extensive statistical analysis is provided to help readers visualize big visual data distribution and the associated problems. Although there has been some research on big visual data analysis, little work has been published on big image data distribution analysis using the modern statistical approach described in this book. By presenting a complete methodology on big visual data analysis with three illustrative scene comprehension problems, it provides a generic framework that can be applied to other big visual data analysis tasks.
Rodner, Erik; Denzler, Joachim
The concept of probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) has gained much interest as a tool for feature transformation in image categorization and scene recognition scenarios. However, a major issue of this technique is overfitting. Therefore, we propose to use an ensemble of pLSA models which are trained using random fractions of the training data. We analyze empirically the influence of the degree of randomization and the size of the ensemble on the overall classification performance of a scene recognition task. A thoughtful evaluation shows the benefits of this approach compared to a single pLSA model.
Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D
Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.
Hannah L. Golden
Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.
This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot
Allegro Silvia; Launer Stefan; Büchler Michael; Dillier Norbert
A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes Ã¢Â€Âœclean speech,Ã¢Â€Â Ã¢Â€Âœspeech in noise,Ã¢Â€Â Ã¢Â€Âœnoise,Ã¢Â€Â and Ã¢Â€Âœmusic.Ã¢Â€Â A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated togethe...
Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Grant, Samuel; Newbry, Scott P.
OPTRA has developed a two-band midwave infrared (MWIR) scene projector based on digital micromirror device (DMD) technology; the projector is intended for training various IR tracking systems that exploit the relative intensities of two separate MWIR spectral bands. Next generation tracking systems have increasing dynamic range requirements which current DMD-based projector test equipment is not capable of meeting. While sufficient grayscale digitization can be achieved with current drive electronics, commensurate contrast is not currently available. It is towards this opportunity that OPTRA has initiated a dynamic range design improvement effort. In this paper we present our work towards the measurement and analysis of contrast limiting factors including substrate scattering, diffraction, and flat state emissivity. We summarize the results of an analytical model which indicates the largest contributions to background energy in the off state. We present the methodology and results from a series of breadboard tests designed to characterize these contributions. Finally, we suggest solutions to counter these contributions.
Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert
A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.
Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Jianwu; Wang, Qi
Abnormal behavior detection in crowd scenes is continuously a challenge in the field of computer vision. For tackling this problem, this paper starts from a novel structure modeling of crowd behavior. We first propose an informative structural context descriptor (SCD) for describing the crowd individual, which originally introduces the potential energy function of particle's interforce in solid-state physics to intuitively conduct vision contextual cueing. For computing the crowd SCD variation effectively, we then design a robust multi-object tracker to associate the targets in different frames, which employs the incremental analytical ability of the 3-D discrete cosine transform (DCT). By online spatial-temporal analyzing the SCD variation of the crowd, the abnormality is finally localized. Our contribution mainly lies on three aspects: 1) the new exploration of abnormal detection from structure modeling where the motion difference between individuals is computed by a novel selective histogram of optical flow that makes the proposed method can deal with more kinds of anomalies; 2) the SCD description that can effectively represent the relationship among the individuals; and 3) the 3-D DCT multi-object tracker that can robustly associate the limited number of (instead of all) targets which makes the tracking analysis in high density crowd situation feasible. Experimental results on several publicly available crowd video datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Full Text Available A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes Ã¢Â€Âœclean speech,Ã¢Â€Â Ã¢Â€Âœspeech in noise,Ã¢Â€Â Ã¢Â€Âœnoise,Ã¢Â€Â and Ã¢Â€Âœmusic.Ã¢Â€Â A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class Ã¢Â€Âœspeech in noise.Ã¢Â€Â Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.
Qin, Zhengkun; Zou, Xiaolei; Weng, Fuzhong
differences between brightness temperature observations and simulated observations based on numerical weather predictions, i.e., O-B, for Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) temperature sounding channels exhibit a clear striping pattern [Bormann et al., 2013]. We propose to first use the principal component analysis to isolate scan-dependent features such as the cross-track striping from the atmospheric signal and then to use an Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to extract the striping noise in ATMS Earth scene brightness temperature observations for both temperature and water vapor sounding channels. It is shown that the Principal Component (PC) coefficient of the first PC mode, which mainly describes a scan-dependent feature of cross-track radiometer measurements, captures the striping noise. The EEMD is then applied to the PC coefficient to extract the first three high-frequency intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are denoted as the PC1/IMF3 noise. When the PC1/IMF3 noise is removed from the data, the striping noise is imperceptible in the global distribution of O-B for ATMS temperature sounding channels 1-16. Using the same method, it is demonstrated that the striping noise is also present in ATMS water vapor sounding channels 17-22. The magnitude of the ATMS striping noise is about ±0.3 K for the temperature sounding channels and ±1.0 K for the moisture sounding channels. The same technique is also applied to Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), AMSU-B, and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). The striping noise is undetectable for AMSU-A but present in AMSU-B and MHS data.
Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.
Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao
With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP) neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.
Kondo, Hirohito M; Toshima, Iwaki; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Kashino, Makio
The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and rate their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues), we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved.
Hirohito M. Kondo
Full Text Available The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and report their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues, we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved.
Barnard, Kenneth J.
The design of an infrared scene projector that incorporates a deformable mirror device (DMD) as an infrared spatial light modulator (SLM) is presented. A numerical model is developed to determine crosstalk effects in the projected image. Partial-coherence effects due to the physical layout of the projection system are included in the development. It is shown both analytically and numerically that under quasimonochromatic illumination the system behaves coherently and can be modeled as such. Polychromatic image formation is approximated as a summation of quasimonochromatic images over the wavelength band. Crosstalk is determined by defining a contrast ratio in the projected image. Contrast -ratio calculations are carried out for monochromatic and blackbody projection sources over the 3- to 5- μm wavelength band. The results predict contrast ratios of 265:1, 1217:1, and 2437:1 for deformable -mirror pixels of 50 mum, 100 mum, and 150 mum. The derivation of the contrast-ratio model leads to the determination of an upper limit on the system aperture-stop diameter for optimum contrast performance. Diffraction effects are the fundamental cause of crosstalk, and it is shown that crosstalk performance improves with shorter wavelengths and for larger deformable-mirror pixels. The effects of angular misalignment of the illumination source are also investigated. The results show that the reduced contrast ratio resulting from a small angular misalignment Deltatheta along the DMD-pixel-tilt direction can be approximated by computing the contrast ratio for a reduced-diameter aperture stop. The results of a proof-of-principle demonstration that verifies the feasibility of a deformable-mirror-based infrared scene projection system are also included.
Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana
The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.
James, Deborah Michelle; Pilnick, Alison; Hall, Alex; Collins, Luke
In our study of a workforce intervention within a health and social care context we found that participants who took part in longitudinal research interviews were commonly enacting scenes from their work during one-to-one interviews. Scenes were defined as portions of the interviews in which participants directly quoted the speech of at least two actors. Our analysis in this paper focuses on these enacted scenes, and compares the content of them before and after the intervention. We found that, whilst the tensions between consistency and change, and change management, were common topics for scene enactment in both pre and post-intervention data, following the intervention participants were much more likely to present themselves as active agents in that change. Post-intervention enacted scenes also showed participants' reports of taking a service user perspective, and a focus on their interactions with service users that had been absent from pre-intervention data. In addition, descriptions of positive feeling and emotions were present in the post-intervention enacted scenes. We suggest that this analysis confirms the importance of enacted scenes as an analytic resource, and that this importance goes beyond their utility in identifying the impact of this specific intervention. Given the congruence between the themes prominent in enacted scenes, and those which emerged from a more extensive qualitative analysis of these data, we argue that enacted scenes may also be of wider methodological importance. The possibility of using scene enactment as an approach to the validation of inductive analysis in health and social care settings could provide a useful methodological resource in settings where longitudinal ethnographic observation of frontline care staff is impossible or impractical. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas
Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.
Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning becomes a standard way for acquiring 3D data of complex outdoor objects. The processing of huge number of points and recognition of different objects inside become a new challenge, especially in the case where objects are included. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to classify objects through an analysis on shape information of the point cloud data. The scanned scene is constructed using k Nearest Neighboring (k-NN, and then similarity measurement between points is defined to cluster points with similar primitive shapes. Moreover, we introduce a combined geometrical criterion to refine the over-segmented results. To achieve more detail information, a residual based segmentation is adopted to refine the segmentation of architectural objects into more parts with different shape properties. Experimental results demonstrate that this approach can be used as a robust way to extract different objects in the scenes.
Lehmann, Robert J B; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter
The current study sought to improve the predictive accuracy of sexual recidivism using the Static-99 risk assessment tool by the addition of detailed crime scene analysis (CSA). CSA was carried out using a Behavioral Thematic Analysis (BTA) approach, the gold-standard in CSA. BTA was conducted on a sample of 167 stranger rape cases using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The BTA procedure revealed three behavioral themes of hostility, criminality, and sexual exploitation, consistent with previous research in sexual offending CSA. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the criminality theme was significantly predictive of sexual recidivism and also significantly correlated with previous sexual offense history. Further, the criminality theme led to a significant increase in the incremental validity of the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment instrument for the prediction of sexual recidivism.
Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.
Josep Gustems Carnicer
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze interdisciplinary and educationally the descriptive aspects of the characters in literature in the world of music (opera, ballet, musical theater, program music, audiovisual, etc. through a wide range of resources and creative processes in various skills that include or encompass the sound. Because of that a literature review and multidisciplinary documentary is done from the most relevant texts and principal authors of the dynamic and stable personality models, from the analysis of vocal features in the scene and in the audiovisuals, from the leitmotiv as a symbol and sound representation of the character, from the the conflicts faced by the characters and how they can overcome them and how we could translated into music those transitions. The subject of myths brought to the world of music scene, character stereotypes and sound symbols that may characterize these scenic and literary content is also addressed. Notably, there is a broad consensus on the use of sound resources to characterize the different characters throughout the history of Western music in its various styles and genres. Furthermore, indications for their use are given and suggestions for activities to higher education suggest.
Jaeger, Klaus; Bers, Karl-Heinz
In this paper we describe a method for automatic determination of sensor pose (position and orientation) related to a 3D landmark or scene model. The method is based on geometrical matching of 2D image structures with projected elements of the associated 3D model. For structural image analysis and scene interpretation, a blackboard-based production system is used resulting in a symbolic description of image data. Knowledge of the approximated sensor pose measured for example by IMU or GPS enables to estimate an expected model projection used for solving the correspondence problem of image structures and model elements. These correspondences are presupposed for pose computation carried out by nonlinear numerical optimization algorithms. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by navigation update approaching a bridge scenario and flying over urban area, whereas data were taken with airborne infrared sensors in high oblique view. In doing so we simulated image-based navigation for target engagement and midcourse guidance suited for the concepts of future autonomous systems like missiles and drones.
Amerini, Irene; Caldelli, Roberto; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Di Fuccia, Andrea; Rizzo, Anna Paola; Saravo, Luigi
Photographic documents both in digital and in printed format plays a fundamental role in crime scene analysis. Photos are crucial to reconstruct what happened and also to freeze the fact scenario with all the different present objects and evidences. Consequently, it is immediate to comprehend the paramount importance of the assessment of the authenticity of such images, to avoid that a possible malicious counterfeiting leads to a wrong evaluation of the circumstance. In this paper, a case study in which some printed photos, brought as documental evidences of a familiar murder, had been fraudulently modified to bias the final judgement is presented. In particular, the usage of CADET image forensic tool, to verify printed photos integrity, is introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeremdini, Jihen; Ben Messaoud, Mohamed Anouar; Bouzid, Aicha
Humans have the ability to easily separate a composed speech and to form perceptual representations of the constituent sources in an acoustic mixture thanks to their ears. Until recently, researchers attempt to build computer models of high-level functions of the auditory system. The problem of the composed speech segregation is still a very challenging problem for these researchers. In our case, we are interested in approaches that are addressed to the monaural speech segregation. For this purpose, we study in this paper the computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) to segregate speech from monaural mixtures. CASA is the reproduction of the source organization achieved by listeners. It is based on two main stages: segmentation and grouping. In this work, we have presented, and compared several studies that have used CASA for speech separation and recognition.
Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.
Zeng, Yousheng; Hopke, Philip K.
In the previous applications of eigenvector mathematical methods such as factor analysis, principal components analysis, and empirical orthogonal function analysis, the analysis has been made on a two-dimensional set of data. These data sets could be the chemical composition of a series of particle samples taken at a single location over time or the concentration of a single species measured over multiple locations at multiple times. However, there have not been methods previously available to examine a data set of chemical compositions measured at multiple sites over a series of sampling time intervals. Three-mode factor analysis permits the reduction of a three-dimensional data set into three two-dimensional matrices and a three-dimensional core matrix that presents how the system variance is partitioned among the three modes (chemical specie, location and time). The technique will be illustrated with data from the SCENES program that is measuring particle compositions at a number of sites in the southwestern United States.
Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.
This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.
Han, Qing; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Sun, Qiang
Diffraction effects play a significant role in scene projectors by digital micromirror devices (DMDs) in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8 to 12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. The actual diffraction characteristics of the DMD deviate significantly from the predictions of scalar diffraction theory in the long-wave IR. To address this issue, we built a vector diffraction-grating model of the DMD; the diffraction grating model is simulated with MATLAB. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of incident angle and polarization, which are the main factors that decrease the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR. Finally, an effective method to improve the contrast of the scene projector system is given, and the maximum contrast of the scene projector system is ˜0.7.
Bee, Mark A
The perceptual analysis of acoustic scenes involves binding together sounds from the same source and separating them from other sounds in the environment. In large social groups, listeners experience increased difficulty performing these tasks due to high noise levels and interference from the concurrent signals of multiple individuals. While a substantial body of literature on these issues pertains to human hearing and speech communication, few studies have investigated how nonhuman animals may be evolutionarily adapted to solve biologically analogous communication problems. Here, I review recent and ongoing work aimed at testing hypotheses about perceptual mechanisms that enable treefrogs in the genus Hyla to communicate vocally in noisy, multi-source social environments. After briefly introducing the genus and the methods used to study hearing in frogs, I outline several functional constraints on communication posed by the acoustic environment of breeding "choruses". Then, I review studies of sound source perception aimed at uncovering how treefrog listeners may be adapted to cope with these constraints. Specifically, this review covers research on the acoustic cues used in sequential and simultaneous auditory grouping, spatial release from masking, and dip listening. Throughout the paper, I attempt to illustrate how broad-scale, comparative studies of carefully considered animal models may ultimately reveal an evolutionary diversity of underlying mechanisms for solving cocktail-party-like problems in communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scaioni, M.; Crippa, J.; Longoni, L.; Papini, M.; Zanzi, L.
The application of image processing and photogrammetric techniques to dynamic reconstruction of landslide simulations in a scaled-down facility is described. Simulations are also used here for active-learning purpose: students are helped understand how physical processes happen and which kinds of observations may be obtained from a sensor network. In particular, the use of digital images to obtain multi-temporal information is presented. On one side, using a multi-view sensor set up based on four synchronized GoPro 4 Black® cameras, a 4D (3D spatial position and time) reconstruction of the dynamic scene is obtained through the composition of several 3D models obtained from dense image matching. The final textured 4D model allows one to revisit in dynamic and interactive mode a completed experiment at any time. On the other side, a digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been used to track surface point displacements from the image sequence obtained from the camera in front of the simulation facility. While the 4D model may provide a qualitative description and documentation of the experiment running, DIC analysis output quantitative information such as local point displacements and velocities, to be related to physical processes and to other observations. All the hardware and software equipment adopted for the photogrammetric reconstruction has been based on low-cost and open-source solutions.
Han, Qing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang
Diffraction effects play a significant role in the digital micromirror device (DMD)-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8-12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. We apply a diffraction grating model of the DMD based on the scalar diffraction theory and the Fourier transform to address this issue. In addition, a simulation calculation is conducted with MATLAB. Finally, the simulation result is verified with an experiment. The simulation and experimental results indicate that, when the incident azimuth angle is 0° and the zenith angle is between 42°and 46°, the scene projectors will have a good imaging contrast in the long-wave IR. The diffraction grating model proposed in this study provides a method to improve the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR.
While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system
Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K
Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.; Aben, E.A.A.
Reflectance spectra from 280-1750 nm of typical desert dust aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space-borne spectrometer Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). DDA and BBA are both UV-absorbing
Barnett, Michael; Kafka, Alan
This paper discusses pedagogical advantages and challenges of using science-fiction movies and television shows in an introductory science class for elementary teachers. The authors describe two instructional episodes in which scenes from the movies "Red Planet" and "The Core" were used to engage students in critiquing science as presented in…
Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.
Packard, Corey D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Klein, Mark D.
The ability to predict spectral electro-optical (EO) signatures for various targets against realistic, cluttered backgrounds is paramount for rigorous signature evaluation. Knowledge of background and target signatures, including plumes, is essential for a variety of scientific and defense-related applications including contrast analysis, camouflage development, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development and scene material classification. The capability to simulate any desired mission scenario with forecast or historical weather is a tremendous asset for defense agencies, serving as a complement to (or substitute for) target and background signature measurement campaigns. In this paper, a systematic process for the physical temperature and visible-through-infrared radiance prediction of several diverse targets in a cluttered natural environment scene is presented. The ability of a virtual airborne sensor platform to detect and differentiate targets from a cluttered background, from a variety of sensor perspectives and across numerous wavelengths in differing atmospheric conditions, is considered. The process described utilizes the thermal and radiance simulation software MuSES and provides a repeatable, accurate approach for analyzing wavelength-dependent background and target (including plume) signatures in multiple band-integrated wavebands (multispectral) or hyperspectrally. The engineering workflow required to combine 3D geometric descriptions, thermal material properties, natural weather boundary conditions, all modes of heat transfer and spectral surface properties is summarized. This procedure includes geometric scene creation, material and optical property attribution, and transient physical temperature prediction. Radiance renderings, based on ray-tracing and the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model, are coupled with MODTRAN for the inclusion of atmospheric effects. This virtual hyperspectral/multispectral radiance prediction methodology has been
Localizing and selectively attending to the source of a sound of interest in a complex auditory environment is an important capacity of the human auditory system. The underlying neural mechanisms have, however, still not been clarified in detail. This issue was addressed by using bilateral bipolar-balanced transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with a task demanding free-field sound localization in the presence of multiple sound sources, thus providing a realistic simulation of the so-called "cocktail-party" situation. With left-anode/right-cathode, but not with right-anode/left-cathode, montage of bilateral electrodes, tDCS over superior temporal gyrus, including planum temporale and auditory cortices, was found to improve the accuracy of target localization in left hemispace. No effects were found for tDCS over inferior parietal lobule or with off-target active stimulation over somatosensory-motor cortex that was used to control for non-specific effects. Also, the absolute error in localization remained unaffected by tDCS, thus suggesting that general response precision was not modulated by brain polarization. This finding can be explained in the framework of a model assuming that brain polarization modulated the suppression of irrelevant sound sources, thus resulting in more effective spatial separation of the target from the interfering sound in the complex auditory scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Ji Hun; Yoon, Jae Sam; Kim, Hong Kook
In this paper, we propose a new mask estimation method for the computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) of speech using two microphones. The proposed method is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) in order to incorporate an observation that the mask information should be correlated over contiguous analysis frames. In other words, HMM is used to estimate the mask information represented as the interaural time difference (ITD) and the interaural level difference (ILD) of two channel signals, and the estimated mask information is finally employed in the separation of desired speech from noisy speech. To show the effectiveness of the proposed mask estimation, we then compare the performance of the proposed method with that of a Gaussian kernel-based estimation method in terms of the performance of speech recognition. As a result, the proposed HMM-based mask estimation method provided an average word error rate reduction of 61.4% when compared with the Gaussian kernel-based mask estimation method.
This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described. The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included.
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David J Brown
Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.
Trainor, Laurel J
Whether music was an evolutionary adaptation that conferred survival advantages or a cultural creation has generated much debate. Consistent with an evolutionary hypothesis, music is unique to humans, emerges early in development and is universal across societies. However, the adaptive benefit of music is far from obvious. Music is highly flexible, generative and changes rapidly over time, consistent with a cultural creation hypothesis. In this paper, it is proposed that much of musical pitch and timing structure adapted to preexisting features of auditory processing that evolved for auditory scene analysis (ASA). Thus, music may have emerged initially as a cultural creation made possible by preexisting adaptations for ASA. However, some aspects of music, such as its emotional and social power, may have subsequently proved beneficial for survival and led to adaptations that enhanced musical behaviour. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic evidence is considered in this regard. In particular, enhanced auditory-motor pathways in humans that enable movement entrainment to music and consequent increases in social cohesion, and pathways enabling music to affect reward centres in the brain should be investigated as possible musical adaptations. It is concluded that the origins of music are complex and probably involved exaptation, cultural creation and evolutionary adaptation.
Trainor, Laurel J.
Whether music was an evolutionary adaptation that conferred survival advantages or a cultural creation has generated much debate. Consistent with an evolutionary hypothesis, music is unique to humans, emerges early in development and is universal across societies. However, the adaptive benefit of music is far from obvious. Music is highly flexible, generative and changes rapidly over time, consistent with a cultural creation hypothesis. In this paper, it is proposed that much of musical pitch and timing structure adapted to preexisting features of auditory processing that evolved for auditory scene analysis (ASA). Thus, music may have emerged initially as a cultural creation made possible by preexisting adaptations for ASA. However, some aspects of music, such as its emotional and social power, may have subsequently proved beneficial for survival and led to adaptations that enhanced musical behaviour. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic evidence is considered in this regard. In particular, enhanced auditory–motor pathways in humans that enable movement entrainment to music and consequent increases in social cohesion, and pathways enabling music to affect reward centres in the brain should be investigated as possible musical adaptations. It is concluded that the origins of music are complex and probably involved exaptation, cultural creation and evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25646512
Koo, Hyung Il
Textline detection in natural images has been an important problem and researchers have attempted to address this problem by grouping connected components (CCs) into clusters corresponding to textlines. However, developing bottom-up rules that work for multiorientation and/or multiscript textlines is not a simple task. In order to address this problem, we propose a framework that incorporates projection profile analysis (PPA) into the CC-based approach. Specifically, we build a graph of CCs and recursively partition the graph into subgraphs, until textline structures are detected by PPA. Although PPA has been a common technique in document image processing, it was developed for scanned documents, and we also propose a method to compute projection profiles for CCs. Experimental results show that our method is efficient and achieves better or comparable performance on conventional datasets (ICDAR 2011/2013 and MSRA-TD500), and shows promising results on a challenging dataset (ICDAR 2015 incidental text localization dataset).
Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin
In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.
Bayat, Arash; Farhadi, Mohammad; Pourbakht, Akram; Sadjedi, Hamed; Emamdjomeh, Hesam; Kamali, Mohammad; Mirmomeni, Golshan
Background Auditory scene analysis (ASA) is the process by which the auditory system separates individual sounds in natural-world situations. ASA is a key function of auditory system, and contributes to speech discrimination in noisy backgrounds. It is known that sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) detrimentally affects auditory function in complex environments, but relatively few studies have focused on the influence of SNHL on higher level processes which are likely involved in auditory perception in different situations. Objectives The purpose of the current study was to compare the auditory system ability of normally hearing and SNHL subjects using the ASA examination. Materials and Methods A total of 40 right-handed adults (age range: 18 - 45 years) participated in this study. The listeners were divided equally into control and mild to moderate SNHL groups. ASA ability was measured using an ABA-ABA sequence. The frequency of the "A" was kept constant at 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 Hz, while the frequency of the "B" was set at 3 to 80 percent above the" A" tone. For ASA threshold detection, the frequency of the B stimulus was decreased until listeners reported that they could no longer hear two separate sounds. Results The ASA performance was significantly better for controls than the SNHL group; these differences were more obvious at higher frequencies. We found no significant differences between ASA ability as a function of tone durations in both groups. Conclusions The present study indicated that SNHL may cause a reduction in perceptual separation of the incoming acoustic information to form accurate representations of our acoustic world. PMID:24719695
Thurman, James T
.... The book also uses examples of chain of custody and scene administration forms, diagrams and tables, methods of equipment decontamination, explosives residue collection procedures and spread sheets...
Jankow, Mathias; Hildebrandt, Mario; Sturm, Jennifer; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus
In future applications of contactless acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints the automatic localization of potential fingerprint traces in crime scenes is required. Our goal is to study the application of a camera-based approach1 comparing with the performance of chromatic white light (CWL) techniques2 for the latent fingerprint localization in coarse and the resulting acquisition using detailed scans. Furthermore, we briefly evaluate the suitability of the camera-based acquisition for the detection of malicious fingerprint traces using an extended camera setup in comparison to Kiltz et al.3 Our experimental setup includes a Canon EOS 550D4 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and a FRT MicroProf2005 surface measurement device with CWL6002 sensor. We apply at least two fingerprints to each surface in our test set with 8 different either smooth, textured and structured surfaces to evaluate the detection performance of the two localization techniques using different pre-processing and feature extraction techniques. Printed fingerprint patterns as reproducible but potentially malicious traces3 are additionally acquired and analyzed on foil and compact discs. Our results indicate positive tendency towards a fast localization using the camera-based technique. All fingerprints that are located using the CWL sensor are found using the camera. However,the disadvantage of the camera-based technique is that the size of the region of interest for the detailed scan for each potential latent fingerprint is usually slightly larger compared to the CWL-based localization. Furthermore, this technique does not acquire 3D data and the resulting images are distorted due to the necessary angle between the camera and the surface. When applying the camera-based approach, it is required to optimize the feature extraction and classification. Furthermore, the required acquisition time for each potential fingerprint needs to be estimated to determine the time-savings of the
Zhu, Yingying; Zhou, Dongru
Scene change detection is an essential step to automatic and content-based video indexing, retrieval and browsing. In this paper, a robust scene change detection and classification approach is presented, which analyzes audio, visual and textual sources and accounts for their inter-relations and coincidence to semantically identify and classify video scenes. Audio analysis focuses on the segmentation of audio stream into four types of semantic data such as silence, speech, music and environmental sound. Further processing on speech segments aims at locating speaker changes. Video analysis partitions visual stream into shots. Text analysis can provide a supplemental source of clues for scene classification and indexing information. We integrate the video and audio analysis results to identify video scenes and use the text information detected by the video OCR technology or derived from transcripts available to refine scene classification. Results from single source segmentation are in some cases suboptimal. By combining visual, aural features adn the accessorial text information, the scence extraction accuracy is enhanced, and more semantic segmentations are developed. Experimental results are proven to rather promising.
Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David
Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc
The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y
Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J
Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.
Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.
Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas
In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...
Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David
Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.
Nho, Seon Mi; Kim, Eun A
The purpose of this study was to verify the relationships among social support, resilience and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and especially to identify factors influencing PTSD in police crime scene investigators. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 226 police crime scene investigators from 7 Metropolitan Police Agencies. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires during July and August, 2015. Data were analyzed using t-test, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS/WIN 21.0 program. The mean score for PTSD in police crime scene investigators was 13.69. 11 points. Of the crime scene investigators 181 (80.1%) were in the low-risk group and 45 (19.9%) in high-risk group. Social support (t=5.68, pcrime scene investigators, intervention programs including social support and strategies to increase should be established.
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Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh
Quantitative structured assessment of 193 scenes depicting substance use from a convenience sample of 50 Brazilian movies was performed. Logistic regression and analysis of variance or multivariate analysis of variance models were employed to test for two different types of outcome regarding alcohol appearance: The mean length of alcohol scenes in seconds and the prevalence of alcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescent characters was associated with a higher prevalence of alcohol use scenes compared to nonalcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescents was also associated with a higher than average length of alcohol use scenes compared to the nonalcohol use scenes. Alcohol use was negatively associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs use. However, when the use of cannabis, cocaine, or other drugs was present in the alcohol use scenes, a higher average length was found. This may mean that most vulnerable group may see drinking as a more attractive option leading to higher alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
Do individuals from different cultures perceive scenes differently? Does culture have an influence on visual attention processes? This thesis investigates not only what these influences are, and how they affect eye movements, but also examines some of the proposed mechanisms that underlie the cultural influence in scene perception. Experiments 1 & 2 showed that Saudi participants directed a higher number of fixations to the background of images, in comparison to the British participants. Brit...
Richetelli, Nicole; Nobel, Madonna; Bodziak, William J; Speir, Jacqueline A
Forensic footwear evidence can prove invaluable to the resolution of a criminal investigation. Naturally, the value of a comparison varies with the rarity of the evidence, which is a function of both manufactured as well as randomly acquired characteristics (RACs). When focused specifically on the latter of these two types of features, empirical evidence demonstrates high discriminating power for the differentiation of known match and known non-match samples when presented with exemplars of high quality and exhibiting a sufficient number of clear and complex RACs. However, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the media, substrate, and deposition process encountered during the commission of a crime, RACs on crime scene prints are expected to exhibit a large range of variability in terms of reproducibility, clarity, and quality. Although the pattern recognition skill of the expert examiner is adept at recognizing and evaluating this type of natural variation, there is little research to suggest that objective and numerical metrics can globally process this variation when presented with RACs from degraded crime scene quality prints. As such, the goal of this study was to mathematically compare the loss and similarity of RACs in high quality exemplars versus crime-scene-like quality impressions as a function of RAC shape, perimeter, area, and common source. Results indicate that the unpredictable conditions associated with crime scene print production promotes RAC loss that varies between 33% and 100% with an average of 85%, and that when the entire outsole is taken as a constellation of features (or a RAC map), 64% of the crime-scene-like impressions exhibited 10 or fewer RACs, resulting in a 0.72 probability of stochastic dominance. Given this, individual RAC description and correspondence were further explored using five simple, but objective, numerical metrics of similarity. Statistically significant differences in similarity scores for RAC shape and size
Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.
This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in
Niwakawa, Makoto; Onda, Toshikazu
We can see a lot of observation cameras at public or private facilities such as stations, halls, shopping malls, hallways and gates. Some janitors of the facilities want to detect and investigate passing people or congestion existences in the camera scene. In order to respond to these requests, we extracted moving areas in the image and accumulated these data and then displayed them on the monitor. Consequently, we obtained spatial distributions and hourly changes of congestion in the observation camera scene. To extract moving areas, we estimated the differences of correlation value of segmented small windows in the image. This paper describes our procedure to analyze the congestion from the image sequence of observation camera, and some experimental results.
Full Text Available This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.
, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual......Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus...... of meaning has been implemented. This may take place at different levels, which will be presented and investigated in this article and exemplified by some cases from the fields of tourism and computer games. The article suggests that we may use the forensic term crime scene in order...
Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.
Ealet, Fabienne; Collin, Bertrand; Sella, G.; Garbay, Catherine
Scene interpretation is a crucial problem for navigation and guidance systems. The necessary integration of a large variety of heterogeneous knowledge leads us to design an architecture that distributes knowledge and that performs parallel and concurrent processing. We choose a multi- agent approach which specialized agents implementation is based on incrementality, distribution, cooperation, attention mechanism and adaptability.
Marc Ciufo Green
Full Text Available The classification of acoustic scenes and events is an emerging area of research in the field of machine listening. Most of the research conducted so far uses spectral features extracted from monaural or stereophonic audio rather than spatial features extracted from multichannel recordings. This is partly due to the lack thus far of a substantial body of spatial recordings of acoustic scenes. This paper formally introduces EigenScape, a new database of fourth-order Ambisonic recordings of eight different acoustic scene classes. The potential applications of a spatial machine listening system are discussed before detailed information on the recording process and dataset are provided. A baseline spatial classification system using directional audio coding (DirAC techniques is detailed and results from this classifier are presented. The classifier is shown to give good overall scene classification accuracy across the dataset, with 7 of 8 scenes being classified with an accuracy of greater than 60% with an 11% improvement in overall accuracy compared to use of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC features. Further analysis of the results shows potential improvements to the classifier. It is concluded that the results validate the new database and show that spatial features can characterise acoustic scenes and as such are worthy of further investigation.
Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...
Killius, Jim; Elder, Brent; Siegel, Larry; Allweiss, Michael B.
A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) is being developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems. The Scophony IRSP is configured to be a very high frame rate laser-scanned projection system incorporating Scophony modulation. Scophony modulation offers distinct advantages over conventional flying-spot scanning, for example, longer pixel dwell times and multiple pixel projection. The Scophony IRSP serves as the image projection system in a 'hardware in the loop' therminal-phase guidance simulation. It is capable of projecting multiband, target engagement scenarios with high fidelity using Aura's proprietary software/electronic control system. The Scophony IRSP utilizes acoustooptical (AO) devices to produce the required imagery at four separate wavelengths simultaneously. The four separate scenes are then combined and projected into the imaging guidance system.
Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bastow, Michael
A scophony infrared scene projector (IRSP) was developed by AURA Systems Inc. for use in evaluating thermal imaging guidance systems. The IRSP is a laser-scanned projector system incorporating scophony modulation with acousto-optical devices to produce multiband 96 X 96 image frames. A description of the system and preliminary test results with the Seeker Endo/Exo Demonstration Development breadboard interceptor are addressed.
Sun, Dandan; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei
This paper presents a simulation method of hyper-spectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyper-spectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyper-spectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyper-spectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyper-spectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyper-spectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyper-spectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.
Machuca, R.; Gilbert, A. L.
Edge detection in the presence of noise is a well-known problem. This paper examines an applications-motivated approach for solving the problem using novel techniques and presents a method developed by the authors that performs well on a large class of targets. ROC curves are used to compare this method with other well-known edge detection operators, with favorable results. A theoretical argument is presented that favors LMMSE filtering over median filtering in extremely noisy scenes. Simulated results of the research are presented.
Potter, Mary C.
Three times per second, our eyes make a new fixation that generates a new bottom-up analysis in the visual system. How much is extracted from each glimpse? For how long and in what form is that information remembered? To answer these questions, investigators have mimicked the effect of continual shifts of fixation by using rapid serial visual presentation of sequences of unrelated pictures. Experiments in which viewers detect specified target pictures show that detection on the basis of meaning is possible at presentation durations as brief as 13 ms, suggesting that understanding may be based on feedforward processing, without feedback. In contrast, memory for what was just seen is poor unless the viewer has about 500 ms to think about the scene: the scene does not need to remain in view. Initial memory loss after brief presentations occurs over several seconds, suggesting that at least some of the information from the previous few fixations persists long enough to support a coherent representation of the current environment. In contrast to marked memory loss shortly after brief presentations, memory for pictures viewed for 1 s or more is excellent. Although some specific visual information persists, the form and content of the perceptual and memory representations of pictures over time indicate that conceptual information is extracted early and determines most of what remains in longer-term memory. PMID:22371707
Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.
Devillez, Hélène; Guyader, Nathalie; Guérin-Dugué, Anne
The P300 event-related potential has been extensively studied in electroencephalography with classical paradigms that force observers to not move their eyes. This potential is classically used to infer whether a target or a task-relevant stimulus was presented. Few researches have studied this potential through more ecological paradigms where observers were able to move their eyes. In this study, we examined with an ecological paradigm and an adapted methodology the P300 potential using a visual search task that involves eye movements to actively explore natural scenes and during which eye movements and electroencephalographic activity were coregistered. Averaging the electroencephalography signal time-locked to fixation onsets, a P300 potential was observed for fixations onto the target object but not for other fixations recorded for the same visual search or for fixations recorded during the free viewing without any task. Our approach consists of using control experimental conditions with similar eye movements to ensure that the P300 potential was attributable to the fact that the observer gazed at the target rather than to other factors such as eye movement pattern (the size of the previous saccade) or the "overlap issue" between the potentials elicited by two successive fixations. We also proposed to model the time overlap issue of the potentials elicited by consecutive fixations with various durations. Our results show that the P300 potential can be studied in ecological situations without any constraint on the type of visual exploration, with some precautions in the interpretation of results due to the overlap issue.
Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Yang, Xu
This paper proposes the Extended Bag-of-Visterms (EBOV) to represent semantic scenes. In previous methods, most representations are bag-of-visterms (BOV), where visterms referred to the quantized local texture information. Our new representation is built by introducing global texture information to extend standard bag-of-visterms. In particular we apply the adaptive weight to fuse the local and global information together in order to provide a better visterm representation. Given these representations, scene classification can be performed by pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model. The experiment results show that the appropriate use of global information improves the performance of scene classification, as compared with BOV representation that only takes the local information into account.
Simpson, E L; Gaffan, E A
Dark Agouti rats learned to discriminate large visual displays ("scenes") in a computer-controlled Y-maze. Each scene comprised several shapes ("objects") against a contrasting background. The constant-negative paradigm was used; in each problem, one constant scene was presented on every trial together with a trial-unique variable scene, and rats were rewarded for approaching the variable scene. By varying the manner in which variables differed from the constant, we investigated what aspects of scenes and the objects comprising them were salient. In Experiment 1, rats discriminated constant scenes more easily if they contained four objects rather than six, and they showed a slight attentional bias towards the lower halves of the screens. That bias disappeared in Experiment 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that rats could discriminate scenes even if the objects that comprised them were closely matched in position, luminance, and area. Therefore, they encoded the form of individual objects. Rats perceived shapes of the same class (e.g. two ellipses) as more similar than shapes from different classes (e.g. ellipse and polygon) regardless of whether they also differed in area. This paradigm is suitable for studying the neuropsychology of perceiving spatial relationships in multi-object scenes and of identifying visual objects.
Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling
Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Visual saliency is the perceptual quality that makes some items in visual scenes stand out from their immediate contexts. Visual saliency plays important roles in natural vision in that saliency can direct eye movements, deploy attention, and facilitate tasks like object detection and scene understanding. A central unsolved issue is: What features should be encoded in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes? To explore this important issue, we propose a hypothesis that visual saliency is based on efficient encoding of the probability distributions (PDs of visual variables in specific contexts in natural scenes, referred to as context-mediated PDs in natural scenes. In this concept, computational units in the model of the early visual system do not act as feature detectors but rather as estimators of the context-mediated PDs of a full range of visual variables in natural scenes, which directly give rise to a measure of visual saliency of any input stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model of the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes using a modified algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA and derived a measure of visual saliency based on these PDs estimated from a set of natural scenes. We demonstrated that visual saliency based on the context-mediated PDs in natural scenes effectively predicts human gaze in free-viewing of both static and dynamic natural scenes. This study suggests that the computation based on the context-mediated PDs of visual variables in natural scenes may underlie the neural mechanism in the early visual cortex for detecting salient features in natural scenes.
Davies, Bronwyn; Munro, Kathy
This paper shows how student teachers can learn to see, through analysis of videotaped classroom scenes, the underlying rules informing the patterns of interactions between teachers and pupils. A single classroom scene where the first impression is of complete chaos with one student running amok is analyzed in detail. (MT)
Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.
This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over
Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.
Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…
In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…
Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.
Human observers’ ability to infer the light field in empty space is known as the “visual light field.” While most relevant studies were performed using images on computer screens, we investigate the visual light field in a real scene by using a novel experimental setup. A “probe” and a scene were
In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect.
Morris, Joseph W.; Ballard, Gary H.; Trimble, Darian E.; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.
AMRDEC sought out an improved framework for real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generation to provide the flexibility needed to adapt to rapidly changing hardware advancements and provide the ability to more seamlessly integrate external third party codes for Best-of-Breed real-time scene generation. As such, AMRDEC has developed Continuum, a new software architecture foundation to allow for the integration of these codes into a HWIL lab facility while enhancing existing AMRDEC HWIL scene generation codes such as the Joint Signature Image Generator (JSIG). This new real-time framework is a minimalistic modular approach based on the National Institute of Standards (NIST) Neutral Messaging Language (NML) that provides the basis for common HWIL scene generation. High speed interconnects and protocols were examined to support distributed scene generation whereby the scene graph, associated phenomenology, and resulting scene can be designed around the data rather than a framework, and the scene elements can be dynamically distributed across multiple high performance computing assets. Because of this open architecture approach, the framework facilitates scaling from a single GPU "traditional" PC scene generation system to a multi-node distributed system requiring load distribution and scene compositing across multiple high performance computing platforms. This takes advantage of the latest advancements in GPU hardware, such as NVIDIA's Tesla and Fermi architectures, providing an increased benefit in both fidelity and performance of the associated scene's phenomenology. Other features of the Continuum easily extend the use of this framework to include visualization, diagnostic, analysis, configuration, and other HWIL and all digital simulation tools.
Analysis and Machine Intel. 2011;33(12):2341–2353. 31. Song Y, Luo H, Hui B, Chang Z. An improved image dehazing and enhancing method using dark...help the end user (Soldier) develop improved course of action strategies based on scene understanding ( algorithms and analysis) incorporating...environmental image information in the data measurement process will lead to 1) improved autonomous intelligent systems supporting Army missions in complex
Bond, John W; Hammond, Christine
DNA material is now collected routinely from crime scenes for a wide range of offenses and its timely processing is acknowledged as a key element to its success in solving crime. An analysis of the processing of approximately 1500 samples of DNA material recovered from the property crime offenses of residential burglary, commercial burglary, and theft of motor vehicle in Northamptonshire, U.K. during 2006 identified saliva and cigarette ends as the main sources of DNA recovered (approximately 63% of samples) with blood, cellular DNA, and chewing gum accounting for the remainder. The conversion of these DNA samples into DNA profiles and then into matches with offender profiles held on the U.K. National DNA database is considered in terms of the ease with which Crime Scene Examiners can recover DNA rich samples of different sources, the location of the DNA at the crime scene, and its mobility. A logistical regression of the DNA material recovered has revealed a number of predictors, other than timeliness, that greatly influence its conversion into a DNA profile. The most significant predictor was found to be Crime Scene Examiner accreditation with offense type and DNA sample condition also being relevant. A similar logistical regression of DNA samples profiled that produced a match with an offender on the U.K. National DNA database showed no significance with any of the predictors considered.
Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao
Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.
Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed
In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.
Full Text Available This study described the process of developing and validating the cause analysis scale (CAS that can be utilized by governmental organizations to determine possible causes of performance factors. In the first phase of the study, data collected from 315 CSI officers provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale. After exploratory factor analysis, three factors emerged: the workplace, competency, and job value. To confirm the factorial structure of the 25-item CAS, in the second phase, data collected from 1176 CSI officers. The confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the three-factor model was confirmed a good fit with high indices. Followed by the further validation studies, the CAS will be used as a diagnostic tool for researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders to determine performance factors from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Jan M. Broekman
Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.
Clark, Caroline T.; Blackburn, Mollie V.
This study examines LGBT-inclusive and queering discourses in five recent award-winning LGBT-themed young adult books. The analysis brought scenes of violence and sex/love scenes to the fore. Violent scenes offered readers messages that LGBT people are either the victims of violence-fueled hatred and fear, or, in some cases, showed a gay person…
Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.
The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...
training the algorithm to learn the background parameters. The need to train such algorithms for each scene separately limits their ability to be...deployed for automatic surveillance tasks, where manual re- training of the module to operate in each new scene is not feasible. A further shortcoming in...and (b). The camera panning is such that the objects of interest, viz. the two cyclists , undergo very small motion in the image coordinates. Figure 1
Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B
In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the
Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings
Lukes, George E.
Recent activity in synthetic reference scene generation from geographic data bases has lead to new and expanding production responsibilities for the mapping community. It has also spawned a new and growing population of geographic data base users. Optimum utilization of this data requires an understanding of the natural and cultural patterns represented as well as knowledge of the conventions and specifications which guide data base preparation. Prudence dictates effective mechanisms for data base inspection by the user. Appropriate implementation of data display procedures can provide this capability while also supporting routine analysis of data base content. This paper first illustrates a set of convenient mechanisms for the display of the elevation and planimetric components of geographic data files. Then, a new USAETL program in Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation Research (CAPIR) is introduced. The CAPIR program will explore issues of direct data entry to create geographic data bases from stereo aerial photography. CAPIR also provides a technique for displaying geographic data base contents in corresponding three-dimensional photo models. This capability, termed superposition, will impact on the critical tasks of data validation, revision and intensification which are essential for effective management of geographic files.
The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts.
Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Wilm, Jakob; Doest, Mads Brix; Gundlach, Carsten; Eiriksson, Eythor Runar; Conradsen, Knut; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Aanæs, Henrik
Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces. This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content creation. It is also useful for identifying and improving issues in the different steps of the pipeline. In this work, we use it to improve reconstruction, apply analysis by synthesis to estimate optical properties, and to develop our method for scene reassembly.
synthesis algorithms and techniques in order to DD toA *N13 1473 01’IIO 1~ NOV 65 IS OSSOLETE UCASFE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGC (AMwnDts Oa. nleord...buffer constraints. The paging is guided by a user-specified cost func- tion which, for instance, could reflect that a minimum number of pages is...images primarily of the type produced by LANDSAT satel- lites [105, 106]. Emphasis was placed on the design of a high-level, interactive language
Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang
Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.
Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.
This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.
Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei
Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of
Pritchard, Alan P.; Venables, Mark A.; Lake, Stephen P.; Gough, David W.
We describe incremental improvements in measurement, understanding and control of sensor-perceived scene accuracy factors for BAe resistor-array IR scene projector devices by means of system and device design, analysis and measurement methodology. Progress has been made in the areas of fill- factor measurement, aliasing effects, dead pixel statistics, image spreading, the design of non-uniformity correction (NUC) systems, busbar robbing, heatsink effects and noise sources.
Arbib, Michael A; Lee, Jinyong
The present paper is part of a larger effort to locate the production and perception of language within the broader context of brain mechanisms for action and perception more generally. Here we model function in terms of the competition and cooperation of schemas. We use the task of describing visual scenes to explore the suitability of Construction Grammar as an appropriate framework for a schema-based linguistics. We recall the early VISIONS model of schema-based computer analysis of static visual scenes and then introduce SemRep as a graphical representation of dynamic visual scenes designed to support the generation of varied descriptions of episodes. We report preliminary results on implementing the production of sentences using Template Construction Grammar (TCG), a new form of construction grammar distinguished by its use of SemRep to express semantics. We summarize data on neural correlates relevant to future work on TCG within the context of neurolinguistics, and show how the relation between SemRep and TCG can serve as the basis for modeling language comprehension.
Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.
Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.
Touroo, R; Fitch, A
Although it is the obligation of the veterinary forensic pathologist to be competent in identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence from the body, it is also necessary for them to understand the relevance of conditions on the crime scene. The body is just one piece of the puzzle that needs to be considered when determining the cause of death. The information required for a complete postmortem analysis should also include details of the animal's environment and items of evidence present on the crime scene. These factors will assist the veterinary forensic pathologist in the interpretation of necropsy findings. Therefore, the veterinary forensic pathologist needs to have a basic understanding of how the crime scene is processed, as well as the role of the forensic veterinarian on scene. In addition, the veterinary forensic pathologist must remain unbiased, necessitating an understanding of evidence maintenance and authentication. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram
cultural traditions with envisioned future independence. Hence, the chapter introduces the central members of the cast of characters in the most important narratives, which Greenland is telling about its place in the world. The analysis shows how narratives about indigenous identity combines...... - and infrequently clashes - with narratives of modernization in different ways when Greenland relates to Inuit kinsmen, Nordic siblings, the UN, the USA, the EU and Asian powers; the presentation of each character put in historical perspective. Theoretically, the analysis draws on a tradition of analysing...
Ihssen, Niklas; Keil, Andreas
Perceptual processing of natural scene pictures is enhanced when the scene conveys emotional content. Such "motivated attention" to pleasant and unpleasant pictures has been shown to improve identification accuracy in non-speeded behavioural tasks. An open question is whether emotional content also modulates the speed of visual scene processing. In the present studies we show that unpleasant content reliably slowed two-choice categorization of pictures, irrespective of physical image properties, perceptual complexity, and categorization instructions. Conversely, pleasant content did not slow or even accelerated choice reactions, relative to neutral scenes. As indicated by lateralized readiness potentials, these effects occurred at cognitive processing rather than motor preparation/execution stages. Specifically, analysis of event-related potentials showed a prolongation of early scene discrimination for stimuli perceived as emotionally arousing, regardless of valence, and reflected in delayed peaks of the N1 component. In contrast, the timing of other processing steps, reflected in the P2 and late positive potential components and presumably related to post-discriminatory processes such as stimulus-response mapping, appeared to be determined by hedonic valence, with more pleasant scenes eliciting faster processing. Consistent with this model, varying arousal (low/high) within the emotional categories mediated the effects of valence on choice reaction speed. Functionally, arousal may prolong stimulus analysis in order to prevent erroneous and potentially harmful decisions. Pleasantness may act as a safety signal allowing rapid initiation of overt responses.
Schildwachter, Eric F.; Boreman, Glenn D.
The Scophony scene projector has been examined in detail. Modulation transfer function was measured and found to be significantly lower than expected. The discrepancy is shown to be due to variation in the Bragg angle with input frequency. Experimental data is compared with calculated performance.
navigate along interstate routes at speeds in excess of 110 mph, and the inclusion of the first down line in televised football games . These...roughly 2000 feet above the target based on the Sadr City scene dimensions and scaling fac - tors. Images were rendered at a resolution of 1000×1000 as
Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah
This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the…
On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.
Calvo, Manuel G.; Lang, Peter J.
The authors investigated whether emotional pictorial stimuli are especially likely to be processed in parafoveal vision. Pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented parafoveally (2.1[degrees] or 2.5[degrees] of visual angle from a central fixation point) for 150-3,000 ms, followed by an immediate recognition test (500-ms delay).…
Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin
We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.
This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.
Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.
The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.
Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram
Greenland has for decades worked towards enhanced independent agency in international politics. The renewed global interest in the Arctic has given new impetus to a strategy of diversifying its dependency relations as a way to postcoloniality. As the Government of Greenland puts it in its foreign...... policy strategy; “It is important that the interest in the Arctic and Greenland is converted into concrete opportunities for the Greenlandic people and its development as a nation” (2011:3). This chapter investigates how Greenland’s foreign policy supports the national self-image in combining indigenous...... cultural traditions with envisioned future independence. Hence, the chapter introduces the central members of the cast of characters in the most important narratives, which Greenland is telling about its place in the world. The analysis shows how narratives about indigenous identity combines...
Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H
Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.
Yao, Guangle; Lei, Tao; Zhong, Jiandan; Jiang, Ping; Jia, Wenwu
Background subtraction (BS) is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in video analysis and tracking systems. It distinguishes the foreground (moving objects) from the video sequences captured by static imaging sensors. Background subtraction in remote scene infrared (IR) video is important and common to lots of fields. This paper provides a Remote Scene IR Dataset captured by our designed medium-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor. Each video sequence in this dataset is identified with specific BS challenges and the pixel-wise ground truth of foreground (FG) for each frame is also provided. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate BS algorithms on this proposed dataset. The overall performance of BS algorithms and the processor/memory requirements were compared. Proper evaluation metrics or criteria were employed to evaluate the capability of each BS algorithm to handle different kinds of BS challenges represented in this dataset. The results and conclusions in this paper provide valid references to develop new BS algorithm for remote scene IR video sequence, and some of them are not only limited to remote scene or IR video sequence but also generic for background subtraction. The Remote Scene IR dataset and the foreground masks detected by each evaluated BS algorithm are available online: https://github.com/JerryYaoGl/BSEvaluationRemoteSceneIR. PMID:28837112
Full Text Available Background subtraction (BS is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in video analysis and tracking systems. It distinguishes the foreground (moving objects from the video sequences captured by static imaging sensors. Background subtraction in remote scene infrared (IR video is important and common to lots of fields. This paper provides a Remote Scene IR Dataset captured by our designed medium-wave infrared (MWIR sensor. Each video sequence in this dataset is identified with specific BS challenges and the pixel-wise ground truth of foreground (FG for each frame is also provided. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate BS algorithms on this proposed dataset. The overall performance of BS algorithms and the processor/memory requirements were compared. Proper evaluation metrics or criteria were employed to evaluate the capability of each BS algorithm to handle different kinds of BS challenges represented in this dataset. The results and conclusions in this paper provide valid references to develop new BS algorithm for remote scene IR video sequence, and some of them are not only limited to remote scene or IR video sequence but also generic for background subtraction. The Remote Scene IR dataset and the foreground masks detected by each evaluated BS algorithm are available online: https://github.com/JerryYaoGl/BSEvaluationRemoteSceneIR.
Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka
To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.
Anderson, Allison P; Mayer, Michael D; Fellows, Abigail M; Cowan, Devin R; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C
Virtual reality (VR) can provide exposure to nature for those living in isolated confined environments. We evaluated VR-presented natural settings for reducing stress and improving mood. There were 18 participants (9 men, 9 women), ages 32 ± 12 yr, who viewed three 15-min 360° scenes (an indoor control, rural Ireland, and remote beaches). Subjects were mentally stressed with arithmetic before scenes. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate variability measured psycho-physiological arousal. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the 15-question Modified Reality Judgment and Presence Questionnaire (MRJPQ) measured mood and scene quality. Reductions in EDA from baseline were greater at the end of the natural scenes compared to the control scene (-0.59, -0.52, and 0.32 μS, respectively). The natural scenes reduced negative affect from baseline ( 1.2 and 1.1 points), but the control scene did not ( 0.4 points). MRJPQ scores for the control scene were lower than both natural scenes (4.9, 6.7, and 6.5 points, respectively). Within the two natural scenes, the preferred scene reduced negative affect ( 2.4 points) more than the second choice scene ( 1.8 points) and scored higher on the MRJPQ (6.8 vs. 6.4 points). Natural scene VR provided relaxation both objectively and subjectively, and scene preference had a significant effect on mood and perception of scene quality. VR may enable relaxation for people living in isolated confined environments, particularly when matched to personal preferences.Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):520526.
Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R
We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.
Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A
The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention...
Error NUC Non-Uniformity Correction RMSE Root Mean Squared Error RSD Relative Standard Deviation S3NUC Static Scene Statistical Non-Uniformity...Deviation ( RSD ) which normalizes the standard deviation, σ, to the mean estimated value, µ using the equation RS D = σ µ × 100. The RSD plot of the gain...estimates is shown in Figure 4.1(b). The RSD plot shows that after a sample size of approximately 10, the different photocount values and the inclusion
Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio; Barbara Siemiątkowska
Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic infere...
Kaakinen, Johanna K; Hyönä, Jukka; Viljanen, Minna
In the study, 33 participants viewed photographs from either a potential homebuyer's or a burglar's perspective, or in preparation for a memory test, while their eye movements were recorded. A free recall and a picture recognition task were performed after viewing. The results showed that perspective had rapid effects, in that the second fixation after the scene onset was more likely to land on perspective-relevant than on perspective-irrelevant areas within the scene. Perspective-relevant areas also attracted longer total fixation time, more visits, and longer first-pass dwell times than did perspective-irrelevant areas. As for the effects of visual saliency, the first fixation was more likely to land on a salient than on a nonsalient area; salient areas also attracted more visits and longer total fixation time than did nonsalient areas. Recall and recognition performance reflected the eye fixation results: Both were overall higher for perspective-relevant than for perspective-irrelevant scene objects. The relatively low error rates in the recognition task suggest that participants had gained an accurate memory for scene objects. The findings suggest that the role of bottom-up versus top-down factors varies as a function of viewing task and the time-course of scene processing. © 2011 The Experimental Psychology Society
Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David
A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.
Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J
How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.
Elissa Michele Aminoff
Full Text Available How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective – the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA, the retrosplenial complex (RSC, and the occipital place area (TOS – have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size, rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: 1 BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; 2 behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and 3 several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: 1 models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; 2 NEIL and SUN – the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS – were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; 3 The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method – NEIL (Never-Ending-Image-Learner, which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes – showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.
Fiori, Elisabetta; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio
weather events considered for the high-end simulations and the completion of the flood forecasting chain. A further aim of the SCENE project is a performance analysis of the WRF model. We will arrange a set of test to study the scalability of the model, the impact of nesting domains, to evaluate I/O operation issues, and to compare performance using shared and distributed memory architectures when it is possible. The aim is to obtain these information by varying physical parameterizations to classify HPC resources on the base of such benchmarking information. The SCENE project has been founded and it is now starting.
Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A
Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total
Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E
Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available From the recognition of the tension between reality and fiction in contemporary theatre, generally defined as theatre of the real, we intend to make an intersection of this phenomenon with the theoretical field of performativity, which focuses on the work in process, dynamic transformation and experience. The intention is to associate the theory of performativity to observations about the latest work of Theatre Vertigo, directed by Antonio Araujo, Bom Retiro 958 metros. The use of genetic ways to approach theatre will serve as a motto to interpret some aspects of the creative process and the scene.
Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.
This essay presents a contemporary translation of and brief commentary on the gay bashing scene found in Marcel Proust's A la Recherche du Temps perdu: Le Côté de Guermantes, Tome I. The paper notes that Proust argues in this passage for the acceptance of homosexuality for two main reasons: because gay bashing won't eradicate it; and because gayness is the simple, direct movement of a being toward perceived beauty. The paper suggests that Proust reveals his own gayness (and that of his protagonist) by employing the latter argument in defense of homosexuality whereas, throughout the novel, he presents heterosexual attraction as an immensely indirect, artistically manufactured construct.
Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude
The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.
Early investigators, such as French (1939), observed that asthma patients need to repress their sexual and aggressive impulses in an attempt to retain their mother's love. Early traumatic experiences (Brown and Goitein 1946), illness, primal scene, death in the family, miscarriage or birth of a sibling have all been mentioned as precursors of asthmatic attacks. These factors are also of considerable relevance in the case material presented here. Emphasized in this presentation, in addition to the above mentioned factors, are critical aspects of primal scene traumatic experiences and their role in the subsequent development of sadomasochistic character formation. This sadomasochism plays a considerable role in the later eruption of asthmatic symptomatology. The crucial factor in the asthmatic symptomatology arises from the effect of the traumatic experiences which are associatively linked to these sadomasochistic fantasies. Clinical material of an asthmatic girl with learning inhibitions and sleeping difficulties is presented. She demonstrates a clownish sadomasochistic type of behavior reflecting a disturbance in her object relationships. During the course of analysis, it was revealed that specific unconscious fantasies, associated with early traumatic experiences, played a predominant role in the development of her sadomasochistic attitudes. These, in turn, were linked to her asthmatic attacks.
Sebastian, Stephen; Abrams, Jared; Geisler, Wilson S
A fundamental everyday visual task is to detect target objects within a background scene. Using relatively simple stimuli, vision science has identified several major factors that affect detection thresholds, including the luminance of the background, the contrast of the background, the spatial similarity of the background to the target, and uncertainty due to random variations in the properties of the background and in the amplitude of the target. Here we use an experimental approach based on constrained sampling from multidimensional histograms of natural stimuli, together with a theoretical analysis based on signal detection theory, to discover how these factors affect detection in natural scenes. We sorted a large collection of natural image backgrounds into multidimensional histograms, where each bin corresponds to a particular luminance, contrast, and similarity. Detection thresholds were measured for a subset of bins spanning the space, where a natural background was randomly sampled from a bin on each trial. In low-uncertainty conditions, both the background bin and the amplitude of the target were fixed, and, in high-uncertainty conditions, they varied randomly on each trial. We found that thresholds increase approximately linearly along all three dimensions and that detection accuracy is unaffected by background bin and target amplitude uncertainty. The results are predicted from first principles by a normalized matched-template detector, where the dynamic normalizing gain factor follows directly from the statistical properties of the natural backgrounds. The results provide an explanation for classic laws of psychophysics and their underlying neural mechanisms.
Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.
Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients’ scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. PMID:24231038
Li, Linyi; Xu, Tingbao; Chen, Yun
In recent years the spatial resolutions of remote sensing images have been improved greatly. However, a higher spatial resolution image does not always lead to a better result of automatic scene classification. Visual attention is an important characteristic of the human visual system, which can effectively help to classify remote sensing scenes. In this study, a novel visual attention feature extraction algorithm was proposed, which extracted visual attention features through a multiscale process. And a fuzzy classification method using visual attention features (FC-VAF) was developed to perform high resolution remote sensing scene classification. FC-VAF was evaluated by using remote sensing scenes from widely used high resolution remote sensing images, including IKONOS, QuickBird, and ZY-3 images. FC-VAF achieved more accurate classification results than the others according to the quantitative accuracy evaluation indices. We also discussed the role and impacts of different decomposition levels and different wavelets on the classification accuracy. FC-VAF improves the accuracy of high resolution scene classification and therefore advances the research of digital image analysis and the applications of high resolution remote sensing images.
Full Text Available In recent years the spatial resolutions of remote sensing images have been improved greatly. However, a higher spatial resolution image does not always lead to a better result of automatic scene classification. Visual attention is an important characteristic of the human visual system, which can effectively help to classify remote sensing scenes. In this study, a novel visual attention feature extraction algorithm was proposed, which extracted visual attention features through a multiscale process. And a fuzzy classification method using visual attention features (FC-VAF was developed to perform high resolution remote sensing scene classification. FC-VAF was evaluated by using remote sensing scenes from widely used high resolution remote sensing images, including IKONOS, QuickBird, and ZY-3 images. FC-VAF achieved more accurate classification results than the others according to the quantitative accuracy evaluation indices. We also discussed the role and impacts of different decomposition levels and different wavelets on the classification accuracy. FC-VAF improves the accuracy of high resolution scene classification and therefore advances the research of digital image analysis and the applications of high resolution remote sensing images.
Chen, Qiang; Xu, Hongguo; Tan, Lidong
In order to address the difficulty of arranging large calibration objects and the low measurement accuracy of small calibration objects in traffic accident scene photogrammetry, a photogrammetric method based on a composite of small calibration objects is proposed. Several small calibration objects are placed around the traffic accident scene, and the coordinate system of the composite calibration object is given based on one of them. By maintaining the relative position and coplanar relationship of the small calibration objects, the local coordinate system of each small calibration object is transformed into the coordinate system of the composite calibration object. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation method is improved based on minimizing the reprojection error of the calibration points of all objects. A rectified image is obtained using the nonlinear optimization method. The increased accuracy of traffic accident scene photogrammetry using a composite small calibration object is demonstrated through the analysis of field experiments and case studies.
Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A
The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.
Zhou, Bolei; Lapedriza, Agata; Khosla, Aditya; Oliva, Aude; Torralba, Antonio
The rise of multi-million-item dataset initiatives has enabled data-hungry machine learning algorithms to reach near-human semantic classification performance at tasks such as visual object and scene recognition. Here we describe the Places Database, a repository of 10 million scene photographs, labeled with scene semantic categories, comprising a large and diverse list of the types of environments encountered in the world. Using the state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), we provide scene classification CNNs (Places-CNNs) as baselines, that significantly outperform the previous approaches. Visualization of the CNNs trained on Places shows that object detectors emerge as an intermediate representation of scene classification. With its high-coverage and high-diversity of exemplars, the Places Database along with the Places-CNNs offer a novel resource to guide future progress on scene recognition problems.
Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.
The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written
Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Brennan, David J; Moskowitz, David A; Gardner, Sandra; Hart, Trevor A
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution. Half (50%) of the GBM reported no or minimal participation in any scene, 28% reported participating in the dance club scene, 16% reported participating in the BDSM, bear, and leather scenes, and 6% reported participating in circuit, party and play, and sex party scenes. Compared to GBM who did not participate in scenes, GBM participating in the BDSM-Bear-Leather scene were more likely to be older, white, to report higher sexual self-esteem, and to engage in condomless anal sex; Party and Play scene members were more likely to be of Asian origin, and to use drugs before and during sex, whereas Dance Club scene members were more likely to be younger and to report lower self-esteem but higher hope. LCA allowed us to identify distinct social niches or micro-cultures and factors characterizing these micro-cultures. GBM differ in their risk for HIV and STIs according to characteristics associated with participation in distinct micro-cultures associated with scenes. Tailored interventions may be needed that focus on reducing HIV risk and promoting sexual health in specific contexts such as the BDSM-Bear-Leather and Party and Play.
Li, Shuohao; Han, Anqi; Chen, Xu; Yin, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jun
Recognizing text in images captured in the wild is a fundamental preprocessing task for many computer vision and machine learning applications and has gained significant attention in recent years. This paper proposes an end-to-end trainable deep review neural network for scene text recognition, which is a combination of feature extraction, feature reviewing, feature attention, and sequence recognition. Our model can generate the predicted text without any segmentation or grouping algorithm. Because the attention model in the feature attention stage lacks global modeling ability, a review network is applied to extract the global context of sequence data in the feature reviewing stage. We perform rigorous experiments across a number of standard benchmarks, including IIIT5K, SVT, ICDAR03, and ICDAR13 datasets. Experimental results show that our model is comparable to or outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.
We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.
Full Text Available Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic inference using Dempster-Shafer theory, which makes it possible to handle observations that have different degrees and kinds of uncertainty. The system has been implemented and tested in a real indoor environment, showing the benefits of the proposed approach.
Every doctor regardless of specialization in his practice may meet the need to provide assistance to victims of crime-related action. In this article there were disscused the issues of informing the investigative authorities about the crime, ensuring the safety of themselves and the environment at the scene. It also shows the specific elements of necessary procedures and practice to deal with the victims designed to securing any evidence present of potential or committed crime in proper manner. Special attention has been given to medical operation and other, necessary in case of certain criminal groups, among the latter we need to underline: actions against sexual freedom and decency, bodily integrity, life and well-being of human, and specially homicide, infanticide and suicide.
Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...
Watkins, Wendell R.; Zegel, Ferdinand H.; Triplett, Milton J.
Various papers on the characterization, propagation, and simulation of IR scenes are presented. Individual topics addressed include: total radiant exitance measurements, absolute measurement of diffuse and specular reflectance using an FTIR spectrometer with an integrating sphere, fundamental limits in temperature estimation, incorporating the BRDF into an IR scene-generation system, characterizing IR dynamic response for foliage backgrounds, modeling sea surface effects in FLIR performance codes, automated imaging IR seeker performance evaluation system, generation of signature data bases with fast codes, background measurements using the NPS-IRST system. Also discussed are: naval ocean IR background analysis, camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier, discussion of IR scene generators, multiwavelength Scophony IR scene projector, LBIR target generator and calibrator for preflight seeker tests, dual-mode hardware-in-the-loop simulation facility, development of the IR blackbody source of gravity-type heat pipe and study of its characteristic.
Full Text Available Scene classification of high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery is an important task in the intelligent processing of remote sensing images and has attracted much attention in recent years. Although the existing scene classification methods, e.g., the bag-of-words (BOW model and its variants, can achieve acceptable performance, these approaches strongly rely on the extraction of local features and the complicated coding strategy, which are usually time consuming and demand much expert effort. In this paper, we propose a fast binary coding (FBC method, to effectively generate efficient discriminative scene representations of HRRS images. The main idea is inspired by the unsupervised feature learning technique and the binary feature descriptions. More precisely, equipped with the unsupervised feature learning technique, we first learn a set of optimal “filters” from large quantities of randomly-sampled image patches and then obtain feature maps by convolving the image scene with the learned filters. After binarizing the feature maps, we perform a simple hashing step to convert the binary-valued feature map to the integer-valued feature map. Finally, statistical histograms computed on the integer-valued feature map are used as global feature representations of the scenes of HRRS images, similar to the conventional BOW model. The analysis of the algorithm complexity and experiments on HRRS image datasets demonstrate that, in contrast with existing scene classification approaches, the proposed FBC has much faster computational speed and achieves comparable classification performance. In addition, we also propose two extensions to FBC, i.e., the spatial co-occurrence matrix and different visual saliency maps, for further improving its final classification accuracy.
Leech, Robert; Gygi, Brian; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic
In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a composite background scene created by playing different background scenes to the different ears. The side of presentation, time of onset, and number of target sounds were varied across trials to increase the uncertainty for the participant. Half the sounds were contextually congruent with the background sound (i.e., consistent with the meaningful real-world sound environment represented in the auditory scene) and half were incongruent. The presence of a single competing background scene decreased identification accuracy, suggesting an informational masking effect. In tandem, there was a contextual pop-out effect, with contextually incongruent sounds identified more accurately. However, when targets were incongruent with the real-world context of the background scene, informational masking was reduced. Acoustic analyses suggested that this contextual pop-out effect was driven by a mixture of perceptual differences between the target and background, as well as by higher-level cognitive factors. These findings indicate that identification of environmental sounds in naturalistic backgrounds is an active process that requires integrating perceptual, attentional, and cognitive resources.
salient objects and environments providing mutual context (i.e., a primary or key object in an outdoor scene embedded in a realistic environmental ...tracking: a two part vision system for small robot navigation in forested environment . Proc. SPIE 8387, Unmanned Systems Technology XIV Conference; 2012...of realistic autonomous outdoor missions in complex and changing environments . Scene understanding for realistic outdoor missions has been
Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.
In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…
Gottesman, Carmela V.
Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…
Nuthmann, Antje; Smith, Tim J.; Engbert, Ralf; Henderson, John M.
Eye-movement control during scene viewing can be represented as a series of individual decisions about where and when to move the eyes. While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations.…
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.
The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…
van Gemert, J.C.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Veenman, C.J.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.
We present a generic and robust approach for scene categorization. A complex scene is described by proto-concepts like vegetation, water, fire, sky etc. These proto-concepts are represented by low level features, where we use natural images statistics to compactly represent color invariant texture
Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario
The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Hayes, Taylor R; Henderson, John M
From the earliest recordings of eye movements during active scene viewing to the present day, researchers have commonly reported individual differences in eye movement scan patterns under constant stimulus and task demands. These findings suggest viewer individual differences may be important for understanding gaze control during scene viewing. However, the relationship between scan patterns and viewer individual differences during scene viewing remains poorly understood because scan patterns are difficult to analyze. The present study uses a powerful technique called Successor Representation Scanpath Analysis (Hayes, Petrov, & Sederberg, 2011, 2015) to quantify the strength of the association between individual differences in scan patterns during real-world scene viewing and individual differences in viewer intelligence, working memory capacity, and speed of processing. The results of this analysis revealed individual differences in scan patterns that explained more than 40% of the variance in viewer intelligence and working memory capacity measures, and more than a third of the variance in speed of processing measures. The theoretical implications of our findings for models of gaze control and avenues for future individual differences research are discussed.
Hu, Tao; Qi, Yuxiao; Li, Shipeng
For intelligent service robots, indoor scene classification is an important issue. To overcome the weak real-time performance of conventional algorithms, a new method based on Cloud computing is proposed for global image features in indoor scene classification. With MapReduce method, global PHOG feature of indoor scene image is extracted in parallel. And, feature eigenvector is used to train the decision classifier through SVM concurrently. Then, the indoor scene is validly classified by decision classifier. To verify the algorithm performance, we carried out an experiment with 350 typical indoor scene images from MIT LabelMe image library. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can attain better real-time performance. Generally, it is 1.4 2.1 times faster than traditional classification methods which rely on single computation, while keeping stable classification correct rate as 70%.
Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald
Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.
Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.
Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.
In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.
Bernard Marius e’t Hart
Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.
Mullally, Sinéad L; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A
Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients' scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo
Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.
de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J
Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario. The present study builds on this study and gains more insight into (1) the exact investigative and forensic information that was used by CSIs to construct their scenario, (2) the inferences drawn from this information, and (3) the kind of evidence that was selected at the crime scene to (dis)prove this scenario. We asked 48 CSIs to investigate a potential murder crime scene on the computer and explicate what information they used to construct a scenario and to select traces for analysis. The results show that the introduction of rapid ID information at the start of an investigation contributes to the recognition of different clues at the crime scene, but also to different interpretations of identical information, depending on the kind of information available and the scenario one has in mind. Furthermore, not all relevant traces were recognized, showing that important information can be missed during the investigation. In this study, accurate crime scenarios where mainly build with forensic information, but we should be aware of the fact that crime scenes are always contaminated with unrelated traces and thus be cautious of the power of rapid ID at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Schweinhart, April M; Essock, Edward A
Natural scenes tend to be biased in both scale (1/f) and orientation (H > V > O; horizontal > vertical > oblique), and the human visual system has similar biases that serve to partially 'undo' (ie whiten) the resultant representation. The present approach to investigating this relationship considers content in works of art-scenes produced for processing by the human visual system. We analyzed the content of images by a method that minimizes errors inherent in some prior analysis methods. In the first experiment museum paintings were considered by comparing the amplitude spectrum of landscape paintings, natural scene photos, portrait paintings, and photos of faces. In the second experiment we obtained photos of paintings at the time they were produced by local artists and compared structural content in matched photos which contained the same scenes that the artists had painted. Results show that artists produce paintings with both the 1/f bias of scale and the horizontal-effect bias of orientation (H > V > O). More importantly, results from both experiments show that artists overregularize the structure in their works: they impose the natural-scene horizontal effect at all structural scales and in all types of subject matter even though, in the real world, the pattern of anisotropy differs considerably across spatial scale and between faces and natural scenes. It appears that artists unconsciously overregularize the oriented structure in their works to make it conform more uniformly to the 'expected' canonical ideal.
Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.
Durnal, Evan W
A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Li, Weixin; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno
The detection and localization of anomalous behaviors in crowded scenes is considered, and a joint detector of temporal and spatial anomalies is proposed. The proposed detector is based on a video representation that accounts for both appearance and dynamics, using a set of mixture of dynamic textures models. These models are used to implement 1) a center-surround discriminant saliency detector that produces spatial saliency scores, and 2) a model of normal behavior that is learned from training data and produces temporal saliency scores. Spatial and temporal anomaly maps are then defined at multiple spatial scales, by considering the scores of these operators at progressively larger regions of support. The multiscale scores act as potentials of a conditional random field that guarantees global consistency of the anomaly judgments. A data set of densely crowded pedestrian walkways is introduced and used to evaluate the proposed anomaly detector. Experiments on this and other data sets show that the latter achieves state-of-the-art anomaly detection results.
Barr, David A; Haigh, Craig A; Haller, Jeannie M; Smith, Denise L
The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate aspects of medical monitoring, including medical complaints, vital signs at entry, and vital sign recovery, in firefighters during rehabilitation following operational firefighting duties. Incident scene rehabilitation logs obtained over a 5-year span that included 53 incidents, approximately 40 fire departments, and more than 530 firefighters were reviewed. Only 13 of 694 cases involved a firefighter reporting a medical complaint. In most cases, vital signs were similar between firefighters who registered a complaint and those who did not. On average, heart rate was 104 ± 23 beats·min(-1), systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 17 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81 ± 12 mmHg, and respiratory rate was 19 ± 3 breaths·min(-1) upon entry into rehabilitation. At least two measurements of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate were obtained for 365, 383, 376, and 160 cases, respectively. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and respiratory rate decreased significantly (p firefighters recovered from the physiological stress of firefighting without any medical complaint or symptoms. Furthermore, vital signs were within fire service suggested guidelines for release within 10 or 20 minutes of rehabilitation. The data suggested that vital signs of firefighters with medical symptoms were not significantly different from vital signs of firefighters who had an unremarkable recovery.
Foulsham, Tom; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan; Dewhurst, Richard; Underwood, Geoffrey
Models of eye movement control in natural scenes often distinguish between stimulus-driven processes (which guide the eyes to visually salient regions) and those based on task and object knowledge (which depend on expectations or identification of objects and scene gist). In the present investigation, the eye movements of a patient with visual agnosia were recorded while she searched for objects within photographs of natural scenes and compared to those made by students and age-matched controls. Agnosia is assumed to disrupt the top-down knowledge available in this task, and so may increase the reliance on bottom-up cues. The patient's deficit in object recognition was seen in poor search performance and inefficient scanning. The low-level saliency of target objects had an effect on responses in visual agnosia, and the most salient region in the scene was more likely to be fixated by the patient than by controls. An analysis of model-predicted saliency at fixation locations indicated a closer match between fixations and low-level saliency in agnosia than in controls. These findings are discussed in relation to saliency-map models and the balance between high and low-level factors in eye guidance.
Lutsiv, Vadim; Potapov, Alexey; Novikova, Tatiana; Lapina, Nina
The investigation presented in this article continues our long-term efforts directed towards the automatic structural matching of aerospace photographs. An efficient target independent hierarchical structural matching tool was described in our previous paper, which, however, was aimed mostly for the analysis of 2D scenes. It applied the same geometric transformation model to the whole area of image, thus it was nice for the space photographs taken from rather high orbits, but it often failed in the cases when the sensors were positioned near the 3D scenes being observed. Different transformation models should be applied to different parts of images in the last case, and finding a correct separation of image into the areas of homogeneous geometric transformations was the main problem. Now we succeeded in separating the images of scenes into the surfaces of different objects on the base of their textural and spectral features, thus we have got a possibility of separate matching the sub-images corresponding to such objects applying different transformation model to each such sub-image. Some additional limitations were used in the course of such separation and matching. In particular, the a priory assumptions were applied in different cases about the possible geometry of scenes, rules of illumination and shadowing, thus the aerospace photographs, indoor scenes, or images of aircrafts were analyzed in slightly differing ways. However the additional limitations applied could be considered as very general and are worth to be used in a wide sphere of practical tasks. The automatic image analysis was successful in all considered practical cases.
Castelhano, Monica S; Pereira, Effie J
Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away. The preview object could be identical to the target, visually similar, visually dissimilar, or a control (black rectangle). The preview changed to the target object once a saccade toward the object was made. Critically, the objects were presented on either a consistent or an inconsistent scene background. Results revealed that there was a greater processing benefit for consistent than inconsistent scene backgrounds and that identical and visually similar previews produced greater processing benefits than other previews. In the second experiment, we added an additional context condition in which the target location was inconsistent, but the scene semantics remained consistent. We found that changing the location of the target object disrupted the processing benefit derived from the consistent context. Most importantly, across both experiments, the effect of preview was not enhanced by scene context. Thus, preview information and scene context appear to independently boost the parafoveal processing of objects without any interaction from object-scene congruency.
Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert
Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.
Coopman, Vera; Cordonnier, Jan; De Leeuw, Marc; Cirimele, Vincent
This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Quantitation of ocfentanil in biological samples was performed using a target analysis based on liquid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In the femoral blood taken at the external body examination, the following concentrations were measured: ocfentanil 15.3μg/L, acetaminophen 45mg/L and caffeine 0.23mg/L. Tissues sampled at autopsy were analyzed to study the distribution of ocfentanil. The comprehensive systematic toxicological analysis on the post-mortem blood and tissue samples was negative for other compounds. Based on circumstantial evidence, autopsy findings and the results of the toxicological analysis, the medical examiner concluded that the cause of death was an acute intoxication with ocfentanil. The manner of death was assumed to be accidental after snorting the powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.
Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.
Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary
This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise...
Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera
Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y
Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mullally, Sinéad L.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.
Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the...
Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Birmingham, Elina; Bischof, Walter F; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan
Simultanagnosia is a disorder of visual attention, defined as an inability to see more than one object at once. It has been conceived as being due to a constriction of the visual "window" of attention, a metaphor that we examine in the present article. A simultanagnosic patient (SL) and two non-simultanagnosic control patients (KC and ES) described social scenes while their eye movements were monitored. These data were compared to a group of healthy subjects who described the same scenes under the same conditions as the patients, or through an aperture that restricted their vision to a small portion of the scene. Experiment 1 demonstrated that SL showed unusually low proportions of fixations to the eyes in social scenes, which contrasted with all other participants who demonstrated the standard preferential bias toward eyes. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when healthy participants viewed scenes through a window that was contingent on where they looked (Experiment 2) or where they moved a computer mouse (Experiment 3), their behavior closely mirrored that of patient SL. These findings suggest that a constricted window of visual processing has important consequences for how simultanagnosic patients explore their world. Our paradigm's capacity to mimic simultanagnosic behaviors while viewing complex scenes implies that it may be a valid way of modeling simultanagnosia in healthy individuals, providing a useful tool for future research. More broadly, our results support the thesis that people fixate the eyes in social scenes because they are informative to the meaning of the scene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ji, Xiangyang; Miao, Changlong; Zhang, Yongbing; Lin, Xing; Dai, Qionghai
Separating reflective and fluorescent components by hyperspectral (HS) imaging is significant in many applications. This paper designs an imaging system, where both HS reflective images and HS fluorescent images could be obtained from the same scene, even scenes within moving objects. The system consists of a high-frequency-spectra light source and a spatially-spectrally encoded camera. During the capture phase, the light source illuminates the scene with two high-frequency lighting patterns complemented in the spectral domain by turns, then encoded camera captures a image pair accordingly. During the reconstruction phase, sparsity of the natural reflective and fluorescent HS images is utilized to recover reflective and fluorescent spectra from encoded image pair. Benefited from double-shot imaging system, dynamic scene could also be handled. The method is tested in various datasets(including synthetic and real data), and the results demonstrate that the system could achieve high-resolution hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence recovery with high-accuracy for dynamic scenes, which can be applied for spectral relighting of real scenes.
Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki
Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the “butcher-on-the-bus” effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds...
Azumi eTanabe-Ishibashi; Takashi eIkeda; Naoyuki eOsaka
Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. ...
Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut
In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic
Tanabe-Ishibashi, Azumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Naoyuki
Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the "butcher-on-the-bus" effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene) or meaningless (scrambled scene) backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1) disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2) weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by two different subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.
Full Text Available Many people have experienced the inability to recognize a familiar face in a changed context, a phenomenon known as the butcher-on-the-bus effect. Whether this context effect is a facilitation of memory by old contexts or a disturbance of memory by novel contexts is of great debate. Here, we investigated how two types of contextual information associated with target faces influence the recognition performance of the faces using meaningful (scene or meaningless (scrambled scene backgrounds. The results showed two different effects of contexts: (1 disturbance on face recognition by changes of scene backgrounds and (2 weak facilitation of face recognition by the re-presentation of the same backgrounds, be it scene or scrambled. The results indicate that the facilitation and disturbance of context effects are actually caused by different two subcomponents of the background information: semantic information available from scene backgrounds and visual-array information commonly included in a scene and its scrambled picture. This view suggests visual working memory system can control such context information, so that it switches the way to deal with the contexts information; inhibiting it as a distracter or activating it as a cue for recognizing the current target.
Franks, S.; Masek, J.G.; Headley, R.M.K.; Gasch, J.; Arvidson, T.
The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorec-tified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004 to 2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat-7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm’s sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.
Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry
The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.
Talebi Nahr, S.; Saadatseresht, M.; Talebi, J.
Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.
Full Text Available We propose a scene classification method for speeding up the multisensor remote sensing image fusion by using the singular value decomposition of quaternion matrix and the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA to extract features. At first, images are segmented to patches by a regular grid, and for each patch, we extract color features by using quaternion singular value decomposition (QSVD method, and the grey features are extracted by Gabor filter and then by using orientation histogram to describe the grey information. After that, we combine the color features and the orientation histogram together with the same weight to obtain the descriptor for each patch. All the patch descriptors are clustered to get visual words for each category. Then we apply KPCA to the visual words to get the subspaces of the category. The descriptors of a test image then are projected to the subspaces of all categories to get the projection length to all categories for the test image. Finally, support vector machine (SVM with linear kernel function is used to get the scene classification performance. We experiment with three classification situations on OT8 dataset and compare our method with the typical scene classification method, probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA, and the results confirm the feasibility of our method.
Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.
Boyaci, Huseyin; Doerschner, Katja; Snyder, Jacqueline L; Maloney, Laurence T
Researchers studying surface color perception have typically used stimuli that consist of a small number of matte patches (real or simulated) embedded in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight (a "Mondrian," Land & McCann, 1971). Reliable estimation of the color of a matte surface is a difficult if not impossible computational problem in such limited scenes (Maloney, 1999). In more realistic, three-dimensional scenes the difficulty of the problem increases, in part, because the effective illumination incident on the surface (the light field) now depends on surface orientation and location. We review recent work in multiple laboratories that examines (1) the degree to which the human visual system discounts the light field in judging matte surface lightness and color and (2) what illuminant cues the visual system uses in estimating the flow of light in a scene.
Baum, Bryan A.; Trepte, Qing
The authors propose a grouped threshold method for scene identification in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imagery that may contain clouds, fire, smoke, or snow. The philosophy of the approach is to build modules that contain groups of spectral threshold tests that are applied concurrently, not sequentially, to each pixel in an image. The purpose of each group of tests is to identify uniquely a specific class in the image, such as smoke. A strength of this approach is that insight into the limits used in the threshold tests may be gained through the use of radiative transfer theory. Methodology and examples are provided for two different scenes, one containing clouds, forest fires, and smoke; and the other containing clouds over snow in the central United States. For both scenes, a limited amount of supporting information is provided by surface observers.
Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro; McCann, John J.
In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all the objects from each direction. This produced a low-dynamicrange (LDR) image of the 3-D Mondrian scene. Second, in order to make a high-dynamic range (HDR) image of the same objects, we used a directional 150W spotlight and an array of WLEDs assembled in a flashlight. The scenes were significant as each contained exactly the same three-dimensional painted colour blocks that were arranged in the same position in the still life. The blocks comprised 6 hue colours and 5 tones from white to black. Participants from the CREATE project were asked to consider the change in the appearance of a selection of colours according to lightness, hue, and chroma, and to rate how the change in illumination affected appearance. We measured the light coming to the eye from still-life surfaces with a colorimeter (Yxy). We captured the scene radiance using multiple exposures with a number of different cameras. We have begun a programme of digital image processing of these scene capture methods. This multi-disciplinary programme continues until 2010, so this paper is an interim report on the initial phases and a description of the ongoing project.
Yebes, J Javier; Bergasa, Luis M; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel
Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.
Christian Johannes Kellner
Full Text Available In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for colour. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in colour space. Here we investigated how the nonlinear spatiochromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of colour signals. Cone signals were derived from hyperspectral images of natural scenes and pre-processed by centre-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in colour space, similar to the population code of colour in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatiochromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.
Kellner, Christian J; Wachtler, Thomas
In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.
Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.
Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.
J. Javier Yebes
Full Text Available Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles. In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity, while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.
Thompson, Kevin P.; Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.; Korniski, Ronald J.; Richwine, Robert A.
An all acousto-optic infrared scene projector (IRSP) has been developed for use in evaluating thermal-imaging guidance systems at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility located at Elgin AFB, Florida. The IRSP is a laser source based projector incorporating Scophony illumination and scanning methods to produce 96 X 96 pixel multi-wavelength images at very high frame rates (400 Hz). The IRSP is composed of five functionally similar optical trains, four of which are fed with a different `color' infrared laser. The separate scenes from each optical train are then combined and projected simultaneously into the imaging guidance system.
Al-Atabany Walid I
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video
Larsen, Kasper Bro
Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self......-discovery and Odysseus’ happy homecoming. The book offers a reconstruction of the conventions of the genre and argues that it is one of the most recurrent and significant literary forms in the Gospel. When portraying Jesus as the divine stranger from heaven, the Gospel employs and transforms the formal and ideological...
Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z
The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory
which make most of previous algorithms fail. This work was accepted for publication at the IEEE Transaction of Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI), with impact factor 5.9, #1 in all engineering and AI.
Nicolas Gilles Mathieu
Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.
Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie
Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.
Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah
The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.
Rubén González Crespo
Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.
Alvarez, J.M.; Lumbreras, F.; Lopez, A.M.; Gevers, T.
Understanding road scenes is important in computer vision with different applications to improve road safety (e.g., advanced driver assistance systems) and to develop autonomous driving systems (e.g., Google driver-less vehicle). Current vision-based approaches rely on the robust combination of
Full Text Available This study aims to introduce new methods for classifying key features (power lines, pylons, and buildings comprising utility corridor scene using airborne LiDAR data and modelling power lines in 3D object space. The proposed approach starts from PL scene segmentation using Markov Random Field (MRF, which emphasizes on the roles of spatial context of linear and planar features as in a graphical model. The MRF classifier identifies power line features from linear features extracted from given corridor scenes. The non-power line objects are then investigated in a planar space to sub-classify them into building and non-building class. Based on the classification results, precise localization of individual pylons is conducted through investigating a prior knowledge of contextual relations between power line and pylon. Once the pylon localization is accomplished, a power line span is identified, within which power lines are modelled with catenary curve models in 3D. Once a local catenary curve model is established, this initial model progressively extends to capture entire power line points by adopting model hypothesis and verification. The model parameters are adjusted using a stochastic non-linear square method for producing 3D power line models. An evaluation of the proposed approach is performed over an urban PL corridor area that includes a complex PL scene.
Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.
Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and
Li, Congcong; Kowdle, Adarsh; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan
Scene understanding includes many related subtasks, such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection, etc. Each of these subtasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many of them. These classifiers operate on the same raw image and provide correlated outputs. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that jointly optimizes all the subtasks while requiring only a "black box" interface to the original classifier for each subtask. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about which error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the subtasks in the domain of scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling, and saliency detection. Our method also improves performance in two robotic applications: an object-grasping robot and an object-finding robot.
Zou, Li-hui; Zhang, Dezheng; Wulamu, Aziguli
Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.
Full Text Available Dynamic scene stitching still has a great challenge in maintaining the global key information without missing or deforming if multiple motion interferences exist in the image acquisition system. Object clips, motion blurs, or other synthetic defects easily occur in the final stitching image. In our research work, we proceed from human visual cognitive mechanism and construct a hybrid-saliency-based cognitive model to automatically guide the video volume stitching. The model consists of three elements of different visual stimuli, that is, intensity, edge contour, and scene depth saliencies. Combined with the manifold-based mosaicing framework, dynamic scene stitching is formulated as a cut path optimization problem in a constructed space-time graph. The cutting energy function for column width selections is defined according to the proposed visual cognition model. The optimum cut path can minimize the cognitive saliency difference throughout the whole video volume. The experimental results show that it can effectively avoid synthetic defects caused by different motion interferences and summarize the key contents of the scene without loss. The proposed method gives full play to the role of human visual cognitive mechanism for the stitching. It is of high practical value to environmental surveillance and other applications.
Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.
This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an
Talavera Martínez, Estefanía
Nowadays, there is an upsurge of interest in using lifelogging devices. Such devices generate huge amounts of image data; consequently, the need for automatic methods for analyzing and summarizing these data is drastically increasing. We present a new method for familiar scene recognition in
Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa; Wolfe, Jeremy M.
Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. While a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. PMID:25684693
Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M
Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.
Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.
Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.
There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…
Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.
This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due ...... if a detected object shows a pattern of movement consistent with predefined rules. The method is tested on a number of video sequences and a substantial reduction in the number of false alarms is demonstrated.......This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...... to e.g. movement of thicket and changes in illumination. To reduce the number of false alarms a Track Before Detect (TBD) approach is suggested. In this TBD implementation all objects detected in the background subtraction process are followed over a number of frames. An alarm is given only...
Procter, David E.
Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…
Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...
Kelly, R. F.
Realistic 3-D scene generation is now a possibility for many applications. One barrier to increased use of this technique is the large amount of computer processing time needed to render a scene. With the advent of parallel processors that barrier may be overcome if efficient parallel scene generation algorithms can be developed. In general, this has not been true because of restrictions imposed by non-shared memory and limited processor interconnect architectures. In addition, vector processors do not efficiently support the adaptive nature of many of the algorithms. A new parallel computer, the NYU Ultracomputer, has been developed which features a shared memory with a combining network. The com-bining network permits simultaneous reads and writes to the same memory location using a new instruction the Fetch and_Op. These memory references are resolved in the memory access network and result in particularly efficient shared data structures. Basic elements of this architecture are also being used in the design of the gigaflop range RP3 at IBM. Some algorithms typical of image synthesis are explored in the paper and a class of equivalent queue based algorithms are developed. These algorithms are particularly well suited to the Ultra-computer class processor and hold the promise for many new applications of realistic scene generation.
Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur
A fundamental element of future generic pattern recognition technology is the ability to extract similar patterns for the same scene despite wide ranging extraneous variables, including lighting, turbidity, sensor exposure variations, and signal noise. In the process of demonstrating pattern constancy of this kind for retinex/visual servo (RVS) image enhancement processing, we found that the pattern constancy performance depended somewhat on scene content. Most notably, the scene topography and, in particular, the scale and extent of the topography in an image, affects the pattern constancy the most. This paper will explore these effects in more depth and present experimental data from several time series tests. These results further quantify the impact of topography on pattern constancy. Despite this residual inconstancy, the results of overall pattern constancy testing support the idea that RVS image processing can be a universal front-end for generic visual pattern recognition. While the effects on pattern constancy were significant, the RVS processing still does achieve a high degree of pattern constancy over a wide spectrum of scene content diversity, and wide ranging extraneousness variations in lighting, turbidity, and sensor exposure.
Full Text Available Humans can quickly and accurately recognize objects within briefly presented natural scenes. Previous work has provided evidence that scene context contributes to this process, demonstrating improved naming of objects that were presented in semantically consistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a beach relative to semantically inconsistent scenes (e.g., a sandcastle on a football field. The current study was aimed at investigating which processes underlie the scene consistency effect. Specifically, we tested: 1 whether the effect is due to increased visual feature and/or shape overlap for consistent relative to inconsistent scene-object pairs; and 2 whether the effect is mediated by attention to the background scene. Experiment 1 replicated the scene consistency effect of a previous report (Davenport & Potter, 2004. Using a new, carefully controlled stimulus set, Experiment 2 showed that the scene consistency effect could not be explained by low-level feature or shape overlap between scenes and target objects. Experiments 3a and 3b investigated whether focused attention modulates the scene consistency effect. By using a location cueing manipulation, participants were correctly informed about the location of the target object on a proportion of trials, allowing focused attention to be deployed towards the target object. Importantly, the effect of scene consistency on target object recognition was independent of spatial attention, and was observed both when attention was focused on the target object and when attention was focused on the background scene. These results indicate that a semantically consistent scene context benefits object recognition independently of the focus of attention. We suggest that the scene consistency effect is primarily driven by global scene properties, or scene gist, that can be processed with minimal attentional resources.
Smith, Cassandra L
The GTC Cancer Summit: Novel Approaches to Drug Discovery was divided into two parallel tracks: the 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference, and the Protein Kinases and Drug Design Conference. The 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference focused on exciting changes in drug discovery that include an unprecedented private and public collaboration on drug discovery in epigenetics through the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), which has led to several major breakthroughs including: the development of small-molecule inhibitors that interfere with protein interactions, especially bromodomain-containing protein acetylation readers; the indirect but successful targeting of the elusive MYC oncogene; and the identification of epigenetic drugs that are disease-specific. Also reported were the development of clinically useful DNA methylation assays; cell, peptide and protein arrays for testing antibody- and protein-binding specificity; and tools for chromatin capture and DNA modification analysis. Several groups reported on the lack of specificity of some commercial, but unnamed, antibodies used for epigenetic studies.
localize the large bearing [Minsky and Papert 691. A variety of perceptual examples show that hu- man vision copes very effectively with context in...by simple template matching. The simplest perceptron-like devices may be used to detect the valid combinations of T and E [Minsky and Papert 691. A...Minsky and Papert 691 Minsky, M. and Papert , S., 1969. Perceptrons. Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press. [Muller 86) Muller, M. J., 1986. "Texture
In this thesis, we propose the use of several optical techniques for the detection, identification, and age estimation of blood stains. We explore the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared wavelength range for this purpose.
motion detection produced by flux tensor (in yellow color ) and false detection caused by parallax in white color . The high altitude areas which are...false detection caused by parallax in white color . The high altitude areas which are filtered by building mask shown in blue. Provided Ground-truth... color ) and false detection caused by parallax in white color . The high altitude areas which are filtered by building mask shown in blue. Provided Ground
Williams, D. S.
Attention is given to the robot stereo vision system which maintains the image produced by solid-state detector television cameras in a dynamic random access memory called RAPID. The imaging hardware consists of sensors (two solid-state image arrays using a charge injection technique), a video-rate analog-to-digital converter, the RAPID memory, and various types of computer-controlled displays, and preprocessing equipment (for reflexive actions, processing aids, and object detection). The software is aimed at locating objects and transversibility. An object-tracking algorithm is discussed and it is noted that tracking speed is in the 50-75 pixels/s range.
Greenberg, Steven; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich
This chapter explores the possibility that speech is decoded using cross-spectral and cross-modal integration strategies that are inherently synergistic. Combining information from separate spectral channels or across modalities may result in far greater intelligibility and phonetic recognition...... than predicted by linear-integration models. This is because decoding speech relies on multi-tier processing strategies that are opportunistic and idiosyncratic. Models incorporating synergistic integration are more likely to predict linguistic comprehension than conventional, linear approaches...
Cooper, Antony K
Full Text Available includes revisiting the scenes with a GPS receiver to record their coordinates. This quality assurance highlights discrepancies between the crime scenes described in case dockets and those the suspect pointed out, allowing the investigators to link...
Full Text Available We investigated the effect of background scene on the human visual perception of depth orientation (i.e., azimuth angle of three-dimensional common objects. Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects. The objects were surrounded by scenes with an apparent axis of the global reference frame, such as a sidewalk scene. When a scene axis was slightly misaligned with the gaze line, object orientation perception was biased, as if the gaze line had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 1. When the scene axis was slightly misaligned with the object, evaluated object orientation was biased, as if it had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 2. This assimilation may be due to confusion between the orientation of the scene and object axes (Experiment 3. Thus, the global reference frame may influence object orientation perception when its orientation is similar to that of the gaze-line or object.
Bosworth, Rain G.; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Dobkins, Karen R.
Several lines of evidence suggest that the image statistics of the environment shape visual abilities. To date, the image statistics of natural scenes and faces have been well characterized using Fourier analysis. We employed Fourier analysis to characterize images of signs in American Sign Language (ASL). These images are highly relevant to signers who rely on ASL for communication, and thus the image statistics of ASL might influence signers' visual abilities. Fourier analysis was conducted on 105 static images of signs, and these images were compared with analyses of 100 natural scene images and 100 face images. We obtained two metrics from our Fourier analysis: mean amplitude and entropy of the amplitude across the image set (which is a measure from information theory) as a function of spatial frequency and orientation. The results of our analyses revealed interesting differences in image statistics across the three different image sets, setting up the possibility that ASL experience may alter visual perception in predictable ways. In addition, for all image sets, the mean amplitude results were markedly different from the entropy results, which raises the interesting question of which aspect of an image set (mean amplitude or entropy of the amplitude) is better able to account for known visual abilities.
Edward Harry Silson
Full Text Available Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral (occipital place area, OPA, ventral (parahippocampal place area, PPA, and medial (retrosplenial complex, RSC cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using fMRI, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS. While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and FFA, commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective OFA, suggesting a closer link with ventral then lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral surface, the caudal inferior parietal lobule (cIPL. However, the differential connectivity in
Guasch-Jané, M. R.; Fonseca, S.; Ibrahim, M.
Presented are the research objectives of the project "Irep en Kemet", Wine of Ancient Egypt, and the content of the project's website. This research aims at documenting the complete corpus of wine in ancient Egypt and analysing the data (iconography, textual sources and artefacts) to unveil the importance of the ancient Egyptian wine culture legacy in the Mediterranean region. At this stage, a bibliographical researchable database relevant to wine, viticulture and winemaking in the ancient Egypt has been completed, with 197 entries including articles, books, chapters in book, academic thesis (PhD and MA), essay, abstracts, on-line articles and websites. Moreover, a scene-detail database for the viticulture and winemaking scenes in the Egyptian private tombs has been recorded with 97 entries, some of them unpublished, and the collected data is under study. The titles of the tombs' owners and the texts related to the scenes will be also recorded. A photographic survey of the graves containing images related with viticulture and winemaking will be carried out in order to have the most accurate information on the location and stage of conservation of those images. Our main goal is to provide scholars with a complete, comprehensive archaeological and bibliographical database for the scenes of viticulture and winemaking depicted in the Egyptian private tombs throughout the ancient Egyptian history. The project's website (http://www.wineofancientegypt.com) will include all the collected data, the study and analysis, the project's history and team members, publications as well as the results of our research.
Li, Haifeng; Peng, Jian; Tao, Chao; Chen, Jie; Deng, Min
Recently, deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) achieved increasingly remarkable success and rapidly developed in the field of natural image recognition. Compared with the natural image, the scale of remote sensing image is larger and the scene and the object it represents are more macroscopic. This study inquires whether remote sensing scene and natural scene recognitions differ and raises the following questions: What are the key factors in remote sensing scene recognition? Is the DCNN r...
Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll
Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...
Full Text Available Based in oral poetic and ritual theory, this article proposes that ritual scenes in Homer’s Iliad reflect unique compositional constraints beyond those found in other kinds of typical scenes. The focus is on oath-sacrifices and commensal sacrifices. Both ritual scene types exhibit strong identifying features, although they differ in their formal particulars and cultural implications. It is argued that both sorts of sacrificial scenes preserve especially ancient ritual patterns that may have parallels in Anatolian texts.
Iersel, M. van; Veerman, H.E.T.; Mark, W. van der
Once a crime has been perpetrated, forensic traces will only be persevered in the crime scene for a limited time frame. It is therefore necessary to record a crime scene meticulously. Usually, photographs and/or videos are taken at the scene to document it, so that later on one will know the exact
Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.
Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers
Theeuwes, J. & Hagenzieker, M.P.
The present study investigates top-down governed visual selection in natural traffic scenes. The subjects had to search for a target object (for example, a traffic sign, or other road users) which was embedded in a natural traffic scene. Given a particular prototypical scene, the target was located
Xiaoqian J Chai
Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.
Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian
Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…
Full Text Available The essay deals with the experience of the newborn Italian dance company Damasco Corner, a group of visually impaired professional dancers working with the choreographer Virgilio Sieni in Firenze, at CANGO_Cantieri Goldonetta. The text looks at the performance process they went through (workshops, training and rehearsals preparing the first official piece of the company: Atlante del bianco. The access of these new dancers to the field of professional artistic education implies different changing, in the studio as well as on the scene. Inclusive approaches are applied, teaching dance techniques, improvisation and creating choreographies. The audience needs to embrace different perspectives to feel and understand the dance that is lived and presented on the scene.
Gonzalo H Otazu
Full Text Available The identification of the sound sources present in the environment is essential for the survival of many animals. However, these sounds are not presented in isolation, as natural scenes consist of a superposition of sounds originating from multiple sources. The identification of a source under these circumstances is a complex computational problem that is readily solved by most animals. We present a model of the thalamocortical circuit that performs level-invariant recognition of auditory objects in complex auditory scenes. The circuit identifies the objects present from a large dictionary of possible elements and operates reliably for real sound signals with multiple concurrently active sources. The key model assumption is that the activities of some cortical neurons encode the difference between the observed signal and an internal estimate. Reanalysis of awake auditory cortex recordings revealed neurons with patterns of activity corresponding to such an error signal.
This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .
Full Text Available Scene From The Birth Of Venus is a photographic artwork that created in 1949. The artwork was the result of collaboration between Salvador Dali and two photographers, Baron George Hoyningen-Huene and George Platt Lynes. They created Birth of Venus differently with first painting whom created by Bottocelli Sandro. He depicted the goddess Venus graceful and shy, but it recreated by Salvador Dali in an imaginative photographic artwork. In Scene From The Birth Of Venus, the goddess Venus depicted as half human and fish. Two creations in different way but still in the birth of the goddess Venus theme. Key words: photography, painting, imaginative
Jiang, Yue; Wang, Runsheng
Due to vast growth of image databases, scene image classification methods have become increasingly important in computer vision areas. We propose a new scene image classification framework based on combined feature and a latent semantic model which is based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in the statistical text literature. Here the model is applied to visual words representation for images. We use Gibbs sampling for parameter estimation and use several different numbers of topics at the same time to obtain the latent topic representation of images. We densely extract multi-scale patches from images and get the combined feature on these patches. Our method is unsupervised. It can also well represent semantic characteristic of images. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by comparing it to those used in previous work in this area. Experiments were conducted on three often used image databases, and our method got better results than the others.
Daniel Santos Costa
Full Text Available This text presents weavings of a way to make the arts scene using the autobiographical support the creative process. Thus, we elucidate some of these weavings process while legitimizing the production of knowledge through artistic praxis, of sensitive experience. Introducing the concept of autobiography in analogy to the artistic and sequentially present the possibility of a laboratory setting amalgamated into reality/fiction. Keywords: creative process; autobiography; body.
Gozard, Patrick; Le Goff, Alain; Naz, Pierre; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean
The simulation workshop CHORALE developed in collaboration with OKTAL SE company for the French MoD is used by government services and industrial companies for weapon system validation and qualification trials in the infrared domain. The main operational reference for CHORALE is the assessment of the infrared guidance system of the Storm Shadow missile French version, called Scalp. The use of CHORALE workshop is now extended to the acoustic domain. The main objective is the simulation of the detection of moving vehicles in realistic 3D virtual scenes. This article briefly describes the acoustic model in CHORALE. The 3D scene is described by a set of polygons. Each polygon is characterized by its acoustic resistivity or its complex impedance. Sound sources are associated with moving vehicles and are characterized by their spectra and directivities. A microphone sensor is defined by its position, its frequency band and its sensitivity. The purpose of the acoustic simulation is to calculate the incoming acoustic pressure on microphone sensors. CHORALE is based on a generic ray tracing kernel. This kernel possesses original capabilities: computation time is nearly independent on the scene complexity, especially the number of polygons, databases are enhanced with precise physical data, special mechanisms of antialiasing have been developed that enable to manage very accurate details. The ray tracer takes into account the wave geometrical divergence and the atmospheric transmission. The sound wave refraction is simulated and rays cast in the 3D scene are curved according to air temperature gradient. Finally, sound diffraction by edges (hill, wall,...) is also taken into account.
Petek, Rok; Jurc, Maja; Kalan, Janko; Batič, Franc
This masters thesis presents and describes modern methods of optical character recognition in natural scenes. Methods with high classification results and are robust to illumination and geometric transformations were selected for the thesis. Our work is based on the implementation of three different methods for obtaining features. The basic HOG method, which also underlies the other two methods is one of the most popular feature extraction methods in object detection and character recognition...
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE USA 19716 Abstract: Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a...Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI ) under Contract No. W91ZLK-06-C- 0006." (b) "Any opinions, findings...Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI ).” References 1. R. McGee, K. Nabha, J. Marks, J. Benedict, G. Ejzak, J. Dickason, N. Waite, M. Hernandez
images. The majority of OCR engines is designed for scanned text and so depends on segmentation which correctly separates text from background...size is 8×8, cell size is 2×2 and 9 bins for histogram. For each candidate word, HOG feature is extracted and used by the SVM classifier to verify...images. One approach is to extract text appearing in images which often gives an indication of a scene’s semantic content. However, it can be
Linnell, Karina J; Foster, David H
The ability of observers to detect changes in illuminant over two scenes containing different random samples of reflecting surfaces was determined in an experiment with Mondrian-like patterns containing different numbers of coloured patches. Performance was found to improve as the number of patches increased from 9 to 49. In principle, observers could have used space-average scene colour as the cue ('grey-world' hypothesis) or the colour of the brightest surface in the scene ('bright-is-white' hypothesis), as the two cues generally covary. In a second experiment, observers matched illuminants across different patterns in which the space-average cue and the brightest-patch cue were independently manipulated. The articulation of the patterns was varied: the number of patches increased from 49 (patch width 1 deg visual angle) to over 50000 (patch width 0.03 deg), while the gamut of colours was held constant. Space-average colour was found to be the dominant cue with all patterns except for those with the largest patches.
Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C
The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard
Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.
Meka, Abhimitra; Fox, Gereon; Zollhofer, Michael; Richardt, Christian; Theobalt, Christian
We present a novel real-time approach for user-guided intrinsic decomposition of static scenes captured by an RGB-D sensor. In the first step, we acquire a three-dimensional representation of the scene using a dense volumetric reconstruction framework. The obtained reconstruction serves as a proxy to densely fuse reflectance estimates and to store user-provided constraints in three-dimensional space. User constraints, in the form of constant shading and reflectance strokes, can be placed directly on the real-world geometry using an intuitive touch-based interaction metaphor, or using interactive mouse strokes. Fusing the decomposition results and constraints in three-dimensional space allows for robust propagation of this information to novel views by re-projection. We leverage this information to improve on the decomposition quality of existing intrinsic video decomposition techniques by further constraining the ill-posed decomposition problem. In addition to improved decomposition quality, we show a variety of live augmented reality applications such as recoloring of objects, relighting of scenes and editing of material appearance.
A lack of information concerning the potential recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and related evidence prompted several research projects. Latent prints from good secretors and visible prints (in blood) were placed on a variety of different surfaces and subsequently subjected to "real life" fires in fully furnished compartments used for fire investigation training purposes. The items were placed in various locations and at different heights within the compartments. After some initial success, further tests were undertaken using both latent and dirt/grease marks on different objects within the same types of fire compartments. Subsequent sets of tests involved the recovery of latent and visual fingerprints (in blood, dirt and grease) from different types of weapons, lighters, plastic bags, match boxes, tapers, plastic bottles and petrol bombs that had been subjected to the same fire conditions as previously. Throughout the entire series of projects one of the prime considerations was how the resultant findings could be put into practice by fire scene examiners in an attempt to assist the police in their investigations. This research demonstrates that almost one in five items recovered from fire scenes yielded fingerprint ridge detail following normal development treatments.
Dibbets, Pauline; Arntz, Arnoud
During imagery rescripting (ImRs) an aversive memory is relived and transformed to have a more positive outcome. ImRs is frequently applied in psychological treatment and is known to reduce intrusions and distress of the memory. However, little is known about the necessity to incorporate the central aversive parts of the memory in ImRs. To examine this necessity one hundred participants watched an aversive film and were subsequently randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: ImRs including the aversive scenes (Late ImRs), ImRs without the aversive scenes (Early ImRs), imaginal exposure (IE) or a control condition (Cont). Participants in the IE intervention reported the highest distress levels during the intervention; Cont resulted in the lowest levels of self-reported distress. For the intrusion frequency, only the late ImRs resulted in fewer intrusions compared to the Cont condition; Early ImRs produced significantly more intrusions than the Late ImRs or IE condition. Finally, the intrusions of the Late ImRs condition were reported as less vivid compared to the other conditions. To conclude, it seems beneficial including aversive scenes in ImRs after an analogue trauma induction.
Malcolm, George L; Shomstein, Sarah
We are continually confronted with more visual information than we can process in a given moment. In order to interact effectively with our environment, attentional mechanisms are used to select subsets of environmental properties for enhanced processing. Previous research demonstrated that spatial regions can be selected based on either their low-level feature or high-level semantic properties. However, the efficiency with which we interact with the world suggests that there must be an additional, midlevel, factor constraining effective attentional space. The present study investigates whether object-based attentional selection is one such midlevel factor that constrains visual attention in complex, real-world scenes. Participants viewed scene images while their eye movements were recorded. During viewing, a cue appeared on an object which participants were instructed to fixate. A target then appeared either on the same object as the cue, on a different object, or floating. Participants initiated saccades faster and had shorter response times to targets presented on the same object as the fixated cue. The results strongly suggest that when attending to a location on an object, the entire object benefits perceptually. This object-based effect on the distribution of spatial attention forms a critical link between low- and high-level factors that direct attention efficiently in complex real-world scenes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Text analysis of Act II Scene III in the well-known tragedy “Macbeth” by W. Shakespeare manifests hidden allusions on the mystery play “Harrowing of Hell” and its carnivalesque tradition of stage foolery. By means of acoustic and visual reconstruction of theatrical acting fixed in the text the author attempts to reveal the receptivity potential of the scene which, at first glance, seems to be irrelevant to the tragedy main plot line. The comism of the fragment contrasting with the preceding murder scene provides for a communicative distance between the protagonist and the spectator, i.e. it interprets Macbeth’s state into the mystery play discourse – on the one hand, and into the discourse of “low” humour – on the other. Behind the “lowered” helplessness of the Porter before alcohol and drunken state one can read tragic helplessness of Macbeth and his wife before the infatuation for power. Abundant visuality caused by the loud sound of knocking and Porter’s comment on it creates temporal ambivalence of the scene and provides opportunities for its multiple interpretation on different levels, the deepest of them being that of the infernal topos of “harrowing of hell”. The Porter that could have been played by a prominent Elizabethan fool (for instance Robert Armin focuses on himself the point of intersection of various interpretative possibilities by playing with his simultaneously available for the spectator identities – “Globe” comic actor, Macbeth’s servant, mystery Devil, stage rustic fool and Shakespeare himself under the mask of auctorial narrator. Acoustic and visual homogeneity of the “Porter’s scene” with other scenes of the tragedy speaks for the presence of “harrowing of hell” topos in the axiological dimension of the whole play. Acousting background at the beginning of the tragedy – thunder and lightning, conversation of witches, mentioning by other characters of owl screech and cricket
SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL
Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756
Melcher, David; Murphy, Brian
Many studies suggest a large capacity memory for briefly presented pictures of whole scenes. At the same time, visual working memory (WM) of scene elements is limited to only a few items. We examined the role of retroactive interference in limiting memory for visual details. Participants viewed a scene for 5 s and then, after a short delay containing either a blank screen or 10 distracter scenes, answered questions about the location, color, and identity of objects in the scene. We found that...
Full Text Available In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128 for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials. In the simple simulated prosthetic vision (SPV scene, when the resolution was increased from 32 × 32 to 48 × 48, the object recognition time decreased from 92.19 ± 6.97 to 43.05 ± 6.08 s, and the recognition accuracy increased from 51.22 ± 8.53 to 85.52 ± 4.93%. Furthermore, the number of collisions decreased from 10.00 ± 2.31 to 3.00 ± 0.68. When the resolution was increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64, the object recognition time further decreased from 43.05 ± 6.08 to 19.46 ± 3.71 s, the recognition accuracy increased from 85.52 ± 4.93 to 96.89 ± 2.06%, and the number of collisions decreased from 3.00 ± 0.68 to 1.00 ± 0.29. In complex scenes, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 115.00 ± 23.02 to 68.25 ± 17.23 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 65.69 ± 9.61 to 80.42 ± 7.70% when the resolution increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64. When the resolution increased from 64 × 64 to 128 × 128, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 68.25 ± 17.23 to 44.88 ± 9.94 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 80.42 ± 7.71 to 85.69 ± 7.39%. Therefore, one can conclude that there are correlations between pathfinding and recognition. When the resolution increased, the time required for
Hobbs, Jennifer A; Towal, R Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J Z
Analysis of natural scene statistics has been a powerful approach for understanding neural coding in the auditory and visual systems. In the field of somatosensation, it has been more challenging to quantify the natural tactile scene, in part because somatosensory signals are so tightly linked to the animal's movements. The present work takes a step towards quantifying the natural tactile scene for the rat vibrissal system by simulating rat whisking motions to systematically investigate the probabilities of whisker-object contact in naturalistic environments. The simulations permit an exhaustive search through the complete space of possible contact patterns, thereby allowing for the characterization of the patterns that would most likely occur during long sequences of natural exploratory behavior. We specifically quantified the probabilities of 'concomitant contact', that is, given that a particular whisker makes contact with a surface during a whisk, what is the probability that each of the other whiskers will also make contact with the surface during that whisk? Probabilities of concomitant contact were quantified in simulations that assumed increasingly naturalistic conditions: first, the space of all possible head poses; second, the space of behaviorally preferred head poses as measured experimentally; and third, common head poses in environments such as cages and burrows. As environments became more naturalistic, the probability distributions shifted from exhibiting a 'row-wise' structure to a more diagonal structure. Results also reveal that the rat appears to use motor strategies (e.g. head pitches) that generate contact patterns that are particularly well suited to extract information in the presence of uncertainty. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
David P Crabb
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could
Wilkinson, Krista M; Stutzman, Allyson; Seisler, Andrea
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems are often implemented for individuals whose speech cannot meet their full communication needs. One type of aided display is called a Visual Scene Display (VSD). VSDs consist of integrated scenes (such as photographs) in which language concepts are embedded. Often, the representations of concepts on VSDs are perceptually similar to their referents. Given this physical resemblance, one may ask how well VSDs support development of symbolic functioning. We used brain imaging techniques to examine whether matches and mismatches between the content of spoken messages and photographic images of scenes evoke neural activity similar to activity that occurs to spoken or written words. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 15 college students who were shown photographs paired with spoken phrases that were either matched or mismatched to the concepts embedded within each photograph. Of interest was the N400 component, a negative deflecting wave 400 ms post-stimulus that is considered to be an index of semantic functioning. An N400 response in the mismatched condition (but not the matched) would replicate brain responses to traditional linguistic symbols. An N400 was found, exclusively in the mismatched condition, suggesting that mismatches between spoken messages and VSD-type representations set the stage for the N400 in ways similar to traditional linguistic symbols.
Full Text Available For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS, remote sensing (RS technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.
Cheng, S.; Dou, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S.; Chen, X.
For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS), remote sensing (RS) technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE) high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.
Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid
The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.
Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho
Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...
The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.
Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J
There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in
Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.
An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Mooss, Angela
Benzodiazepines (BZs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs with the potential for abuse. Young adults ages 18-29 report the highest rates of BZ misuse in the United States. The majority of club drug users are also in this age group, and BZ misuse is prevalent in the nightclub scene. BZ dependence, however, is not well documented. This paper examines BZ dependence and its correlates among multidrug users in South Florida's nightclub scene. Data were drawn from structured interviews with men and women (N=521) who reported regular attendance at large dance clubs and recent use of both club drugs and BZs. Prevalences of BZ-related problems were 7.9% for BZ dependence, 22.6% BZ abuse, and 25% BZ abuse and/or dependence. In bivariate logistic regression models, heavy cocaine use (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.18, 4.38), severe mental distress (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.33, 5.21), and childhood victimization history (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.10, 5.38) were associated with BZ dependence. Heavy cocaine use (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.10, 4.18) and severe mental distress (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.07, 4.37) survived as predictors in the multivariate model. BZ misuse is widespread among multidrug users in the club scene, who also exhibit high levels of other health and social problems. BZ dependence appears to be more prevalent in this sample than in other populations described in the literature. Recommendations for intervention and additional research are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mônica Rebecca Ferrari Nunes
Full Text Available Based on the Semiotics theory of Culture, by Tartu-Moscow School, and on consumption theories, this paper analyses the cosplay scene configuration and the aspects of the semiosphere in the emergence of this scenario, considered as a cultural practice, a practice of significance and sociability, where youth people dress and act as characters of media narratives. This paper shows partial results of a field research carried out in 2012 and 2013 in events of pop culture. It focuses the relationship between cosplayer-cosplay.
Kim, Minjin; Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick
This paper presents a method to estimate the number of people in crowded scenes without using explicit object segmentation or tracking. The proposed method consists of three steps as follows: (1) extracting space-time interest points using eigenvalues of the local spatio-temporal gradient matrix, (2) generating crowd regions based on space-time interest points, and (3) estimating the crowd density based on the multiple regression. In experimental results, the efficiency and robustness of our proposed method are demonstrated by using PETS 2009 dataset.
We present a tool for simulating hyperspectral images for 3D Martian scenes. Several lines of development are considered for achieving a high degree of realism : high resolution digital elevation models, description of material distribution with fractal characteristics, bidirectional reflectance measured in the laboratory as a function of geometry and wavelength for a series analogue materials, mixing of spectral signatures at different scales, 3D radiative transfer between atmosphere and surface. The simulator addresses two main needs (i) developing and testing methods for the correction of atmospheric and photometric effects images taken by orbiter around Mars (ii) developing and testing methods for the linear and nonlinear spectral unmixing applied to hyperspectral images.
Edelman, G. J.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, M. C. G.
Blood stains are an important source of information in forensic investigations. Extraction of DNA may lead to the identification of victims or suspects, while the blood stain pattern may reveal useful information for the reconstruction of a crime. Consequently, techniques for the detection and identification of blood stains are ideally non-destructive in order not to hamper both DNA and the blood stain pattern analysis. Currently, forensic investigators mainly detect and identify blood stains using chemical or optical methods, which are often either destructive or subject to human interpretation. We demonstrated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene to detect and identify blood stains remotely. Blood stains outside the human body comprise the main chromophores oxy-hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hemichrome. Consequently, the reflectance spectra of blood stains are influenced by the composite of the optical properties of the individual chromophores and the substrate. Using the coefficient of determination between a non-linear least squares multi-component fit and the measured spectra blood stains were successfully distinguished from other substances visually resembling blood (e.g. ketchup, red wine and lip stick) with a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 85 %. The practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated at a mock crime scene, where blood stains were successfully identified automatically.
Sheena K. Au-Yeung
Full Text Available Minshew and Goldstein (1998 postulated that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a disorder of complex information processing. The current study was designed to investigate this hypothesis. Participants with and without ASD completed two scene perception tasks: a simple “spot the difference” task, where they had to say which one of a pair of pictures had a detail missing, and a complex “which one's weird” task, where they had to decide which one of a pair of pictures looks “weird”. Participants with ASD did not differ from TD participants in their ability to accurately identify the target picture in both tasks. However, analysis of the eye movement sequences showed that participants with ASD viewed scenes differently from normal controls exclusively for the complex task. This difference in eye movement patterns, and the method used to examine different patterns, adds to the knowledge base regarding eye movements and ASD. Our results are in accordance with Minshew and Goldstein's theory that complex, but not simple, information processing is impaired in ASD.
Ellmore, Timothy M; Ng, Kenneth; Reichert, Chelsea P
Sustained and elevated activity during the working memory delay period has long been considered the primary neural correlate for maintaining information over short time intervals. This idea has recently been reinterpreted in light of findings generated from multiple neural recording modalities and levels of analysis. To further investigate the sustained or transient nature of activity, the temporal-spectral evolution (TSE) of delay period activity was examined in humans with high density EEG during performance of a Sternberg working memory paradigm with a relatively long six second delay and with novel scenes as stimuli. Multiple analyses were conducted using different trial window durations and different baseline periods for TSE computation. Sensor level analyses revealed transient rather than sustained activity during delay periods. Specifically, the consistent finding among the analyses was that high amplitude activity encompassing the theta range was found early in the first three seconds of the delay period. These increases in activity early in the delay period correlated positively with subsequent ability to distinguish new from old probe scenes. Source level signal estimation implicated a right parietal region of transient early delay activity that correlated positively with working memory ability. This pattern of results adds to recent evidence that transient rather than sustained delay period activity supports visual working memory performance. The findings are discussed in relation to synchronous and desynchronous intra- and inter-regional neural transmission, and choosing an optimal baseline for expressing temporal-spectral delay activity change.
S. Talebi Nahr
Full Text Available Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.
Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F
Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.
Matthew J Stainer
Full Text Available Multiplex viewing of static or dynamic scenes is an increasing feature of screen media. Most existing multiplex experiments have examined detection across increasing scene numbers, but currently no systematic evaluation of the factors that might produce difficulty in processing multiplexes exists. Across five experiments we provide such an evaluation. Experiment 1 characterises difficulty in change detection when the number of scenes is increased. Experiment 2 reveals that the increased difficulty across multiple-scene displays is caused by the total amount of visual information accounts for differences in change detection times, regardless of whether this information is presented across multiple scenes, or contained in one scene. Experiment 3 shows that whether quadrants of a display were drawn from the same, or different scenes did not affect change detection performance. Experiment 4 demonstrates that knowing which scene the change will occur in means participants can perform at monoplex level. Finally, Experiment 5 finds that changes of central interest in multiplexed scenes are detected far easier than marginal interest changes to such an extent that a centrally interesting object removal in nine screens is detected more rapidly than a marginally interesting object removal in four screens. Processing multiple-screen displays therefore seems dependent on the amount of information, and the importance of that information to the task, rather than simply the number of scenes in the display. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings.
Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, J. J.
Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.
Alexander P N Van der Jagt
Full Text Available Attention Restoration Theory (ART states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration.
Florio, Christopher J.; Cota, Steve A.; Gaffney, Stephanie K.
In a companion paper presented at this conference we described how The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) may be used in conjunction with a limited number of runs of AFRL's MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code, to quickly predict the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance received in the visible through midwave IR (MWIR) by an earth viewing sensor, for any arbitrary combination of solar and sensor elevation angles. The method is particularly useful for large-scale scene simulations where each pixel could have a unique value of reflectance/emissivity and temperature, making the run-time required for direct prediction via MODTRAN4 prohibitive. In order to be self-consistent, the method described requires an atmospheric model (defined, at a minimum, as a set of vertical temperature, pressure and water vapor profiles) that is consistent with the average scene temperature. MODTRAN4 provides only six model atmospheres, ranging from sub-arctic winter to tropical conditions - too few to cover with sufficient temperature resolution the full range of average scene temperatures that might be of interest. Model atmospheres consistent with intermediate temperature values can be difficult to come by, and in any event, their use would be too cumbersome for use in trade studies involving a large number of average scene temperatures. In this paper we describe and assess a method for predicting TOA radiance for any arbitrary average scene temperature, starting from only a limited number of model atmospheres.
Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.
Derickson, J. R.; Hocheder, Stephen E.; Kircher, James R.; Marlow, Steven A.
A Scophony Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) was developed for use in evaluating thermal- imaging guidance systems. The IRSP is a very high frame rate, laser scanned projection system incorporating Scophony modulation. The Scophony IRSP serves as the image projection system in the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware in the Loop Simulator (KHILS) terminal guidance simulation. It is capable of projecting multiband target engagement scenarios with high fidelity using Aura's proprietary software/electronic control system. The Scophony IRSP utilizes acousto-optical (AO) devices to produce the required imagery at separate wavelengths, simultaneously. The separate scenes are combined and projected into the imaging guidance system. The Scophony IRSP has been installed and integrated into the KHILS facility at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Some performance characteristics of the IRSP have been measured. The current presentation provides a brief description of the Scophony IRSP and a performance evaluation. The performance characteristics measured are spot size, dynamic range, and field of view. Further characteristics may be reported as they become available.
Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.
Nah, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Junho; Lee, Won-Jong; Park, Jeong-Soo; Jung, Seok-Yoon; Park, Woo-Chan; Manocha, Dinesh; Han, Tack-Don
We present a hybrid architecture, inspired by asynchronous BVH construction , for ray tracing animated scenes. Our hybrid architecture utilizes heterogeneous hardware resources: dedicated ray-tracing hardware for BVH updates and ray traversal and a CPU for BVH reconstruction. We also present a traversal scheme using a primitive's axis-aligned bounding box (PrimAABB). This scheme reduces ray-primitive intersection tests by reusing existing BVH traversal units and the primAABB data for tree updates; it enables the use of shallow trees to reduce tree build times, tree sizes, and bus bandwidth requirements. Furthermore, we present a cache scheme that exploits consecutive memory access by reusing data in an L1 cache block. We perform cycle-accurate simulations to verify our architecture, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed architecture can achieve real-time Whitted ray tracing animated scenes at 1,920 × 1,200 resolution. This result comes from our high-performance hardware architecture and minimized resource requirements for tree updates.
Fenker, Daniela B; Frey, Julietta U; Schuetze, Hartmut; Heipertz, Dorothee; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah
Exploring a novel environment can facilitate subsequent hippocampal long-term potentiation in animals. We report a related behavioral enhancement in humans. In two separate experiments, recollection and free recall, both measures of hippocampus-dependent memory formation, were enhanced for words studied after a 5-min exposure to unrelated novel as opposed to familiar images depicting indoor and outdoor scenes. With functional magnetic resonance imaging, the enhancement was predicted by specific activity patterns observed during novelty exposure in parahippocampal and dorsal prefrontal cortices, regions which are known to be linked to attentional orienting to novel stimuli and perceptual processing of scenes. Novelty was also associated with activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and the hippocampus, but these activations did not correlate with contextual memory enhancement. These findings indicate remarkable parallels between contextual memory enhancement in humans and existing evidence regarding contextually enhanced hippocampal plasticity in animals. They provide specific behavioral clues to enhancing hippocampus-dependent memory in humans.
Suominen, Olli; Gotchev, Atanas
Capturing images in low light intensity, and preserving ambient light in such conditions pose significant problems in terms of achievable image quality. Either the sensitivity of the sensor must be increased, filling the resulting image with noise, or the scene must be lit with artificial light, destroying the aesthetic quality of the image. While the issue has been previously tackled for still imagery using cross-bilateral filtering, the same problem exists in capturing video. We propose a method of illuminating the scene with a strobe light synchronized to every other frame captured by the camera, and merging the information from consecutive frames alternating between high gain and high intensity lighting. The motion between the frames is compensated using motion estimation based on block matching between strobe-illuminated frames. The uniform lighting conditions between every other frame make it possible to utilize conventional motion estimation methods, circumventing the image registration challenges faced in fusing flash/non-flash pairs from non-stationary images. The results of the proposed method are shown to closely resemble those computed using the same filter based on reference images captured at perfect camera alignment. The method can be applied starting from a simple set of three frames to video streams of arbitrary lengths with the only requirements being sufficiently accurate syncing between the imaging device and the lighting unit, and the capability to switch states (sensor gain high/low, illumination on/off) fast enough.
Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille
Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng; Sullivan, Gary J.
Perspective motion is commonly represented in video content that is captured and compressed for various applications including cloud gaming, vehicle and aerial monitoring, etc. Existing approaches based on an eight-parameter homography motion model cannot deal with this efficiently, either due to low prediction accuracy or excessive bit rate overhead. In this paper, we consider the camera motion model and scene structure in such video content and propose a joint global and local homography motion coding approach for video with perspective motion. The camera motion is estimated by a computer vision approach, and camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are globally coded at the frame level. The scene is modeled as piece-wise planes, and three plane parameters are coded at the block level. Fast gradient-based approaches are employed to search for the plane parameters for each block region. In this way, improved prediction accuracy and low bit costs are achieved. Experimental results based on the HEVC test model show that up to 9.1% bit rate savings can be achieved (with equal PSNR quality) on test video content with perspective motion. Test sequences for the example applications showed a bit rate savings ranging from 3.7 to 9.1%.
Full Text Available With the advancement of smart city, the development of intelligent mobile terminal and wireless network, the traditional text information service no longer meet the needs of the community residents, community image service appeared as a new media service. “There are pictures of the truth” has become a community residents to understand and master the new dynamic community, image information service has become a new information service. However, there are two major problems in image information service. Firstly, the underlying eigenvalues extracted by current image feature extraction techniques are difficult for users to understand, and there is a semantic gap between the image content itself and the user’s understanding; secondly, in community life of the image data increasing quickly, it is difficult to find their own interested image data. Aiming at the two problems, this paper proposes a unified image semantic scene model to express the image content. On this basis, a collaborative filtering recommendation model of fusion scene semantics is proposed. In the recommendation model, a comprehensiveness and accuracy user interest model is proposed to improve the recommendation quality. The results of the present study have achieved good results in the pilot cities of Wenzhou and Yan'an, and it is applied normally.
Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Ye; Vellaikal, Asha; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
Many multimedia applications, such as multimedia data management systems and communication systems, require efficient representation of multimedia content. Thus semantic interpretation of video content has been a popular research area. Currently, most content-based video representation involves the segmentation of video based on key frames which are generated using scene change detection techniques as well as camera/object motion. Then, video features can be extracted from key frames. However most of such research performs off-line video processing in which the whole video scope is known as a priori which allows multiple scans of the stored video files during video processing. In comparison, relatively not much research has been done in the area of on-line video processing, which is crucial in video communication applications such as on-line collaboration, news broadcasts and so on. Our research investigates on-line real-time scene change detection of multicast video over the Internet. Our on-line processing system are designed to meet the requirements of real-time video multicasting over the Internet and to utilize the successful video parsing techniques available today. The proposed algorithms extract key frames from video bitstreams sent through the MBone network, and the extracted key frames are multicasted as annotations or metadata over a separate channel to assist in content filtering such as those anticipated to be in use by on-line filtering proxies in the Internet. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated and discussed in this paper.
Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.
In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.
Bon, E.; Ćirković, M. M.; Milosavljević, I.
Assuming that the figures of the central icon of the Mithraic cult - the scene of tauroctony (bull slaying) - represent equatorial constellations at the time when the spring equinox was placed somewhere between Taurus and Aries, it is difficult to explain why some equatorial constellations (Orion and Libra) were not included in the Mithraic icons A simulation of the sky at the times in which the spring equinox was in the constellation of Taurus, only a small area of spring equinox positions permits to exclude these two constellations, with all other representations of equatorial constellations (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Scorpio) included. These positions of the spring equinox occurred at the beginning of the age of Taurus, and included Gemini as an equatorial constellation. Two of the main figures in the Mithraic icons are two identical figures, usually represented on the each side of the bull, wearing phrygian caps and holding torches. Their names, Cautes and Cautopates, and their looks may indicate that they represent the constellation of Gemini. In that case the main icon of Mithraic religion could represent an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. Also, this position of equator contains Perseus as an equatorial constellation. Ulansey suggested that the god Mithras is identified with the constellation Perseus. In that case, all figures in the main scene would be equatorial constellations.
Bon, Edi; Ćirković, Milan; Milosavljević, Ivana
Considering the idea that figures in the central icon of the Mithraic religion, with scene of tauroctony (bull slaying), represent equatorial constellations in the times in which the spring equinox was in between of Taurus and Aries (Ulansey, 1989) , it was hard to explain why some equatorial constellations were not included in the Mithraic icons (constellations of Orion and Libra), when those constellations were equatorial in those times. With simulations of skies in the times in which the spring equinox was in the constellation of Taurus, only small area of spring equinox positions allows excluding those two constellations, with all other representations of equatorial constellations included (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hidra, Crater, Corvus, Scorpio). These positions were the beginning of the ages of Taurus. But these positions of spring equinox included Gemini as equatorial constellation. Two of the main figures in the icons of Mithaic religions were two identical figures, usually represented on the each side of the bull, wearing frigian caps and holding the torches. Their names, Cautes and Cautopates, and their looks could lead to the idea that they represent the constellation of Gemini. In that case the main icon of Mithraic religion could represent the event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. Also, this position of equator contain Perseus as the equatorial constellation. In the work of Ulansey was presented that the god Mithras was the constellation of Perseus. In that case, all figures in the main scene would be equatorial constellations.
Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen
It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.
Bucknell, Alistair; Bassindale, Thomas
With increasing numbers of Police forces using drones for crime scene surveillance, the effect of the drones on trace evidence present needs evaluation. In this investigation the effect of flying a quadcopter drone at different heights over a controlled scene and taking off at different distances from the scene were measured. Yarn was placed on a range of floor surfaces and the number lost or moved from their original position was recorded.It was possible to estimate "safe" distances above an...
Jung Han-Seung; Lee Young-Yoon; Lee Sang Uk
Watermarking for video sequences should consider additional attacks, such as frame averaging, frame-rate change, frame shuffling or collusion attacks, as well as those of still images. Also, since video is a sequence of analogous images, video watermarking is subject to interframe collusion. In order to cope with these attacks, we propose a scene-based temporal watermarking algorithm. In each scene, segmented by scene-change detection schemes, a watermark is embedded temporally to one-dimens...
Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Entao; Qiao, Fuqiang; Lin, Wenyi; Liang, Ningjian
Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli as they convey important information in social interaction. In everyday life a face always appears in complex context. Scenes which faces are embedded in provided typical visual context. The aim of the present study was to investigate the processing of emotional conflict between facial expressions and emotional scenes by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We found that when the scene was presented before the face-scene compound stimulus, the scene had an influence on facial expression processing. Specifically, emotionally incongruent (in conflict) face-scene compound stimuli elicited larger fronto-central N2 amplitude relative to the emotionally congruent face-scene compound stimuli. The effect occurred in the post-perceptual stage of facial expression processing and reflected emotional conflict monitoring between emotional scenes and facial expressions. The present findings emphasized the importance of emotional scenes as a context factor in the study of the processing of facial expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng
Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.
Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L H
Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. © 2014 ARVO.
Zuo, Xuguang; Yu, Lu; Yu, Hualong; Mao, Jue; Zhao, Yin
In movies and TV shows, it is common that several scenes repeat alternately. These videos are characterized with the long-term temporal correlation, which can be exploited to improve video coding efficiency. However, in applications supporting random access (RA), a video is typically divided into a number of RA segments (RASs) by RA points (RAPs), and different RASs are coded independently. In such a way, the long-term temporal correlation among RASs with similar scenes cannot be used. We present a scene-library-based video coding scheme for the coding of videos with repeated scenes. First, a compact scene library is built by clustering similar scenes and extracting representative frames in encoding video. Then, the video is coded using a layered scene-library-based coding structure, in which the library frames serve as long-term reference frames. The scene library is not cleared by RAPs so that the long-term temporal correlation between RASs from similar scenes can be exploited. Furthermore, the RAP frames are coded as interframes by only referencing library frames so as to improve coding efficiency while maintaining RA property. Experimental results show that the coding scheme can achieve significant coding gain over state-of-the-art methods.
Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F
A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.
Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Frost, Chris; Kim, Lois G; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J
Partial or complete Balint's syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (color and grayscale) using a categorization paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces < scenes < objects) and slower (scenes < objects < faces) than controls on all categories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for color over grayscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient's global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not). Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients' fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.
Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Võ, Melissa L.-H.
Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization. PMID:25015385
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel classification method for high-spatial-resolution satellite scene classification introducing Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process to further eliminate opaque and redundant information between multiple features. Firstly, two diverse and complementary feature descriptors are extracted to characterize the satellite scene. Then, sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA with penalty function is employed to fuse the extracted feature descriptors and remove the ambiguities and redundancies between them simultaneously. After that, a two-phase Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process is designed to further filter out redundant information. In the first phase, we gradually impose a constraint via an iterative process to set a constraint on the loadings for averting sparse correlation descending below to a lower confidence limit of the approximated canonical correlation. In the second phase, Bayesian information criterion (BIC is utilized to conduct the feature filtering which sets the smallest loading in absolute value to zero in each iteration for all features. Lastly, a support vector machine with pyramid match kernel is applied to obtain the final result. Experimental results on high-spatial-resolution satellite scenes demonstrate that the suggested approach achieves satisfactory performance in classification accuracy.
Porta, Davide; Poppa, Pasquale; Regazzola, Valeria; Gibelli, Daniele; Schillaci, Daniela Roberta; Amadasi, Alberto; Magli, Francesca; Cattaneo, Cristina
Inspection of a crime scene is a crucial step in forensic medicine, and even the methods taught by forensic anthropology are essential. Whereas a thorough inspection can provide crucial information, an approximate inspection can be useless or even harmful. This study reports 3 cases of burnt bodies found inside vehicles between 2006 and 2009 in the outskirts of Milan (Italy). In all 3 cases, the victim was killed by gunshot, and the body was burnt in the vehicle to destroy signs of skeletal injury and prevent identification. In every case, the assistance of forensic anthropologists was requested, but only after the inspection of the body at autopsy showed that the remains were incomplete, thus making it more difficult to determine the identity, cause, and manner of death. A second scene of crime inspection was therefore performed with strict anthropological and adapted archeological methods by forensic anthropologists to perform a more complete recovery, proving how much material had been left behind. These cases clearly show the importance of a proper recovery and of the application of forensic anthropology methods on badly charred bodies and the importance of recovering every fragment of bone: even the smallest fragment can provide essential information. Thus, a precise coordination, a correct and thorough recovery of bone fragments, and an anthropological approach are crucial for many issues: analysis of the scene of crime, reconstruction of the corpse, and reconstruction of the perimortem events.
Antonella Del Rosso
At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone. As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...
Full Text Available Terrain classification allows a mobile robot to create an annotated map of its local environment from the three-dimensional (3D and two-dimensional (2D datasets collected by its array of sensors, including a GPS receiver, gyroscope, video camera, and range sensor. However, parts of objects that are outside the measurement range of the range sensor will not be detected. To overcome this problem, this paper describes an edge estimation method for complete scene recovery and complete terrain reconstruction. Here, the Gibbs-Markov random field is used to segment the ground from 2D videos and 3D point clouds. Further, a masking method is proposed to classify buildings and trees in a terrain mesh.
Full Text Available The mutual interferences between cinema and theatre constitute a complex and fascinating aspect of modern aesthetics, in view of the richness of theoretical and artistic implications and the continuous tension typical of works vulnerable to contamination and hybrid forms. Within such a vast field, this essay proposes some demarcations by focusing on the camera style of three filmmakers (Pasolini, Cronenberg, Martone, who, in different ways, translate theatrical scenes and paradigms onto the screen. In the cinematic narratives of these authors, quotation assumes a peculiar prominence because it does not restrict itself to a mere reproduction of cues and voices, but forces the spectator’s gaze to follow original paths, and thus amplifies the spectrum of the visible.
Hamrick, Jessica B; Battaglia, Peter W; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
After observing a collision between two boxes, you can immediately tell which is empty and which is full of books based on how the boxes moved. People form rich perceptions about the physical properties of objects from their interactions, an ability that plays a crucial role in learning about the physical world through our experiences. Here, we present three experiments that demonstrate people's capacity to reason about the relative masses of objects in naturalistic 3D scenes. We find that people make accurate inferences, and that they continue to fine-tune their beliefs over time. To explain our results, we propose a cognitive model that combines Bayesian inference with approximate knowledge of Newtonian physics by estimating probabilities from noisy physical simulations. We find that this model accurately predicts judgments from our experiments, suggesting that the same simulation mechanism underlies both peoples' predictions and inferences about the physical world around them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sidney D. Gamble was a trained sociologist and an amateur photographer. He took nearly five thousand photographs during four trips to China between 1908 and 1932, covering a wide range of elements of Chinese society and providing a visual archive for an important period in Chinese history. Among Gamble’s many interesting images documenting events and moments during those turbulent years, the photographs that capture leisure scenes are uniquely charming, giving us a peek into the daily lives of Chinese people a century ago. This article accompanies the September 2013 Cross-Currents photo essay, which features images selected by curator Luo Zhou from the Sidney D. Gamble Photographs collection (http://library.duke.edu/ digitalcollections/gamble/.
Luck, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Roberts, R.S.
A three-dimensional world model is crucial for many robotic tasks. Modeling techniques tend to be either fully manual or autonomous. Manual methods are extremely time consuming but also highly accurate and flexible. Autonomous techniques are fast but inflexible and, with real-world data, often inaccurate. The method presented in this paper combines the two, yielding a highly efficient, flexible, and accurate mapping tool. The segmentation and modeling algorithms that compose the method are specifically designed for industrial environments, and are described in detail. A mapping system based on these algorithms has been designed. It enables a human supervisor to quickly construct a fully defined world model from unfiltered and unsegmented real-world range imagery. Examples of how industrial scenes are modeled with the mapping system are provided.
Ling, Jianing; Xie, Mei
License plate recognition system(LPRS) is one of the most important parts of the intelligent transportation system(ITS),and the license plate location is the most important step of the LPRS,it derectly affects the performance of the character segmentation and recognition afterward.In this paper,an effective algorithm of lisence plate location is proposed.In this method,Firstly we obtain high frequency coefficient through 1-D discrete wavelet transform. Then we process the image with median filter, binarization and morphology operation.Finally,we label and record the connected regions. Then we can locate the candidate license plates according to the region information. Experiment proved that our method performs well in the long range and complex scenes,and performs well on robustness.
Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.
Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J
The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Streefkerk, J.W.; Houben, M.; Amerongen, P. van; Haar, F. ter; Dijk, J.
Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this
Kret, M.E.; Roelofs, K.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; de Gelder, B.
We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to
Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene
Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an…
van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, C.B.A.; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, B.
Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control
Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice
Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control stimuli. The results showed that the valence of the background influences face selective activity in the right anterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with higher activation for neutral backgrounds compared to threatening backgrounds (controlled for isolated background effects) and that this effect correlated with trait empathy in the sgACC. In addition, the left fusiform gyrus (FG) responds to the affective congruence between face and background scene. The results show that valence of the background modulates face processing and support the hypothesis that empathic processing in sgACC is inhibited when affective information is present in the background. In addition, the findings reveal a pattern of complex scene perception showing a gradient of functional specialization along the posterior-anterior axis: from sensitivity to the affective content of scenes (extrastriate body area: EBA and posterior PPA), over scene emotion-face emotion interaction (left FG) via category-scene interaction (anterior PPA) to scene-category-personality interaction (sgACC). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.
Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter
This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a
Vivona, Brian D.
Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…
Brenda M Stoesz
Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.
Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike
Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…
Full Text Available Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures, our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.
Rudolph, Søren; Jehu, G; Nielsen, Søren Loumann
In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment. The aim...
Rudolph, S.S.; Jehu, G.; Nielsen, S.L.
INTRODUCTION: In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment...
Rayner, Keith; Castelhano, Monica S.; Yang, Jinmian
Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences in the prioritization of information (background or foreground). The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how…
How does the brain represent our visual environment? Research has revealed brain areas that respond to specific information such as faces and objects, but how a representation of an entire visual scene is formed is still unclear. This thesis explores the idea that scene statistics play an important
Full Text Available With the popular use of geotagging images, more and more research efforts have been placed on geographical scene classification. In geographical scene classification, valid spatial feature selection can significantly boost the final performance. Bag of visual words (BoVW can do well in selecting feature in geographical scene classification; nevertheless, it works effectively only if the provided feature extractor is well-matched. In this paper, we use convolutional neural networks (CNNs for optimizing proposed feature extractor, so that it can learn more suitable visual vocabularies from the geotagging images. Our approach achieves better performance than BoVW as a tool for geographical scene classification, respectively, in three datasets which contain a variety of scene categories.
Steven G Luke
Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of content meaningfulness on eye-movement control in reading and scene viewing. Texts and scenes were manipulated to make them uninterpretable, and then eye-movements in reading and scene-viewing were compared to those in pseudo-reading and pseudo-scene viewing. Fixation durations and saccade amplitudes were greater for pseudo-stimuli. The effect of the removal of meaning was seen exclusively in the tail of the fixation duration distribution in both tasks, and the size of this effect was the same across tasks. These findings suggest that eye movements are controlled by a common mechanism in reading and scene viewing. They also indicate that not all eye movements are responsive to the meaningfulness of stimulus content. Implications for models of eye movement control are discussed.
Højfeldt, S G; Sørensen, L P; Mikkelsen, Søren
diagnoses were assigned to patients released at the scene following treatment, to investigate the need for secondary contact with the hospital and to assess mortality in patients released at the scene. METHODS: All records regarding patients released at the scene from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were......BACKGROUND: The Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Odense, Denmark consists of a rapid response car, manned with an anaesthesiologist and an emergency medical technician. Eleven per cent of the patients are released at the scene following treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate which...... investigated. In each patient, diagnosis as well as any renewed contact with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit or the hospital within 24 h was registered. RESULTS: ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED NINE: patients were released at the scene. Diagnoses within the category 'examination and investigation' [International...
Full Text Available In this article, the cognitive vision module of an autonomous flying robot is studied. The problem of the scene understanding by the robot, which flies on the high altitude, is analyzed. In such conditions, the examined scene can be regarded as two-dimensional. It is assumed that the robot operates in the urban-type environment. The scene representation is stored in the neighborhood graph that collects data about the objects locations, shapes, and their spatial relations. The fragments of the scene are understood by the robot in the context of neighborhoods of the objects. It is shown that such information can be effectively used for recognition of the object, while many objects of similar shape exist in the scene. In the proposed recognition process, not only the information about the shape of the object is utilized but also the spatial relations with other objects in its close neighborhood are examined.
Bindemann, Markus; Lewis, Michael B
In this study, we examined whether the detection of frontal, ¾, and profile face views differs from their categorization as faces. In Experiment 1, we compared three tasks that required observers to determine the presence or absence of a face, but varied in the extents to which participants had to search for the faces in simple displays and in small or large scenes to make this decision. Performance was equivalent for all of the face views in simple displays and small scenes, but it was notably slower for profile views when this required the search for faces in extended scene displays. This search effect was confirmed in Experiment 2, in which we compared observers' eye movements with their response times to faces in visual scenes. These results demonstrate that the categorization of faces at fixation is dissociable from the detection of faces in space. Consequently, we suggest that face detection should be studied with extended visual displays, such as natural scenes.
Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes.Method: thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test.Results: With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group ,while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01.Conclusion: based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.
Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa
Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .
Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.
In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.
We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Kira, Zsolt; Wagner, Alan R.; Kennedy, Chris; Zutty, Jason; Tuell, Grady
We are interested in data fusion strategies for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Advances in theory, algorithms, and computational power have made it possible to extract rich semantic information from a wide variety of sensors, but these advances have raised new challenges in fusing the data. For example, in developing fusion algorithms for moving target identification (MTI) applications, what is the best way to combine image data having different temporal frequencies, and how should we introduce contextual information acquired from monitoring cell phones or from human intelligence? In addressing these questions we have found that existing data fusion models do not readily facilitate comparison of fusion algorithms performing such complex information extraction, so we developed a new model that does. Here, we present the Spatial, Temporal, Algorithm, and Cognition (STAC) model. STAC allows for describing the progression of multi-sensor raw data through increasing levels of abstraction, and provides a way to easily compare fusion strategies. It provides for unambiguous description of how multi-sensor data are combined, the computational algorithms being used, and how scene understanding is ultimately achieved. In this paper, we describe and illustrate the STAC model, and compare it to other existing models.
Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.
Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Qiong-Hua
Image steganography is one way of data hiding which provides data security in digital images. The aim is to embed and deliver secret data in digital images without any suspiciousness. However, most of the existing optical image hiding methods ignore the visual quality of the stego-image for improving the robustness of the secret image. To address this issue, in this paper, we present a Region of Non-Interest (RONI) steganographic algorithm to enhance the visual quality of the stego-image. In the proposed method, the carrier image is segmented into Region of Interest (ROI) and RONI. To enhance the visual quality, the 3D image information is embedded into the RONI of the digital images. In order to find appropriate regions for embedding, we use a visual attention model as a means of measuring the ROI of the digital images. The algorithm employs the computational integral imaging (CII) technique to hide the 3D scene in the carrier image. Comparison results show that the proposed technique performs better than some existing state of art techniques.
Sidla, O.; Rosner, M.
This paper describes the implementation of a pedestrian detection system which is based on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) principle and which tries to improve the overall detection performance by combining several part based detectors in a simple voting scheme. The HOG feature based part detectors are specifically trained for head, head-left, head-right, and left/right sides of people, assuming that these parts should be recognized even in very crowded environments like busy public transportation platforms. The part detectors are trained on the INRIA people image database using a polynomial Support Vector Machine. Experiments are undertaken with completely different test samples which have been extracted from two imaging campaigns in an outdoor setup and in an underground station. Our results demonstrate that the performance of pedestrian detection degrades drastically in very crowded scenes, but that through the combination of part detectors a gain in robustness and detection rate can be achieved at least for classifier settings which yield very low false positive rates.
Full Text Available Within the field of studies about the so-called Italian Migrant Literature it is possible to identify two approaches that can be ascribed to the “Law and Literature” movement. The first one consists in focusing on the provisions of the Law which are the pre-text or the sub-text of many immigration novels. The second approach considers the migrant writings as acts of talking back requesting for justice through the singularity of personal narrative which is in contrast with the normative and objectifying narratives of the official discourse. My paper is aiming to propose a different key of reading which is focusing both on the wider normative framework in which migrant writings are caught and on the interlocutory scene that I consider as a recurrent structure of auto-hetero-biographic and fictional narratives of migrants. Its dynamics become allegory of an inquisitory and judiciary paradigm permeating the “welcoming society” and deriving from the categories of “State thought” through which immigration is conceived and narrated by the law and migratory policies and to which migrant writings sometimes “talk back” by means of parodic quotations and rephrasing understood as possible practices of resistance.
Howard, Christina J; Gilchrist, Iain D; Troscianko, Tom; Behera, Ardhendu; Hogg, David C
Low-level stimulus salience and task relevance together determine the human fixation priority assigned to scene locations (Fecteau and Munoz in Trends Cogn Sci 10(8):382-390, 2006). However, surprisingly little is known about the contribution of task relevance to eye movements during real-world visual search where stimuli are in constant motion and where the 'target' for the visual search is abstract and semantic in nature. Here, we investigate this issue when participants continuously search an array of four closed-circuit television (CCTV) screens for suspicious events. We recorded eye movements whilst participants watched real CCTV footage and moved a joystick to continuously indicate perceived suspiciousness. We find that when multiple areas of a display compete for attention, gaze is allocated according to relative levels of reported suspiciousness. Furthermore, this measure of task relevance accounted for twice the amount of variance in gaze likelihood as the amount of low-level visual changes over time in the video stimuli.
Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania
Mexico is a country affected by drugs in every aspect: it is a drug producing country of heroin, marihuana and methamphetamines, mainly for external markets but also for the growing internal demand; it is a transit country for cocaine that has found its way through the Central American and Mexican corridor on its way to external markets and for the internal supply. As a result of the increasing availability of substances and a favorable social environment, it has become a consuming country; drug experimentation use and dependence of illegal drugs, although still low, have increased. The abuse/dependence of legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco are the main substance abuse problems; only the abuse of pharmaceuticals remains low and relatively stable, mainly as a result of low availability for medical purposes and therefore limited scope for deviation. Social costs are considerable, as happens in other countries in the region, violence being the most prevailing characteristic of the drug scene, increasing from 2008 onwards. Within these important challenges for health and security, it is also true that significant, continuous efforts have been made by demand reduction programs at the national level since 1972 and adapted to the changing circumstances. This editorial seeks to tell the story of drug transitions in Mexico and the programs that have been implemented and discusses areas of opportunity for a new approach.
Dupuis, Julia R.; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.
OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.
Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.; Rentz Dupuis, Julia
OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.
Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.
Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.
Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.
The structure of the physical world projects images onto our eyes. However, those images are often poorly representative of environmental structure: well-defined boundaries within the eye may correspond to irrelevant features of the physical world, while critical features of the physical world may be nearly invisible at the retinal projection. The challenge for the visual cortex is to sort these two types of features according to their utility in ultimately reconstructing percepts and interpreting the constituents of the scene. We describe a novel paradigm that enabled us to selectively evaluate the relative role played by these two feature classes in signal reconstruction from corrupted images. Our measurements demonstrate that this process is quickly dominated by the inferred structure of the environment, and only minimally controlled by variations of raw image content. The inferential mechanism is spatially global and its impact on early visual cortex is fast. Furthermore, it retunes local visual processing for more efficient feature extraction without altering the intrinsic transduction noise. The basic properties of this process can be partially captured by a combination of small-scale circuit models and large-scale network architectures. Taken together, our results challenge compartmentalized notions of bottom-up/top-down perception and suggest instead that these two modes are best viewed as an integrated perceptual mechanism.
Heinrich, Daniela; Holzmann, Christopher; Wagner, Anja; Fischer, Anja; Pfeifer, Roman; Graw, Matthias; Schick, Sylvia
Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown. Our database comprises 309 road traffic fatalities, autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich in 2004 and 2005. Injuries are coded according to Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS© 2005 update 2008 . Data used for this analysis are age, sex, site of death, site of accident, traffic participation mode, measures of injury severity, and rib fractures. The injury patterns of elderly, aged 65+ years, are compared to the younger ones divided by their site of death. Elderly with death on scene more often show serious thorax injuries and pelvic fractures than the younger. Some hints point towards older fatalities showing less frequently serious abdominal injuries. In hospital, elderly fatalities show lower Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) compared to the younger. The number of rib fractures is significantly higher for the elderly but is not the reason for death. Results show that young and old fatalities have different injury patterns and reveal first hints towards the need to analyze death on scene more in-depth.
Zhong, Yanfei; Fei, Feng; Zhang, Liangpei
The increase of the spatial resolution of remote-sensing sensors helps to capture the abundant details related to the semantics of surface objects. However, it is difficult for the popular object-oriented classification approaches to acquire higher level semantics from the high spatial resolution remote-sensing (HSR-RS) images, which is often referred to as the "semantic gap." Instead of designing sophisticated operators, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a typical deep learning method, can automatically discover intrinsic feature descriptors from a large number of input images to bridge the semantic gap. Due to the small data volume of the available HSR-RS scene datasets, which is far away from that of the natural scene datasets, there have been few reports of CNN approaches for HSR-RS image scene classifications. We propose a practical CNN architecture for HSR-RS scene classification, named the large patch convolutional neural network (LPCNN). The large patch sampling is used to generate hundreds of possible scene patches for the feature learning, and a global average pooling layer is used to replace the fully connected network as the classifier, which can greatly reduce the total parameters. The experiments confirm that the proposed LPCNN can learn effective local features to form an effective representation for different land-use scenes, and can achieve a performance that is comparable to the state-of-the-art on public HSR-RS scene datasets.
Schofield, Casey A; Weeks, Justin W; Taylor, Lea; Karnedy, Colten
Social cognition research has relied primarily on photographic emotional stimuli. Such stimuli likely have limited ecological validity in terms of representing real world social interactions. The current study presents evidence for the validity of a new stimuli set of dynamic social SCENES (Skidmore Clips of Emotional and Neutral Expressive Scenarios). To develop these stimuli, ten undergraduate theater students were recruited to portray members of an audience. This audience was configured to display (seven) varying configurations of social feedback, ranging from unequivocally approving to unequivocally disapproving (including three different versions of balanced/neutral scenes). Validity data were obtained from 383 adult participants recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Each participant viewed three randomly assigned scenes and provided a rating of the perceived criticalness of each scene. Results indicate that the SCENES reflect the intended range of emotionality, and pairwise comparisons suggest that the SCENES capture distinct levels of critical feedback. Overall, the SCENES stimuli set represents a publicly available (www.scenesstimuli.com) resource for researchers interested in measuring social cognition in the presence of dynamic and naturalistic social stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palombo, D J; Hayes, S M; Peterson, K M; Keane, M M; Verfaellie, M
Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands. Consistent with the alternative account, the MTL was more active for the high versus low scene-construction condition. By contrast, MTL differences were not observed when comparing the future versus present conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of MTL activation was associated with the extent to which participants imagined a scene but was not associated with the extent to which participants thought about the future. These findings help disambiguate which component processes of imagination specifically involve the MTL. Published by Oxford University Press 2016.
Timothy J Shakespeare
Full Text Available Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (colour and greyscale using a categorisation paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces<scenes
One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi
Full Text Available Complex multi-holed-region entity scenes (i.e., sets of random region with holes are common in spatial database systems, spatial query languages, and the Geographic Information System (GIS. A multi-holed-region (region with an arbitrary number of holes is an abstraction of the real world that primarily represents geographic objects that have more than one interior boundary, such as areas that contain several lakes or lakes that contain islands. When the similarity of the two complex holed-region entity scenes is measured, the number of regions in the scenes and the number of holes in the regions are usually different between the two scenes, which complicates the matching relationships of holed-regions and holes. The aim of this research is to develop several holed-region similarity metrics and propose a hierarchical model to measure comprehensively the similarity between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The procedure first divides a complex entity scene into three layers: a complex scene, a micro-spatial-scene, and a simple entity (hole. The relationships between the adjacent layers are considered to be sets of relationships, and each level of similarity measurements is nested with the adjacent one. Next, entity matching is performed from top to bottom, while the similarity results are calculated from local to global. In addition, we utilize position graphs to describe the distribution of the holed-regions and subsequently describe the directions between the holes using a feature matrix. A case study that uses the Great Lakes in North America in 1986 and 2015 as experimental data illustrates the entire similarity measurement process between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The experimental results show that the hierarchical model accounts for the relationships of the different layers in the entire complex holed-region entity scene. The model can effectively calculate the similarity of complex holed-region entity scenes, even if the
Shopovska, Ivana; Jovanov, Ljubomir; Goossens, Bart; Philips, Wilfried
High dynamic range (HDR) image generation from a number of differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images has been extensively explored in the past few decades, and as a result of these efforts a large number of HDR synthesis methods have been proposed. Since HDR images are synthesized by combining well-exposed regions of the input images, one of the main challenges is dealing with camera or object motion. In this paper we propose a method for the synthesis of HDR video from a single camera using multiple, differently exposed video frames, with circularly alternating exposure times. One of the potential applications of the system is in driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles, involving significant camera and object movement, non- uniform and temporally varying illumination, and the requirement of real-time performance. To achieve these goals simultaneously, we propose a HDR synthesis approach based on weighted averaging of aligned radiance maps. The computational complexity of high-quality optical flow methods for motion compensation is still pro- hibitively high for real-time applications. Instead, we rely on more efficient global projective transformations to solve camera movement, while moving objects are detected by thresholding the differences between the trans- formed and brightness adapted images in the set. To attain temporal consistency of the camera motion in the consecutive HDR frames, the parameters of the perspective transformation are stabilized over time by means of computationally efficient temporal filtering. We evaluated our results on several reference HDR videos, on synthetic scenes, and using 14-bit raw images taken with a standard camera.
He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian
Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.
He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian
Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.
In this introduction I will put forward solutions which have been given to resolve the disagreements about the different models in the history of Astronomy from a didactic point of view. It is also about having a critical and prudent look concerning the risk of combining theories which may turn out apparently valid as it is in the case of the Tycho Brahe historical model. I will particularly focus on four models from a historical and epistemological perspective with the purpose of showing how the conflictive scene moved on to an efficient way out of the problem. To do so I will describe the variables in age, time and space(cognitive space and time of Astronomy) by confronting historical models with contemporary ones about the dispute concerning the Universe dynamic description. The Mond theory explains the difficulties in the interpretation of the rotation of the spiral galaxies claiming that Newton laws are not accurate in great scale, thus denying the solution of the missing matter. At the same time the rival theory refuses the solution given by its opponent Mond theory, through observations of galactic clusters in interaction, stating the existence of Dark Matter. The chosen historical confrontations are the following: (a) Heliocentric and Geocentric Model, (b) The origin of the 1920 debate: Curtis and Shapley, (c) The Red Shift of the Galaxies and the Unchanging Cosmology, and (d) Dark Matter and Newton's Laws as viewed from Mond Theory, which is about the present disagreement. The target focuses on showing the building up of both theories and the risk of combining them as well.
Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude
Observers can store thousands of object images in visual long-term memory with high fidelity, but the fidelity of scene representations in long-term memory is not known. Here, we probed scene-representation fidelity by varying the number of studied exemplars in different scene categories and testing memory using exemplar-level foils. Observers viewed thousands of scenes over 5.5 hr and then completed a series of forced-choice tests. Memory performance was high, even with up to 64 scenes from ...
Sun, Xue; Liu, Hu; Yang, Chenguang; Wang, Ning
The characteristics of helicopter earthquake search and rescue (HESAR) oriented virtual simulation scene are summarized to guide the modeling of virtual simulation scene. Then a method of scene modeling which can satisfy the simulation requirements and simplify the modeling is proposed. The seismic influence field is first determined by inversion to get the distribution of buildings with different damage grades. And then, the division of different levels of detail (LOD) regions where the intricacy requirements of modeling are different is obtained to simplify the modeling. Besides, Unity3D is used for the three-dimensional terrain construction and scene rendering. Finally, a sample case was shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Foulsham, Tom; Dewhurst, Richard; Nyström, Marcus; Jarodzka, Halszka; Johansson, Roger; Underwood, Geoffrey; Holmqvist, Kenneth
Foulsham, T., Dewhurst, R., Nyström, M., Jarodzka, H., Johansson, R., Underwood, G., & Holmqvist, K. (2012). Comparing scanpaths during scene encoding and recognition: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 5(4):3, 1-12.
Gerhard, Holly E.; Maloney, Laurence T.
We examine human ability to detect changes in scene lighting. Thirteen observers viewed three-dimensional rendered scenes stereoscopically. Each scene consisted of a randomly generated three-dimensional “Gaussian bump” surface rendered under a combination of collimated and diffuse light sources. During each trial, the collimated source underwent a small, quick change of position in one of four directions. The observer's task was to classify the direction of the lighting change. All observers were above chance in performing the task. We developed a model that combined two sources of information, a shape map and a shading map, to predict lighting change direction. We used this model to predict patterns of errors both across observers and across scenes differing in shape. We found that errors in estimating lighting direction were primarily the result of errors in representing surface shape. We characterized the surface features that affected performance in the classification task. PMID:21106676
...) and DoD Law Enforcement Organizations (LEOs). Overall, our objective was to determine whether current policies and procedures are adequate to ensure thorough, appropriate, and consistent crime scene management...
Baechler, Simon; Gélinas, Anthony; Tremblay, Rémy; Lu, Karely; Crispino, Frank
The use of applications on mobile devices is gradually becoming a new norm in everyday life, and crime scene investigation is unlikely to escape this reality. The article assesses the current state of research and practices by means of literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and a survey conducted among crime scene investigators from Canada and Switzerland. Attempts at finding a particular strategy to guide the development, usage, and evaluation of applications that can assist crime scene investigation prove to be rather challenging. Therefore, the article proposes a typology for these applications, as well as criteria for evaluating their relevance, reliability, and answer to operational requirements. The study of five applications illustrates the evaluation process. Far away from the revolution announced by some stakeholders, it is required to pursue scientific and pragmatic research to set the theoretical foundations that will allow a significant contribution of applications to crime scene investigation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
INOUE, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YUJI
...) and the retention interval (short, long) between cued and target objects. In this paradigm, a dot cue was sequentially presented on 12 different objects of a scene, then the memory for one of the cued objects was tested...
Dong, Tianyang; Liu, Siyuan; Xia, Jiajia; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Ling
To automatically adapt to various hardware and software environments on different devices, this paper presents a time-critical adaptive approach for visualizing natural scenes. In this method, a simplified expression of a tree model is used for different devices. The best rendering scheme is intelligently selected to generate a particular scene by estimating the rendering time of trees based on their visual importance. Therefore, this approach can ensure the reality of natural scenes while maintaining a constant frame rate for their interactive display. To verify its effectiveness and flexibility, this method is applied in different devices, such as a desktop computer, laptop, iPad and smart phone. Applications show that the method proposed in this paper can not only adapt to devices with different computing abilities and system resources very well but can also achieve rather good visual realism and a constant frame rate for natural scenes.
7. - 26. märtsil Lyonis toimunud festivalist "Biennale en scene" ja seal etendunud kolmest ooperist: G. Aperghis "Entre chien et loup", C. Ambrosini "Il canbto della pelle", P. Dusapini "Faustus, la derniere nuit"
Conclusions: Despite the prohibition of cigarette advertisements in the mass media and movies, we still witness scenes depicting smoking by the good or bad characters of the movies so more observation in this field is needed.
Choe, Kyoung Whan; Kardan, Omid; Kotabe, Hiroki P; Henderson, John M; Berman, Marc G
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces. By analyzing fixation maps, we found that although fixation map similarity could explain how eye movements during visual search impairs incidental scene memory, it could not explain the incidental memory boost from aesthetic preference evaluation, implying that implicit mechanisms were at play. We conclude that not all incidental encoding tasks should be taken to be similar, as different mechanisms (e.g., explicit or implicit) lead to memory enhancements or decrements for different incidental encoding tasks.
Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R; Bringoux, Lionel
Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.
M.A. During the second half of the fifth-century B.C. there was a sudden proliferation of Attic vases depicting adornment scenes. These scenes showed groups of women making themselves desirable and for the first time women were eroticised within the context of marriage. Some scholars have argued that this sudden abundance reflected a change in the Attic attitude towards women, reflecting their increased social standing. These scholars proposed various hypotheses. It is conjectured that Per...
This paper proposes a simple, fast sports scene image segmentation method; a lot of work so far has been looking for a way to reduce the different shades of emotions in smooth area. A novel method of pretreatment, proposed the elimination of different shades feelings. Internal filling mechanism is used to change the pixels enclosed by the interest as interest pixels. For some test has achieved harvest sports scene images has been confirmed.
Cécile Scotto Di Cesare
Full Text Available Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward. Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts. We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.
Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively. Second, two feature fusion strategies are adopted to fuse the two different types of deep convolutional features extracted by the original RGB stream and the saliency stream. Finally, we use the extreme learning machine (ELM classifier for final classification with the fused features. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is tested on four challenging datasets: UC-Merced dataset with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS dataset with 19 scene categories, AID dataset with 30 scene categories, and NWPU-RESISC45 dataset with 45 challenging scene categories. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.
Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Oliveira, Hercílio Pereira; Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh
Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008). Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8). These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8) were defined as "quality scenes". Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.
Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro
The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.
Anderson, Nicola C; Donk, Mieke
A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations.
Anderson, Nicola C.; Donk, Mieke
A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations. PMID:28222190
Josephs, Emilie L; Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L-H
Previous work has shown that recall of objects that are incidentally encountered as targets in visual search is better than recall of objects that have been intentionally memorized (Draschkow, Wolfe, & Võ, 2014). However, this counter-intuitive result is not seen when these tasks are performed with non-scene stimuli. The goal of the current paper is to determine what features of search in a scene contribute to higher recall rates when compared to a memorization task. In each of four experiments, we compare the free recall rate for target objects following a search to the rate following a memorization task. Across the experiments, the stimuli include progressively more scene-related information. Experiment 1 provides the spatial relations between objects. Experiment 2 adds relative size and depth of objects. Experiments 3 and 4 include scene layout and semantic information. We find that search leads to better recall than explicit memorization in cases where scene layout and semantic information are present, as long as the participant has ample time (2500ms) to integrate this information with knowledge about the target object (Exp. 4). These results suggest that the integration of scene and target information not only leads to more efficient search, but can also contribute to stronger memory representations than intentional memorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8. These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8 were defined as "quality scenes". RESULTS: Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.
Gygi, Brian; Shafiro, Valeriy
Previously, Gygi and Shafiro (2011) found that when environmental sounds are semantically incongruent with the background scene (e.g., horse galloping in a restaurant), they can be identified more accurately by young normal-hearing listeners (YNH) than sounds congruent with the scene (e.g., horse galloping at a racetrack). This study investigated how age and high-frequency audibility affect this Incongruency Advantage (IA) effect. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elderly listeners ( N = 18 for 1a; N = 10 for 1b) with age-appropriate hearing (EAH) were tested on target sounds and auditory scenes in 5 sound-to-scene ratios (So/Sc) between -3 and -18 dB. Experiment 2 tested 11 YNH on the same sound-scene pairings lowpass-filtered at 4 kHz (YNH-4k). The EAH and YNH-4k groups exhibited an almost identical pattern of significant IA effects, but both were at approximately 3.9 dB higher So/Sc than the previously tested YNH listeners. However, the psychometric functions revealed a shallower slope for EAH listeners compared with YNH listeners for the congruent stimuli only, suggesting a greater difficulty for the EAH listeners in attending to sounds expected to occur in a scene. These findings indicate that semantic relationships between environmental sounds in soundscapes are mediated by both audibility and cognitive factors and suggest a method for dissociating these factors.
Rita Osipovna Mazel
Full Text Available This article presents Dostoyevsky to readers as an author praising happiness and felicity. Having lived through deep sorrows he acquired insight into another dimension of life. Like a longing pathfinder, he states the unfeigned grace of life. “Life is a gift, life is mercy, and any minute may be the age of happiness”, – this is the essence of his great novels. People are not lonesome on Earth; they are bound by invisible threads. A loner may not succeed. One heart or one consciousness attracts another one like a magnet, as if claiming: thou art... Christ, with his Love and his Sacrifice, the greatest miracle on the Earth. It is impossible to be aware of Christ’s existence and not to be joyful. Dostoyevsky reveals one of the main principles of life: when you love someone and sacrifice yourself to this person you satisfy your aspiration for a beau ideal and feel like in heavens. In this article the author analyzes selected scenes of happiness in Dostoevsky’s novels: Arkady’s and his sister Liza’s admiration for the sacrifice of their father Versilov; Alyosha and Grushen’ka, saving each other instead of committing sins and transgressing moral standards; Alyosha’s dream about the Christ’s first miracle in Cana of Galilee; Stavrogin’s dream of the Golden Age of the blessed mankind... In Dostoyevsky’s tragic novel The Possessed (The Devils, or Demons a reader faces an image of love – mutual, sacrificial, fulfilling, and blithe. There is probably nothing similar in the history of the world literature. One can eminently feel the interconnectedness of Dostoevsky’s heroes with another, higher world that penetrates into every aspect of their lives. All of his creatures are illumed by the light of other worlds. It is clear that there cannot be darkness, despair, or hopelessness in Dostoevsky’s works, because even in the hell full of demons there is a place for righteous people, luminous (as Nikolai Berdyaev called them and
de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J
New technologies will allow Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs) in the near future to analyse traces at the crime scene and receive identification information while still conducting the investigation. These developments could have considerable effects on the way an investigation is conducted. CSIs may start reasoning based on possible database-matches which could influence scenario formation (i.e. the construction of narratives that explain the observed traces) during very early phases of the investigation. The goal of this study is to gain more insight into the influence of the rapid identification information on the reconstruction of the crime and the evaluation of traces by addressing two questions, namely 1) is scenario formation influenced from the moment that ID information is provided and 2) do database matches influence the evaluation of traces and the reconstruction of the crime. We asked 48 CSIs from England to investigate a potential murder crime scene on a computer. Our findings show that the interpretation of the crime scene by CSIs is affected by the moment identification information is provided. This information has a higher influence on scenario formation when provided after an initial scenario has been formed. Also, CSIs seem to attach great value to traces that produce matches with databases and hence yield a name of a known person. Similar traces that did not provide matches were considered less important. We question whether this kind of selective attention is desirable as it may cause ignorance of other relevant information at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lacey, Susan R; Goodyear-Bruch, Caryl; Olney, Adrienne; Hanson, Dave; Altman, Marian S; Varn-Davis, Natasha S; Brinker, Debbie; Lavandero, Ramón; Cox, Karen S
Staff nurses are pivotal in leading change related to quality improvement efforts, although many lack skills to steer change from the bedside. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) staff nurse leadership program, Clinical Scene Investigator (CSI) Academy, teaches and empowers staff nurses in leadership skills and change concepts to translate evidence into practice affecting patient outcomes. To describe the curriculum of the AACN CSI Academy that provides staff nurses with the leadership skills required to create unit-based change projects that positively impact patient/family outcomes. The curriculum of the Academy included leadership topics, communication, change concepts, quality improvement methods, project management, and data management and analysis. Each team of participants collected project data to show improvements in patient care. The program evaluation used many data sources to assess the program effectiveness, relating to the professional growth of the participant nurses. The participants assessed project patient outcomes, sustainability, and spread. The first cohort of CSI participants included 164 direct care nurses from 42 hospitals in 6 cities. They rated the Academy highly in the program evaluation, and they reported that the Academy contributed to their professional development. The individual hospital quality improvement projects resulted in positive patient and estimated fiscal outcomes that were generally sustained 1 year after the program. With the skills, tools, and support obtained from participation in the CSI Academy, staff nurses can make substantial contributions to their organizations in clinical and possibly fiscal outcomes. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Tickle, Andrew J.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry
In this paper, there is an investigation into the possibility of executing a Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) system on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which would allow its set up in virtually any location, with its purpose to detect intruders and raise an alarm to call security personal, and a signal to initial a lockdown of the local area. This paper will include how the system was scaled down from the full building multi-computer system, to an FPGA without losing any functionality using Altera's DSP Builder development tool. Also included is the analysis of the different situations which the system would encounter in the field, and their respective alarm triggering levels, these include indoors, outdoors, close-up, distance, high-brightness, low-light, bad weather, etc. The triggering mechanism is a pixel counter and threshold system, and its adaptive design will be included. All the results shown in this paper, will also be verified by MATLAB m-files running on a full desktop PC, to show that the results obtained from the FPGA based system are accurate.
Full Text Available The preceding vehicles detection technique in nighttime traffic scenes is an important part of the advanced driver assistance system (ADAS. This paper proposes a region tracking-based vehicle detection algorithm via the image processing technique. First, the brightness of the taillights during nighttime is used as the typical feature, and we use the existing global detection algorithm to detect and pair the taillights. When the vehicle is detected, a time series analysis model is introduced to predict vehicle positions and the possible region (PR of the vehicle in the next frame. Then, the vehicle is only detected in the PR. This could reduce the detection time and avoid the false pairing between the bright spots in the PR and the bright spots out of the PR. Additionally, we present a thresholds updating method to make the thresholds adaptive. Finally, experimental studies are provided to demonstrate the application and substantiate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can simultaneously reduce both the false negative detection rate and the false positive detection rate.
Haghighi, Marzieh; Moghadamfalahi, Mohammad; Akcakaya, Murat; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Erdogmus, Deniz
Recent findings indicate that brain interfaces have the potential to enable attention-guided auditory scene analysis and manipulation in applications, such as hearing aids and augmented/virtual environments. Specifically, noninvasively acquired electroencephalography (EEG) signals have been demonstrated to carry some evidence regarding, which of multiple synchronous speech waveforms the subject attends to. In this paper, we demonstrate that: 1) using data- and model-driven cross-correlation features yield competitive binary auditory attention classification results with at most 20 s of EEG from 16 channels or even a single well-positioned channel; 2) a model calibrated using equal-energy speech waveforms competing for attention could perform well on estimating attention in closed-loop unbalanced-energy speech waveform situations, where the speech amplitudes are modulated by the estimated attention posterior probability distribution; 3) such a model would perform even better if it is corrected (linearly, in this instance) based on EEG evidence dependence on speech weights in the mixture; and 4) calibrating a model based on population EEG could result in acceptable performance for new individuals/users; therefore, EEG-based auditory attention classifiers may generalize across individuals, leading to reduced or eliminated calibration time and effort.
This paper offers a critical analytic reconstruction of some of the main symbolic properties of annual UN Holocaust and Rwandan genocide commemorations since 2005. Applying a discourse-historical approach (Wodak and Meyer 2010), it retraces how themes of guilt, responsibility, evil and redemption are woven together across annual commemorative performances in the hope of stabilizing shared patterns of cultural translation of the significance of these atrocities to globally dispersed communities. UN commemorative discourse characteristically links memories of Holocaust and Rwandan trauma in a 'chain of communication' with those of other episodes of brutality (e.g., Cambodia, Bosnia and Darfur) chiefly to convey the continuity of human barbarity across time and endorse certain presuppositions regarding the fate of a fallen humanity in this more 'post-secular' age. As scenes of mourning, UN commemorations unite participating international delegations in their expressions of grief for the victims of 'preventable tragedies' in the past but also, it must be said, their uncertainty regarding new horrors likely to occur in the future. The duty to remember is reiterated continuously as both a mark of respect to those who have already perished and as a warning of atrocities yet to unfold. This paper explores how the historical constancy of violence is interpreted by the UN through a detailed critical analysis of its recently inaugurated 'remembrance through education' programme aimed at a transnational collective learning from atrocity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.
Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying
Pan, Yue; Qiao, Yang; Xu, Xi-ping
Mid-wave infrared(MWIR) and long-wave infrared(LWIR) two-band scene simulation system is a kind of testing equipment that used for infrared two-band imaging seeker. Not only it would be qualified for working waveband, but also realize the essence requests that infrared radiation characteristics should correspond to the real scene. Past single-digital micromirror device (DMD) based infrared scene simulation system does not take the huge difference between targets and background radiation into account, and it cannot realize the separated modulation to two-band light beam. Consequently, single-DMD based infrared scene simulation system cannot accurately express the thermal scene model that upper-computer built, and it is not that practical. To solve the problem, we design a dual-DMD based, dual-channel, co-aperture, compact-structure infrared two-band scene simulation system. The operating principle of the system is introduced in detail, and energy transfer process of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiment is analyzed as well. Also, it builds the equation about the signal-to-noise ratio of infrared detector in the seeker, directing the system overall design. The general design scheme of system is given, including the creation of infrared scene model, overall control, optical-mechanical structure design and image registration. By analyzing and comparing the past designs, we discuss the arrangement of optical engine framework in the system. According to the main content of working principle and overall design, we summarize each key techniques in the system.
Hess-Flores, Mauricio [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in
Liu, Mengyun; Chen, Ruizhi; Li, Deren; Chen, Yujin; Guo, Guangyi; Cao, Zhipeng; Pan, Yuanjin
After decades of research, there is still no solution for indoor localization like the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) solution for outdoor environments. The major reasons for this phenomenon are the complex spatial topology and RF transmission environment. To deal with these problems, an indoor scene constrained method for localization is proposed in this paper, which is inspired by the visual cognition ability of the human brain and the progress in the computer vision field regarding high-level image understanding. Furthermore, a multi-sensor fusion method is implemented on a commercial smartphone including cameras, WiFi and inertial sensors. Compared to former research, the camera on a smartphone is used to "see" which scene the user is in. With this information, a particle filter algorithm constrained by scene information is adopted to determine the final location. For indoor scene recognition, we take advantage of deep learning that has been proven to be highly effective in the computer vision community. For particle filter, both WiFi and magnetic field signals are used to update the weights of particles. Similar to other fingerprinting localization methods, there are two stages in the proposed system, offline training and online localization. In the offline stage, an indoor scene model is trained by Caffe (one of the most popular open source frameworks for deep learning) and a fingerprint database is constructed by user trajectories in different scenes. To reduce the volume requirement of training data for deep learning, a fine-tuned method is adopted for model training. In the online stage, a camera in a smartphone is used to recognize the initial scene. Then a particle filter algorithm is used to fuse the sensor data and determine the final location. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, an Android client and a web server are implemented. The Android client is used to collect data and locate a user. The web server is developed for
Full Text Available After decades of research, there is still no solution for indoor localization like the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System solution for outdoor environments. The major reasons for this phenomenon are the complex spatial topology and RF transmission environment. To deal with these problems, an indoor scene constrained method for localization is proposed in this paper, which is inspired by the visual cognition ability of the human brain and the progress in the computer vision field regarding high-level image understanding. Furthermore, a multi-sensor fusion method is implemented on a commercial smartphone including cameras, WiFi and inertial sensors. Compared to former research, the camera on a smartphone is used to “see” which scene the user is in. With this information, a particle filter algorithm constrained by scene information is adopted to determine the final location. For indoor scene recognition, we take advantage of deep learning that has been proven to be highly effective in the computer vision community. For particle filter, both WiFi and magnetic field signals are used to update the weights of particles. Similar to other fingerprinting localization methods, there are two stages in the proposed system, offline training and online localization. In the offline stage, an indoor scene model is trained by Caffe (one of the most popular open source frameworks for deep learning and a fingerprint database is constructed by user trajectories in different scenes. To reduce the volume requirement of training data for deep learning, a fine-tuned method is adopted for model training. In the online stage, a camera in a smartphone is used to recognize the initial scene. Then a particle filter algorithm is used to fuse the sensor data and determine the final location. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, an Android client and a web server are implemented. The Android client is used to collect data and locate a user. The web
Liu, Xiaobai; Zhao, Yibiao; Zhu, Song-Chun
In this paper, we present an attribute grammar for solving two coupled tasks: i) parsing a 2D image into semantic regions; and ii) recovering the 3D scene structures of all regions. The proposed grammar consists of a set of production rules, each describing a kind of spatial relation between planar surfaces in 3D scenes. These production rules are used to decompose an input image into a hierarchical parse graph representation where each graph node indicates a planar surface or a composite surface. Different from other stochastic image grammars, the proposed grammar augments each graph node with a set of attribute variables to depict scene-level global geometry, e.g., camera focal length, or local geometry, e.g., surface normal, contact lines between surfaces. These geometric attributes impose constraints between a node and its off-springs in the parse graph. Under a probabilistic framework, we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to construct a parse graph that optimizes the 2D image recognition and 3D scene reconstruction purposes simultaneously. We evaluated our method on both public benchmarks and newly collected datasets. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of achieving state-of-the-art scene reconstruction of a single image.
Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Gutiérrez-García, Aída; Capafons, Juan; Calvo, Manuel G
We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing. Sex of observers and specific emotional scene content (e.g., male-to-female-aggression, families and babies, etc.) interactively modulated covert attention, depending on adaptive priorities and goals for each sex, both for pleasant and unpleasant content. The attentional system exhibits domain-specific and sex-specific biases and attunements, probably rooted in evolutionary pressures to enhance reproductive and protective success. Emotional cues selectively capture covert attention based on their bio-social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stark, Shauna M; Stark, Craig E L
Using the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST), we have demonstrated an age-related impairment in lure discrimination, or the ability to recognize an item as distinct from one that was similar, but not identical to one viewed earlier. A growing body of evidence links these behavioral changes to age-related alterations in the hippocampus. In this study, we sought to evaluate a novel version of this task, utilizing scenes that might emphasize the role of the hippocampus in contextual and spatial processing. In addition, we investigated whether, by utilizing two stimulus classes (scenes and objects), we could also interrogate the roles of the PRC and PHC in aging. Thus, we evaluated differential contributions to these tasks by relating performance on objects versus scenes to volumes of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures. We found that while there was an age-related impairment on lure discrimination performance for both objects and scenes, relationships to brain volumes and other measure of memory performance were stronger when using objects. In particular, lure discrimination performance for objects showed a positive relationship with the volume of the hippocampus, specifically the combined dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 subfields, and the subiculum. We conclude that though using scenes was effective in detecting age-related lure discrimination impairments, it does not provide as strong a brain-behavior relationship as using objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T
The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I
Real-world visual scenes are complex cluttered, and heterogeneous stimuli engaging scene- and object-selective cortical regions including parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and lateral occipital complex (LOC). To understand the unique contribution of each region to distributed scene representations, we generated predictions based on a neuroanatomical framework adapted from monkey and tested them using minimal scenes in which we independently manipulated both spatial layout (open, closed, and gradient) and object content (furniture, e.g., bed, dresser). Commensurate with its strong connectivity with posterior parietal cortex, RSC evidenced strong spatial layout information but no object information, and its response was not even modulated by object presence. In contrast, LOC, which lies within the ventral visual pathway, contained strong object information but no background information. Finally, PPA, which is connected with both the dorsal and the ventral visual pathway, showed information about both objects and spatial backgrounds and was sensitive to the presence or absence of either. These results suggest that 1) LOC, PPA, and RSC have distinct representations, emphasizing different aspects of scenes, 2) the specific representations in each region are predictable from their patterns of connectivity, and 3) PPA combines both spatial layout and object information as predicted by connectivity.
Barazzetti, L.; Sala, R.; Scaioni, M.; Cattaneo, C.; Gibelli, D.; Giussani, A.; Poppa, P.; Roncoroni, F.; Vandone, A.
Fast documentation of complex scenes where accidents or crimes occurred is fundamental not to lose information for post-event analyses and lesson learning. Today 3D terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry offer instruments capable of achieving this task. The former allows the fast geometric reconstruction of complex scenes through dense point clouds. Different kinds of instruments can be used according to the size of the area to survey and to the required level of details. The latter can be used for both geometric reconstruction and for photo-realistic texturing of laser scans. While photogrammetry better focuses on small details, laser scanning gives out a more comprehensive view of geometry of whole crime/accident scene. Both techniques can be used for recording a scene just after a crime or a disaster occurred, before the area is cleared out to recover regular activities. Visualization of results through an easy-to-use 3D environment is another import issue to offer useful data to investigators. Here two experiences of crime scene documentation are proposed.
Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas
The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.
Full Text Available High spatial resolution (HSR image scene classification is aimed at bridging the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts, which is a challenging task due to the complex distribution of ground objects in HSR images. Scene classification based on the bag-of-visual-words (BOVW model is one of the most successful ways to acquire the high-level semantic concepts. However, the BOVW model assigns local low-level features to their closest visual words in the “visual vocabulary” (the codebook obtained by k-means clustering, which discards too many useful details of the low-level features in HSR images. In this paper, a feature coding method under the Fisher kernel (FK coding framework is introduced to extend the BOVW model by characterizing the low-level features with a gradient vector instead of the count statistics in the BOVW model, which results in a significant decrease in the codebook size and an acceleration of the codebook learning process. By considering the differences in the distributions of the ground objects in different regions of the images, local FK (LFK is proposed for the HSR image scene classification method. The experimental results show that the proposed scene classification methods under the FK coding framework can greatly reduce the computational cost, and can obtain a better scene classification accuracy than the methods based on the traditional BOVW model.
Durant, Szonya; Wall, Matthew B; Zanker, Johannes M
Optic flow is one of the most important sources of information for enabling human navigation through the world. A striking finding from single-cell studies in monkeys is the rapid saturation of response of MT/MST areas with the density of optic flow type motion information. These results are reflected psychophysically in human perception in the saturation of motion aftereffects. We began by comparing responses to natural optic flow scenes in human visual brain areas to responses to the same scenes with inverted contrast (photo negative). This changes scene familiarity while preserving local motion signals. This manipulation had no effect; however, the response was only correlated with the density of local motion (calculated by a motion correlation model) in V1, not in MT/MST. To further investigate this, we manipulated the visible proportion of natural dynamic scenes and found that areas MT and MST did not increase in response over a 16-fold increase in the amount of information presented, i.e., response had saturated. This makes sense in light of the sparseness of motion information in natural scenes, suggesting that the human brain is well adapted to exploit a small amount of dynamic signal and extract information important for survival.
Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jianqi; Chen, Yang; Huang, Xi
Practically modeling and rendering the surface-leaving radiance of large-scale scenes in mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) is an important feature of Battlefield Environment Simulation (BES). Since radiation transfer in realistic scenes is complex, it is difficult to develop real-time simulations directly from first principle. Nevertheless, it is crucial to minimize distortions in the rendering of virtual scenes. This paper proposes a feasible bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model to deal with a large-scale scene in the MWIR band. Our BRDF model is spectrally dependent and evolved from previous BRDFs, and meets both Helmholtz reciprocity and energy conservation. We employ our BRDF model to calculate the direct solar and sky contributions. Both of them are added to the surface thermal emission in order to give the surface-leaving radiance. Atmospheric path radiance and transmission are pre-calculated to speed up the programming for rendering large scale scenes. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons with MWIR field data are made to assess the render results of our proposed method.
Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin
Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915
Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Gray, Alexander K; Perler, Brielle L; Birmingham, Elina; Bischof, Walter F; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan
Simultanagnosia is a disorder of visual attention resulting from bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. Healthy individuals look at eyes to infer people's attentional states, but simultanagnosics allocate abnormally few fixations to eyes in scenes. It is unclear why simultanagnosics fail to fixate eyes, but it might reflect that they are (a) unable to locate and fixate them, or (b) do not prioritize attentional states. We compared eye movements of simultanagnosic G.B. to those of healthy subjects viewing scenes normally or through a restricted window of vision. They described scenes and explicitly inferred attentional states of people in scenes. G.B. and subjects viewing scenes through a restricted window made few fixations on eyes when describing scenes, yet increased fixations on eyes when inferring attention. Thus G.B. understands that eyes are important for inferring attentional states and can exert top-down control to seek out and process the gaze of others when attentional states are of interest.
Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who have neurodevelopmental impairments in social communication often refuse to go to school because of difficulties in learning in class. The exact cause of maladaptation to school in such children is unknown. We hypothesized that these children have difficulty in paying attention to objects at which teachers are pointing. We performed gaze behavior analysis of children with ASD to understand their difficulties in the classroom. The subjects were 26 children with ASD (19 boys and 7 girls; mean age, 8.6 years and 27 age-matched children with typical development (TD (14 boys and 13 girls; mean age, 8.2 years. We measured eye movements of the children while they performed free viewing of two movies depicting actual classes: a Japanese class in which a teacher pointed at cartoon characters and an arithmetic class in which the teacher pointed at geometric figures. In the analysis, we defined the regions of interest (ROIs as the teacher's face and finger, the cartoon characters and geometric figures at which the teacher pointed, and the classroom wall that contained no objects. We then compared total gaze time for each ROI between the children with ASD and TD by two-way ANOVA. Children with ASD spent less gaze time on the cartoon characters pointed at by the teacher; they spent more gaze time on the wall in both classroom scenes. We could differentiate children with ASD from those with TD almost perfectly by the proportion of total gaze time that children with ASD spent looking at the wall. These results suggest that children with ASD do not follow the teacher's instructions in class and persist in gazing at inappropriate visual areas such as walls. Thus, they may have difficulties in understanding content in class, leading to maladaptation to school.
Frank, R; Bethel, W
This case study highlights the technical challenges of creating an application that uses a multithreaded scene graph toolkit for rendering and uses a software environment for management of tiled display systems. Scene graph toolkits simplify and streamline graphics applications by providing data management and rendering services. Software for tiled display environments typically performs device and event management by opening windows on displays, by gathering and processing input device events, and by orchestrating the execution of application rendering code. These environments serve double-duty as frameworks for creating parallel rendering applications. We explore technical issues related to interfacing scene graph systems with software that manages tiled projection systems in the context of an implementation, and formulate suggestions for the future growth of such systems.
Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.
Schissler, Carl; Loftin, Christian; Manocha, Dinesh
We present a novel algorithm to generate virtual acoustic effects in captured 3D models of real-world scenes for multimodal augmented reality. We leverage recent advances in 3D scene reconstruction in order to automatically compute acoustic material properties. Our technique consists of a two-step procedure that first applies a convolutional neural network (CNN) to estimate the acoustic material properties, including frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, that are used for interactive sound propagation. In the second step, an iterative optimization algorithm is used to adjust the materials determined by the CNN until a virtual acoustic simulation converges to measured acoustic impulse responses. We have applied our algorithm to many reconstructed real-world indoor scenes and evaluated its fidelity for augmented reality applications.
Nicoleta Elena BUZATU
Full Text Available The investigation of the crime scene plays an important role in discovering and sampling the proofs. The crime scene is considered to be the most important place in a penal investigation, as this is the place where the prints of the criminals and of the victims are to be found: visible, hidden, placed deliberately or by negligence or ignorance. The article under discussion will focus on the static and dynamic stages carried on in the investigation of the crime scene and will analyze the modalities and the operating systems used by the drugs traffickers. Such an investigation presumes that the penal legal authorities should have been informed that a penal deed had been committed by petition or denunciation, as provided by article 221 of the Penal Code, or to take its own self notice/ decision when finding out - no matter how - that such an offence has taken place and conclude a written report.
Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Huang, Jun; Ma, Yong; Fan, Fan; Mei, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zhe
Scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithms based on the LMS adaptive filter are quite efficient to reduce the fixed pattern noise in infrared images. They are famous for their low cost of computation and storage recourses. Unfortunately, ghosting artifacts can be easily introduced in edge areas when the inter-frame motion slows. In this paper, a gated scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithm is proposed. A novel low-pass filter based on the fuzzy logic is proposed to estimate the true scene radiation as the desired signal in the LMS adaptive filter. The fuzzy logic can also evaluate the probability that a pixel and its locals belong to edge areas. Then the update of the correction parameters for the pixels in edge areas can be gated. The experiment results show that our method is reliable and the ghosting artifacts are reduced.
Kong, Dezhao; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan; Javidi, Bahram
An optical encryption and display method for a three-dimensional (3D) scene is proposed based on computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using a single phase-only spatial light modulator. The 3D scene is encoded as one complex Fourier CGH. The Fourier CGH is then decomposed into two phase-only CGHs with random distributions by the vector stochastic decomposition algorithm. Two CGHs are interleaved as one final phase-only CGH for optical encryption and reconstruction. The proposed method can support high-level nonlinear optical 3D scene security and complex amplitude modulation of the optical field. The exclusive phase key offers strong resistances of decryption attacks. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the novel method.
Mormann, Florian; Kornblith, Simon; Cerf, Moran; Ison, Matias J; Kraskov, Alexander; Tran, Michelle; Knieling, Simeon; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Koch, Christof; Fried, Itzhak
Imaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies have shown a relationship between the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the processing of spatial scenes. Our present knowledge of PHC, however, is restricted to the macroscopic properties and dynamics of bulk tissue; the behavior and selectivity of single parahippocampal neurons remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed responses from 630 parahippocampal neurons in 24 neurosurgical patients during visual stimulus presentation. We found a spatially clustered subpopulation of scene-selective units with an associated event-related field potential. These units form a population code that is more distributed for scenes than for other stimulus categories, and less sparse than elsewhere in the medial temporal lobe. Our electrophysiological findings provide insight into how individual units give rise to the population response observed with functional imaging in the parahippocampal place area.
Full Text Available Aiming at low precision of remote sensing image scene classification owing to small sample sizes, a new classification approach is proposed based on multi-scale deep convolutional neural network (MS-DCNN, which is composed of nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT, deep convolutional neural network (DCNN, and multiple-kernel support vector machine (MKSVM. Firstly, remote sensing image multi-scale decomposition is conducted via NSCT. Secondly, the decomposing high frequency and low frequency subbands are trained by DCNN to obtain image features in different scales. Finally, MKSVM is adopted to integrate multi-scale image features and implement remote sensing image scene classification. The experiment results in the standard image classification data sets indicate that the proposed approach obtains great classification effect due to combining the recognition superiority to different scenes of low frequency and high frequency subbands.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel object detection method using a single instance from the object category. Our method uses biologically inspired global scene context criteria to check whether every individual location of the image can be naturally replaced by the query instance, which indicates whether there is a similar object at this location. Different from the traditional detection methods that only look at individual locations for the desired objects, our method evaluates the consistency of the entire scene. It is therefore robust to large intra-class variations, occlusions, a minor variety of poses, low-revolution conditions, background clutter etc., and there is no off-line training. The experimental results on four datasets and two video sequences clearly show the superior robustness of the proposed method, suggesting that global scene context is important for visual detection/localization.
Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E
The human visual system is capable of recognizing an infinite number of scenes containing an abundance of rich visual information. There are several cortical regions associated with the representation of a scene, including those specialized for object processing (the lateral occipital area [LO]) and for the spatial layout of scenes (the parahippocampal place area). Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that these image categories (scenes and objects) exert an influence on each other such that scene context can facilitate object identification or that scene categorization can be impaired by the presence of a salient object, little is known about the apparent cortical interactions involved in building the conscious representation of a complete scene. It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left LO disrupts object categorization but facilitates scene categorization. Here, we show that this effect is also reflected by changes in the BOLD signal such that TMS to the left LO decreases BOLD signal at the stimulation site (LO) while viewing objects and increases BOLD signal in the left PPA when viewing scenes. This suggests that these regions, although likely not on a strict hierarchy of bottom-up coding, share functional communication likely in the form of inhibitory connections.
Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Sturkie, Charlee M; Rochester, Nina M; Liu, Xiaodong; Gutchess, Angela H
After viewing a scene, individuals differ in what they prioritise and remember. Culture may be one factor that influences scene memory, as Westerners have been shown to be more item-focused than Easterners (see Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922-934). However, cultures may differ in their sensitivity to scene incongruences and emotion processing, which may account for cross-cultural differences in scene memory. The current study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine scene memory while controlling for scene congruency and the perceived emotional intensity of the images. American and East Asian participants encoded pictures that included a positive, negative, or neutral item placed on a neutral background. After a 20-min delay, participants were shown the item and background separately along with similar and new items and backgrounds to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that even when congruency and emotional intensity were controlled, there was evidence that Americans had better item memory than East Asians. Incongruent scenes were better remembered than congruent scenes. However, this effect did not differ by culture. This suggests that Americans' item focus may result in memory changes that are robust despite variations in scene congruency and perceived emotion.
Vivian L. Chau
Full Text Available Tests of recognition memory in macaques typically assay memory for objects or isolated images, over time spans of seconds to hours from stimulus presentation, and/or require extensive training. Here, we propose a new application of the flicker change detection task that could measure object-in-scene memory days after single-trial exposures. In three experiments, participants searched for a changing object - or ‘target’ - embedded within a scene as their eye movements were tracked. For new targets-in-scenes, the change is difficult to detect and requires extensive search. Once the target is found, however, the change becomes obvious. We reasoned that the decreased times required to find a target in a repeated scene would indicate memory for the target. In humans, targets were found faster when the targets and scenes were explicitly remembered than when they were forgotten, or had never been seen before. This led to faster repeated-trial compared to novel-trial search times. Based solely on repeated-trial search times, we were able to select distributions comprised of predominantly remembered or predominantly forgotten trials. Macaques exhibited the same repetition effects as humans, suggesting that remembered trials could be dissociated from novel or forgotten trials using the same procedures we established in humans. Finally, an anterograde amnesic patient with damage that included the medial temporal lobe showed no search time differences, suggesting that memory revealed through search times on this task requires medial temporal lobe integrity. Together, these findings indicate that the time required to locate a changing object reveals object-in-scene memory over long retention intervals in humans and macaques.
Christopher S. Russi
Full Text Available Introduction: American Heart Association (AHA guidelines recommend cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions 1.5 to 2 inches (3.75-5 cm deep at 100 to 120 per minute. Recent studies demonstrated that manual CPR by emergency medical services (EMS personnel is substandard. We hypothesized that transport CPR quality is significantly worse than on-scene CPR quality. Methods: We analyzed adult patients receiving on-scene and transport chest compressions from nine EMS sites across Minnesota and Wisconsin from May 2008 to July 2010. Two periods were analyzed: before and after visual feedback. CPR data were collected and exported with the Zoll M series monitor and a sternally placed accelerometer measuring chest compression rate and depth. We compared compression data with 2010 AHA guidelines and Zoll RescueNet Code Review software. CPR depth and rate were “above (deep,” “in,” or “below (shallow” the target range according to AHA guidelines. We paired on-scene and transport data for each patient; paired proportions were compared with the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: In the pre-feedback period, we analyzed 105 of 140 paired cases (75.0%; in the post-feedback period, 35 of 140 paired cases (25.0% were analyzed. The proportion of correct depths during on-scene compressions (median, 41.9%; interquartile range [IQR], 16.1-73.1 was higher compared to the paired transport proportion (median, 8.7%; IQR, 2.7-48.9. Proportions of on-scene median correct rates and transport median correct depths did not improve in the post-feedback period. Conclusion: Transport chest compressions are significantly worse than on-scene compressions. Implementation of visual real-time feedback did not affect performance.
Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS scene classification is important for RS imagery semantic interpretation. Although tremendous strides have been made in RS scene classification, one of the remaining open challenges is recognizing RS scenes in low quality variance (e.g., various scales and noises. This paper proposes a deep salient feature based anti-noise transfer network (DSFATN method that effectively enhances and explores the high-level features for RS scene classification in different scales and noise conditions. In DSFATN, a novel discriminative deep salient feature (DSF is introduced by saliency-guided DSF extraction, which conducts a patch-based visual saliency (PBVS algorithm using “visual attention” mechanisms to guide pre-trained CNNs for producing the discriminative high-level features. Then, an anti-noise network is proposed to learn and enhance the robust and anti-noise structure information of RS scene by directly propagating the label information to fully-connected layers. A joint loss is used to minimize the anti-noise network by integrating anti-noise constraint and a softmax classification loss. The proposed network architecture can be easily trained with a limited amount of training data. The experiments conducted on three different scale RS scene datasets show that the DSFATN method has achieved excellent performance and great robustness in different scales and noise conditions. It obtains classification accuracy of 98.25%, 98.46%, and 98.80%, respectively, on the UC Merced Land Use Dataset (UCM, the Google image dataset of SIRI-WHU, and the SAT-6 dataset, advancing the state-of-the-art substantially.
Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V
Humans are remarkably efficient in detecting highly familiar object categories in natural scenes, with evidence suggesting that such object detection can be performed in the (near) absence of attention. Here we systematically explored the influences of both spatial attention and category-based attention on the accuracy of object detection in natural scenes. Manipulating both types of attention additionally allowed for addressing how these factors interact: whether the requirement for spatial attention depends on the extent to which observers are prepared to detect a specific object category-that is, on category-based attention. The results showed that the detection of targets from one category (animals or vehicles) was better than the detection of targets from two categories (animals and vehicles), demonstrating the beneficial effect of category-based attention. This effect did not depend on the semantic congruency of the target object and the background scene, indicating that observers attended to visual features diagnostic of the foreground target objects from the cued category. Importantly, in three experiments the detection of objects in scenes presented in the periphery was significantly impaired when observers simultaneously performed an attentionally demanding task at fixation, showing that spatial attention affects natural scene perception. In all experiments, the effects of category-based attention and spatial attention on object detection performance were additive rather than interactive. Finally, neither spatial nor category-based attention influenced metacognitive ability for object detection performance. These findings demonstrate that efficient object detection in natural scenes is independently facilitated by spatial and category-based attention.
Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Dube, Roger R.; Ientilucci, Emmett J.
Filtered multispectral imaging technique might be a potential method for crime scene documentation and evidence detection due to its abundant spectral information as well as non-contact and non-destructive nature. Low-cost and portable multispectral crime scene imaging device would be highly useful and efficient. The second generation crime scene imaging system uses CMOS imaging sensor to capture spatial scene and bandpass Interference Filters (IFs) to capture spectral information. Unfortunately CMOS sensors suffer from severe spatial non-uniformity compared to CCD sensors and the major cause is Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). IFs suffer from "blue shift" effect and introduce spatial-spectral correlated errors. Therefore, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) correction is critical to enhance crime scene image quality and is also helpful for spatial-spectral noise de-correlation. In this paper, a pixel-wise linear radiance to Digital Count (DC) conversion model is constructed for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor. Pixel-wise conversion gain Gi,j and Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU) Zi,j are calculated. Also, conversion gain is divided into four components: FPN row component, FPN column component, defects component and effective photo response signal component. Conversion gain is then corrected to average FPN column and row components and defects component so that the sensor conversion gain is uniform. Based on corrected conversion gain and estimated image incident radiance from the reverse of pixel-wise linear radiance to DC model, corrected image spatial uniformity can be enhanced to 7 times as raw image, and the bigger the image DC value within its dynamic range, the better the enhancement.
McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will
Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection
McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will
Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug
Floccard, Bernard; Rugeri, Lucia; Faure, Alexandre; Saint Denis, Marc; Boyle, Eileen Mary; Peguet, Olivier; Levrat, Albrice; Guillaume, Christian; Marcotte, Guillaume; Vulliez, Alexandre; Hautin, Etienne; David, Jean Stéphane; Négrier, Claude; Allaouchiche, Bernard
Amongst trauma patients, early coagulopathy is common on hospital admission. No studies have evaluated the initial coagulation status in the pre-hospital setting. We hypothesise that the coagulopathic process begins at the time of trauma. We studied the on-scene and on hospital arrival coagulation profile of trauma patients. Prospective, observational study investigating the on-scene coagulation profile and its time course. We studied 45 patients at the scene of the accident, before fluid administration, and on hospital admission and classified their coagulopathy using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis score during a 2-month period. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen concentration, factors II, V and VII activity, fibrin degradation products, antithrombin and protein C activities, platelet counts and base deficit were measured. The median injury severity score was 25 (13-35). On-scene, coagulation status was abnormal in 56% of patients. Protein C activities were decreased in the trauma-associated coagulopathy group (p=.02). Drops in protein C activities were associated with changes in activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, factor V and antithrombin activities. Only factor V levels decreased significantly with the severity of the trauma. On hospital admission, coagulation status was abnormal in 60% of patients. The on-scene coagulopathy was spontaneously normalised only in 2 patients whereas others had the same or a poorer coagulopathy status. All parameters of coagulation were significantly abnormal comparing to the on-scene phase. Decreases in protein C activities were related to the coagulation status (pcoagulopathy. Coagulopathy occurs very early after injury, before fluid administration, at the site of accident. Coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are activated early. The incidence of coagulopathy is high and its severity is related to the injury and not to
utterances). The rate and number of utterances in the eight mediation logs in the example case ( muffler case) are on Table 2. For comparison, we...sequence of utterance is an example of this pattern in a log of the muffler case. And the sequence of tags is on Table 6. Seller 25: The buyer should...need a muffler as a spare of it and I bought it. Since the muffler is a spare, I omitted to check the goods. Two months later, I need to use
In this paper, we analyze the design concepts and some technical details behind the MPEG-4 standard, particularly the scene description layer, commonly known as the Binary Format for Scene (BIFS). We show how MPEG-4 may ease multimedia proliferation by offering a unique, optimized multimedia platform. Lastly, we analyze the potential of the technology for creating rich multimedia applications on various networks and platforms. An e-commerce application example is detailed, highlighting the benefits of the technology. Compression results show how rich applications may be built even on very low bit rate connections.
Pritchard, Alan P.; Balmond, Mark D.; Lake, Stephen P.; Gough, David W.; Venables, Mark A.; Sturland, Ian M.; Hebbron, Michael C.; Brimecombe, Lucy A.
Developments are described in the design and manufacture of full 512 X 512 infra-red scene projector (IRSP) systems, as well as in a high complexity demonstrator program to realize 1024 X 1024 complexity. Design aspects include choice of drive circuit, the suspended resistor pixel design factors, the choice of busbar configurations, and the optimization of emissivity coatings. Design of the peripheral drive systems for the 512 system is outlined, and progress on manufacture reported. Development plans for the provision of suitable high complexity computer scene generation is outlined.
Full Text Available Simulating fluid scenes in 3DGIS is of great value in both theoretical research and practical applications. To achieve this goal, we present an algorithm for simulation of fluid scenes based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics. A 3D spatial grid partition algorithm is proposed to increase the speed for searching neighboring particles. We also propose a real-time interactive algorithm about particle and surface topography. We use Marching Cubes algorithm to extract the surface of free moving fluids from particles data. Experiments show that the algorithms improve the rate of rendering frame in realtime, reduce the computing time, and extract good real effects of fluid surface.
Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.
Basso, Cáritas Relva; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju Santa; Caraciolo, Joselita Maria Magalhães; Paiva, Vera; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistela
To assess the effectiveness of a psychosocial individual intervention to improve adherence to ART in a Brazilian reference-center, consenting PLHIV with viral load >50 copies/ml were selected. After 4 weeks of MEMS cap use, participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) (n = 64) or control group (CG) (n = 57). CG received usual care only. The IG participated in a human rights-based intervention approach entailing four dialogical meetings focused on medication intake scenes. Comparison between IG and CG revealed no statistically significant difference in adherence measured at weeks 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Viral load (VL) decreased in both groups (p < 0.0001) with no significant difference between study groups. The lower number of eligible patients than expected underpowered the study. Ongoing qualitative analysis should provide deeper understanding of the trial results. NIH Clinical Trials: NCT00716040.
Smith, Ryan E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Bethel, Cindy L.; Archibald, Chris
Thermal-infrared cameras are used for signal/image processing and computer vision in numerous military and civilian applications. However, the cost of high quality (e.g., low noise, accurate temperature measurement, etc.) and high resolution thermal sensors is often a limiting factor. On the other hand, high resolution visual spectrum cameras are readily available and typically inexpensive. Herein, we outline a way to upsample thermal imagery with respect to a high resolution visual spectrum camera using Markov random field theory. This paper also explores the tradeoffs and impact of upsampling, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Our preliminary results demonstrate the successful use of this approach for human detection and accurate propagation of thermal measurements in an image for more general tasks like scene understanding. A tradeoff analysis of the cost-to-performance as the resolution of the thermal camera decreases is provided.
Arbon, P; Zeitz, K; Ranse, J; Wren, H; Elliott, R; Driscoll, K
The project investigated the experiences of ambulance paramedics in applying the principles and protocols of prehospital multiple casualty triage at the scene of motor vehicle accidents. Key objectives included investigation of the situational cues and other contextual factors influencing triage practice and the development of recommendations for the future education of ambulance paramedics. A triangulated approach was used incorporating demographic data, the use of focus groups and in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was undertaken following the well established practices of human science research. The research describes an extended and broadened triage process returning to a more authentic definition of triage as the practice of sorting of casualties to determine priority. The findings highlight the need to consider triage as an extended and complex process that incorporates evidence based physiological cues to assist decision making and the management of the process of triage from call out to conclusion including assessment of contextual and situational variables.
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to obtain accurate 3D reconstructions of large-scale environments by means of a mobile acquisition platform. The system incorporates a Velodyne LiDAR scanner, as well as a Point Grey Ladybug panoramic camera system. It was designed with genericity in mind, and hence, it does not make any assumption about the scene or about the sensor set-up. The main novelty of this work is that the proposed LiDAR mapping approach deals explicitly with the inhomogeneous density of point clouds produced by LiDAR scanners. To this end, we keep track of a global 3D map of the environment, which is continuously improved and refined by means of a surface reconstruction technique. Moreover, we perform surface analysis on consecutive generated point clouds in order to assure a perfect alignment with the global 3D map. In order to cope with drift, the system incorporates loop closure by determining the pose error and propagating it back in the pose graph. Our algorithm was exhaustively tested on data captured at a conference building, a university campus and an industrial site of a chemical company. Experiments demonstrate that it is capable of generating highly accurate 3D maps in very challenging environments. We can state that the average distance of corresponding point pairs between the ground truth and estimated point cloud approximates one centimeter for an area covering approximately 4000 m 2 . To prove the genericity of the system, it was tested on the well-known Kitti vision benchmark. The results show that our approach competes with state of the art methods without making any additional assumptions.
’ experiences of Portuguese colonialism, postcolonialism, marginalization due to language and race, and now urban displacement. They are also expressions of belonging and cultural citizenship, and exercises of emplacement within the changing city. Kriolu scenes highlight an important but underappreciated role...
Ezaki, Nobuo; Bulacu, Marius; Schomaker, Lambert
We propose a system that reads the text encountered in natural scenes with the aim to provide assistance to the visually impaired persons. This paper describes the sys- tem design and evaluates several character extraction meth- ods. Automatic text recognition from natural images re- ceives a
Pavšič Mrevlje, Tinkara
Crime scene technicians collect evidence related to crime and are therefore exposed to many traumatic situations. The coping strategies they use are thus very important in the process of facing the psychological consequences of such work. The available literature shows that crime scene technicians are an understudied subgroup of police workers. Our study is therefore the first unfolding insights into technicians' coping strategies, post-traumatic symptomatology and somatic health, based on a sample of 64 male crime scene technicians (85% of all Slovene technicians). Crime scene technicians mainly use avoidance coping strategies. Approach strategies that are more effective in the long-term-i.e. lead to a larger buffering of the effects of traumatic stress-are more frequently used if technicians are familiar with the nature of the task, when they have time to prepare for it, and if they feel that past situations have been positively resolved. Behavioural avoidance strategies were found to be least effective when dealing with traumatic experiences and are also related to more frequent problems of physical health. Results indicate that appropriate trainings for future technicians would facilitate the use of more effective coping strategies and consequently lead to a more effective and satisfied worker. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska
The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Harvey, Alistair J; Kneller, Wendy; Campbell, Alison C
This study tests the claim that alcohol intoxication narrows the focus of visual attention on to the more salient features of a visual scene. A group of alcohol intoxicated and sober participants had their eye movements recorded as they encoded a photographic image featuring a central event of either high or low salience. All participants then recalled the details of the image the following day when sober. We sought to determine whether the alcohol group would pay less attention to the peripheral features of the encoded scene than their sober counterparts, whether this effect of attentional narrowing was stronger for the high-salience event than for the low-salience event, and whether it would lead to a corresponding deficit in peripheral recall. Alcohol was found to narrow the focus of foveal attention to the central features of both images but did not facilitate recall from this region. It also reduced the overall amount of information accurately recalled from each scene. These findings demonstrate that the concept of alcohol myopia originally posited to explain the social consequences of intoxication (Steele & Josephs, 1990) may be extended to explain the relative neglect of peripheral information during the processing of visual scenes.
K. Ackermann (Katrin); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)
textabstractLinking biological samples found at a crime scene with the actual crime event represents the most important aspect of forensic investigation, together with the identification of the sample donor. While DNA profiling is well established for donor identification, no reliable methods exist
Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention, whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention. Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.
Schwarz, Amy Louise; Van Kleeck, Anne; Maguire, Mandy J.; Abdi, Herve
To better understand how toddlers integrate multiple learning strategies to acquire verbs, we compared sensorimotor recruitment and comparison learning because both strategies are thought to boost children's access to scene-level information. For sensorimotor recruitment, we tested having toddlers use dolls as agents and compared this strategy…
Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John
Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…
Lukosch, S.G.; Poelman, R.; Akman, O.; Jonker, P.P.
This paper introduces a novel gesture-based interface for crime scene investigation. The interface is part of a mediated reality system in which remote collaboration is supported. Requirements elicited from interviews and interactive sessions showed that our gesture-based user interface is effective
Over the last 20 years, independent filmmakers have produced insightful documentaries of high profile political campaigns with behind-the-scenes footage. These documentaries offer inside looks and unique perspectives on electoral politics. This campaign season, consider "The War Room"; "A Perfect Candidate"; "Journeys With George;" "Chisholm '72";…
Costa, T.; Cauda, F.; Crini, M.; Tatu, M.K.; Celeghin, A.; de Gelder, B.; Tamietto, M.
The different temporal dynamics of emotions are critical to understand their evolutionary role in the regulation of interactions with the surrounding environment. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying the perception of four basic emotions from complex scenes varying in valence and
Denney, Douglas R.; Sullivan, Bernard J.
Three types of therapy were combined with two types of scenes. Spider-phobic subjects were assigned to one of the six treatment conditions or to an untreated control group. In general, (a) Desensitization and modeling therapies were equally effective; (b) modeling alone was more effective than mere exposure to the phobic object. (Author)
Frikha, Rawia; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad
Camera pose estimation remains a challenging task for augmented reality (AR) applications. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)-based methods are able to estimate the six degrees of freedom camera motion while constructing a map of an unknown environment. However, these methods do not provide any reference for where to insert virtual objects since they do not have any information about scene structure and may fail in cases of occlusion of three-dimensional (3-D) map points or dynamic objects. This paper presents a real-time monocular piece wise planar SLAM method using the planar scene assumption. Using planar structures in the mapping process allows rendering virtual objects in a meaningful way on the one hand and improving the precision of the camera pose and the quality of 3-D reconstruction of the environment by adding constraints on 3-D points and poses in the optimization process on the other hand. We proposed to benefit from the 3-D planes rigidity motion in the tracking process to enhance the system robustness in the case of dynamic scenes. Experimental results show that using a constrained planar scene improves our system accuracy and robustness compared with the classical SLAM systems.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rendering assistance at the scene of the accident. 102.10 Section 102.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL... the aircraft was carrying a courier or diplomatic pouches, see § 102.14(b).) In the absence of an...
Uuest heliplaadist "Tšaikovski, P. La Fille des neiges (musique de scene op. 12). University Musical Society Choral Union. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos CHAN 9324, distribution Media 7 (CD: 157 F). 1994. TT: 1h 19'04"
Fletcher-Watson, S.; Collis, J. M.; Findlay, J. M.; Leekam, S. R.
Change blindness describes the surprising difficulty of detecting large changes in visual scenes when changes occur during a visual disruption. In order to study the developmental course of this phenomenon, a modified version of the flicker paradigm, based on Rensink, O'Regan & Clark (1997), was given to three groups of children aged 6-12 years…
Coco, Moreno I.; Keller, Frank; Malcolm, George L.
The human sentence processor is able to make rapid predictions about upcoming linguistic input. For example, upon hearing the verb eat, anticipatory eye-movements are launched toward edible objects in a visual scene (Altmann & Kamide, 1999). However, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie anticipation remain to be elucidated in ecologically…
Heuristic 3D Object Shape Completion based on Symmetry and Scene Context David Schiebener, Andreas Schmidt, Nikolaus Vahrenkamp and Tamim Asfour...Focusing on the worst case, and probably the most common one, where only one side of the object was perceived, we propose robust heuristics that allow to
Courses: Intercultural Communication, Interracial Communication, or an Interpersonal Communication class that covers co-cultural theory. Objectives: Students will be able to demonstrate a practical application of co-cultural theory by creating scenes that illustrate different communicative approaches and desired outcomes based on communication…